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Teenage Pregnancy

Roger Polanco
College English 3
Ms. Natalie Williams
December 7th, 2013

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Annotated Bibliography

MARY E. SHAW & DEBBIE A. LAWLOR (2007) why we measure teenage pregnancy but do
not count teenage mothers?
http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=10&sid=cb0fbc8b94b5-4b6f-ba5c-353f4f5ea460%40sessionmgr4004&hid=4201

This article clearly explains that pregnancy is labeled as a worldwide social issue and also
a health problem for both mother and child. Most countries try to offer sex education,
training to young mothers and even aid them with employment for the most needy. It also
explains that teenage pregnancy is very risky for both mother and child, and can be fatal
to either one, due to the fact that the mother is actually not ready to bear a child. Studies
have been made that most teenage mothers live in a disadvantage way and only rely on
the benefits that some countries offer to teenage mother. This puts both mother and child
in high risk.

Hagen, Janet W (2012) Adolescent

Pregnancy Prevention in a Rural Native American

Community
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This article is about Rural Native Americans who have a high pregnancy percentage. A
program was designed for both Native Americans and Publics schools. The result ended
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in that for the public school there was a drastic decline of pregnancies after a five year
period of health education, compared to the Native Americans where there was no
significant change. According to the article this might perhaps be due to the fact that
Native Americans have limited resources when it comes to the consistent delivery of
health education and in addition, they do not have the availability of contraceptives to
use. These Rural Native Americans young people rely mostly only on the teaching of
abstinence and healthy dating, which sometime do not function.
Creatsas (1993) Teenage Pregnancy
http://www.hsj.gr/volume1/issue2/issue02_rev02.pdf

This article explains that unattended and unwanted teenage pregnancies bring about a crisis for
both mother and child. This article also explains that this problem mostly occurs to minority or
disadvantage groups who are primarily lack opportunities such as the wellbeing, and are from
families of very low socio economic back grounds. It has been identified that there are a number
of risky factors that contribute to teenage pregnancy. Factors such as unsafe sexual activity, lack
of contraception and teens with multiple sexual partners and the ones which come from very low
income family (or single family), are the main causes why teen get vulnerable and fall into
getting pregnant. For health issues preventative measures and strategies have been put in place
for the teenagers, providing them with sex education programs to provide them with knowledge.
After completing the programs they are strong enough to make the correct choices about their
sexuality.

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Literature Review
This article indicates that teenage pregnancy has been a social problems
society has to deal with seriously. It indicates that this issue affects more the
undeveloped countries that the developed ones. The ranges of pregnancies
that occur is from as low as 12 pregnancies per every 100 to over 40 per
hundred in other undeveloped or third world countries. Lawler and Shaw
(2004) stated that many unwanted teenage pregnancies victims exercise
abortion. Indicating that, Western Europe has clinics that are readily
available for teenagers who would like to terminate a pregnancy. According
to the article this might perhaps be due to the fact that Native Americans
have limited resources when it comes to the consistent delivery of health
education and in addition, they do not have the availability of contraceptives
to use. These Rural Native Americans young people rely mostly only on the
teaching of abstinence and healthy dating, which sometime do not function.
Creatsas (1993) indicates that many teenagers are not even biologically
mature for sexual intercourse. They are not even ready to sustain
themselves economically as teenagers until a later age, which in turn causes
a social issue, in that sense teenagers are supposed to be educated about
the issue and know also sexual transmitted diseases.
The factors of risk that contribute to teenage pregnancy according to Tsai
and Wong (2003) are unsafe sexual activity, the under use of contraceptive,
multiple sex partners substance misuse deprivation, neglect at school which
in turn causes drop outs or the fact that the family suffers from low economic

standard, or they come from single families. Teenagers can have implications
getting pregnant at early ages, even in giving birth to under weight babies
and other implications. This leads to many issues such as single mothers who
probably did not complete education and are in risks in not being able to
take good care for their children due to the fact that they are single parents.

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The teenage pregnancy strategy that is being implemented to educate


young ladies to be able to avoid pregnancies, in addition sex education is
being implemented in high schools. This will educate, open their minds
giving them sufficient knowledge of what sex education is. It will also teach
them about the sex activities which can lead to good and bad relationships.

The policies designed, aim to make sure that teenagers have sufficient
information and services in relation to contraceptives. They created the
Emergency Hormonal Contraception, which will give all necessary
information to teenagers about contraception and how to access it. In
addition, this policy also is in charge to investigate and monitor all
neighboring towns and cities about the necessities needed for interventions,
depending on the need of each of them. This policy will be able to reduce all

unattended pregnancies and be able to give services such as providing


professional to aid with the necessary skills required to educate teenagers.
In order to prevent pregnancies Tsai and Wong (2003) recommended that
programs should be put in place for teenagers, family as whole, and schools
to issue the necessary information regarding sex education. Schools
responsibility is to train the teachers about sexual health issues that affect
teenagers. Tsai and Wong also stated that the government should get
involved in keeping strategies in place at national level, funding the agencies
for proper piloting the programs to empower teenage mothers in developing
high self-esteem and maturity.
The health promotion strategies also would enhance positive health
responsibilities in health issues which in turn give aid to teenagers about sex
education. In addition, this will monitor professionals who will be assisting
teenagers in educating them with regards to the sex education strategies.
The entire plan for this issue is to reduce the number of teenage
pregnancies, boost up clinics which undertake deal with this type of issues.
Government will
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properly fund agencies to promote and adequately train professionals who
will offer awareness and give strategies education to teenagers.
In conclusion teenage pregnancy will continue to be an issue, therefore each
country is to be properly monitored and fund necessary programs to give aid

to educate the youth. It is recommended that developing countries start


organizing the need for sex education, plans strategies, and policies
regarding this issue of teenage pregnancy.

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Parents and Schools should offer sex education programs to teenagers to avoid
consequences of becoming pregnant at early age and to avoid risk of life.

Teenage pregnancy is a problem for all involved. Society at large has evolved
with parents practically abandoning their child to be making decisions on
their own. Parental guidance is practically not there. Both female and male
are doing whatever they want. As a teacher I have seen in school that
students are surviving on their own with comes to making tough decisions.
This issue leaves both female and male vulnerable to social issues especially
teenage pregnancy. Parental guidance is something really required to
prevent teenage pregnancy. Parents no longer advice their daughters about
the risks that teenage pregnancy bring about. It is not explained to them that
the opportunities they have when they are going to school is the only time
they have to be successful in time. Teenagers need to know that being a
parent especially in this period of time when things are getting more tougher
is the most is what can change their lives for which can bring about poverty
and suffering.
Parents are not putting much enough effort into reducing teen pregnancy
rates. In one of the major concerns is that many teens have been left behind
while parents have migrated to the United States leaving their children with
grand parents or guardians, most of the time these guardians really dont
care about what these kids are doing.
Reducing teen pregnancies even is not that easy should be a part of the
education system in Belize. Many schools do not have a sex education
programs where this can be an instrument of guidance to our students,
moreover our teachers need to be properly trained to be able to give such

programs. Having a sex education program in each class will explain to the
teens about the risk factors that they can encounter, the diseases that active
in this country, and the lack of opportunities that they may have if becoming
pregnant.
Many school policies have implemented in their school rules that any female
getting pregnant while in school will be expelled. This is the most unfair set
of rules that can be placed in
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institution system. Instead of assisting the child they go ahead and condemn
making the issue much worst.
In one of the school that I have known the rules state that any male who has
been the cause of getting any female student pregnant of the same
institution will end up being dismissed. In many cases the teen parents are
unable to sustain or maintain a family, due to this other matters arise, for
example many may try an abortion which some immoral to do and is against
our religion. This causes the social issue to escalate making the teens life
worst. The school duty is ensure a safe future for the kids who are enrolled in
their institution, by giving them the necessary aids and support to overcome
problems. By sending a kid home is giving a terrible and unforgivable life to a
starting family of low or no income.
Most females approaching the age of thirteen is fertile and ready to become
pregnant, however a thirteen year old has a mental capacity of that of a

child and will not be able to support or deal with a child most of the time the
parents are the ones who end taking care of the new born. This creates a
psychological problem to both teen parents and grandparents. In the case
where parents refuse to take care of the newly born then the teen mother is
left alone to deal with the situation alone. If the mother is not ready to take
care of the newly born then problems starts, especially if the father has
decided to walk away.
Hagen, Janet W (2012) ,a comparison has been made with females of rural
areas and public school and it seems as though the rural areas, despite the
sex education programs they receive, teen pregnancies tend to be higher
where the programs are also offered to public schools. According to S.
Shawky (2000) in many rural areas many girls get married at teen ages. This
all has to do with the different educational background of the parents. People
living in these areas are ignorant to the this social issue, hence they do not
foresee a problem. Many of these kids start bearing children at ranges of ten
to thirth five(S. Shawky(2000), and are not properly equipped to be able to
handle a family. In many of these areas the tradition is to have as many kids
as possible, without knowing the real consequence of doing such things.
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In conclusion I must state that this issue is something that has affected our
society from way back, and at this point is also affecting. Parents can have a
good control about this issue. Maintaining discipline at home is step number
one in avoiding teenage pregnancies. I believe parents have become too

flexible with children and are not even giving them the special care that they
deserve. At school it is imperative that each institution has sex education
programs to aid teens in giving them knowledge about the consequences
and the opportunities they might lose whenever they become sexually active
and become pregnant.
Furthermore, I must mention as well that this is the primary cause of abortion; teens
become entangled and outraged for the fact that they have become pregnant and
are unable to find a solution for what they have gotten into. So Parents and Schools

should offer sex education programs to teenagers to avoid consequences of becoming pregnant at
early age and to avoid risk of life.

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Reference
http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=10&sid=cb0fbc8b94b5-4b6f-ba5c-353f4f5ea460%40sessionmgr4004&hid=4201

http://applications.emro.who.int/emhj/0601/emhj_2000_6_1_46_54.pdf

http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=cb0fbc8b-94b5-4b6fba5c-353f4f5ea460%40sessionmgr4004&vid=14&hid=4201

http://www.hsj.gr/volume1/issue2/issue02_rev02.pdf