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Tense: aorist

1) Translate Rom. 1:13. Explain how this is a consummative aorist.

Rom 1:13 , ,
But I do not want you to be ignorant, brothers, that many times I determined to come to you
and I was hindered until the present time, in order that I might have some fruit also among
you even as among the rest of the Gentiles.
This is a consummative aorist because the action has ceased. It was already in progress, and
the use of the aorist has the effect of bringing it to a conclusion.
2) Translate this verse. Explain how in this verse is proleptic.
Rom 8:30 , ,
, .
And those whom he predestined, these also he called, and whom he called, these he also
justified, and those whom he justified, these also he glorified.
This is a proleptic aorist because it describes an event which has not yet past as though it
already has been completed. Therefore, it stresses the certainty of the event.

3) Translate this verse making explicit the fact that this verb is ingressive.
Matt 9:18
While he [was] saying these things to them, behold, a ruler coming to him and he was
bowing before him, saying, My daughter just now became dead, but come, lay your hand on
her and she will live.

4) Wallace says there is an ingressive aorist in Matt. 9:18. Which is it? It is .

5) Which of the two options in GGBB p. 558 paragraph II, B apply to this particular verb?

is a stative verb, and the rulers daughter entered into that state. This is what is
stressed here.

6) Translate Luke 15:32 and Rom. 14:9 making explicit the ingressive nature of the aorist verb.
Luke 15:32 , ,

But it was necessary to be glad and to rejoice, because your brotherhe was dead, and became alive, and
having been lost, also he was found.

Romans 14:9 ,
For this purpose Christ died and became alive, that also he might be lord over the dead and the living.

7) What does Wallace mean by "terminal" action? (556) Give an English example.
A terminal action is one, that once it occurs (at the outset of occuring), it is also completed.
Wallace suggests find, die, and give birth to. I might add lose, awake, and

8) What is Wallace's point with the Horatio story (GGBB p. 555)? What error do many make when
explaining the aorist tense? (cf. footnote 8; 557)
The story illustrates the limitations of the aorist. It essentially tells you no more about the action
than that it occurred. It does not indicate how long the action occurred, or if it occurred at
intervals, or even just for a split secondit just happened. Nor should it be interpreted to mean
that the action occurred once-for-all, which is the error that many make when explaining the
aorist tense.