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Structural systems / Rannila Structural Decks

5.4.2002

TABLE OF CONTENTS

RANNILA STRUCTURAL DECKS.................................................................. 2

1.1

TOLERANCES............................................................................................................................ 2

1.2

RAW MATERIALS..................................................................................................................... 4

1.3

TYPES.......................................................................................................................................... 5

1.4

QUALITY CONTROL ................................................................................................................ 7

1.5

DESIGNING ................................................................................................................................ 7

1.6
STRUCTURAL DETAILS .......................................................................................................... 7
1.6.1
Insulated roofs ...................................................................................................................... 7
1.6.2
Non-insulated roofs..............................................................................................................11
1.7

FASTENING FREQUENCY IN ACCORDANCE WITH B6 ( Finnish norm ) ........................15

1.8
STRUCTURAL MODELS .........................................................................................................16
1.8.1
Structures with 1, 2 or 3 spans and cantilevers ......................................................................16
1.8.2
Gerber system......................................................................................................................17
1.8.3
Extended end lapping...........................................................................................................18
1.8.4
Rannila-120 pre-curved structural deck ................................................................................18
1.8.5
Curved arch structures .........................................................................................................19
1.8.6
Use of stressed skin..............................................................................................................19
1.8.7
Anti-condensation coating....................................................................................................19
1.9
ACOUSTICS...............................................................................................................................21
1.9.1
Acoustic control in sports halls.............................................................................................21
1.9.2
Rannila structural decks with web perforation ......................................................................22
1.9.3
Example: case study of acoustics, power plants ....................................................................22
1.9.4
Absorption coefficients ........................................................................................................23
1.9.5
Measurement results concerning steel structures ...................................................................25
1.9.6
Economic aspects.................................................................................................................27
1.10
1.10.1
1.10.2
1.10.3
1.10.4
1.10.5
1.10.6

INSTALLATION ...................................................................................................................27
Installation details, insulated roofs........................................................................................27
Installation details, non-insulated roofs.................................................................................31
Fastening frequency in accordance with B6 ( Finnish norm ) ................................................36
Tools ...................................................................................................................................37
Storage ................................................................................................................................37
Notes for installation............................................................................................................37

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RANNILA STRUCTURAL DECKS

In recent years, the drive to develop lighter and more cost effective steel structures has
resulted in the use of cold-formed and thin steel components. There are many advantages to
be gained when structural decks are used:

Wide range of profile options


Long spans without secondary framing, creating remarkable time and cost savings
Good corrosion resistance with zinc and other coatings
High quality, durable surface finish
Simple fastening methods
Perforated profiles provide excellent acoustic properties
Stressed skin effect eliminating wind bracing on the roof to reduce costs further

Rannila Structural Decks are load-bearing sheets specifically designed for roofs. They can
be also used as casting moulds for flooring. Structural decks can be used in both insulated
and non-insulated roofs. The designer selects the appropriate profile, depending on
loadings, aesthetic considerations or the need for stressed skin performance.

Insulated roof:
a) Insulated roofs are typically used in industrial buildings, warehouses, supermarkets etc.
The aim is to achieve spanning between main frames and to carry all related loads. The
roof construction consists of a structural deck, mineral wool thermal insulation and an
external roof sheet or membrane.The wider flange on the upper side of the deck provides
good support for the insulation. Insulation will support the membrane. In twin skin roof
constructions, a spacer purlin will support the upper sheet. The under side of the deck is
coated to provide a finished surface.
b) In non-insulated roofs the structural deck act also as the external weather sheet. The
profile is visible and the coating is factory-applied on the outer surface.This type of roof is
common in shelters or in unheated buildings. An anti-condensation coating is generally
used as condensation protection in cold roof structures.
c) Structural decks can be used also as casting moulds for flooring on request.

1.1

TOLERANCES

The permitted dimensional and shape tolerances of structural decks are based on the
standard SFS-EN508-1. Although steel is a homogenous material, and profile sheets are
roll formed, tolerance ranges for dimensions such as shape, length and curvature are
required in thin steel sheet production. These tolerance ranges are a result of wear and tear
of tools, inaccurate measurement and temperature changes. Quality control measures
during production ensure that products comply with these ranges. Examples of product
tolerances required by the standard. Further tolerances are given in the standard.
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Profile height
Profile height

Tolerance

h = 50mm
1 mm
50 mm < h = 100 1,5 mm
mm
h > 100 mm
2 mm

Sheet flanges
Tolerances of sheet flanges are measured at a minimum distance of 200mm from the
profile ends.
b1
Tolerances of top and base flanges
may be 1 < b1,2 < +2

b2
Effective cover width
The effective cover width is measured at a minimum distance of 200mm from the profile
ends. The effective cover widths of both ends are measured (b1, b2). The average of the
measurements b1+b2/2 is calculated and the result is compared with the effective width of
the centre line of the sheet. The measurement margin may not be greater than the tolerance.

200 mm

Tolerances:
for sheets h = 50 mm 5 mm
for sheets h > 50 mm h/10, max.15mm

Middle
line of
sheet

200 mm

Effective width
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Straightness of the sheet


The straightness of the sheet is checked along a theoretical line. The theoretical line is
drawn along at a 200mm distance from the sheet ends via the edge of the sheets top flange.
The distance of the line on the profiles centre line may not be greater than the tolerance.
The tolerance may be 2.0mm per metre, at a maximum 10mm; e.g., in a 5 m long sheet, the
curvature may be max. 10mm.

Sheet cross-measurement
The sheet crossmeasurement S may be at a
maximum:
S = 0,5 % of b

b
S

Sheet length
The sheet length tolerance measured along the sheet middle line may be at a maximum:

Sheet length
L = 3 000 mm
L > 3 000 mm

Tolerance
-5 = L = -10 mm
-5 = L = +20 mm

Sheet edge undulation


Sheet edge undulation may be D = + 2mm within a maximum of 500mm.

D
1.2

RAW MATERIALS
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Structural decks are manufactured by roll forming from cold rolled, hot-dipped galvanized
steel coil. The material used is mainly of steel quality S350GD+Z manufactured in
accordance with the norm SFS-EN 10147. The material tolerances comply with the norm
SFS-EN 10143. The yield stress ReH of the most common steel material is 350 N/mm2 and
the breaking strain A80 is 16%.

S280GD+Z
S320GD+Z
S350GD+Z
S550GD+Z

Yield
stress
Re
N/mm2

Breaking
stress
Rm
N/mm2

Breaking
strain
A80
%

280
320
350
550

360
390
420
560

18
17
16
-

Structural decks for use on insulated roofs are usually either plain galvanized or polyester
coated. For decks used as external weather sheets, coatings are usually PVDF or PURAL..
The material thickness varies between 0.6mm and 1.5mm. Sheets manufactured from
aluminium and stainless steel are also available to special order

1.3

TYPES

Rannila 45JA / 45JB


For span lengths
Effective width
Total width
Height
Sheet thickness
Max. length
Min. length

up to 3.5m
915 mm
980 mm
44 mm
0.60 1.00 mm
15.0 m
0.40 m

For span length


Effective width
Total width
Height
Sheet thickness
Max. length
Min. length

2.5 to 4.5 m
850 mm
910 mm
70 mm
0.60 1.00 mm
15.0 m
1.0 m

Rannila 70A / 70B

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Rannila 113B

For span lengths


Effective width
Total width
Height
Sheet thickness
Max. length
Min. length

4.0 to 6.0 m
750 mm
782 mm
113 mm
0.60 1.20 mm
20.0 m
1.0 m

Rannila 120A / 120B


For span lengths 5.0 to 6.5 m
Effective width .695mm
Total width about 730mm
Height 117mm
Sheet thickness ..0.6 to 1.2mm
Max. length 25.0m
Min. length ..1.0m

Rannila 153A / 153B


For span lengths over 5.5m
Effective width .560mm
Total width about 600mm
Height 153mm
Sheet thickness ..0.75 to 1.5mm
Max. length 20.0m
Min. length ..1.0m
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1.4

QUALITY CONTROL

Rannila carries out permanent quality control to ensure high product quality. A quality
control agreement has also been signed between Rannila and VTT (The Technical
Research Centre of Finland) concerning all structural decks and the Steelcomp deck sheet
along with other Rannila products. Raw materials and manufactured products are both
included in the quality control agreement.
Certificates of substances with information on tested properties of raw materials and
coatings are available on request for all raw materials used for Rannila structural decks and
Steelcomp deck sheets. The raw materials used can be traced on the basis of the coil
number. Manufactured products are controlled in accordance with special instructions and
procedures required by the quality control agreements to ensure high quality products. The
control documentation is filed in accordance with separate instructions and it is possible to
check data of each manufactured lot, if required. VTT carries out inspections and
measurement checks in accordance with the quality control agreement.

1.5

DESIGNING

When specifying structural decks, the following strength properties and conditions must be
considered:

Bending strength
Single load strength / shear strength
Combined effect of bending and single load / shear force
Deflection

For structures with one span, the deflection is often the critical factor. The dimensioning
factor for a continuous structure is usually the combined effect of the bending moment and
the single load at the support.
Structural decks can also be used in a stressed skin configuration. The conditions to be
examined depend on the norm used and they include:

Buckling of plane field


Moving of top flange on gable support
Buckling of sheet field
Combined effect of bending moment and sheet force (in web and flange)

1.6
1.6.1

STRUCTURAL DETAILS
Insulated roofs

The structural deck is installed with the B side down, i.e., the narrow flange down (picture
1). The edge flange of the sheet then comes down against the support, making installation
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easier (fixing of overlap screws). The wide flange is installed upwards, achieving more
support width for mineral wool insulation. The bearing capacity of the structural deck is
usually greater when installed in the above-mentioned way than when the sheet is
positioned the other way around. If the sheet is coated, the colour is applied to the B side.

Picture 1. Insulated roof structure


Side lapping
Structural decks are sidelapped with each other as shown in picture 2.. Sidelapping
fasteners are usually special screws or rivets. The max distance between fasteners is 500
mm.

Picture 2. Side lap


Additional side lapping
If the normal bearing capacity of the sheet is not sufficient, the capacity can be increased
by overlapping sheets. Snow drift areas can be strengthened by overlapping one or two
sheet pans. In this case there is a double profile in the overlap area (picture 3).

Picture 3. Additional side lapping


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End lapping
In an end lap, sheets must be overlapped by a minimum of 150 mm (picture 4).

Picture 4. End lap

Extended end lap


In an extended end lap, sheets are placed one over the other at the support (see picture 5). If
the structure is designed to be continuous over the support, profiles must be fixed together
from webs. The cantilevered part of the upper sheet must be fixed with screws to the lower
sheet, as shown in picture 5. Screws are positioned in the upper part of the web following
B6 ( Finnish norms) edge and centre distances, see point 14.8. Numbers of required screws
are provided by the designer.

Picture 5. Extended end lap

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Gable
In the gable bay, the sheet extends to the edge of the the support (picture 6).
The location of the fastening screw is shown in the picture no 7.

Picture 6. Gable

Picture 7. Screw positions


B= width of non-stiffened flat section

Support piece
An additional support piece increases the capacity of the structural deck by improving the
capacity against the combination of support reaction and support moment. The support
piece 320 mm long, manufactured from the same profile and installed under the structural
deck at the support, see picture 8. The support piece is typically used in the middle support
of a 2-span structure i.e. when the support reaction with the support moment is the critical
design issue.

Picture 8. Support piece

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Gerber joint
In the Gerber joint, fasteners are positioned in the web of the structural sheet (see picture
2.8). Screws must be positioned in the upper part of the web following the B6 edge and
centre dimensions, see point 14.6. Numbers of screws are determined by the designer.
Sheets are overlapped by a minimum of 150 mm.

Picture 9. Gerber joint

1.6.2

Non-insulated roofs

Structural deck are designed so that temperature changes will not cause harmful stresses
and deformations. Thermal movements across the sheet rarely cause any problems, because
thermal expansion by temperature changes causes only minor deformations to the
corrugation shape. Instead, constraint actions parallel to the corrugation may be, if
deformations in the sheet length are not allowed to freely occur. The designer must take
care to ensure that there are expansion joints wide enough at the structural deck ends,
fasteners are adequate and that structures joining with profile sheets are flexible enough so
that any harmful constraint actions cannot be generated.
Special attention should be paid to the sealing of the intersection of edge and extension
overlap joints. It is not possible to quote a definitive number of screws for structural decks,
because the precise figure depends on loads, support distances and whether or not stressed
skin properties are utilised.

Extended end lapping


The extension overlap point is positioned so that the base structure will support it
sufficiently. Sheets are overlapped by 200 mm at a minimum (pictures 10 and 11). The
distance of the fastener row should be 50 mm from the lower end of the sheet. When using
screws, sheets are fastened in each trough. In extended end laps, a sealant strip of 3x10 mm
must always be used.

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Picture 10. Extended end lapping of corrugated sheet

Sealant strip
(next to
fastening)

Picture 11. Extended end lapping of corrugated sheet

Picture 12. Extended end lapping with expansion allowance

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Fastening near a support
For fixing structural decks to the purlin, it is recommended to use double the number of
fasteners in profile troughs nearest to the support, see picture 13.

Picture 13. Fastener near a support

Roof pitch
Side laps of structural decks are shown in table 2. The type of overlap depends on the roof
pitch and the profile height. In long, gently sloping elevations, the water level can rise
considerably during heavy rain. If the level rises over the profile of the sheet, it generates
water pressure with the potential for leaks to occure. For this reason it is recommended to
use either deep profiles or when shallow profiles are used, additional overlapping or sealing
in long elevations.
Table 2. Overlaps of structural decks for different roof pitches
Structural deck (height 30 < h < 50mm)
Sheets with capillary groove, like Rannila 45R
>> 0.5 profile overlap and seal
Roof pitch steeper than 1:10.

Structural deck (height 30 < h < 50mm)


Sheets without capillary groove, like Rannila 45
>> 1.5 profile overlap and seal.
Roof pitch steeper than 1:10

Structural deck (height 45 < h < 153mm


Load-bearing profiles, as Rannila 70, 113,
120, 153.
>> 0.5 profile overlap and seal.
Roof pitch steeper than 1:10.
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Side lapping
In gentle sloping roofs, the watertightness of joints can be improved by using overlaps
larger than recommended. Roofing sheets must be fastened to each batten at the side lap
joints. Screws with EPDM seals, sealant strip or bulb-tight concealed rivets are used for
areas between battens. The distance between fastening points should not be more than
500mm (See picture 15). For roofs where the stressed skin effect of the structural deck is
utilised, the number of fasteners must be checked separately by designer.

Picture 14. Sealing and fixing of side lap of the structural deck.

Picture 15. Side lap fixing location

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FASTENING FREQUENCY IN ACCORDANCE WITH B6 ( Finnish norm )

The minimum values given in pictures 16 and 17 are followed when positioning the
fasteners. The fastening frequency can be less than that given in picture 16. In that case, the
rate of inlet and perforation strength is reduced with the ratio of edge distances so that the
fastening frequency given in picture 16 corresponds to the total rate. In any case, the
frequency must not be less than 25 mm.
The largest distance between fasteners is chosen so that sheets join together tight enough to
prevent water entering the joint. The largest centre distance permissible for self-tapping and
self-drilling screws is the rate 10d and for rivets 20d.

Picture 16. The smallest edge and centre distances for fasteners, when a tensile force, or
simultaneously shear and tensile forces are directed to the joint.

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- self-tapping or self-drilling
screw, rivet or nut screw
e1,e3, and e4 >=3d
e2 >=1.5d
- nail e1, e2, e3 and e4 >=4.5d

Picture 17. The smallest edge and centre distances for fasteners, when a shear force is
directed to the joint

1.8
1.8.1

STRUCTURAL MODELS
Structures with 1, 2 or 3 spans and cantilevers

The maximum span length permitted in a single-span structure equates to the free space
between the supports and, in structures with two or more openings, the measurement
between the supports from centre to centre. The width of the support affects the maximum
span length permitted mostly when the dimensioning factor is the combined effect of the
support moment and the reaction of support. In projects where there are two or three spans,
the combined effect condition is generally the critical design factor. If a Z or C profile is
supporting the structural deck, the support width must be 2/3 of the width of the support
flange for structural models, see picture 18.

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Picture 18. Structures with 1, 2 or 3 spans and cantilevers.

1.8.2

Gerber system

In the Gerber joint (picture 19), the junction of the profile is positioned at the zero point of
the moment. Advantages are gained by using thinner material thicknesses and shorter sheet
lengths (logistical advance). See picture 9.

Picture 19. Gerber system

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1.8.3

Extended end lapping

An extended end lap is often practical, when the field number is uneven. In this case, a onesided end lap is made in the last gable field. End lapping can also be used in centre areas,
achieving thinner sheet material thickness. Testing has shown that the optimum overlap
length is 10 percent of the length of the overlapped spans. A lengthwise overlapped
structure made in accordance with this principle can be dimensioned continuously. The
strength of fasteners in the end-to-end overlapping should be checked in the webs
(fastening the sheets to each other); the max. amount is 4 pieces/pan, i.e., the number of
fasteners increases. A high snow load (snow drift) in the gable field wont create problems.
In extended end laps, sheets are placed one on the other at the support, (see picture 5). If
the structure is dimensioned continuously, it must be ensured that profiles are fastened
from the web to each other. The cantilevered part of the upper sheet must be fixed with
screws to the sheet underneath as shown in picture 5. Screws must be positioned in the
upper part of the web following the B6 edge and centre distances, (see point 14.8). Screw
numbers are provided by the designer. Structural model examples can be seen in picture 20.

Picture 20. Structural model examples, overlapped systems.

1.8.4

Rannila-120 pre-curved structural deck

The Rannila 120 pre-curved structural deck is primarily designed for insulated roofs, but
possesses several advantages that make it suitable for non-insulated roof structures. The
pre-curving helps to make span lengths longer. The pre-stressed Rannila 120 profile is used
only as a single-span structure. With normal frame sizes, thinner material than is used in
traditional structure solutions can often be employed. The single span structure also allows
narrower support widths, and so it is possible to design a lighter steel structure.
Transporting shorter sheets is less expensive than longer ones and they are light to handle.
Installation is considerably easier. For pre-curved roofing structures, only flexible
membrane is suitable. It is recommended that the lower membrane is initially fastened in
the joints; the upper membrane is then thoroughly welded to the lower one. Because of the
potential movements, special attention should be paid to eaves details, mitres and extension
of roofing material up the walls.
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Picture 21. Rannila-120 pre-curved structural deck.

1.8.5

Curved arch structures

Rannila-120 or -45J profiles can also be used for manufacturing single and double arch
twin-skin structures where end supports are bound together with tension bars. In a twinskin construction, profiles are bound together with top hat profiles. Separate instructions
and a computer programme are available for design calculations.

1.8.6

Use of stressed skin

Stressed skin means the stiffness of the profile sheet field in the sheet plane. When
structural decks are fixed tightly enough to each other and to the framework, the sheet
plane can transfer forces along its own plane. When the stressed skin effect of the profile
sheets is utilised for stiffening the building, wind braces or trusses can be either wholly or
partly replaced. The Poimu software programme can also be used to calculate the stressed
skin capacity of profiled sheets.

1.8.7

Anti-condensation coating

Anti-condensation coating is an effective solution for condensation in facilities such as uninsulated halls and open shelters. The coating is compound sprayed onto the profiled sheet
surface. It collects water vapour and prevents it from dripping. Condensation absorbed in
the coating evaporates very quickly. (Adequate ventilation is required to facilitate
evaporation).
The anti-condensation coating is a highly absorbent volcanic mineral called perlite. Thanks
to their porous structure, small perlite grains can absorb as much as 1.5 litres of water per
square metre (1.000g coating). Due to the structure of perlite, water doesnt build up as
droplets in the coating, but is absorbed through capillary action over a wide area. To test
the absorbing capacity of the coating, a British method is used where a copper funnel is
coated with anti-condensation compound and filled with ice water. Condensed water is
measured with a graduated glass.

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Non-coated

Anti-condensation
coated

Picture 22. Test method demonstrating absorption capacity of the anti-condensation


coating.

The findings from this six-hour long experiment show that, in the funnel coated with
Rannila Anti-Condensation Compound, there is no condensation at all. In the non-coated
funnel, the first water droplets appeared after 35 minutes. In six hours, the amount of
condensed water was 33 ml.
The coating is non-combustible and doesnt emit any toxic gases. The compound is waterbased and doesnt include any substances hazardous to health. It can also be safely used in
food hygiene facilities. The coating has a fire classification in Sweden BR4, class 1.
The anti-condensation coating also gives corrosion protection to the structure. Water
droplets cant reach surfaces or structures exposed to corrosion, because the water is
absorbed over a wide area. After condensation has ended, water evaporates very quickly
from the coating.
The anti-condensation coating also has sound-insulation properties. It effectively dampens
sounds caused by rain and wind.
The standard colour for the anti-condensation coating is light grey. The grainy surface
gives a pleasant appearance.

Picture 23. Enlarged picture showing surface structure of anti-condensation coating.


Table 3.Technical properties of the coatings
Coating thickness
1,5 mm (1 000 g/m2)
Water absorption capacity about 1-1.5 l / effective (1000 g/m2 coating)
Coating amounts
600 or 1000 g/m2
Density
app. 1 kg/l
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Coating method
Colour
Diluent
Coating components

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spraying
light grey
water
perlite grains, cellulose fibres, water, binding
agents

Ordering
The order must include the following information: coating amount g/m2, sheet side to be
coated and overlaps needed. Coating is not used in end or side laps. In side laps, the normal
overlap (usually wave) remains non-coated. In end laps, the non-coated area is generally
200 mm.

1.9

ACOUSTICS

1.9.1

Acoustic control in sports halls

In sports halls, acoustic control is required to reduce the general noise level, to decrease
reverberation and to ensure the function of the sound system. A short reverberation time is
necessary to achieve understandable speech. To ensure the correct function of sound
systems, the aim is to achieve a reverberation time of 2.0 seconds in small halls; in large
sports halls, the rate should be under 3.0 seconds, preferably about 2.5 seconds.
Hall 1.
If dimensions of a hall are about 36m * 54m, with the average height about 10m, and
bottom parts of walls consist of tiles (h=2400), other wall parts are made from steel sheets,
the floor from hard material and the ceiling from non-perforated corrugated sheet, the
reverberation time in the space is over 8 seconds in the medium frequency band. If the
ceiling of the hall is made from perforated steel sheets with mineral wool insulation
underneath (see the picture below), the reverberation time becomes remarkably shorter.
With a perforated ceiling achieving an absorption coefficient of about 0.4 with 125 Hz, 0.6
with 250 Hz, 0.8 with 500 Hz, 0.6 with 1 kHz, 0.5 with 2 kHz, and 0.4 with 4 kHz, the
reverberation time is between 2 to 3 seconds depending on the frequency band.
Hall 2.
If the dimensions of a hall are about 18m * 36m, and the average height is about 8m, with
walls made from gypsum boards or thin steel sheet profiles, the floor made from hard
material and the ceiling from perforated corrugated sheets, the reverberation time in the
space is over 5 seconds in the medium frequency band. If the ceiling is perforated as
described above, the reverberation time decreases to about 2 seconds.

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Picture 33. Model of structure

1.9.2

Rannila structural decks with web perforation

Various alternatives for structures


For sound absorbing ceilings, Rannila structural decks can be manufactured and delivered
with a web perforation. A standard web perforation is designed for each sheet type. The
hole size used is 3mm. The area of holes represents 15% of the perforated area. The
effect of the perforation on the sheet load-bearing capacity is minor. It only decreases the
moment capacity by 4 %. The support reaction capacity is decreased by about 10%.

1.9.3

Example: case study of acoustics, power plants

General
Calculations relate to the projects in question; results may not be generalised. Calculations
show that the size of facilities has no profound effect on existing sound levels, when the
amount of sound increases by the same proportion.
Sound absorbent cladding materials are needed to reduce the reverberation and the noise
level. The simplest and usually adequate solution is to use ceiling sheets with web
perforation, and then a mineral wool layer between the sheet and the vapour barrier. If a
part of the ceiling should remain solid, a part of the perforated cladding can be placed in
the walls.
Additional perforation on the walls improves the situation, but if effective absorption is
already taking place in the ceiling, there is little to be gained by additional absorption in the
walls.

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1.9.4

Absorption coefficients

ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS
100
90
80
70
60
% 50
40
30
20
10
0

Curve 3
Curve 2
Curve 1

63

125

250

500

1000

2000

4000

Hz

Picture 34. Absorption coefficients.


Curve 1
Curve 2
Curve 3

Corrugated sheet without perforation


Corrugated sheet, web perforation 3mm perforation 15%,
behind vapour barrier before mineral wool insulation
Corrugated sheet, web perforation 3mm perforation 15%,
behind 20mm mineral wool before vapour barrier and
thermal insulation materials.

Examples of sound absorption

Picture 35.
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Picture 36.

Picture 37a.

Picture 37b.

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1.9.5
Measurement results concerning steel structures
(Turku District Occupational Health Institute)
The curves below show the picture of the steel structure measured and the result of the
absorption measurement. The corrugated sheet used is Rannila 113 with web perforation O
3mm 15%. Mineral wool used was AKU acoustic sheet (sound absorbing sheet).

Picture 38. Rannila 113 sheet with web perforation, without mineral wool, and
absorption coefficient of solid surfaced module.

Picture 39. Rannila 113 sheet with web perforation + 30mm mineral wool
(AKU acoustic sheet).
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Structural systems / Rannila Structural Decks


5.4.2002

Picture 40. Rannila 113 sheet with web perforation + 15mm mineral wool
(AKU acoustic sheet).

Picture 41. Rannila 113 sheet with web perforation + 3mm mineral wool (AKU acoustic
sheet).

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Structural systems / Rannila Structural Decks


5.4.2002

1.9.6

Economic aspects

To manage economic aspects of the building project, acoustic requirements should be


defined first: airborne sound and impact sound insulation index, reverberation times and
sound levels inside and outside in the surrounding areas. Because acoustic measurements
are standardised and explicit, their compliance with the requirements should be generally
accepted. In various countries, building approval currently also includes sound insulation
properties of structures and buildings. When approval inspections are carried out, sound
specialists are used to state the fixed sound requirements by measurements. It is extremely
expensive, and often impossible, to repair deficiencies afterwards. Unscientific sound
solutions can become very expensive and end in total failure.
Nowadays there are useful calculating programmes available for estimating technical sound
properties of structures and buildings. Sound properties of products are needed for the
calculation. These properties are defined with laboratory measurements, and changes in
properties are revealed by calculation.
The size and geometry of the space are essential information, when complying with
requirements for reverberation time. The required quantities and positions of sound
absorbing materials can be established using calculation models. Absorption coefficients of
sound absorbing products are necessary for a correct end result. The effect of sound
absorbing material on reducing noise levels can also be calculated.
The calculation of a structures airborne and impact sound insulation index requires
information about various structural components concerning the laboratory tested sound
insulation properties. This helps to establish how sound conditions required in various
facilities inside the building comply with the requirements. In order to manage the sound
level spread to surrounding areas, sound insulation properties of exterior walls must be
known. Finally, sound output levels of all equipment, ventilation devices etc., must be
readily available when making specification decisions.
In addition to decibels, other disturbing factors concerning sounds should also be known.
One of these is a narrow-band blasting noise that may disturb neighbouring inhabitants,
even though the so-called official standard has been complied with.

1.10 INSTALLATION
1.10.1

Installation details, insulated roofs

The load-bearing sheet is installed B side down, i.e. the narrow flange down (picture 44).
The edge flange of the sheet is then placed down against the support and installation
becomes easier (fixing of the overlap screw). The wide flange is installed face up, and so
there is more support width for mineral wool insulation. The loading capacity of the
structural deck is also greater, than when the profile is installed upside down. If the deck is
coated , the colour is applied to the B side.
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