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Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila

College of Business Education


Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Introduction
As businesses rapidly increase in present times, there is an increase demand for
individuals who are skilled in the practice of accounting, hence the introduction of accounting
courses in Business programs for tertiary institutions. It is true that many students in Accounting
Education today do not have background in Secondary Education on Accounting unlike
Mathematics, Economics, English, Government and the likes, and therefore they tend to have a
negative attitude at the very beginning of the course at the university and assume that
accounting is a very difficult course.
Financial accounting requires focus and greater attention to details for a student to
learn this subject especially that this involves concepts, applications and procedures. For some
reasons, most students were having difficulties in dealing with this subject.
Academic Performances plays a vital role towards the student not only during their stay
in the institution but also in their practices held being professionals. Several factors may affect
students academic performance at universities. This study aims to measure and study these
factors and how it affects their academic performance especially during their study on Financial
Accounting 1. This study is intended to pinpoint those areas and variables which lead to low
performances in Financial Accounting 1 that will help those in Academe to create or suggest
attainable prompt solutions and remedies on those problems which mostly affect the

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
performance of the students to obtain better and positive results for the succeeding generations
of students.
Background of the Study
The College of Business Education department in Technological Institute of the
Philippines Manila initially offer programs related to accounting: Bachelor of Science in
Accountancy, Bachelor of Science in Accounting Technology, and Bachelor of Science in
Financial and Management Accounting.
The Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila, offers Financial Accounting Part 1
in BSA, BSAT, FMA students during their 1st semester of their 3 rd year.
This study covers financial accounting Part 1 which focuses on the asset side of the
balance sheet such as Cash, accounts and notes receivable, inventory, marketable securities,
equity investments, Properties, Plants and Equipments (PPE), and intangibles. The course also
covers revenue and expense recognition issues, and generally accepted accounting principles
that affect the format and presentation of the financial statements. Financial Accounting is one
of those important subjects in Business Accounting not only because it is one of the subjects
included in the Board Examination for Accountancy but also because it is said to be one of the
foundations of Accountancy profession.

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
Statement of the Problem
The study aimed to assess the Causes of Low Performance in Financial Accounting 1
as perceived by students. It sought to assess the following sub-problems:
1. What is the profile of the students in terms of the following:
1.1. Program
1.2. Year Level
1.3. Grade in Financial Accounting 1
2. How do the students perceive the causes of low performance in Financial Accounting in
terms of:
2.1. Foundation Courses
2.2. Class Schedule
2.3. Coverage
2.4. Faculty Mentoring
2.5. Reference Materials

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy

Conceptual Framework

Foundation Courses

Coverage

LOW PERFORMANCE OF
STUDENTS IN FINANCIAL
ACCOUNTING 1

Class Schedule
Faculty Mentoring

Reference Materials

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy

Figure 1: Research Paradigm


The research was designed to investigate what factors BSA, BSAT, and FMA students
considered affecting their low academic performance in Financial Accounting 1. The framework
provides different aspects of the three courses such as Foundation Courses, Coverage, Class
Schedule, Reference Materials, and Faculty Mentoring. The inputs gathered through survey and
questionnaires were summarized through the use of statistical techniques with the aid of scientific
method in order to arrive at the conclusion with the sufficient evidential matter.

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
Significance of the Study
The purpose of this study is to identify the causes for low performance rate in financial
accounting 1 as determined by the students which will help the College of Business Education
department administrators and faculty on directly working through to overcome these factors as
perceived by students.
For students, this study aims to depict their certain needs with the subject Financial
Accounting 1 which must be analyzed thoroughly and provided timely solutions by the
professors. The findings may compel the responsible faculty to restructure the course syllabus,
come up with new effective ways to evaluate professors and/or make any new adjustments in
the class schedule for this particular subject. This study will also help to expose the extent of
students needs to source for new reference materials relevant to this subject. Improvement in
the students performance with the subject can be expected from the implementation of the said
changes.
For Instructors, accumulated results pertinent to their scope compels them to learn for
new, more effective, and life-changing teaching approaches in order to train students better.
This research may also pave way for finding critical areas in this major accounting subject.
Thus, new techniques and principles in learning this subject may be arrived at.
For the administrators, this calls their attention to implement changes which has to be
done in pursuit of providing a well managed educational environment conducive to learning and
as an evocative solution to the emerging low performance of students in financial accounting.

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
For the school, this is also one way of implementing its outcome-based education
which is to transform students into graduates with full competence in their field of study. In
pursuit of the institutions commitment for providing total quality in education, studies like this
are helpful instruments for continuous improvement of educational services provided.
Lastly, this research can also serve as a useful reference or basis for any future studies
which aims to improve the quality of accounting education.
Scope and Delimitation
The main purpose of this research is to identify the causes of low performance of the
students. This study focused for the third year and fourth year Bachelor of Science in
Accountancy (BSA), Bachelor of Science in Accounting Technology (BSAT) and Bachelor of
Science Financial and Management Accounting (FMA) students in Technological Institute of the
Philippines- Manila during the First Semester of Academic Year 2016 2017. The study will
contain the profile of the respondents which includes their year level, program and grade in
financial accounting 1.
The researcher limited this research to the College of Business Education Department
in Technological Institute of the Philippines- Manila for the survey of 118 students as population
and uses only 56 students for the sample which is based on their average grades of 2.5 and
below. Each of the respondents was already given the same questionnaires to answer. The
results of this study are applicable to the respondents of this study and to other lower level.

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
Definition of Terms
Financial Accounting is the field of accountancy concerned with the preparation of financial
statements for decision makers, such as stakeholders, suppliers, banks, employees,
government agencies, owners, and other stakeholders. It is also reporting of the financial
position and performance of a firm through financial statements issued to external users on a
periodic basis.
Fundamentals of Accounting includes the areas of Debits and Credits; Accounts; Assets,
Liabilities, Equity, Revenue and Expenses; and, an accounting system that offers a method for
checking, balancing, and reconciling all accounting related transactions in order to produce
accurate pictures of the entities financial health.
Accounting Cycle refers to the six steps in the processing of financial transactions (from the
time they occur to their inclusion in financial statements) pertaining to an accounting period.
These steps are: (1) analyzing the transactions as they occur, (2) recording them in the
journals, (3) posting debits and credits from journal entries to the general ledger, (4) adjusting
the assets with a trial balance, (5) preparing financial statements, and (6) closing the temporary
accounts.
Coverage-these pertains to topics included in Financial Accounting I.
Mentoring- is the act offering guidance, support and teaching and acts as a role model for the
person being mentored.

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
Class Schedule-refers to the schedule of students pertaining to Financial Accounting subject if
its morning, afternoon or on evening classes.
Reference Materials- books or other review materials used by students during their study on
Financial Accounting which helps them understand the topics better.
BSA- Bachelor of Science in Business Administration major in Accountancy
FMA- Financial and Management Accounting
BSAT- Bachelor of Science in Accounting Technology

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
Local Related Literature
Clarissa S. Layug (2014) a BSAT student of Holy Angel University , Angeles City who
graduated last 2014, Financial Accounting is the subject she finds difficult for it will be taken on
2nd year 1st semester to 3rd year 1st semester, because it covers 3 volumes.
According to Marvin Galang (2016) on his journal entitled The Horror that is
Accounting-Why students shouldnt dread the subject. He says, I think that what really makes
accounting so difficult in the eyes of students is actually the view towards the subject. Its
already preempted to be difficult and with a mindset like that. He further says that he believes
in the popular saying that goes first impressions last and he believe this applies not only to
people, but on a very general level and is applicable to almost anything and anyone. If you
believe accounting to be difficult even before you actually experience it, then youve already put
it on a pedestal and just the same, youve lowered your confidence in actually facing it.
According to Lindbergh Soriano (2012) in his blog on the TOP 5 hardest Accounting
Subject he mentioned that Financial Accounting and Reporting II This subject is a continuation
of Financial Accounting and Reporting I. Whereas part I focused mainly on assets, part II would
focus mainly in liabilities and shareholders equity.

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Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
A Study prepared by Philippine National Commission for UNESCO (1956) which was
entitled The Causes of Failure in School mentioned that teachers are to blame too, for they
intend to spoil the students with academic spoon-feeding , thus breeding laziness.
Foreign Related Literature
Several studies have been conduct by researchers from many countries which purpose
is to solve or suggest solutions to certain factors which affect the performance of accounting
students. Some researches put emphasize on individuals internal characteristics (e.g.
intelligence, self-concept, etc) and some others consider external characteristics (family, social
status, educational environment, etc) important. On the other hand, one of the most important
factors underlying development is education. Developed countries usually have effective
educational system but education lacks adequate infrastructure in developing countries (Poor
Ali, 2005). The following consist of previous works or findings which were gathered together and
summarized not just to have a preview of this study but it also served as a guide for the
researchers to attain its objectives.
Teaching Methods
According to Duff in a research conducted in England, the accounting teaching in the
undergraduate levels favours students with preferences to the theoretical learning. However
there is no direct relationship between the performance and the preference by the learning
style. In this case, the accounting program can be wide, more innovative, and to adopt teaching
methods that satisfy also those without preference for theoretical learning.

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Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
Instructors Qualities
Deppe enumerated the necessary competencies for a successful professional that the
educator should have in mind during the teaching process:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Communication Skills
Ability to develop and distribute information
Ability to decision making
Accounting knowledge, auditing and taxation
Knowledge of business environment
Professionalism
Leadership development

Reference and Instructional Materials


Several studies on instructional materials and academic achievement have been
conducted before. For example, (Isola, 2010), conducted a research on the effects of
instructional resources on students performance in West Africa School Certificate Examinations
(WASCE) in Kwara State. He linked material resources with academic achievements of
students in ten subjects. Data were collected from the subject teachers in relation to the
resources employed in the teaching. The achievements of students in WASCE for the past five
years were related to the resources available for teaching each of the subjects. He concluded
that material resources have a significant effect on students achievement in each of the
subjects.
Instructional material according to Mustapha etal (2002) and Azikiwe (2007) are usually
classified based on the characteristic they exhibit. There is a wide variety of instructional media
which could be profitably and effectively used in the classroom of accounting learning situation.

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Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
Instructional material could be broadly classified into three group namely audio, visual and
audio-visual.
There are also resource materials and devices that appeal to the sense of sight, touch
and smell like Visual aids. They consist of non-projected aids which include chalkboard and
adhesives Pictorial aids which include charts and pictures Mobile Three dimensional aids
projected aids which include film strips and slides, and slides projector pictures, charts,
blackboard, posters, books, specimen etc. learning resources that fall under audio-visual aids
appeal to the senses of sight, hearing and touch. They include line sound film, sound strip
projector, television and video tape recorder. The audio aids are instructional materials that
appeal to the sense of hearing and touch too. They include records and record players, tapes
and tape recorder, radio and language laboratories.
Other Barriers for Students Success
Variables such as age, gender, talent, scores, high school experience, academic
experience, motivation and students expectations are considered by many scholars to
recognize accounting students characteristics necessary for their success. Some studies have
confirmed the positive relationship between gender and accounting students academic
performance (Koh and Koh (1999); Gracia and Jenkins (2003); Vickers et al. (2003)). Some
studies scrutinized the relationship between foreign language (e.g., English) in accounting
education and student performance, such as Ayers and Peters (1977) who confirmed that the
academic success can be positively influenced by the English language proficiency. However,

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Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
Jochems (1991) reported that the performance could have been low, if the foreign language has
been taken a place in education.
Nasser and Peel (1998) have also found that variables such as age, English language
proficiency, mathematic score and type of university (state or private) have no significant effect
on the accounting students academic performance. Instead, university conditions and
educational characteristics i.e. professors ability, attempt and motivation has significant
relationship with students performance and students with previous experience in accounting
and advanced mathematic enjoyed higher level of performance.
Wooten also includes in his model several variables not examined in the accounting
education literature to date, like the effects of family activities, work activities, extra-curricular
activities and classroom environment. The model begins with an ultimate goal of performance.
Two factors have direct influence on students performance: (1) the students aptitude and (2)
the amount of effort the student puts forth in the course. Wooten indicates that these depend on
the students (1) grade history, (2) motivation, (3) extra-curricular activities, (4) work
responsibilities and (5) family responsibilities.

CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

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Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
Research Design
A descriptive survey was used for this research. The survey was conducted to BSA,
FMA, and BSAT student of the CBE department in TIP Manila to obtain information about the
Student's Perception of Causes of low performance in Financial Accounting 1. The research is
intended to know how the Foundation Courses, class schedule, coverage, faculty mentoring,
and reference materials affected the performance of the students in Financial Accounting 1.
Population and Sampling
The researcher used selective testing. In this testing technique the researcher
selected a particular number of sample in a population which is composed of BSA, FMA, and
BSAT student of the CBE department in TIP Manila and that were selected are the only
programs that has Financial Accounting 1 in their curriculum, and out of these programs only
the 3rd year and 4th year level students were selected. The 3rd year level is currently taking
Financial Accounting 1 and the 4th year students just have finished the said course. Out of 118
students used as population the researchers selected only 56 students for the sample which is
based on their grades of 2.5 and below.

Research Instrument

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Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
The research instrument that was used is survey questionnaire. The survey
questionnaires include 5 factors: Foundation Courses, Class Schedule, Coverage, Faculty
Mentoring and Reference Materials. In the survey questionnaire, the respondents used the
Likert scale to determine if they agree or disagree with the said factors. The researchers didnt
require the respondents to include their identities for confidentiality.
Data Gathering Procedure
The procedure of data gathering for the research is through distribution of
questionnaires, these were distributed to a sample of students of BSA, FMA and BSAT in 3 rd
and 4th year level in the College of Business Education. Those students were asked to complete
the questionnaires anonymously during the class period. These students are accounting
majors. The researcher will distribute the questionnaire by himself to ensure 100 percent return
of the questionnaires.
It is assumed that students will participate in the study. Of the 118 students, there are
33 in 3rd year and 19 in 4th year level of BSA students, 10 in 3rd year and 25 in 4th year level of
BSAT students, and 12 in 3rd year and 19 in 4th year level of FMA students.

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Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
Research Instrument Validation
The research instrument is subject for validation to improve its quality that is to be used
for the final survey. The researchers conducted a validation through distribution of survey
questionnaires. There are 3 professors of the CBE and 10 students of BSA, FMA and BSAT
who were participated in this validation. Those professors and students were asked to give
suggestions and comments about the research instrument.
Statistical Treatment
The data collected in the study were organized and classified based from the research
design. The data were coded, tallied and tabulated to facilitate the presentation and
interpretation of results using the following:
1. Percentage Percentage was used to get the proportion of the number to the total
number of frequency.
Formula:
% = f / n x 100
Where:
% - percentage
f frequency
N number of cases or total sample
100 constant

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Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
2. Range - The Range is the difference between the lowest and highest values.
Range = ( H L ) / H
Where:
H Highest Value
L Lowest Value
3. Weighted Mean
The weighted average mean statistical treatment method used to interpret items in the
questionnaire. Statistical treatment can help the researcher to describe the nature of the data to
be analyzed and to explore the relation of the data to the underlying population.
The formula is:
Xwt = X1W1 + X2W2 + X3W3
N
Where:
Xwt = weighted mean
X = score or item value
W = weight of score
N = total number of respondents
4. 5 point Scale The five point scale used in interpreting the mean rating.

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Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
Table 1

SCALE

EQUIVALENT

INTERPRETATION

4.20 - 5.00

Strongly Agree

3.41 - 4.20

Agree

2.61 - 3.40

Moderately Agree

1.81 - 2.60

Disagree

1.0 - 1.80

Strongly Disagree

CHAPTER 4
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

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Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy

20

Introduction
This chapter presents the analysis of data, interpretation and results of the study. The
analysis was based on the information collected using a structured questionnaire. In order to
simplify the discussions, the researchers provided tables and graphs that summarize the
reactions of respondents.
A total of 118 questionnaires were distributed of which 118 were collected and only 56
were used for the study, these are students having grade of 2.5 below and the others. The data
collected were analyzed based on each research question using simple percentages of
frequency.
The following data are used to answer the statement of the problem that questioned:
4.1 What is the profile of the students in terms of the following?
4.1.1 Program
4.1.2 Year Level
4.1.3 Grade in Financial Accounting 1

Table 2
Distribution of Respondents by their Program
PROGRAM

FREQUENCY

PERCENTAGE

BSA

52

44.07 %

BSBA-FMA

31

26.27 %

BSAT

35

29.66 %

TOTAL

118

100 %

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy

21

Table 2 presents the percentage distribution of respondents according to their programs. There
were a total of 118 respondents of which 52 students were BSA representing 44.07% of the
total population, 31 were BSBA-FMA representing 26.27% of the total population and 35 were
BSAT students representing 29.66% of the population.

Table 3
YEAR LEVEL

FREQUENCY

PERCENTAGE

3RD YEAR

55

46.61

4TH YEAR

63

53.39

TOTAL

118

100 %

Table 3 presents the percentage distribution of respondents according to their year level. There
were more 4th year students for its 53.39% while only 46.61% for 3 rd year students in the study.

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy

22

Table 4
Distribution of Respondents by their Financial Accounting 1 Grade
GRADE

FREQUENCY

PERCENTAGE

2.50

13

23.21 %

2.75-3.00

42

75 %

OTHERS

1.79 %

TOTAL

56

100 %

Table 4 shows the percentage distribution of respondents according to their grades.


4.2 How do the students perceive the causes of low performance in Financial Accounting 1 by
their program in terms of:
4.2.1 Foundation Course

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4
4.2.5

23

Class Schedule
Coverage
Faculty Mentoring
Reference Materials

Table 5
Students Perception in their Low Performance in Financial Accounting 1 in terms of
Foundation Courses
BSAT

BSA
1. Foundation Courses

WM

1.1 I fully understand the concept of debit


and credit during my Fundamentals of

VI

FMA

WM

VI

WM

VI

4.44

Agree

4.09

Agree

Strongly
4.46
Agree

Accounting
1.2 I fully understand the concept of equation
A = L + E during my Fundamentals of

4.79

Agree

4.67

Strongly Agree

4.36

Strongly Agree

4.04

Agree

4.00

Agree

3.64

Agree

3.89

Agree

3.78

Agree

3.27

Accounting
1.3 I fully know how to formulate the basic
financial statements during my Fundamentals
of Accounting 1
1.4 I fully understand the accounting cycle
during my Fundamentals of Accounting 1

Moderately
Agree

1.5 I fully understand the concept of accruals


and deferrals during my Fundamentals of

Moderately
3.43

Agree

3.33
Agree

Accounting 1
1.6 I have full knowledge about Conceptual
Framework of Accounting during my

Agree

Moderately
3.57

Agree

3.22

3.45

Agree

3.73

Agree

Agree

Fundamentals of Accounting 1
1.7 I have full knowledge about Mathematics

Moderately
3.09

3.57

Agree

3.67

Agree

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
topics like algebra and statistics during my
Fundamentals of Accounting 1

Table 5 - BSA shows the students perception towards Low Performance in Financial
Accounting in terms of their Foundation Courses.
On the first question, students strongly agree with a weighted mean of 4.46 that their
understanding in the concept of debit and credit during my Fundamentals of Accounting doesnt
affect their low performance in Financial Accounting. On the second up to the seventh question,
students weighted mean shows that they agree that their understanding in the equation A=L+E,
to formulate basic financial statement the accounting cycle, the concept of accruals and
deferrals, the Conceptual Framework of Accounting and in Mathematics topics like algebra and
statistics, were not the factors that leads to Low performance in Financial Accounting.
Table 5 - BSAT shows the students perception towards Low Performance in Financial
Accounting in terms of their Foundation Courses.
On the first question, students agree with a weighted mean of 4.44 that their
understanding in the concept of debit and credit during my Fundamentals of Accounting doesnt
affect their low performance in Financial Accounting. On the second question, students
weighted mean shows that they strongly agreed on their understanding in the equation A=L+E;
they agreed on formulating the basic financial statement and on the accounting cycle; they

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Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
moderately agreed the concept of accruals and deferrals and the Conceptual Framework of
Accounting while in Mathematics topics like algebra and statistics they agreed.
Table 5 - FMA shows the students perception towards Low Performance in Financial
Accounting in terms of their Foundation Courses.
On the first question, students agree with a weighted mean of 4.09 that their
understanding in the concept of debit and credit during their Fundamentals of Accounting
doesnt affect their low performance in Financial Accounting. On the second up to the seventh
question, students weighted mean shows that they strongly agree that their understanding in
the equation A=L+E and on the 3rd question students agreed that they fully know how to
formulate basic financial statement. Students moderately agreed that they fully understand the
accounting cycle, the concept of accruals and deferrals and they agreed that they have full
knowledge about the Conceptual Framework of Accounting and in Mathematics topics like
algebra and statistics, were not the factors that lead to Low performance in Financial
Accounting.

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Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy

26

Table 6
Students Perception in their Low Performance in Financial Accounting 1 in terms of
Class Schedule
BSA
2. Class Schedule

BSAT

FMA

WM

VI

WM

VI

WM

4.46

Strongly Agree

3.78

Agree

4.36

2.1 Financial Accounting 1 was taken up

VI
Strongly

with other courses in a day

Agree

2.2 3 hours per session is enough to


discuss a certain topic in Financial

3.46

Agree

3.44

Agree

3.55

2.44

Disagree

2.82

Agree

Accounting 1
2.3 1 and half hour per session is

Moderately
2.82

enough to discuss the certain topic

Moderately

Agree

Agree

2.4 The morning class is the best time to

Moderately
3.71

Agree

4.11

Agree

2.82

take up Financial Accounting 1

Agree

2.5 The afternoon class is the best time

Moderately
2.79

to take up Financial Accounting 1

Moderately
3.00

Agree

3.64

2.6 The evening class is the best time to

Moderately
2.21

Disagree

2.33

Disagree

2.64

take up Financial Accounting 1


2.7 Having enough vacant is useful to

Agree

Agree

Agree
4.32

Strongly Agree

3.78

Agree

4.18

Agree

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
review for the next subject

Table 6 - BSA shows the students Perception on Low Performance in Financial


Accounting in terms of Class Schedule.
Students strongly agree that their Financial Accounting 1 subject was taken up with
other courses in a day this means that it affects their performance in Financial Accounting 1.
They agreed that 3 hours session is enough to discuss certain topics in FinAcc1 while they
Moderately Agreed that 1 and a half hour per session is enough. Comparing the answers in
questions 2 and 3, students prefer to take FinAcc1 three hours per session. Answers on
questions 4, 5 and 6, tells that students prefer to take FinAcc1 in morning classes instead of
afternoon and evening for this shows weighted mean of 3.71(Agree), 2.79(Moderately Agree)
and 2.21(Disagree) respectively. And on the seventh question, students strongly agree that
having enough vacant is useful to review for their next subject.
Table 6 - BSAT shows the students Perception on Low Performance in Financial
Accounting in terms of Class Schedule.
Students agreed that their Financial Accounting 1 subject was taken up with other
courses in a day. They agreed that 3 hours session is enough to discuss certain topics in
FinAcc1 while they disagreed that 1 and a half hour per session is enough. Comparing the
answers in questions 2 and 3, students prefer to take FinAcc1 three hours per session. Answers
on questions 4, 5 and 6, tells that students prefer to take FinAcc1 in morning classes instead of

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Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
afternoon and evening for this shows weighted mean of 4.11(Agree), 3.00(Moderately Agree)
and 2.33(Disagree) respectively. And on the seventh question, students strongly agreed that
having enough vacant is useful to review for their next subject.
Table 6 - FMA shows the students Perception on Low Performance in Financial
Accounting in terms of Class Schedule.
Students strongly agree that their Financial Accounting 1 subject was taken up with
other courses in a day therefore, this means that it affects their performance in Financial
Accounting 1. They agreed that 3 hours session is enough to discuss certain topics in FinAcc1
while they Moderately Agreed that 1 and a half hour per session is enough. Comparing the
answers in questions 2 and 3, students prefer to take FinAcc1 three hours per session. Answers
on questions 4, 5 and 6, tells that students prefer to take FinAcc1 in morning or evening classes
instead of afternoon for this shows weighted mean of 2.82( Moderately Agree), 3.64(Agree) and
2.64(Moderately Agree) respectively. And on the seventh question, students agreed that having
enough vacant is useful to review for their next subject.

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Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy

29

Table 7
Students Perception in their Low Performance in Financial Accounting 1 in terms of
Coverage
BSAT

BSA
3. Coverage
3.1 More than 1 topic is discussed
every session
3.2 All topics are covered during
the semester
3.3 The Course syllabus is
thoroughly followed
3.4 All topics in prelim period are
discussed
3.5 All topics in midterm period are
discussed
3.6 All topics in final period are
discussed
3.7 Many topics in Financial
Accounting 1 is comprehensible

FMA

WM

VI

WM

VI

WM

VI

3.68

Agree

4.00

Agree

4.00

Agree

3.04

3.25

Moderately
Agree
Moderately
Agree

3.33

Moderately
Agree

3.09

3.67

Agree

3.27

Moderately
Agree
Moderately
Agree

3.64

Agree

4.00

Agree

3.91

Agree

3.57

Agree

3.89

Agree

3.73

Agree

3.44

Agree

3.55

Agree

3.67

Agree

3.18

3.32

3.50

Moderately
Agree
Agree

Moderately
Agree

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
Table 7 - BSA shows that BSA students agreed that there is more than 1 topic
discussed every session which may cause their performance in Financial Accounting 1 low. In
question number 2, they moderately agreed that topics are covered during the semester.
Question 3 shows that Course syllabus is moderately followed. The Questions 4, 5 and 6 states
that BSA students agreed that topics were discussed in prelim, midterm and finals resulting to a
weighted mean of 3.64, 3.57 and 3.32 respectively. Question number 7 shows that many topics
in Financial Accounting 1 are comprehensible and students agreed.
Table 7 - BSAT shows that BSAT students agreed that there is more than 1 topic
discussed every session. In question number 2, they moderately agreed that topics are covered
during the semester. Question 3 shows they agreed that Course syllabus is followed. The
Questions 4, 5 and 6 states that BSA students agreed that topics were discussed in prelim,
midterm and finals resulting to a weighted mean of 4.00, 3.89 and 3.44 respectively. Question
number 7 shows that many topics in Financial Accounting 1 are comprehensible and students
agreed.
Table 7 - FMA shows that FMA students agreed that having more than 1 topic to
discussed every session may cause their performance in Financial Accounting 1 low. In
question number 2, they moderately agreed that topics are covered during the semester.
Question 3 shows that Course syllabus is moderately followed. Question 4, 5 and 6 states that
FMA students agreed that topics are discussed in prelim, midterm and final period having
weighted mean of 3.91, 3.73 and 3.55 respectively. Question number 7 shows that many topics
in Financial Accounting 1 are comprehensible and students moderately agreed.

30

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy

31

Table 8
Students Perception in their Low Performance in Financial Accounting 1 in terms of
Mentoring
BSA
4. Mentoring
4.1 Professors encourage the students to study
hard
4.2 Professors discuss all the topics in the
textbook in the easiest way to understand
4.3 Professors give more information other than
information written on the given textbook
4.4 Professors elaborately discuss the topic
4.5 Professors give activities to apply the
theoretical concept in the textbook

BSAT

WM

VI

WM

4.00

Agree

4.44

3.54

Agree

4.22

3.54

Agree

4.22

3.57

Agree

4.33

3.57

Agree

4.22

3.75

Agree

4.33

3.96

Agree

4.33

4.6 Professors give assignments, seat works


and quizzes that enhance the students
problem solving skill and critical thinking skill
4.7 The professors are approachable and
entertain all the questions of the student

VI
Strongly
Agree
Strongly
Agree
Strongly
Agree
Strongly
Agree
Strongly
Agree
Strongly
Agree
Strongly
Agree

FMA
WM
4.27

VI
Strongly
Agree

4.00

Agree

3.91

Agree

3.82

Agree

3.82

Agree

4.18

Agree

3.73

Agree

Table 8 - BSA shows BSA Students Perception in their Low Performance in Financial
Accounting 1 in terms of Mentoring. Overall students weighted mean show that they agree that
their Professors mentoring were not the factors that affects their low performance in Financial
Accounting 1.

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
Table 8 - BSAT shows BSAT Students Perception in their Low Performance in Financial
Accounting 1 in terms of Mentoring. The students entire weighted mean showed that they
strongly agreed on the questions regarding on the Faculty Mentoring.
Table 8 - FMA shows FMA Students Perception in their Low Performance in Financial
Accounting 1 in terms of Faculty Mentoring. The students entire weighted mean showed that
they agreed on the questions regarding on the Faculty Mentoring except on the1st question.

Table 9

32

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy

33

Students Perception in their Low Performance in Financial Accounting 1 in terms of


Reference Materials
BSAT

BSA
5. Reference Materials
5.1 The required textbook is very useful to
understand Financial Accounting 1
5.2 Using more references are helpful to
make it easier to understand the topic
5.3 Review Material makes the topic easier
to understand
5.4 Practice sets enhance students solving
skills
5.5 Other Reference Materials are available
to the Library
5.6 There are Financial Accounting Books
with different authors in the Library

WM

VI

WM

4.18

Agree

4.56

4.43

4.25

4.21

Strongly
Agree
Strongly
Agree
Strongly
Agree

4.44

4.11

4.33

3.93

Agree

4.44

4.07

Agree

4.67

3.82

Agree

4.44

5.7 Handouts and other materials are given


to better enhance the knowledge of the
students

FMA

VI
Strongly
Agree
Strongly
Agree
Agree
Strongly
Agree
Strongly
Agree
Strongly
Agree
Strongly
Agree

WM

VI

4.18

Agree

4.36

4.18

4.36

Strongly
Agree
Agree
Strongly
Agree

4.09

Agree

4.18

Agree

4.27

Strongly
Agree

Table 9 - BSA shows that on BSA students perception towards the Reference Materials
were positive the students agreed on the 1 st, 5th, 6th, and 7th questions while they strongly
agreed on the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th questions.

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
Table 9 - BSAT shows that on BSAT students perception towards the Reference
Materials were mostly Strong Agree except the 3rd statement, Review Materials makes the topic
easier to understand.
Table 9 - FMA shows that on FMA students perception towards the Reference
Materials were positive the students agreed on the 1 st, 3rd, 5th, and 6th questions while they
strongly agreed on the 2nd, 4th and 7th questions.

34

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
CHAPTER 5
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter presents the summary of findings, the conclusion drawn and the
recommendations made as an outgrowth of this study. This study is on the causes of low
performance in Financial Accounting as perceived by the students.
Summary of Findings
1. Profile of Respondents
The respondents were all currently 3rd and 4th year BS Accountancy, BS Accounting
Technology and BSBA- Financial and Management Accounting who have already taken the
financial accounting subject. There were more of 4 th year students than the 3rd year students in
the study. From the total population of 118 respondents, 44.07% were BSA students, 26.27%
were FMA students and 29.66% were BSAT students. BSA program has the greater population
than others. Based on the result of the survey most students performance were ranges from
2.75-3.00, which is below the passing rate for the BSA program and an average rate for the
FMA and BSAT program.
Gathered results from students who have earned low grades in the particular subject
were directly selected as basis for the findings of this study.

35

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
2. Foundation Courses
The findings showed that on the foundation courses factor, knowledge on the concept
of accruals and deferrals has the lowest weighted mean for the BSA and FMA students. While
for the BSAT the conceptual framework got the lowest weighted mean and the knowledge about
concepts of accruals and deferrals was second to the lowest.
3. Class Schedule
On the given results in the class schedule factor showed that BSA, BSAT, and FMA
students disagreed on the evening class schedule to take up the Financial Accounting 1. BSAT
students totally disagreed on a 1 and a half hour per session to discuss the topic of the subject.
4. Coverage
For the coverage factor result shows that not all the topics were discussed for the
whole semester. Based on the findings, for BSA and FMA students the course syllabus was not
followed accordingly.
5. Mentoring
The results on mentoring factor showed that BSA students moderately agreed that
professors discusses all the topics in the textbook in the easiest way to understand, gave more
information other than information written on the given textbook, elaborately discusses the topic,
and gave activities to apply the theoretical concept in the textbook

36

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
6. Reference Material
On the reference material factor result showed that BSA, BSAT and FMA students
agreed on all the items under it. But handouts and other materials are given to better enhance
the knowledge of the students and other reference materials availability in the library got the
lowest weighted means for the group of BSA students. For BSAT students, review materials
helping students to understand the topics better got the lowest weighted means including other
reference materials availability in the library. The group of FMA students has also got the lowest
weighted mean for availability of other reference materials in the library. Reference material has
the weighted mean for all the factors.
Conclusion
Based on the analyzed findings of this study, the researchers concluded that factors
such as class schedule and coverage affects the students performance in financial accounting.
This can be explained by negative responses for the said factors. From the class schedule, it is
so evident that the three groups (BSA, BSAT and BSBA-FMA students) correspond on the
disagreement to have an evening class for the particular subject. This means that they prefer
the subject to be taken during daytime. One and a half hour per session is also insufficient for a
certain topic to be discussed for the students which can be noticed with the disagreement by
BSAT students and moderately agreed by others. This is because of the fact that financial
accounting like any other calculating subjects requires constant practice and
From the coverage factor, It could be concluded that accounting professors assigned
for the particular subject werent able to discuss all the topics for the whole semester. This could

37

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
mean that some professors havent able to maximize the time frame for the subject or they were
just being selective on topics they have to discuss.
Others are not considered as factors for low performance in financial accounting based
on the analyzed data.
Recommendation
Based on the summary of findings and conclusion, the researchers come up with the
following recommendation in order to improve the performance of students in financial
accounting.
1. It can be noticed that an evening class is unfavorable for the majority of the
respondents in that particular subject. This suggests that proper schedule must be
developed by the administration.
2. Assessment on each topic to be discussed must be conducted to develop and
implement a maximized and proper lead time for every session. Special classes can
also be conducted for students who find certain topics difficult to understand for the
regular class schedule.
3. The course syllabus must be strictly and properly followed by instructors so as for all
the coverage to be discussed in the whole semester. Furthermore, emphasis should
also be given on the extent of how students understand every topic.

38

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
Bibliography:
Ali Poor, M. R. (2005). Accounting training, challenges and solutions. Journal of Accountant,
166, 33-36.
Deppe L. A. et ali, Emerging Competencies for the practice of accountancy. Journal of
Accounting Education, 1991
Duff, Angus, The impact of Learning Strategies on Academic Performance in an accounting
undergraduate course, British Accounting Education, Discussion Paper, 1995
Gracia, L. and Jenkins, E. (2003). A quantitative exploration of student performance on an
undergraduate accounting programme of study. Accounting Education, 12 (1), 15-32.
Jochems, W. (1991) Effects of Learning and Testing in a Foreign Language, European Journal
of Engineering Education, Vol. 16, pp. 309-316.
Koh, M.Y. and Koh, H.C. (1999). The Determinants of performance in an accountancy degree
course. Accounting Education: An International Journal, 8(1), 13-29.
Naser, K. and Peel, M.J. (1998). An Exploratory Study of The Impact of Intervening Variables on
Student Performance In a Principles of Accounting Course. Accounting Education: an
International Journal, 7(3), 209-223.
Wooten, T. (1998). Factors Influencing Student Learning in Introductory Accounting Classes: A
Comparison of Traditional and Nontraditional Students. Issues in Accounting Education, 13(2),
357-373.

39

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy

40

Appendices
Appendix A: Survey Questionnaire
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION
SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE
Students Perception of Causes of Low Performance in Financial Accounting 1

Name (optional) : ____________________________


Year Level

: ( ) 3rd Year

( ) 4th Year

Program

: ( ) BSA

( ) FMA

Grade in Financial Accounting 1: ( ) 1.0-1.25


2.75-3.0

( ) BSAT
( ) 1.5-1.75

( ) 2.0-2.25

( ) 2.5 ( )

( ) Others
Directions: Please check and rate yourself honestly based on what you actually do given the
statements using the following scales:
5 Strongly Agree
4 Agree
3 Moderately Agree
2 Disagree
1 Strongly Disagree

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
1. Foundation Courses
1.1. I fully understand the concept of debit and credit during my
Fundamentals of Accounting
1.2. I fully understand the concept of equation A = L + E during my
Fundamentals of Accounting
1.3. I fully know how to formulate the basic financial statements
during my Financial Accounting 1
1.4. I fully understand the concept of accounting cycle during my
Financial Accounting 1
1.5. I fully understand the concept of accruals and deferrals during
my Financial Accounting 1
1.6. I have full knowledge about the Conceptual Framework of
Accounting during my Financial Accounting 1
1.7. I have full knowledge about Mathematics topics like algebra
and statistics during my Financial Accounting 1
2. Class Schedule
2.1. Financial Accounting 1 was taken up with other courses in a
day
2.2. 3 hours per session is enough to discuss a certain topic in
Financial Accounting 1
2.3. 1 and a half hour per session is enough to discuss the certain
topic
2.4. The morning class is the best time to take up Financial
Accounting 1
2.5. The afternoon class is the best time to take up Financial
Accounting 1
2.6. The evening class is the best time to take up Financial
Accounting 1
2.7. Having enough vacant is useful to review for the next subject
3. Coverage
3.1. More than 1 topic is discussed every session
3.2. All topics are covered during the semester
3.3. The Course syllabus is thoroughly followed
3.4. All topics for prelim period are discussed
3.5. All topics for midterm period are discussed
3.6. All topics for final period are discussed
3.7. Many topics in Financial Accounting 1 is comprehensible
4. Faculty Mentoring
4.1. Professors encourage the students to study hard
4.2. Professors discuss all the topics in the textbook in the easiest

41

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
way to understand
4.3. Professors give more information other than information written
on the given textbook
4.4. Professors elaborately discuss the topic
4.5. Professors give activities to apply the theoretical concept in the
textbook
4.6. Professors give assignments, seat works and quizzes that
enhance the students problem solving skill and critical thinking
skill
4.7. The professors are approachable and entertain all the
questions of the student
5. Reference Materials
5.1. The required textbook is very useful to understand Financial
Accounting 1
5.2. Using more references are helpful to make it easier to
understand the topic
5.3. Review Material makes the topic easier to understand
5.4. Practice sets enhance students solving skills
5.5. Other Reference Materials are available to the Library
5.6. There are Financial Accounting Books with different authors in
the Library
5.7. Handouts and other materials are given to better enhance the
knowledge of the students

42

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy

43

Appendix B: Tally Sheet


BSAT
1. Foundation
Courses
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7

5
5
7
4
3
2
1
1

4
3
1
2
1
1
1
4

3
1
1
2
5
4
6
4

2
0
0
1
0
2
1
0

1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

2. Class Schedule
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7

5
4
1
0
4
0
0
3

4
1
5
1
3
3
1
3

3
3
0
3
1
3
3
1

2
0
3
4
1
3
3
2

1
1
0
1
0
0
2
0

3. Coverage
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7

5
4
2
2
4
4
2
3

4
2
1
3
2
1
2
1

3
2
4
3
2
3
3
4

2
1
2
1
1
1
2
1

1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy

44

4. Mentoring
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7

5
5
4
3
4
5
5
5

4
3
3
5
4
2
2
2

3
1
2
1
1
1
2
2

2
0
0
0
0
1
0
0

1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

5. Reference Materials
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7

5
6
6
4
4
5
7
5

4
2
1
3
4
3
1
3

3
1
2
1
1
1
1
1

2
0
0
1
0
0
0
0

1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy

45

BSA
1. Foundation Courses
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7

5
14
22
8
7
2
2
4

4
13
6
13
12
11
13
11

3
1
0
7
8
13
12
11

2
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1

2. Class Schedule
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7

5
19
7
2
13
6
2
16

4
5
8
5
3
1
2
5

3
3
7
10
6
7
5
7

2
0
3
8
3
9
10
0

1
1
3
3
3
5
9
0

3. Coverage
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7

5
9
4
5
8
7
6
1

4
7
6
5
5
7
5
13

3
7
8
12
13
11
11
13

2
4
7
4
1
1
4
1

1
1
3
2
1
2
2
0

4. Mentoring
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7

5
9
5
5
5
6
9
8

4
12
11
11
8
9
6
12

3
5
8
7
13
9
11
7

2
2
2
4
2
3
1
1

1
0
2
1
0
1
1
0

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy

5. Reference Materials
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7

5
11
15
13
14
10
12
7

4
11
10
10
8
10
9
11

3
6
3
4
4
4
4
8

2
0
0
1
2
4
3
2

46

1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy

47

FMA
1. Foundation Courses
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7

5
4
4
1
1
0
0
1

4
4
7
5
1
1
5
6

3
3
0
5
9
10
6
4

2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

2. Class Schedule
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7

5
6
1
0
0
2
1
4

4
4
6
3
4
4
1
5

3
0
3
4
3
4
4
2

2
1
0
3
2
1
3
0

1
0
1
1
2
0
2
0

3. Coverage
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7

5
2
0
0
2
0
0
0

4
7
4
4
6
8
6
3

3
2
4
6
3
3
5
7

2
0
3
1
0
0
0
1

1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

4. Mentoring
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7

5
4
2
3
1
1
3
0

4
6
7
4
7
7
7
8

3
1
2
4
3
3
1
3

2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila


College of Business Education
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
5. Reference Materials
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7

5
4
4
4
5
4
4
4

4
5
7
5
5
4
5
6

3
2
0
2
1
3
2
1

2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

48

1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0