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Lab Report

High Voltage Engineering

Submitted To : Sir Rizwan-ul-Hasan


Submitted By : Muhammad Gulraiz Ahmed
Roll No :

10-EL-15

NFC Institute Of Engineering & Fertilizer


Research Faisalabad

WAPDA Engineering
Academy
Faisalabad

Lab Assignment No : 01
Objective:
Determination of an ac flash over of a 11kv pin type insulator under dry conditions.

Apparatus:

11kv pin type insulator,


connecting cup,
current limiting resisitor,
coaxial cable,
measuring capacitor

Theory:
It is one of the earliest designs used for supporting line conductor. The pin insulator is
supported on the forged steel pins and bolds, which are skewed to the cross section of this
supporting structure.
The conductor is lied to insulator on
the grooves. In order to increase the
leakage path, one, two or three rain
shades are so designed when these
insulators are wet even then
sufficient dry space is provided by
the inner shades.
For higher voltages the thickness of
the material required for the
purpose of the insulation. But the practical way is to use more than one insulator unit instead
of increasing the thickness.
Flashover distances when the insulators are dry and wet are different. The flash over voltage
when the insulator is wet is less. The rain shades should not disturb the voltage distribution.
They are so designed that their surface is right angle to electrostatic lines of forces or they
must try to lie in the equipotential.
The pin type insulator is reliable for voltage level upto 50KV max. and They are never used
for voltage beyond 80 KV. Since the suspension insulator is more reliable and cheaper. The
modern practice is not to used the pin type insulator beyond 33KV.

There are three types of loads that may be occur on insulator.


1- Mechanical loading

2- Thermal loading
3- Electrical loading
Mechanical loading contains conducting weight, wind storms, snow fall (ice) and birds etc.
Thermal loading is due to atmospheric tension
While electrical loading is caused by normal operating voltage I.e. 11 KV, 33KV ------(H.T
dist) and 400V, 230V---- ( L.T Dist ).
It also contains overvoltage for short duration, and transient due to lightening, switching,
steady state overvoltage (due to phase to ground fault).

Connection diagram:

220/100kv
10 m ohm resistance
100 pf capacitor

Procedure:
Connected the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram.

Starting from the 50% of the ac test voltage, required according to the wapda
specification.
The voltage is raised to the test voltage within approximately 10 seconds.ac test
voltage is applied for one minute, the voltage is raised until the flashover occurs.
The flash over value shall be determined as the mean value of 3 individual
measurements.

Observations:
Serial #
1
2
3

Flashover voltage (v)


90
90
89

Mean flashover voltage=89.6 v

Precautions:

Insulator under test must be cleaned carefully.


All parts which are grounded under normal service conditions must be grounded for
the test also.
Equivalent linear conductor is to be attached to the insulator.

Conclusion:
When a disruptive charge take place between two electrodes in a gas or liquid or over a
surface of solid insulation it is called a flashover. insulation flashover is the discharge through
the air taking the form of an arc or a spark or of several arcs or sparks between conducting
part of an insulator under the application of high voltage which normally having the operating
voltage between them.
What is the objective of performing ac flashover voltage test under dry conditions?
In order to check the maximum operating voltage which an insulator can bear and if that
voltage is below or above the standard voltage which are specified by the wapda.so that when
they operate in dry environment they can bear the voltage for a specific limit.

Compare your reading with the wapda standard readings?


We uses pin type insulator for this test and standard voltage set by the wapda for pin type
insulator under dry condition is 70kv.our mean value of flashover voltages comes out to be
89.6 so as the value is greater than that set by wapda so insulator we uses met the standard set
by the wapda.if the means value comes out to be less than 70kv then that insulator does not
met wapda standard specification and thus can not be use in the field.
___________________________________________________________________________

Lab Assignment No : 02
Objective:

To determine the AC flashover voltage of 11 KV Pin type insulation under Wet condition.

Apparatus:

HV control disk
Test Transformer
Current limiting resistor
Flexible conductor cable
Measuring capacitor
Connecting cup
Coaxial cable
11 KV pin type Insulator

Theory:
It is one of the earliest designs used for supporting line conductor. The pin insulator is
supported on the forged steel pins and bolds, which are skewed to the cross section of this
supporting structure.
The

conductor

is

lied

to

insulator on the grooves. In


order to increase the leakage
path, one, two or three rain
shades are so designed when
these insulators are wet even
then sufficient dry space is
provided by the inner shades.
For higher voltages the thickness of the material required for the purpose of the insulation.
But the practical way is to use more than one insulator unit instead of increasing the
thickness.
Flashover distances when the insulators are dry and wet are different. The flash over voltage
when the insulator is wet is less. The rain shades should not disturb the voltage distribution.
They are so designed that their surface is right angle to electrostatic lines of forces or they
must try to lie in the equipotential.
The pin type insulator is reliable for voltage level upto 50KV max. and They are never used
for voltage beyond 80 KV. Since the suspension insulator is more reliable and cheaper. The
modern practice is not to used the pin type insulator beyond 33KV.

There are three types of loads that may be occur on insulator.


4- Mechanical loading
5- Thermal loading
6- Electrical loading
Mechanical loading contains conducting weight, wind storms, snow fall (ice) and birds etc.
Thermal loading is due to atmospheric tension
While electrical loading is caused by normal operating voltage I.e. 11 KV, 33KV ------(H.T
dist) and 400V, 230V---- ( L.T Dist ).
It also contains overvoltage for short duration, and transient due to lightening, switching,
steady state overvoltage (due to phase to ground fault).

Circuit connection:

Procedure:
Connect the components as shown in the diagram.
Insulator is objected to artificial raining condition . It is subjected to a spray of water
with the help of nozzle which are so arranged that the water drops fall approximately
at the inclination of 45 degree with the vertical. The spray of water on the insulator
should begin atleast one min before the voltage application and should be continue all
throughout the test.
Starting from 50% points of the AC test voltage required according to WAPDA
specification.

The voltage is raised to test voltage within 10 sec approx, the AC test voltage is applied
atleast for 1 minute. The voltage is quickly raised until a flashover occur. The flashover value
shall be determine as the mean value of three individual measurement.

Observations:

S.NO

FLASHOVER VOLTAGE (wet


condition) PIN type

40 KV

42 KV

46 KV

Mean

42.66 KV

Wapda specification:

S.NO

TYPE OF

FLASHOVER VOLTAGE (WET)

INSULATOR

PIN

40 KV --- H.T Running

DISC

50 KV --- H.T Dead line, angle position

SPOOL (D-SHACKLE

15 KV --- L.T Running

STRAIN

18 KV --- L.T Guying wire

Precautions:
The insulator under test must be cleaned carefully.
All the parts which are grounded under normal service condition must be grounded
for test also.
Equivalent line conductor is to be attached to the insulator.

Conclusions:

Why insulator flashes over at lower voltage under wet conditions?


Since the flash over occurs when air breakdown take place and also ionization
becomes occur between connecting parts of an insulator so it totally depends on
dielectric strength . At normal condition the dry air dielectric strength is 2.1kv/cm but
in wet conditions the dielectric strength becomes low and ionization take place at low
voltage. Also air breakdown take place at low voltage so insulator flash over at low
voltage.
Compare your result with WAPDAS standard specifications under wet conditions?

Wapda standard specification:

S.NO

Type

Wet condition

1.

Pin type

40kv

2.

Disc type

50kv

3.

Spool type

15kv

4.

Strain type

18kv

And results taken during the lab


S.NO

FLASHOVER VOLTAGE (wet condition) PIN type

40 KV

42 KV

46 KV

Mean

42.66 KV

Pin type insulator flashover at 40 KV under wet conditions while from observations it is
clear that flashover occurs at 40 KV,42 KV,46 KV and their mean is 40.66 KV. So it is far
good and meet the WAPDA standard specifications.
___________________________________________________________________________

Lab Assignment No : 03
Objective:
One minute power frequency withstand voltage test.

Apparatus:

11kv pin type insulator,


connecting cup,
current limiting resisitor,
coaxial cable,
measuring capacitor

Circuit diagram:

Procedure:
Connect the component as shown in the figure.
starting from 50 percent ac test voltage required according to wapda specification, the
voltage is raised to the test voltage within approximately 10 seconds, the ac test
voltage is applied at least for one minute

Observation:
Wapda specifications:
Pin type

65kv

Disc type

75kv

Spool type

23kv

Strain type

32kv

Resulst in the lab:


Pin type

Voltage kv

64

62

64

Mean value=63.33kv
Precautions:
The insulator under test must be cleaned carefully.
All the parts which are grounded under normal service condition must be grounded
for test also.
Equivalent line conductor is to be attached to the insulator.

Conclusion:
Q: What is the object of performing this test?
The main objective of this test is to measure the dielectric strength of insulator.
Q: What do you under stand by one minute power frequency test?
At power frequency of 50 hertz this test is perform to check the dielectric strength of
the insulating material under the specific condition.
Q: Define following?

Time lag for break down:


This is the time difference between the application of a voltage sufficient to cause and
occurrence of a breakdown itself.
Statistical time lag:
The time which elapses between the application of voltage sufficient to cause
breakdown and the appearance of initiating electron
Formative time lag:
After the appearance of initiating electrons a time is required for ionization processes
to develop fully to cause the breakdown of the gap and this time is called formative
time lag
Total time lag:
The breakdown of the gap will take place after a time (ts+tf) from the instant of
application of breakdown voltage.
Crona discharge:
Partially ionized air around the conductor accompanied by hising noise and bluish
glow.
___________________________________________________________________________

Lab Assignment No : 04
Objective:
One minute power frequency withstand voltage test of pin type insulator under
wet conditions.

Apparatus:

Circuit diagram:

11kv pin type insulator,


connecting cup,
current limiting resisitor,
coaxial cable,
measuring capacitor

Procedure:
Connect the component as shown in the figure.
The insulator shall be exposed for 5 minutes before the application of voltage
throughout test to artificial rain with following characteristics. rainfall intensity 3mm
per min, tolerance plus minus 10 percent, direction above 45 degree to vertical, water
resistivity 10000 ohm centimeter, water temperature not differing more than 10
percent from that insulator.

Observation:
Wapda specifications:
Pin type

35kv

Disc type

45kv

Spool type

13kv

Strain type

10kv

Resulst in the lab:


Pin type

Voltage kv

36

37

35

Mean value=36kv
Precautions:
The insulator under test must be cleaned carefully.
All the parts which are grounded under normal service condition must be grounded
for test also.
Equivalent line conductor is to be attached to the insulator.

Conclusion:
Q: What is the object of performing this test?
The main objective of this test is to measure the dielectric strength of insulator under
wet conditions.
Q: Define townsends first and second ionization coefficients?
Average no of ionizing collisions made by an electron per cm travel in the direction of field is
the townsends first ionization coefficient. Townsends second ionization coefficient can be
define as the net yields of electrons due to secondary process
Q: Secondary ionization processes?
Are those processes by which secondary electrons are produced, which sustain a charge after
it is established due to ionization by collision and photo ionization following are the
secondary ionization process,
1) Electron emission due to positive ion impact
2) Electron emission due to photon
3) Electron emission due to metastables and neutral atoms
Q: is crona discharge take place during one minute power factor with stand voltage test.
Differentiate between crona discharge and flash over (arc discharge)?
Yes crona crona discharge take place during one minute power factor with stand voltage test.
Crona discharge:
Partially ionized air around the conductor accompanied by hising noise and bluish
glow
Flashover:
Electric discharge between two electrodes separated by insulator.
___________________________________________________________________________

Lab Assignment No : 05
Objective:
Voltage measurement through capacitor divider.

Apparatus:
Test transformer
Insulator
Resistance
Capacitor

Circuit diagram:

Procedure:
Connect the component as shown in the figure.

Observation:
Wapda specifications:
Pin type

35kv

Disc type

45kv

Spool type

13kv

Strain type

10kv

Resulst in the lab:


Pin type

Voltage kv

36

37

35

Mean value=36kv

Precautions:
The insulator under test must be cleaned carefully.
All the parts which are grounded under normal service condition must be grounded
for test also.
Equivalent line conductor is to be attached to the insulator.

Conclusion:
Q: What is the object of performing this test?
The main objective of this test is to measure the dielectric strength of insulator under
wet conditions.
Q: Define townsends first and second ionization coefficients?
Average no of ionizing collisions made by an electron per cm travel in the direction of field is
the townsends first ionization coefficient. Townsends second ionization coefficient can be
define as the net yields of electrons due to secondary process
Q: Secondary ionization processes?
Are those processes by which secondary electrons are produced, which sustain a charge after
it is established due to ionization by collision and photo ionization following are the
secondary ionization process,
4) Electron emission due to positive ion impact
5) Electron emission due to photon
6) Electron emission due to metastables and neutral atoms
Q: is crona discharge take place during one minute power factor with stand voltage test.
Differentiate between crona discharge and flash over (arc discharge)?
Yes crona crona discharge take place during one minute power factor with stand voltage test.
Crona discharge:
Partially ionized air around the conductor accompanied by hising noise and bluish
glow
Flashover:
Electric discharge between two electrodes separated by insulator.
___________________________________________________________________________