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BTECH MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES AND

APPLICATIONS

Level 3 Unit 5

FORCES AS VECTORS
Vectors have a magnitude (amount) and a
direction.

Forces are vectors

FORCES AS VECTORS (2 FORCES)


Forces F1 and F2
are in different
directions They
are NOT in
equilibrium

F1

F2

FORCES AS VECTORS (2 FORCES)


The two forces can be
drawn like this. (In the
correct direction and the
lengths should be drawn to
scale to represent the
magnitude of the forces)

F2

F1

FORCES AS VECTORS (2 FORCES)


If the two
forces do not
meet, the
system is not in
equilibrium

F2

F1

FORCES AS VECTORS (2 FORCES)


If a third force (FE) was added in
the way shown the three would be
in equilibrium (They are all joined
up following each other, The force
system is balanced)

This force is called the


EQUILIBRANT

F2

F1
FE

FORCES AS VECTORS (2 FORCES)


If the line joining the two forces
is in the opposite direction to
the equilibrant it is the
RESULTANT of the two forces
The forces area not in equilibrium and the
resultant shows the direction and
magnitude of the combination of the two
forces

F2

F1

FR

FORCES AS VECTORS (3 FORCES)


F3
F2

F3
FE
F1
F2
F1

FORCES AS VECTORS (3 FORCES)


F3
F2

F3
FR
F1
F2
F1

F2

FORCES AS VECTORS ( 3 FORCES)


ND
2 EXAMPLE

50o

F1
F3

Equilibrant
FE

F1

Resultant

F2
F3

FR

F1

50o

50o

F2
F3

Forces on a
flat
rectangular
plate

FORCES AS VECTORS
Equilibrant

F2 = 4N
40cm
60cm
50o

F3 = 12N

Resultant
FE

FR

F1

10N

50o

50o

4N
12N

F1 = 10N

4N
12N

FINDING FE

IDENTIFY THE DIRECTION AND


MAGNITUDE OF THE FORCES
THEN
CONSTRUCT A VECTOR DIAGRAM

F2 = 4N
60cm

40cm

50o

F3 =12 N

F1 = 10 N

DRAW TO SCALE TO
FIND THE MAGNITUDE
AND DIRECTION OF
FE (EQUILIBRANT)

FE
10N
50o

4N
12N

FE = 22N
(Measured)

DRAW IT IN THE
OPPOSITE DIRECTION
TO FIND THE
MAGNITUDE AND
DIRECTION OF
RESULTANT FORCE

FR
10N
50o

4N
12N

FE = 22N
(Measured)

FINDING THE POSITION OF THE EQUILIBRANT (FE)


4N
60cm

22N

40cm

F1

50o

4N
12N

12N

10N

Put FE where you think it should be to


balance the other forces

Clockwise

22N x X

Anticlockwise
= 4N x 40cm
+ 10N x 0
+ 12N x 0

4N
60cm

10N
40cm

= 160Ncm

X = 160 22 = 7.27 cm

22N

12N

The 10N and the 12N pass


through the pivot A so the
turning moment = 0

50o

B TECH Question example


P1 The diagram shows a uniform rectangular
plate supported in a vertical plane by forces
acting at the three corners of the plate. The
plate is 4m x 3m and has a mass of 200kg
a) Calculate the magnitude and direction of
the resultant force

2.6kN
1.4kN

35o

4m

3m

b) Show the magnitude and direction of the


equilibrant force
c) Calculate the position of the resultant
force with respect to the corner A (ie. Use A
as a pivot)

130o

1.4 kN

Weight of
plate = 200Kg
x 9,81 =
1.96kN
(acting from
the centre of
gravity of the
uniform plate

2.6kN
1.4kN

35o

4m

3m
130o

1.4 kN

1.96 kN

VECTOR DIAGRAM WITH RESULTANT


2.2kN
1.4kN

1.96kN

2.6kN

1.4kN

This shows
a) the magnitude and direction of
the resultant

VECTOR DIAGRAM WITH EQUILIBRANT


2.2kN
1.4kN
1.96kN

2.6kN

1.4kN

This shows
b) the magnitude and direction of the
equilibrant

Resolve the diagonal forces 2.6kN


and 1.4kN into vertical and
horizontal components V1, H1
and V2 (H2 not needed)
2.2kN

For explanation
Click here

2.6kN

1.4kN

V2 = 2.6xsin 35
= 1.49kN
V1 = 1.4xsin40 =
0.90kN
H1 1.4 x cos40 =
1.07kN

V2

35o

H2 not needed , it
passes through A

3m
1.96 kN

H1

40o

4m

1.4 kN

V1

130 - 90

Resolve turning moments

1.49kN
V2

2.2kN

Clockwise

1.96 x 2 +
V1 x 4 +
2.2 x X

= Anticlockwise

V2 x 4 +
H1 x 3

1.4kN

2.6kN

35o

H2 not needed , it
passes through A

3m
1.96 kN

H1

40o

4m

1.4 kN

V1
0.9kN

1.07kN

Resolve turning moments

1.49kN
V2

2.2kN

Clockwise

= Anticlockwise

1.96 x 2 +
1.49 x 4 +
0.9 x 4 +
1.07 x 3
2.2 x X
7.52 + 2.2X =
9.17
2.2X
= 9.17 7.52
2.2X
=
1.65X =
1.65 2.2 = 0.75m

1.4kN

2.6kN

35o

H2 not needed , it
passes through A

1.96 kN

H1

40o

4m

1.4 kN

V1
0.9kN

1.07kN

RESOLVING FORCES

2000 Newtons

Weight suspended by two


ropes

Draw the perpendicular

Identify the angles between the forces A and B and the perpendicular

55o

Draw the triangle using the angles

20o

35o

55o

70o

A
105o

2000 N
B
20o
2000 Newtons

The length of the sides of


the triangle represent the
magnitude of the forces
NOT the length of rope

USING THE SINE RULE (IF YOU KNOW THE


ANGLES)
a/sin A = b/Sin B = c/sin C
angle A = 20o angle B = 55o (opposites to sides a & b)
55o
Angle C = 105o and side c represents 2000N

a
105o

2000 N
(c)
b
20o

USING THE SINE RULE (IF YOU KNOW THE


ANGLES)
a/sin A = c/sin C therefore a/sin 20o =
2000/sin105o
a = 2000 x sin 20o/sin105o

55o

708.17N
b/sin B = c/sin C therefore b/sin 55o =
2000/sin105o

a
105o

2000 N
(c)
b

a = 2000 x sin 55o/sin105o


1696.1N

20o

USING THE COSINE RULE ( IF YOU KNOW ONE


ANGLE AND TWO SIDES)
F2 = 60N
F3

70o
F1 = 30N

USING THE COSINE RULE ( IF YOU KNOW ONE


ANGLE AND TWO SIDES)
A2 = B2 + C2 -2BCcosA
(F3)2 = 302 + 602 2x60x30x cos110o
F2 = 60N (C)
= 75.7N

F3 (A)

A =110o

F1 = 30N (B)

70o

VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL COMPONENTS OF


FORCES
Sketch the diagram

Fv

can be drawn at the other


end of the sketch

Fv

FH

VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL COMPONENTS OF


FORCES
Sketch the diagram

sin = Fv/F

Fv

FH

Fv

F.sin = Fv
cos = FH/F

F.cos = FH
back

RESTORING FORCE OF TWO FORCES


F3 is the restoring force of F1 and F2

F1(55N)
F3

70o

25o

Can be drawn to scale

74.8N

F2 (25N)

25o
70o

RESTORING FORCE OF TWO FORCES


F1(55N)

F3 is the restoring force of F1 and F2


F3

70o
25o

F2 (25N)

Can be solved by resolving


the horizontal and vertical
components of F1 and F2

RESTORING FORCE OF TWO FORCES


F1(55N)
F3

70o
25o

F1v = F1.sin70o
55sin70o
= 51.68N

F2 (25N)

F1h = F1.cos70o
55cos70o
= 18.81N

RESTORING FORCE OF TWO FORCES


F1(55N)
F3

70o
25o

F2v = F2.sin25o
25sin25o
= 10.57N

F2 (25N)

F2h = F2.cos25o
25cos25o
= 22.66N

RESTORING FORCE OF TWO FORCES


F1(55N)
F3

70o
25o

F3v = F1v + F2v


51.68 +10.57
= 62.25N

F2 (25N)

F3h = F1h +F2h


18.81 + 22.66
= 41.47N

RESTORING FORCE OF TWO FORCES


F3

(F3)2 = 62.252 + 41.472


62.25N

(F3)2 = 5594.82
F3 = 74.80N

41.47N

RESULTANT OF TWO FORCES

Tan =
opposite/adjacent
Tan = 62.25/41.47

F3

62.25N

Tan = 1.5
= 56.33o

41.47N
Direction of F3 = 180 + 56.33 = 236.33o

MOMENTS OF FORCE
4m

2N

2m

4N

Total Anticlockwise moments = Total Clockwise moments


8Nm

8Nm

MOMENTS OF FORCE
3m

4m

2m

2N

2N

4N

Total Anticlockwise moments = Total Clockwise moments

8Nm + 4Nm = 12Nm

12 Nm

MOMENTS OF FORCE
3m

4m

2m

2N

2N

4N

Total Anticlockwise moments = Total Clockwise moments


8Nm + 4Nm = 12Nm

12 Nm

MOMENTS OF FORCE
3m

4m

2m

2N

2N

4N

Total Anticlockwise moments = Total Clockwise moments


8Nm + 4Nm = 12Nm

12 Nm

FORCE ON A AND B
10m

1m

3m

4m

2m

2N

2N

Take A as the pivot


Anticlockwise ( B x 10) = (2 x1) + (2 x 5) + (4 x 8) = 44 Nm

Force on B = 44 10 = 4.4N
Total downward force = 8 N Force on A = 3.6 N
Check this out using B as the pivot

4N

FORCE ON A AND B
4 N/m uniformly distributed
load

10m

1m

4m

2N

2.5m

2.5m

2N

20 N (UDL)

Take A as the pivot


Anticlockwise ( B x 10) = clockwise (2 x1) + (2 x 5) + (20 x 7.5) = 162 Nm

Force on B = 162 10 = 16.2 N


Total downward force = 24 N Force on A = 7.8 N
Check this out using B as the pivot

UDL 4N/m x length 5m


acting from centre of
UDL

B TECH Question example

6kN

2m

4kN/m
(uniform
distributed
load)

4kN

3m

5m

P2 Calculate the support reactions A and B for the simply supported beam in
the diagram

B TECH Question example


solution

6kN

2m

4kN/m
(uniform
distributed
load)

4kN

5m

3m

40kN

Uniform load is 4kN/m. total UDL = 4 x 10 = 40kN ( acting from centre of


beam)

B TECH Question example


solution

6kN

2m

Anticlockwise
B x 10 kNm

B = 232 10
23.2kNm

4kN/m
(uniform
distributed
load)

4kN

3m

40kN

5m

Clockwise moments
6 x 2 = 12kNm
4 x 5 = 20 kNm
40 x 5 = 200 kNm
total = 232kNm

B TECH Question example


solution

6kN

2m

Total downward force


6 + 4 + 40 = 50kN

4kN/m
(uniform
distributed
load)

4kN

40kN

5m

Total upward force A + B = 50kN


A + 23.2 = 50kN
A = 50 23.2 = 26.8kN

B TECH Question example


solution

6kN

2m

Check using B as the


pivot

4kN/m
(uniform
distributed
load)

4kN

3m

40kN

5m

CW = A x10
ACW = 4 x 5 = 20kNm
40 x 5 = 200kNm
6 x 8 = 48kNm
= 268kNm
A = 26.8kN

TENSILE STRESS AND STRAIN


Strain hardening

Necking

Stress

Ultimate tensile strength


Fracture

Yield strength
Y

(Stress)

(Strain)

Strain

TENSILE STRESS ()
CROSS SECTIONAL AREA ( r2)

FORCE

FORCE

Stress = Force Cross sectional area

Force direction
is
perpendicular
to cross
sectional area

TENSILE STRAIN
Lo (original length)
Increase in length L

Strain = L Lo

Youngs
Modulus
Stress Strain

SHEAR STRESS ()

Force is parallel to
cross sectional area
of shear

Force

Shear stress = Force


cross sectional area of
shear

SHEAR STRAIN
Force

Shear strain = Change in


length original length
l l

SHEAR STRESS
Force

Shear

Shear Modulus
Stress Strain
shear

20kN

20kN

P3 The diagram shows a shackle joint subjected to a tensile load. The connecting
rods A and B are made from steel and the pin c is made from brass. Youngs
modulus is 210 GPa for steel and 100GPa foe brass. The shear modulus for steel
is 140GPa and the shear modulus for brass is 70GPa. The smallest diameter for
the connecting rods A and B is 20mm and the diameter of the pin C is 15 mm.
a) Calculate the maximum direct stress in the connecting rods
b) Calculate the maximum direct strain in the connecting rods
c) Calculate the change in length of a 500mm length of connecting rod.
d) Calculate the shear stress in the pin
e) Calculate the shear strain in the pin

20kN

20kN

Maximum direct stress is on the smallest connecting rod diameter which is


20mm (.02m), radius is 10mm (.01m). Cross sectional area = r2 = x .012 =
3.14 x 10-4 m2 . Maximum stress = 20x103 3.14 x 10-4 = 6.4 x 107 N/m2 (Pa)
Youngs modulus for steel = stress strain = 210GPa = 2.1 x10 11Pa
strain = stress Youngs modulus
Strain = 6.4 x 107 2.1 x10 11

=3 x 10-4 m/m

20kN

20kN

Maximum direct stress is on the smallest connecting rod diameter which is


20mm (.02m), radius is 10mm (.01m). Cross sectional area = r2 = x .012 =
3.14 x 10-4 m2 .
strain =

elongation original length

elongation =strain x original length


= 3 x 10-4 m/m x 0.5

= 1.5x10-4 m

= 0.15mm

20kN

20kN

Shear stress in pin Force area = 20kN cross sectional area of pin ( x .00752)
= 20x103 1.77 x10 -4m2 = 1.13 x108 Pa

Shear modulus for brass = 7 x 1010 Pa. Strain = stress modulus


strain = 1.13 x 108 7 x 1010 = 0.0016

F = 8kN

F
70o

In the diagram the diameter in the of the bolt shown for the angle is
12mm. It is made from a material with a tensile strength of 500MPa
and a shear strength of 300 MPa
a) Determine the operational factor of safety in tension.
b) Determine the operational factor of safety in shear.

Direct force
F1

F = 8kN

F
70o

Shear force F2
8kN

Sin70o = F1 8kN

70o
F2

F1 = 8kN x Sin70o

F1 = 7.5 kN
F1
Cos70o = F1 8kN
Cos70o

F2 = 8kN x

F2 = 2.7 kN

F = 8kN

F
70o

Operational factor of safety = Tensile strength working


stress
Cross sectional area of the bolt = r2
= x (.006)2 = 1.13 x10-4 m2

F = 8kN

F
70o

Operational factor of safety = Tensile strength working


stress
Tensile stress = F area
7.5 x 103 1.14x 10-4
6.6 x 107 Pa

F = 8kN

F
70o

Operational factor of safety = Tensile strength working


stress
Shear stress = F area
2.7 x 103 1.14x 10-4
2.4 x 107 Pa

F = 8kN

F
70o

Operational factor of safety = Tensile strength working


stress
operational factor of safety in tension.
500 x 106 Pa 6.6 x 107 Pa
= 7.6

F = 8kN

F
70o

Operational factor of safety = Tensile strength working


stress
operational factor of safety in shear.
300 x 106 Pa 2.4 x 107 Pa
= 12.5