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Materials System Specification

32-SAMSS-007

1 December 2013

Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers


Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards


Table of Contents
1

Scope............................................................. 2

Normative References.................................... 3

Terms and Definitions.................................... 6

General........................................................... 7

Proposals....................................................... 8

Drawings and Other Required Data.............. 9

Design........................................................... 9

Materials....................................................... 22

Fabrication.................................................... 30

10

Inspection and Testing................................. 36

11

Preparation for Shipment............................. 44

12

Supplemental Requirements........................ 47

Table 1 - Nondestructive Examination


Requirements...................................... 48

Previous Issue: 19 February 2013


Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018
Revised paragraphs are indicated in the right margin
Primary contact: Al-Mansour, Khalid Mohammad on +966-13-8809575
CopyrightSaudi Aramco 2013. All rights reserved.

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Draft Date: 1 December 2013
Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

The following paragraph numbers refer to API STD 660, Eighth Edition, August 2007,
which is part of this specification. The text in each paragraph below is an addition,
exception, modification, or deletion to API STD 660 as noted. Paragraph numbers not
appearing in API STD 660 are new paragraphs to be inserted in numerical order.
1

Scope
1.1

This specification covers the minimum mandatory requirements for the


manufacture of shell and tube heat exchangers and new components
(hereinafter referred to as exchangers). It does not cover exchangers that
undergo repairs or alterations.

1.2

This specification does not cover the design of non-TEMA exchangers.


Commentary Note:
such as sometimes used for lube and seal oil cooling duties for
packaged equipment like compressors, pumps and turbines.

1.3

Sulfur Recovery Unit (SRU) waste heat boilers, steam drums and
condensers shall be designed and fabricated in accordance with the
design rules of ASME Section VIII Division 1 in addition to the
requirements specified in this specification.

1.4

The design and fabrication of high pressure heat exchangers shall be


done by licensed manufacturers. The details of licensing agreement shall
be reviewed by Saudi Aramco engineer.

1.5

Conflicting Requirements

1.5.1

Any conflicts between this specification and other Saudi Aramco


Materials System Specifications (SAMSSs), Industry codes and
standards, and Forms shall be resolved in writing by the Company or
Buyer Representative through the Standards Committee Chairman,
Consulting Services Department of Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.

1.5.2

Direct all requests to deviate from this specification in writing to the


Company or Buyer Representative, who shall follow internal company
procedure SAEP-302 and forward such requests to the Manager,
Consulting Services Department of Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.

1.6

Low alloy steels for vessels intended for services within the scope of API
RP 934-A, API RP 934-C or API RP 934-E, shall meet all requirements
of the respective document of the aforementioned documents and this
specification.

Page 2 of 49

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32-SAMSS-007
Draft Date: 1 December 2013
Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Normative References
Materials or equipment supplied to this specification shall comply with the latest edition
of the references listed below, unless otherwise noted.
2.1

Saudi Aramco References


Saudi Aramco Engineering Procedure
SAEP-302

Instructions for Obtaining a Waiver of a Mandatory


Saudi Aramco Engineering Requirement

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards


SAES-A-007

Hydrostatic Testing Fluids

SAES-A-206

Positive Materials Identification

SAES-A-112

Meteorological and Seismic Design Data

SAES-H-001
SAES-N-001
SAES-P-111

Coating Selection and Application Requirements for


Industrial Plants and Equipment
Basic Criteria, Industrial Insulation
Grounding

SAES-W-010

Welding Requirements for Pressure Vessels

SAES-W-014

Weld Overlays and Welding of Clad Materials

Saudi Aramco Materials System Specifications


01-SAMSS-016

Qualification of Pipeline and Pressure Vessel Steels


for Resistance to Hydrogen-Induced Cracking

02-SAMSS-011

Forged Steel and Alloy Flanges

32-SAMSS-031

Manufacture of Clad Vessels and Heat Exchangers

Saudi Aramco Standard Drawings


AA-036322

Anchor Bolt Details Inch and Metric Sizes

AE-036250

Ferrules for Inch Tubes (Sheets 1 & 2)

Saudi Aramco Inspection Requirements


Form 175-323100

Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Form 175-323500

Floating Heads or Tube Bundles

Page 3 of 49

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Draft Date: 1 December 2013
Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Saudi Aramco Forms and Data Sheets


Form 2714-ENG

Shell and Tube Exchanger Data Sheet (herein


referred to as data sheet)

Form NMR-7922-1

Non-material Requirements for Shell and Tube and


Double-Pipe Heat Exchangers

Industry Codes and Standards


American Concrete Institute
ACI 318

Building Code Requirements for Structural


Concrete

American Petroleum Institute


API STD 660

Shell-and-tube Heat Exchangers for General


Refinery Services

API RP 934

Materials and Fabrication Requirements for 2Cr1 Mo & 3Mo Steel Heavy Wall Pressure Vessels
for High Temperature, High Pressure Hydrogen
Service

API PUBL 941

Steels for Hydrogen Service at Elevated


Temperatures and Pressures in Petroleum and
Petrochemical Plants

API RP 945

Avoiding Environmental Cracking in Amine Units

American Society of Civil Engineers


ASCE 7

Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other


Structures

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes)


ASME SA-20

Specification for General Requirements for Steel


Plates for Pressure Vessels

ASME SA-388

Ultrasonic Examination of Heavy Steel Forgings

ASME SA-435

Straight Beam Ultrasonic Examination of Steel


Plates

ASME SA-450

Specification for General Requirements for Carbon,


Ferritic Alloy, and Austenitic Alloy Steel Tubes

ASME SA-688

Specification for Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel


Feedwater Heater Tubes

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ASME SEC IIC

Specifications for Welding Rods, Electrodes, and


Filler Metals

ASME SEC V

Nondestructive Examination

ASME SEC VIII D1

Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels

ASME SEC VIII D2

Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels,


Alternative Rules

ASME B2.1

National Pipe Threads

ASME B16.5

Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings

ASME B16.11

Forged Fittings, Socket-Welding and Threaded

ASME B16.20

Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges - Ring-Joint,


Spiral-Wound, and Jacketed

ASME B16.21

Non-Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges

ASME B16.25

Buttwelding Ends

ASME B16.47

Large Diameter Steel Flanges NPS 26 through NPS


60

American Society for Nondestructive Testing


ASNT CP-189

Standard for Qualification and Certification of


Nondestructive Testing Personnel

National Association of Corrosion Engineers


NACE RP0472

Methods and Control to Prevent In-Service


Environmental Cracking of Carbon Steel
Weldments in Corrosive Petroleum Refining
Environments

NACE MR0175/ISO 15156 Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries-Materials


for use in H2S-Containing Environments in Oil
and Gas Production
Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA)
Process Industry Practices
PIP VEFV1100

Vessel/S&T Heat Exchanger Standard Details

Welding Research Council


WRC 107

Welding Research Council Bulletin

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Terms and Definitions


3.8

(Exception) Hydrogen Service: Process streams containing relatively


pure hydrogen and process streams containing hydrogen as a component
with an absolute partial pressure of 350 kPa (50 psi) and higher.

3.11

Pressure Design Code: ASME SEC VIII.

3.14

AARH: Average arithmetic roughness height, which is a measure of


surface texture.

3.15

Cyclic Services: Services that require fatigue analysis according to


screening criteria per 5.5.2 of ASME SEC VIII D2. This applies to
Division 1 and Division 2 of ASME SEC VIII.

3.16

Design Engineer: The Engineering Company responsible for specifying


on the data sheet the hydraulic, thermal and mechanical design
requirements for exchangers.

3.17

Exchanger Manufacturer: The Company responsible for the


manufacture of exchangers.

3.18

High - Alloy Steels: Steels with a total alloying content more than 5%.

3.19

Hot Forming: Forming operations carried out at an elevated


temperature such that re-crystallization occurs simultaneously with
deformation.

3.20

Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) Environment: Process streams


that introduce HIC according to SAES-L-133.

3.21

Lethal Services: Process streams containing a concentration of


hydrogen sulfide in excess of 20% volume per total volume of exchanger
shall be considered as lethal service. Other services as determined by the
project design may also be designated as lethal services.

3.22

Low-Alloy Steels: Steels with a total alloying content of less than 5%


but more than specified for carbon steels.

3.23

Minimum Thickness: Thickness required for withstanding all primary


loads, excluding allowance for corrosion.

3.24

MDMT: Minimum Design Metal Temperature determined by the


Design Engineer and specified in the data sheet.

Page 6 of 49

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3.25

Nominal Thickness: Thickness selected as commercially available, and


supplied to the Manufacturer. For plate material, the nominal thickness is
the measured thickness of the plate at the joint or location under
consideration after forming.

3.26

Saudi Aramco Buyer: The person or company authorized by Saudi


Aramco to procure heat exchnager to the requirements of this
specification.

3.27

Saudi Aramco Engineer: The chairman of the Heat Transfer


Equipment Standards Committee.

3.28

Saudi Aramco Inspector: The person or company authorized by the


Saudi Aramco Inspection Department to inspect exchangers to the
requirements of this specification.

3.29

Sulfide Stress Cracking (SSC) Environment: Process streams that


introduce SSC according to SAES-L-133.

3.30

Thick Wall Exchanger: An exchanger or portion of it with nominal


thickness greater than 50-mm.

3.31

Utility Services: Water, air, and nitrogen services.

General
4.1

All exchangers shall be designed in accordance with the rules of the


Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes, ASME SEC VIII D1 or ASME SEC
VIII D2 (hereinafter referred to as the Codes), and the requirements of
this specification.

4.3

(Exception) The Exchanger Manufacturer shall advise the Saudi Aramco


Engineer.

4.8

Stress analyses according to the Code rules shall be executed by the


manufacturer. A third party under full control and responsibility of the
manufacturer may execute only finite element analysis.

4.9

No proof testing shall be permitted unless specifically approved by the


Saudi Aramco Engineer.

4.10

No credit shall be given to thickness of integrally-bonded or weld metal


overlay cladding in calculating material thickness, required to sustain all
primary loads.

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4.11

Application of ASME Code Cases to the manufacturing of exchangers


requires approval of the Saudi Aramco Engineer.

4.13

1 Cr- Mo and 1 Cr- Mo steels used for vessels that are not in
hydrogen service with design temperature below 440C, shall meet all
requirements of API RP 934-C and this specification.

4.14

The Exchanger Manufacturer is responsible for the thermal/hydraulic


design (rating) and verification of the Design Engineer's
thermal/hydraulic design, if applicable.

4.15

The Exchanger Manufacturer is responsible for the manufacture of


exchanger, which includes complete mechanical design, Code and
structural calculations, flow induced vibration, supply of all materials,
fabrication, nondestructive examination, inspection, testing, surface
preparation, and preparation for shipment, in accordance with the
completed data sheet and the requirements of this specification.

4.16

The edition of the Code to be used for the manufacture of exchangers


shall be per the referenced code edition in effect at time of purchase.

4.17

Where a requirement of a licensors or a relevant industry


standard/specification is more stringent than that of this specification, the
most stringent requirement will govern.

Proposals
5.5

The proposal shall include a detailed description of any exception to the


requirements of this specification.

5.9

The Exchanger Manufacturer may offer an alternative design, but must


quote on the base inquiry documents.

5.10

Performance Guarantees
The following shall be guaranteed for the length of the warranty period
specified in the purchase order or contract documents:
1)

Exchangers shall meet thermal/hydraulic performance requirements


under continuous operation at design conditions specified on the
data sheets. Thermal/hydraulic guarantee shall be in accordance
with TEMA paragraph G-5.

2)

Exchangers shall be free from damaging flow induced tube


vibration and acoustic vibration.

Page 8 of 49

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Draft Date: 1 December 2013
Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Drawings and Other Required Data


6.1

Outline Drawings and Other Supporting Data

6.1.1

(Exception) The Exchanger Manufacturer shall prepare drawings,


calculations and data in accordance with NMR-7922-1, Nonmaterial
Requirements

6.1.2

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall submit flow-induced vibration


analysis.

6.1.3

Drawings and calculations that are approved by the Design Engineer


shall not relieve the Exchanger Manufacturer from the responsibility to
comply with the Codes and this specification.

6.1.4

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall prepare drawings, which indicate the


ultrasonic readings thickness of the exchanger shell, heads and nozzles.
An adequate number of readings shall be taken to represent the actual
thickness of the components.

6.1.5

All approved data sheets, drawings and forms are to be submitted to


EK&RD/Drawing Management Unit (DMU) for inclusion into
Corporate Drawings Management System.

6.2

Information Required After Outline Drawings are Reviewed

6.2.4

(Addition)
(e) Flow induced and acoustic vibration analysis.

6.3

Reports and Records


The Exchanger Manufacturer shall furnish reports and records in
accordance with NMR-7922-1, Nonmaterial Requirements.

Design
7.1

Design Temperature

7.1.4

The value(s) of design temperature(s) shall be as specified on the data


sheet.

7.1.5

The value of the minimum design metal temperature (MDMT) shall be


as specified on the data sheet.

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Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

7.1.6

The MDMT shall be used to determine the requirements for impact


testing in accordance with the Code and this specification.

7.2

Cladding for Corrosion Allowance


Exchangers having partial or complete cladding shall conform to 32SAMSS-031 in addition to the requirements of this specification.

7.3

Shell Supports

7.3.2

(Addition)
(f) The exchanger shall be fixed at one saddle support and free to slide
at the other saddle.

7.3.6

The shell shall be analyzed in accordance with the L. P. Zick method.


Saddle supports and the exchanger shell shall be analyzed for operating
and hydrotest loads including any piping, wind or other external loads.

7.3.7

The allowable concrete bearing stress to be used for the design of


baseplates shall be 10340 kPa (1400 psi).

7.3.8

The outline drawing for horizontal exchangers shall specify locations of


the fixed and sliding saddles and dimension from exchanger centerline to
underside of saddle baseplate.

7.3.9

Anchor Bolts

7.3.9.1

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall determine the size and number of


anchor bolts required.

7.3.9.2

Anchor bolts shall be in compliance with Standard Drawing AA-036322


Sht. 001 (Rev. 07 or later).

7.3.9.3

Anchor bolts shall not be less than 19 mm minimum nominal diameter.

7.3.9.4

The design of anchor bolts shall be in accordance with the requirements


of Appendix D of ACI 318.

7.3.9.5

Anchor bolts that are exposed to the weather in coastal areas, subjected
to frequent wash downs, or subjected to firewater deluge testing shall
have their diameters increased by 3 mm as a corrosion allowance.

7.3.9.6

Exchangers supported on saddles shall be provided with an even number


of anchor bolts with a minimum of two anchor bolts per saddle.

7.5

Floating Head
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7.5.6

Floating head covers shall be attached to the backing device or to the


floating tubesheet with through bolting.

7.6

Tube Bundle

7.6.1

Tubes

7.6.1.4

Wall thickness of integral low-fin tubes, if used, shall be measured from


the inside diameter of the tube to the root of the fins. The specified wall
thickness shall be nominal, except that the actual wall thickness shall not
be less than 90% of that specified.

7.6.1.5

For expanded joints, the tubes shall extend 3 mm beyond the face of
tubesheets, except tubes shall be flush on the upper tubesheet of vertical
exchangers.

7.6.1.6

For exchangers with tube-side design pressures 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) and
above, all tubes shall be hydrostatically tested at the mill at the tube-side
design pressure and the variation from the tube outside diameter shall not
exceed the values specified in Table 5 of ASME SA-450.

7.6.1.7

For steam condensing services, when steam is in the 'U' tubes and the
process is controlled by flow control of condensate, the design engineer
shall consider wither the 'U' bends shall be in the horizontal or vertical
plane.

7.6.1.8

In exchangers with tube side as the high-pressure side, design pressure of


the shell side should be at least two-thirds of the tube side design
pressure if the shell side is not protected with a relief system. Other
options require the approval of Saudi Aramco Engineer.
Commentary Note:
This is to prevent any unexpected catastrophic failure in case of tube leak
in exchangers.

7.6.2

Tubesheets

7.6.2.5

All stationary tubesheets with through bolting design shall have nonthreaded bolt holes.

7.6.2.6

Vertical exchangers with fixed tubesheets shall be provided with flanged


vents and drains through the tubesheets.

7.6.3

Baffles and Support Plates

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7.6.3.1

(Exception) Minimum thickness of baffles and support plates shall be as


per TEMA requirements and in no case less than twice the specified shell
side corrosion allowance.

7.6.3.4

Support plates for floating heads shall be located as close to the


tubesheet as the design and type of exchanger will permit. Support plate
shall be cut at either top or bottom or in the center to minimize
ineffective heat transfer surface at the floating head end.
Commentary Note:
Typically, this distance is approximately 150 mm (6 inches).

7.6.3.5

'U' tube bundles shall have a support plate close to the tangent line of
tubes. The support plates shall be cut to allow some flow over 'U' bends,
provided that all tubes are supported.
Commentary Note:
Typically, support plates are 50 mm (2 inches) away from the tangent line.

7.6.4

Impingement Protection

7.6.4.7

Impingement rods, if used, shall be arranged in a pattern, which will


minimize bypassing of the shell side fluid and avoid the flow hitting the
tubes directly.
Commentary Note:
Typically, two rows of rods on a triangular layout are used as an
impingement protection.

7.6.4.8

The use of distribution belts shall be considered when shell-side nozzles


are large resulting in long inlet and/or outlet unsupported tube lengths.
Commentary Note:
A properly designed belt should result in more effective use of the heat
transfer area and a more rigid bundle with better tube support.

7.6.5

Bypass-Sealing Devices

7.6.5.4

(Exception) The location of the sealing devices shall not interfere with
the continuous tube lanes for square and rotated square layouts.

7.7

Nozzles and Other Connections

7.7.2

(Exception) The ends of butt-welded connections shall be in accordance


with ASME B16.25.
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7.7.3

(Exception) Threaded or socket-welded connections are prohibited in


hydrogen, lethal, wet sour and caustic services. However, for other
services, threaded or socket-welded connections with 6000-lb. rating
conforming to ASME B16.11 may be used for NPS 1 and smaller
vents, drains and instrument connections.

7.7.4

(Exception) Flanged connections shall be one of the following types:


a)

Forged steel long welding neck flange.

b)

Forged steel welding neck flange. Such type of flange is welded to


seamless pipe, rolled plate with 100% radiography or an integrally
reinforced contour shaped forged nozzle. The bore of flange shall
match the bore of nozzle.

c)

Studded nozzles and proprietary designs may be offered as


alternatives provided their design is in accordance with the Code
and approved by the Saudi Aramco Engineer.

d)

Lap-type joints with loose end flange can be used for utility
services with pressure up to 1.4 MPa (200 psi) and a temperature of
120C (250F).

7.7.5

(Exception) Slip-on type flange with seamless pipe nozzle necks or


rolled plate with 100% radiography is permissible for exchangers, in
only non-cyclic utility services with design temperature and design
pressure not exceeding 400C (750F) and 2.1 MPA (300 psi),
respectively. Slip-on flange shall be welded on the front or face and at
the back of the hub per ASME SEC VIII D1, Figure UW-21, detail (1),
(2) or (3).

7.7.6

(Exception) Unless otherwise specified on the data sheet, the minimum


projections for nozzle necks, as measured from the outside surface of the
shell or head to the face of a flange, shall meet the following
requirements:
a)

6 inches for NPS 6 nozzles and smaller.

b)

8 inches for NPS 8 nozzles and larger.

c)

For insulated exchangers, projection shall be sufficient to allow


bolting of studs without interference with the insulation.

d)

For exchangers drain connections and other connections, where a


process stream is likely to be stagnant, the projection shall not
exceed three times the connection nominal diameter.

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7.7.10

The quantities, sizes, ratings, (ASME pressure classes), facings,


elevations, and orientations of nozzles and manways shall be as specified
on the data sheet.

7.7.11

Flanges shall be in accordance with ASME B16.5 pressure rating.

7.7.12

Flange bolt holes shall straddle the normal horizontal and vertical
centerlines of the exchanger.

7.7.13

Threaded connections shall conform to ASME B2.1.

7.7.14

Reinforcement of Openings

7.7.14.1

Reinforcement of exchanger openings shall be in accordance with the


applicable Code and this specification.

7.7.14.2

The thickness of reinforcing pads shall not exceed the shell or head
thickness of an exchanger.

7.7.14.3

Use of internal reinforcing elements is not permitted.

7.7.15

Minimum inside corner radius of integrally reinforced contour nozzles


and manways shall be 13 mm.

7.7.16

Permissible types of nozzles, manways and their connections shall be


according to the table below.

Design Conditions / Services Group

Attachment

Figure Reference from Indicated


ASME Code Section VIII
Division 2
Division 1 Exchangers
Exchangers

Group I
a. Pressure-retaining exchangers
component (shell, head, nozzle or
manway) with design thickness greater
than 50 mm

b. Unfired steam boilers with design


pressure exceeding 50 psi

All nozzle
sizes and
manway
necks

c. Lethal, hydrogen and cyclic services


d. Openings larger than 900 mm (Note 1)
e. Design temperature greater than
400C (Note 1)

Connections
attached to
nozzles and
manways

Figure UW-16.1, details:


(f-1), (f-2), (f-3) or
(f-4)

Table 4.2.13,
details: (1), (2), (3),
(4), (5) or (6)

f. Low alloy steel exchangers with design


thickness greater than 25 mm (Note 1)
g. Exchangers that will undergo PWHT
(Note 1)

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Design Conditions / Services Group

Attachment

NPS 4 and
smaller nozzles
Group II
Design conditions and service other than
those in Group I of this table

Nozzles larger
than NPS 4 and
manway necks
Connections
attached to
nozzles and
manways

Note 1:

Figure Reference from Indicated


ASME Code Section VIII
Division 2
Division 1 Exchangers
Exchangers
Figure UW-16.1, details:
(a), (a-1), (b), (c), (d), (e),
(f-1), (f-2), (f-3), (f-4) or
(g).

Figure UW-16.1, details:


(c), (d), (e), (f-1), (f-2),
(f-3), (f-4) or (g)

- Table 4.2.10,
details: (1), (2), (3),
(4), (6), (7) or (8)
- Table 4.2.11,
detail (2)
- Table 4.2.13,
details: (1), (2), (3),
(4), (5) or (6)

Alternatively, detail per Figure UW-16.1 (g) may be used for Division 1 exchangers provided that design conditions/ services per
a, b and/or c of group I are not applicable.

7.7.17

Integrally reinforced contour shaped attachments made partially or


completely of weld build up are prohibited.

7.11

Handling Devices

7.11.5

Exchangers with a component weighing up to and including 27 kg


(60 lb.) shall be provided with at least one lifting lug per component.
Two lifting lugs shall be provided for heavier weights.

7.11.6

Shell lifting lugs shall be designed such that the lifted parts hang
vertically when suspended from the lugs. Lugs on insulated exchangers
shall be of sufficient standout to clear insulation.

7.11.7

Protective plugs shall be fully engaged.

7.11.8

Clad fixed tubesheets shall be drilled and tapped and provided with base
plugs of the same material as the cladding. Base plugs shall be seal
welded and ground flush with the tubesheet surface and re-drilled and
tapped for pulling eyes.

7.13

Kettle Reboilers
Kettle type reboilers shall conform to the following:
a)

The distance between the top of weir and top of tubes shall be a
minimum of 75 mm.

b)

The distance from the weir to adjacent tangent line of the head
shall not be less than 900 mm.

c)

Weirs shall be provided with a 50 mm semi-circular drain hole.

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7.14

Design Pressure

7.14.1

The value(s) of design pressure(s) shall be in accordance with the data


sheet.

7.15

Maximum Allowable Working Pressure

7.15.1

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall calculate the maximum allowable


working pressure (MAWP) acting on both sides of the exchanger, in the
hot and corroded condition in accordance with the Code.

7.15.2

The MAWP of an exchanger shall not be limited by flange ratings.

7.16

Joint Efficiency

7.16.1

A joint efficiency of 85% or higher shall be specified for the design of all
pressure containing components of ASME SEC VIII D1 exchangers.

7.17

Loads

7.17.1

Wind and Earthquake Loads

7.17.2

a)

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall calculate the static effects of


loads due to wind and the effects due to earthquake loads acting on
the exchanger in the operating position in accordance with
requirements of this specification.

b)

Wind and seismic loads shall be calculated for the exchanger in


accordance with ASCE 7, using Occupancy Category IV and based
on design data corresponding to the site location per SAES-A-112.

c)

Wind pressures shall be assumed to act on the projected surface


area of the exchanger and shall include due allowances for any
platforms, ladders, piping, insulation, and equipment supported
from the exchanger.

d)

Seismic loads shall include due allowances for platforms, ladders,


piping, insulation, and equipment supported from the pressure
exchanger as specified on the data sheet.

Dead Weights of an Exchanger


Design of exchangers shall consider the following dead loads:
a)

Weight of exchanger including internals and supports.

b)

Weight of exchanger contents under operating and testing


conditions.

c)

Weight of refractory linings and insulation.


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d)
7.17.3

7.17.4

Weight of attached equipment.

Piping, Equipment and External Loads


a)

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall ensure that local stresses


imposed on an exchanger due to piping (other than the dead load),
equipment, lifting, supports and other external loads do not exceed
the allowable limits in accordance with the applicable Code.

b)

Refer to the data sheet for piping and equipment loads imposed on
an exchanger.

Thermal Loads
Thermal Loads are loads caused by thermal transients and restraining
thermal expansion/ interaction of the exchanger and/ or its support(s).

7.18

Load Combinations

7.18.1

All components of an exchanger, including its support(s), shall be


designed to withstand stresses resulting from load combinations in
accordance with, but not be limited to, those shown in Table 4.1.2 of
ASME SEC VIII D2.

7.18.2

Anchor bolts shall be designed for load combinations, based on the


allowable stress design method (Service Loads) in accordance with
SAES-M-001.

7.18.3

All pressure exchanger components whether shop or field fabricated


shall be designed to withstand a full hydrostatic test in the erected
position.

7.18.4

Combined stresses due to full hydrostatic test and the greater of wind and
earthquake loads shall be within the allowable limits per ASME SEC
VIII D2, paragraph 4.1.6.2, based on the lowest Specified Minimum
Yield Strength (SMYS) of the materials of construction at test
temperature. However, wind and earthquake design loads can be reduced
to 50% of its values.

7.18.5

The use of a pneumatic test may be considered when it will result in


significant cost savings in the exchanger and/or its supporting
structural/foundation. Such test requires prior approval of the Saudi
Aramco Inspector.

7.18.6

Loads (moments or forces) acting on an exchanger due to external piping


that will affect the overall integrity of the exchanger shall be added to
moments and forces due to other external primary loads (weight, wind or
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earthquake loads). Addition of piping loads shall be based on performing


stress analysis.

7.18.7

Stress Analysis

7.18.7.1

Where applicable, the requirements for thermal stress and fatigue stress
analyses shall be as specified in the data sheet. Analysis methods and
stress combination limits presented in Division 2, Section 5, shall be
used for exchangers under scope of Division 1 and Division 2. However,
allowable stresses shall be taken from the respective tables of ASME
SEC II for each division for the corresponding material and temperature.

7.18.7.2

The Design Engineer is responsible for specifying the heat transfer


coefficients to be used for all thermal stress analysis.

7.18.7.3

Thermal Analysis
1)

A thermal stress analysis is required for a exchanger, if a thermal


gradient (calculated under steady state operating conditions and, if
applicable, transient operating conditions) across any exchanger
section exceeds 65C (150F), in a distance equal to the square root
of R times T, where:
- R is the radius of the exchanger component under consideration
and,
- T is the thickness of the component under consideration
- R and T have the same units.

2)

As a minimum, the scope of the stress analysis shall include the


following junctures, as applicable:
- Head-to-shell
- Support-to-exchanger
- Nozzle-to-shell, considering external piping loads
- Tray supports to exchanger wall

3)

Thermal analysis shall be based on gradients under steady state


design conditions and also, if applicable, transient design
conditions.

4)

Thermal gradients may be reduced to within allowable limits with


the provision of the thermal sleeves in pressure-retaining
components
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7.18.7.4

Fatigue Analysis
1)

Scope of the required stress analysis shall be as specified in the


data sheet, in accordance with the rules of Division 2, by the
Design Engineer.

2)

As a minimum, the scope of the stress analysis shall include the


following junctures, as applicable:

- Head-to-shell
- Support-to-exchanger
- Nozzle-to-shell, considering external piping loads
- Tray supports to exchanger wall

7.18.7.5

3)

Analysis shall be based on the calculated number of cycles for a


minimum 20-year service life, as determined in accordance with
the rules of Division 2, paragraph 5.5.2.

4)

The number of cycles shall include the number of start-ups, shutdowns, emergency shut-downs, and upset conditions.

Local Stress Analysis


Stress analysis due to piping, equipment, lifting, supports and other
external loads shall be completed in accordance with the procedures as
detailed in WRC 107, WRC 297 or a finite element analysis.

7.19

Shell and Channel Covers

7.19.1

ASME dished flat head (with knuckle) and ASME torispherical head
shall not be used for other than air and water services with a design
pressure of 690 kPa (100 psi).

7.19.2

One-piece construction (made from one-piece or welded multi-piece


blanks) shall be used for heads with nominal thickness greater than 50
mm and exchangers in cyclic, hydrogen or lethal services. Other types of
head construction shall require prior approval of Saudi Aramco Engineer
as defined in this specification.
Note: Following shall be submitted to support review of the proposed multisegment construction head:
a) Layout of head.
b) Nondestructive examination.

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c) Forming procedure and,
d) Heat treatment procedure, as applicable.

7.19.3

Where a forged shell-and-head junction according to ASME SEC VIII


D2, Figure AD-912-1(k) is used, one piece construction shall be used for
the remaining portion of heads mentioned in paragraph 7.19.2 of this
specification. Other types of head construction shall require prior
approval of Saudi Aramco Engineer.

7.19.4

Heads in exchangers with design thickness greater than 50 mm shall be


hemispherical unless 2:1 ellipsoidal heads are deemed more economical.

7.19.5

Minimum inside radius of knuckles for conical transition sections or


torispherical heads shall be as follows:
a)

Not be less than 15% of the outside diameter of the adjoining


cylindrical section with conical section of thickness more than
2 inches.

b)

Not be less than 10% of the outside diameter of the adjoining


cylindrical section with conical transition section or torispherical
heads with thickness more than 0.75 inch and less than 2 inches.

c)

Not be less than 6% of the outside diameter of the adjoining


cylindrical section with conical transition section or torispherical
heads with thickness 0.75 inch and less.

7.19.6

Reinforcing for conical transition sections in thick wall exchangers shall


be provided by increased plate thickness. The use of reinforcing rings is
prohibited.

7.20

Longitudinal Baffles (TEMA 'F' shells)

7.20.1

Baffles shall be designed for 1.5 times the shell-side allowable pressure
drop and with a maximum deflection in the corroded condition of 6 mm.

7.21

Clips and Attachments

7.21.1

General
The Exchanger Manufacturer shall supply and install all clips and
attachments as specified on the data sheet.

7.21.2

Insulation Support

7.21.2.1

Support for insulation system shall be according to the data sheet.


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7.21.2.2

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall supply and install supports required


for insulation.

7.21.3

Refractory Supporting System

7.21.3.1

Anchoring system of refractory lining shall be according to the data


sheet.

7.21.3.2

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall supply and install anchoring system


required for refractory.

7.21.4

Fireproofing Supports

7.21.4.1

Support for fireproofing system shall be according to the data sheet.

7.21.4.2

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall supply and install supports required


for fireproofing materials.

7.21.5

Grounding Lugs
All exchangers shall be provided with a grounding lug connection
welded to the fixed exchanger support in accordance with PIP
VEFV1100.

7.21.6

All internal and external attachments, including clips, welded directly to


pressure parts are to be attached by continuous welding except for blank
nuts used for external insulation where tack welding is allowed.

7.21.7

Vertical exchangers, which are externally insulated, shall be provided


with insulation supports in accordance with SAES-N-001.

7.22

Coatings and Painting

7.22.1

Type of coating and painting systems shall be as specified on the data


sheet.

7.22.2

Surfaces to be coated shall be cleaned and prepared prior to its coating in


accordance with SAES-H-001.

7.22.3

Gasket contact surfaces shall be properly protected from blasting and shall
not be coated or painted..

7.23

General

7.23.1

Single tube pass TEMA rear end floating head type exchangers shall be
designed with a removable shell cover to provide easy access to the
expansion joint in the tube side nozzle.
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7.23.2

Where more than one exchanger of identical design, pressure rating and
materials is required for the same service, the tube bundles shall be interchangeable.

7.23.3

Kettle type reboilers shall be provided with guide rails and a hold down
angle located above the floating end, in order to keep the bundle in place
during shipment.

7.23.4

For tube bundles that can be rotated 180 degrees, additional


impingement plate, bundle runners etc. shall be provided.

7.23.5

Exchangers with sea water on the tube side shall be fitted with ferrules
(tube end protectors) at the inlet end of tubes at each tube pass. For tube
materials other than given in paragraph 8.4.4, the requirement for
ferrules shall be confirmed with the Saudi Aramco Engineer.
Commentary Note:
Saudi Aramco Standard Drawing AE-036250 gives ferrules details for
0.75 inch outside diameter tubes. For larger tube diameters, Exchanger
Manufacturer shall propose ferrule details for the consideration of the
Saudi Aramco Engineer.

7.23.6

Maximum thickness for plates used for construction of shell or channel


under the scope of API RP 934-A and API RP 934-C shall be limited to
6 inches (150 mm). For exchangers requiring thickness higher than 6,
forged ring construction shall be used.

Materials
8.1

General

8.1.5

All materials required for pressure and non-pressure components shall be


as specified on the data sheet.

8.1.6

Prior approval by the Saudi Aramco Engineer is required for use of


alternative materials of construction. Alternative materials must comply
with all the requirements of the applicable Code and this specification.

8.1.7

Material specifications and tests procedures for base metal and


weldments materials for 1 Cr- Mo, 1 Cr- Mo, 2 Cr-1 Mo, 2
Cr-1 Mo- V, 3 Cr-1 Mo and 3 Cr-1 Mo- V shall be submitted to
Saudi Aramco Engineer for review and approval prior to ordering the
materials from the mill.

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8.1.8

All materials must be clearly identified and provided with legible


original or certified true copies of Mill Test Certificates. Lack of
adequate identification and certification shall be cause for rejection.

8.1.9

Material test report is requested to be certified as per 175-323100.

8.1.10

1 Cr- Mo and 1 Cr- Mo steels with thickness exceeding 100 mm


can be used for components (shell, head, integrally reinforced nozzles,
flanges, etc.) of exchangers within scope of API RP 934-C, API RP 934E and paragraph 4.13 of this specification, provided that fracture
toughness requirements of the respective document of the
aforementioned documents and this specification can be met.

8.1.11

Use of high alloy steels, including austenitic stainless steels, shall be on a


case-by-case basis, with prior approval of the Saudi Aramco Engineer as
defined in this specification. Material selection shall be based on the
design temperature, minimum design metal temperature and intended
service.

8.1.12

All materials, except carbon steels, shall be alloy-verified by the


Exchanger Manufacturer in accordance with SAES-A-206.

8.1.13

Use of C- Mo steels in hydrogen services is prohibited.

8.1.14

Materials of construction (pressure-retaining parts of exchanger and nonpressure retaining attachments) shall be tested to verify that their
mechanical properties (strength, toughness, creep-resistance, etc.) will be
retained, considering all of the following thermal treatments that could
affect the material:
a)

All heat treatment cycles that will be required for the fabrication of
the exchanger, including as applicable: normalizing, normalizing
and tempering, quenching and tempering, intermediate stress relief
(ISR), and final postweld heat treatment (PWHT),

b)

Two PWHT cycles to account for future repairs and/or alterations.

8.1.15

As an alternative to material qualification requirements per paragraph


12.1.14 of this specification for carbon steel nozzles and standard flanges
according to ASME B16.5 and B16.47 that do not require impact testing,
materials of construction shall have minimum 70 MPa (10 ksi) over their
specified minimum yield strength and ultimate tensile strength values.

8.1.16

Forgings shall meet a material cleanliness C2/R2/S2 rating, as described


in ASTM E381.

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8.1.17

Specimens for material testing shall be taken per the following:


a)

Plates
Specimens shall be taken from each plate transverse to the rolling
direction in accordance with SA-20 at the standard test locations
and at a depth of T (T = maximum heat-treated thickness)
location. If required, T specimens should be used for hot tensile
and step cooling tests.

b)

Plate-like forgings (forged rings, tubesheets, blind flanges, etc.)


Specimens shall be taken from each heat transverse to the major
working direction in accordance with the material specification,
and at a depth of T of a prolongation or of a representative
separate test , as defined in API RP 934-A.

c)

d)

Standard flanges according to ASME B16.5 and B16.47.


1.

For flanges with T equal to or less than 50 mm, specimens


shall be removed in accordance with the material
specification.

2.

For flanges with T greater than 50 mm, specimens shall be


removed in accordance with the material specification from a
production forging or a representative separate test block that
are machined to essentially the finished product configuration
prior to heat treatment. The center axis of the specimen shall
be at a depth of T and the mid-length of the test specimen
shall be at a depth at least equal to T from any second heattreated surface.

Other forgings that are contour shaped or machined to essentially


the finished product configuration prior to heat treatment, test
specimens shall be removed in accordance with the material
specification from a production forging or a representative separate
test block. (Exception: Test specimens for 2 Cr-1 Mo, 2 Cr-1 Mo-
V, 3 Cr-1 Mo and 3 Cr-1 Mo- V steels shall be removed from only a
production forging; samples shall not be taken from a representative test
blocks.)

The center axis of the specimen for all materials taken shall be at a
depth of T and the mid-length of the test specimen shall be at a
depth at least equal to T from any second heat-treated surface.
e)

Pipe

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Specimens shall be taken from each heat and lot of pipe, transverse
to the major working direction in accordance with used material
specification except that test specimens should be taken from a
depth of T.
f)

A separate test block, if used, should be made from the same heat
and should receive substantially the same reduction and type of hot
working as the production forgings that it represents. It should be
of the same nominal thickness as the production forgings and shall
be machined to essentially the finished product configuration prior
to heat treatment. The separate test forgings should be heat-treated
in the same furnace charge and under the same conditions as the
production forgings.

8.1.18

Layered constructions are prohibited for all exchangers.

8.1.19

Materials for exchangers in de-aeration service shall be in accordance


with NACE RP0590.

8.1.20

Materials for exchangers exposed to SSC environments shall be in


accordance with the following:

8.1.21

a)

Forged flanges and forged fittings are restricted to: SA-350 (Grade
LF1 or Grade LF2) or SA-765 Grade II.

b)

Studs are restricted to: SA-193 B7M or SA-320 L7M.

c)

Nuts are restricted to: SA-194 Grade 2HM.

d)

It shall satisfy the requirements of ISO 15156 and NACE RP0472.

Low alloy steels shall not be mixed. For example, an exchanger


requiring 1 Cr- Mo materials shall have all components manufactured
from 1 Cr- Mo. (Exception: Refer to paragraph 12.1.20 of this specification
for requirements for skirts.)

8.1.22

Low alloy steels shall be specified in the normalized and tempered


(N+T) or quenched and tempered (Q+T) conditions, based on the
required mechanical materials properties (strength, toughness, creepresistance, etc.) and considering thermal treatments specified in
paragraph 8.1.14 of this specification.

8.1.23

Material for nameplate mounting brackets shall be of the same type and
material grade as the shell material.

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8.1.24

SA-36 and SA-285 materials may be used only for pressure retaining
components of exchangers in water and air services with plate thickness
not exceeding 19 mm.

8.1.25

Materials of supports shall be as follows:


1)

Legs and lugs: same material as exchanger wall base material.


Supports of exchangers described in paragraph 8.1.24 of this
specification may be of the same ASME material P No. as that of
the exchanger wall base material.

2)

Saddles: same material as the exchanger wall base material.

8.1.26

External attachments, other than those in paragraph 8.1.25 of this


specification, and internal attachments welded to the exchnager shall be
of the same material as the exchnager wall base material. With prior
approval of Saudi Aramco Engineer as defined in this specification,
Stainless Steel (SS) internal attachments can be welded to carbon steel
pressure-retaining parts of exhcnagers in non-sour services.

8.1.27

SA-266 (Grade 2 or Grade 4) or SA-105 shall be only used where impact


testing is not required.

8.1.28

Internal attachments to clad exchnagers shall be of the same material as


that of the cladding. SS 321 and SS 347 can be used interchangeably.

8.1.29

Material of construction for anchor bolts shall be ASTM A193 /


A193M, ASTM F1554 Grade 36 or ASTM F1554 Grade 105 with the
corresponding material of construction for nuts according to SASD AA036322.

8.1.30

HIC Resistant Materials


Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) resistant steel shall be qualified in
accordance with 01-SAMSS-016. HIC resistant steel shall be procured
from approved Saudi Aramco suppliers within a list available by the
Saudi Aramco Buyer, as defined in this specification. F8.1.16 All the
components (tubesheet, tube, shell, channel, baffle, nozzle, head, cover
and ring) shall be fabricated by Saudi Aramco approved exchanger
manufacturer.

8.1.31

All heat exchanger flanges shall be procured in accordance with 02SAMSS-011 requirements from approved Saudi Aramco suppliers.

8.2

Gaskets

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8.2.3

(Exception) The materials of construction for spiral wound gaskets shall


be as follows:
1)

For exchangers with design temperatures from -100C to 0C:


Type 304 or 316 stainless steel (SS) windings with solid Type 304
or 316 stainless steel outer centering rings.

2)

For exchangers with design temperatures from 1C to 425C:


Type 304 or 316 SS windings with solid carbon steel outer
centering rings.

3)

For exchangers with design temperatures above 425C:


Type 321 or 347 SS windings with solid; Type 304 or 316 outer
centering rings.

4)

For exchangers in vacuum service, inner ring shall be either


Type 304 or 316 SS.

8.3

Tubes

8.3.3

Bare tubes shall be procured from approved Saudi Aramco suppliers in


accordance with SAES-L-101 requirements.

8.4

Impact Testing

8.4.1

The Exchanger Manufacturer is responsible of determining the required


Charpy impact energy value(s) based on the impact test temperature
specified on the data sheet and the purchased exchangers component
thickness.

8.4.2

Impact test temperature for a component of a exchanger shall be as


specified on the data sheet.

8.4.3

Minimum acceptable Charpy impact energy values for all materials of


construction (base and weld metals) shall not be less than the highest of
the following applicable values:
1)

40/32 Joules for carbon steels thicker than 50 mm

2)

As specified by ASME SEC VIII D2, but not less than 34/27 Joules

3)

As specified by the licensors specification, but not less than 34/27


Joules

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4)

55/48 Joules for 1 Cr- Mo, 1 Cr- Mo, 2 Cr- 1 Mo, 2


Cr- 1 Mo- V, 3 Cr- 1 Mo and 3 Cr- 1 Mo- V steels.

Commentary Notes:
a)

The first number of required energy values is the minimum average


energy of three specimens and the second number is the minimum for
one specimen of the impact test results.

b)

Minimum acceptable Charpy impact energy values are applicable to Div.


1 and Div.2 exchangers.

8.4.4

For Div. 1 exchangers the impact testing exemptions of UG-20 (f), UCS66 (b) (1) and (3), UCS-68(c), UG-84 (b) (2) and by reference to Table
UG-84.4 are not permitted. For Div. 2 exchangers the exemptions of
3.11.2.3, 3.11.2.4, 3.11.2.5, 3.11.2.6, 3.11.2.8, 3.11.2.10, 3.11.3.1 and
3.11.4 are not permitted.

8.4.5

Impact testing is required, with no exception, for pressure exchangers


made of low alloy steels.

8.4.6

Impact testing of materials and welding procedures are required when


test temperature is lower than -28C.

8.4.7

Baffle plates, sealing strips, tie-rods, sliding bars, tubes, spacers, and
support plates are exempt from impact testing requirements.

8.5

Special Testing for Steels under Scope of API RP 934-A

8.5.1

Microstructure Testing
a) Two sets of microstructures shall be provided for each forged ring or
shell plate. One set of microstructure shall be provided for other reactor
b) Each set of sample shall consist of both transverse and longitudinal
direction. The Transverse microstructure shall include ID, mid wall and
OD microstructure at proper magnification to show grain structure. The
longitudinal microstructure shall include ID and OD samples at proper
magnification to show grain structures.
c) Microstructure sample shall include Charpy test specimen.

8.5.2

Hardness Testing
a) Two hardness readings shall be taken on each reactor component,
which includes each forged ring, shell plate, nozzle, pipe, fitting, and
flange.

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b) Test method and acceptance criteria shall follow API RP 934-A


(SECOND EDITION, ADDENDUM 2, MARCH 2012), Paragraph
7.4.2.
8.5.3

Stress Rupture Test


a) Each heat of filler wire and flux combination used in production for
all weld joint categories (A, B, C and D) intended for the following
design temperatures shall qualified by a weld metal stress-rupture test on
specimens machined parallel (all weld metal specimens) and transverse
to the weld axis (one specimen each):
1) Above 440C (825F) for 2 Cr-1 Mo and 3 Cr-1 Mo steels.
2) Above 468C (875F) for 2 Cr-1 Mo- V and 3 Cr-1 Mo- V
steels.
b) Test specimens shall be according to the following:
1) The specimen diameter within the gage length shall be 13 mm ( in.)
or greater. The specimen centerline shall be located at the 0.25-t
thickness location (or closer to the center) for material 19 mm ( in.)
and greater in thickness.
2) The gage length for the transverse specimen shall include the weld
and at least 19 mm ( in.) of base metal adjacent to the fusion line.
3) The test material shall be postweld heat treated to the maximum
PWHT condition.
c) Acceptance criteria:
1) For 2 Cr-1Mo and 3 Cr-1Mo steels, the condition of the Document
stress-rupture test shall be 210 MPa (30 ksi) at 510C (950F). The time
of failure shall exceed 650 hours.
2) For 2 Cr-1Mo- V and 3 Cr-1Mo- V steels, the condition of the
stress-rupture test shall be 210 MPa (30 ksi) at 540C (1000F). The time
of failure shall exceed 900 hours.

8.5.4

Reheat Transverse Cracking Susceptibility Qualification


Each combination of heat-of-filler wire and batch-of-flux for submerged
arc welding (SAW) used in production of all weld joint categories (A, B,
C and D) in 2 Cr-1Mo- V steels shall be qualified for transverse
reheat cracking susceptibility as follows:
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a) Performing Gleeble test. Procedure and acceptance criteria of test


shall be in accordance with API RP 934A, Annex B.
b) Chemical composition factor (K-factor = Pb+Bi+0.03Sb) of filler wire
shall not exceed 1.5 ppm, where units of Pb, Bi and Sb are in ppm. Kfactor shall be determined utilizing the Inductively Coupled Plasma
Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) method according to the relevant
requirements of the US national Institute of Standards and Technology
(NIST), including but not limited to the calibration of the ICP-MS
instrument. ICP-MS shall be calibrated with sample standards provided
by NIST. Test results shall be documented as a reference, including
calibration curves for Pb, Bi and Sb.

8.5.5

Unless the exchanger manufacturer can provide supporting documents to


differentiate bonding strength resulting from different welding
procedures, all disbonding tests shall be according to Domain - A test
conditions and acceptance criteria of Table 3 in API RP 934-A.

8.5.6

Step cooling tests of the base metal are required for 2 Cr-1 Mo, 2
Cr-1 Mo- V, 3 Cr-1 Mo and 3 Cr-1 Mo- V steels, unless impact
testing at -80 F (-62 C) results in 40 ft-lb (55 Joules) average minimum
and no single value below 35 ft-lb (48 Joules).

Fabrication
9.1

Shells

9.1.4

The beveled edges of weld preparations for carbon steel plates with
thickness 25 mm and thicker and all ferrous alloy plates shall be magnetic
particle examined for linear discontinuities. Liquid Penetrant examination
shall be employed for non-ferrous steels. Defects shall not exceed limits
as per ASME SA-20.

9.1.5

Plate edge laminations revealed per examination method in paragraph


9.1.6 of this specification shall be completely removed and repaired as
per SAES-W-010.

9.1.6

Each shell section shall be completely welded longitudinally and


corrected for out of roundness and peaking of the weld seam prior to
welding to the adjoining shell section or head.

9.1.7

All re-rolling or forming of the shell sections is to be completed prior to


radiography.

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9.1.8

External welded attachment pads shall have their corners rounded to a


minimum radius of the length or width of the pad whichever is less
with a maximum of 50 mm and shall be fully seal welded.

9.1.10

Attachment pad for supports, lifting lugs and other attachments shall be a
minimum of 10 mm (3/8") thick or equal to the shell thickness,
whichever is less. Attachment loads must comply with paragraph 7.17.3
above and pads shall not cover pressure-retaining welds.

9.1.11

Telltale Holes in Reinforcing Pads

9.1.11.1

- inch telltale vent holes drilled and tapped for -inch NPT shall be
provided in reinforcing pads for welded attachments, including nozzles
and manways, per the following:

9.1.11.2

1)

One hole in single piece reinforcing pad.

2)

Where a pad is split, each segment shall have at least one hole.

Telltale holes shall be located at the lowest position accessible for


inspection with center of the hole 25 mm from edge of the pad. This is
applicable to each segment of a split-reinforcing pad.
Commentary Note:
In case of reinforcing pads for attachments, other than nozzles and
manways, center of telltale hole shall be 25 mm from the closest edge of
the pad.

9.1.11.3

Telltale holes in reinforcing pads for external welded attachments shall


be plugged with grease or other materials adequate for the operating
temperature but not capable of retaining pressure, to prevent moisture
ingress between the pad and the exchanger pressure-retaining
component. Telltale holes in internal attachment pads shall be seal
welded.

9.1.12

Segments of split reinforcing pad shall be welded together without using


a backing strip.

9.2

Pass Partition Plates


Pass partition plate shall be provided with a 6 mm (") drain hole.

9.3

Connection Junctions
(Exception) All nozzles shall be ground flush to the inside curvature of
the exchanger inside diameters with smooth inside corner radius equal to
the nozzle wall thickness.
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9.5

Welding

9.5.1

(Exception) All welding shall be in accordance with the requirements of


SAES-W-010.

9.5.2

(Exception) All welded joints of category A, B, C and D shall be


complete fusion full penetration welds, except for joint welds of slip-on
flanges specified per paragraph 7.7.5 of this specification.

9.5.11

Welds attaching nozzles and their reinforcement pads and other


attachments to pressure components shall not be closer than 20 mm from
any pressure retaining welds. See also paragraph 10.2.1.4.

9.5.12

Where a split-reinforcing pad is required, the weld joining the pad


sections shall be oriented with the circumferential direction of the shell.
Welding the pad sections together shall be done without using a backing
strip.

9.6

Heat Treatment

9.6.2

(Exception)
1)

2)

The following tubes shall be stress relief heat treated after cold
forming and bending:
a)

U bends, including 150 mm of straight portions measured


from the tangent line of all carbon steel tubes for exchangers
in caustic, wet sour and amine services.

b)

Monel, brass and all chrome alloy tubes in all services.

The following tubes shall be solution annealed:


a)

Entire tubes manufactured of unstabilized or non low carbon


stainless steels or Nickel base alloys in accordance with
ASME SA-688.

b)

U bends, including 150 mm of straight portions measured


from the tangent lines of all stabilized or low carbon stainless
steels or Nickel base alloys.

9.6.8

Postweld heat treatment (PWHT) shall be done when required by the


applicable Code or when specified on the data sheet.

9.6.9

Code exemptions for postweld heat treatment (PWHT) of ferritic


materials based on the use of austenitic or nickel-based electrodes are not

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permitted for exchangers in sulfide stress cracking environments as


defined in this specification.
9.6.10

Code exemptions for postweld heat treatment (PWHT) of P4 and P5


materials are not permitted for applications involving either wet sour or
hydrogen services for materials exceeding 1.25% nominal chromium
content.

9.6.11

The maximum postweld heat treating soaking temperature for quenched


and tempered carbon steel materials shall not exceed the temperature at
which the test pieces were heat treated, as shown on the Mill Test
Reports or 650C maximum for carbon steel and 700C for low chrome
alloy steels.

9.6.12

Time and temperature of postweld heat treatment (PWHT) for carbon


steel exchanger with potential environmental cracking shall be in
accordance with requirements of API RP582.

9.6.13

Final postweld heat treatment (PWHT) shall follow all welding and
repairs but shall be performed prior to any hydrotest or other load test.

9.6.14

A sign shall be painted on a postweld heat treated exchanger and located


such that it is clearly visible from grade:
"Caution Exchanger Has Been Postweld Heat Treated Do Not Weld"

9.6.15

Postweld heat treatment (PWHT) shall be in accordance with the


requirements of SAES-W-010 and this specification.

9.8

Gasket Contact Surfaces other than Nozzle Flange Facings

9.8.1

(Exception) Gasket seating surfaces shall comply with the following:


1)

For spiral wound gaskets, 125 to 250 AARH, in all services, except
hydrogen.

2)

For spiral wound gaskets in hydrogen service, 125 to 150 AARH.

3)

The side-walls of ring joint flanges in all services, 63 AARH.

4)

For non-metallic gaskets, 250 to 500 AARH.

The surface roughness of machined surfaces, other than gasket contact


faces, shall not exceed 500 AARH.
9.9

Tube Holes

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9.9.3

Tubesheet tube hole diameters and tolerances shall be special close fit
when tube bundle vibration is suspected or when exchanger is in cyclic
service.

9.9.4

Tube expanding procedures shall incorporate stops to prevent tube


expansion past tubesheet faces.

9.9.5

Tube expansion and tube-end welding (where specified) procedures shall


be submitted to the Saudi Aramco Inspector for review and approval
before start of fabrication.

9.9.6

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall submit a mock-up sample of the tube


to tubesheet weld when tubes are strength welded to the tubesheet. This
sample shall contain a minimum of four tubes and shall be prepared
using the same materials and fabrication procedures (including heat
treatment) as are to be used in actual production. Approval from the
Saudi Aramco Inspector is required prior to start of production. No need
to repeat the test if similar joint design was done in the past 6-months.

9.12

Forming and Heat Treatment

9.12.1

Heat-treatment, as a separate operation, shall be performed after a


forming operation (hot or cold) for any of the conditions listed below.
The heat treatment shall be annealing, normalizing, normalizing and
tempering, or quench and tempering, as required.

Heads and other double-curvature components with nominal


thickness exceeding 50 mm.

Heads and other double-curvature components made of P-No. 3, 4, 5,


9A or 9B materials.

Any hot-formed component.

9.12.2

For any hot forming operation, the procedure shall be submitted to Saudi
Aramco Engineer for approval prior to commencement of any
fabrication requiring hot forming. The procedure shall describe all heat
treatment operations and tests to be performed. The tests shall include,
but not limited to, all of the mechanical tests required by the original
material specification.

9.12.3

Cold Forming
a) Heat treatment requirements for Carbon Steels (P-1) and Low Alloy
Steels (P-3, 4, 5, 9A and 9B) that undergo cold forming (by pressing or
cold spinning) shall be as follows:
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Fiber Elongation Strain f (%)

Material

Heat Treatment Requirement


None

Less than or equal to 5


Greater than 5 and
equal to or less than 10

Carbon Steels P-1

Greater than 10

(Exception: PWHT per the applicable Code


shall be performed for cold spun heads)
PWHT per the applicable Code
Normalizing, Normalizing and tempering or
quenching and tempering, as required to
maintain original material properties.
None

Less than or equal to 3


Low Alloy Steels P-3, P-4,
P-5, P-9A & P9B

Greater than 3 and


equal to or less than 10
Greater than 10

(Exception: PWHT per the applicable Code


shall be performed for cold spun heads)
PWHT per the applicable Code
Normalizing, normalizing and tempering or
quenching and tempering, as required to
maintain original material properties.

High Alloy Materials

Table 6.2 of ASME Section VIII,


Division 2

Table 6.2 of ASME Section VIII, Division 2

Non-ferrous Materials

Table 6.3 of ASME Section VIII,


Division 2

Table 6.3 of ASME Section VIII, Division 2

b)

Calculation of forming fiber elongation strain f (%) shall be according to the


following:
Type of Part Being Formed

Fiber Elongation Strain f (%)

For double curvature heads that are formed from onepiece or welded multi-piece blanks by any process that
includes dishing or cold spinning (e.g., dished heads or
cold spun heads)

f = 100 ln [Db/(Df -2t)]

[1]

For heads that are assembled from formed segments


(e.g., spherical dished shell plates or dished segments
of ellipsoidal or torispherical heads)

f = 100 t / Rfd

[2]

Cylinders and cones formed from plate

f = (50 t / Rfc) [1-(Rfc / Ro)]

[3]

Where:
ln

is the natural logarithm

Db

is the diameter of unformed blank plate or diameter of intermediate product

Df

is the outside diameter of the finished product

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Rfd

is the smallest mean radius of curvature of formed segment (mean radius of spherical
segment, mean knuckle radius of knuckle segment of multi sectional semi-ellipsoidal or
torispherical heads)

Rfc

is the mean radius of curvature of finished product (mean radius of cylinder, mean
radius of the smaller diameter of cone)

Ro

is the mean radius of initial product (flat plate) or the intermediate product (in case of
unformed initial product equals to infinity)

is the nominal thickness of the plate before forming or intermediate product

Commentary Notes:
i)

Cold spun heads with nominal thickness exceeding 50 mm shall be heat treated by normalizing,
normalizing and tempering or quenching and tempering, as required to maintain original material
properties), irrespective of the calculated fiber elongation strain.

ii)

Need for heat treatment of all double curvature circular products (e.g., spherical crowns, semiellipsoidal and torispherical heads) formed from one-piece or welded multi-piece blank, shall be
based on fiber elongation strain calculated using equation [1] of the above table.

iii)

Separate calculation of extreme fiber elongation shall be made for each formed segment forming
multi-sectional heads (torispherical or ellipsoidal) or spheres (excluding spherical crown). Need
for heat treatment shall be determined for each segment individually using equation [2] of the
above table based on the greatest measured thickness and smallest radius of curvature after
forming.

iv)

In case of different forming steps without intermediate heat treatment are employed, extreme
fiber elongation is the total amount of elongation of the individual forming steps. In case of
intermediate heat treatment, the deformation is that elongation achieved after the last previous
heat treatment. This is applicable for all types of formed part.

v)

Filler metal used in items subjected to hot forming temperatures, or normalized, shall satisfy the
weld joint design requirements after such heat treatment. This is considering that such welds will
generally suffer significant strength reduction.

10

Inspection and Testing


10.1

Quality Assurance

10.1.3

The responsibility for quality assurance rests with the Exchanger


Manufacturer in accordance with the applicable Code and the
requirements of this specification.

10.1.4

Exchangers manufactured in accordance with this specification are


subject to verification by the Saudi Aramco Inspector in accordance with
Saudi Aramco Inspection Requirements Form 175-323100.

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10.1.5

All required Nondestructive Examination shall be included in inspection


procedures established according to ASME SEC V and this specification.
A written procedure shall address each inspection method and technique
used including acceptance criteria. When required by the purchase order
the procedure(s) shall be submitted to Saudi Aramco Inspection
Department for approval.

10.1.6

All Nondestructive Examination, including Magnetic Particle and Liquid


Penetrant examinations, shall be performed by personnel certified in
accordance with ASNT CP-189, or equivalent National Certification
Programs that has been approved by the Saudi Aramco Inspection
Department. Personnel responsible for interpretation of Nondestructive
Examination results shall be certified to a minimum of Level II.

10.1.7

Magnetic-particle, liquid-penetrant, ultrasonic and radiographic


examinations on exchangers to be postweld heat-treated shall be made
after completion of final heat treatment.

10.1.8

All pressure and non-pressure welds shall be visually inspected where


accessible. All segments of longitudinal, circumferential or built-up head
pressure weld seams covered or rendered inaccessible by internals, lifting
lugs or other attachments shall be fully radiographed the entire affected
length plus 10 inches either side prior to installation of the attachment.

10.1.9

Additional examination of any weld joint at any stage of the fabrication


may be requested by the Saudi Aramco Inspector, including reexamination of previously examined joints. The Saudi Aramco Inspector
also has the right to request or conduct independent NDE of any joint. If
such examination should disclose gross non-conformance to the
requirements of the applicable Code or this specification, all repair and
NDE costs shall be done at the Exchanger Manufacturer's expense.

10.1.10

All necessary safety precautions shall be taken for each examination


method.

10.1.11

Surface irregularities, including weld reinforcement, inhibiting accurate


interpretation of the specified method of nondestructive examination
shall be ground smooth.

10.1.12

Examination of all welds shall include a band of base metal at least one
inch wide on each side of the weld.

10.1.13

The Saudi Aramco Inspector shall have free access to the work at all
times.

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10.1.14

Saudi Aramco shall have the right to inspect the fabrication at any stage
and to reject material or workmanship, which does not conform to the
specified requirements.

10.1.15

Saudi Aramco reserves the right to inspect, photograph, and/or videotape


all material, fabrication, coating, and workmanship and any materials,
equipment, or tools used or to be used for any part of the work to be
performed.

10.1.16

Saudi Aramco may reject the use of any materials, equipment, or tools
that do not conform to the specification requirements, jeopardize safety
of personnel, or impose hazard of damage to Saudi Aramco property.

10.1.17

All of the rights of Saudi Aramco and their designated representatives


for access, documentation, inspection, and rejection shall include any
work done by sub-contractors or sub-vendors.

10.1.18

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall provide the Saudi Aramco Inspector


all reasonable facilities to satisfy him that the work is being performed as
specified.

10.1.19

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall furnish, install, and maintain in a safe


operating condition all necessary scaffolding, ladders, walkways, and
lighting for a safe and thorough inspection.

10.1.20

Prior to final inspection and pressure testing, the inside and outside of
the exchanger shall be thoroughly cleaned of all slag, scale, dirt, grit,
weld spatter, paint, oil, etc.

10.1.21

Inspection at the mill, shop, or fabrication yard shall not release the
Exchanger Manufacturer from responsibility for repairing or replacing
any defective material or workmanship that may be subsequently
discovered in the field.

10.2

Quality Control

10.2.1

(Exception) Radiographic testing shall be performed as follows:

10.2.1.1

All radiography shall be performed with intensifying screens. Only lead


or lead foil (fluoro-metallic) screens shall be permitted unless otherwise
approved by the Saudi Aramco Inspection Department.

10.2.1.2

Tungsten inclusions in Gas Tungsten Arc welds shall be evaluated as


individual rounded indications. Clustered or aligned tungsten inclusions
shall be removed and repaired.

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10.2.1.3

Radiography examination requirements for weld joints categories A, B,


C and D shall be according to Table 1 of this specification and the
following:
a)

Butt welds connecting forged junction ring, conforming to ASME


SEC VIII D2, Figure 4.2.4(e), to shell and head shall be 100%
radiographed. Use of ultrasonic examination method that generates
permanent records can be used as a substitute to radiography, as
applicable (see relevant requirements per Note 3 of Table 1).

b)

Butt welds in multi-piece plate blanks to be formed into heads shall


be 100% radiographed after forming. Use of ultrasonic examination
method that generates permanent records can be used as a
substitute to radiography (see relevant requirements per Note 3 of
Table 1).

10.2.1.4

100% radiography examination is required for butt welds connecting


forged junction ring according to ASME SEC VIII D2, Table 4.2.5 Detail 7 to shell and head.

10.2.2

(Exception) Magnetic particle examination shall be performed as follows:

10.2.2.1

Permanent magnetic yokes are not permitted.

10.2.2.2

Prods are not permitted for use on air-hardenable materials, materials


which require impact testing, and on the fluid side of pressured
components for exchangers in wet sour service.

10.2.2.3

Magnetic particle examination or liquid penetrant examination shall be


performed on the surfaces of hot formed and reheat treated as per the
applicable Code.

10.2.2.4

Except for non-ferromagnetic materials, magnetic particle examination


using an AC yoke is required for the following welds:
a)

Pressure containing weld joints categories A, B, C and D per Table


1 of this specification.

b)

Welds in exchanger support (saddle, lug, and leg).

c)

Attachment welds to the exchanger.

d)

Areas where temporary attachments have been removed.

e)

Arc strike areas.

Internal welds shall be examined with Wet fluorescent MPI. External


welds shall be examined with wet visible MPI or Wet fluorescent MPI.
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Note:
If wet visible MPI is used, a white color contrast coating shall be applied
prior to the examination.

10.2.2.5

All edges prepared for welding and all openings in ferromagnetic


exchangers shall be 100% magnetic particle examined in accordance
with the applicable Code.

10.2.2.6

Forgings shall be examined on all surfaces, utilizing wet fluorescent


magnetic particle method after final machining. All defects shall be
removed and repaired by welding in accordance with SAES-W-010.
Except for welding edges, liquid penetrant examination is acceptable as
an alternative to magnetic particle examination.

10.2.2.7

All ferromagnetic welds are to be wet fluorescent magnetic particle


examined after final heat treatment.

10.2.4

(Exception) Liquid penetrant examination shall be performed as follows:

10.2.4.1

For non-Ferro magnetic materials, Liquid penetrant examination shall be


used for the following welds:
a)

Pressure containing weld joints categories A, B, C and D per Table


1 of this specification.

b)

Welds in exchanger support (saddle, lug, and leg).

c)

Attachment welds to the exchanger.

d)

Areas where temporary attachments have been removed.

e)

Arc strike areas.

10.2.4.2

All edges prepared for welding and all openings in non-ferromagnetic


exchangers shall be 100% liquid penetrant examined in accordance with
the applicable Code.

10.2.5

(Exception) Weld hardness testing shall be in accordance with the


requirements of SAES-W-010.

10.2.12

Ultrasonic Examination

10.2.12.1

Ultrasonic examination requirements for weld joints categories A, B, C and


D shall be according to Table 1 of this specification.

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10.2.12.2

All plates with thickness more than and including 50 mm (2.0 inches)
shall be ultrasonically examined in accordance with ASTM SA578.
Acceptance criteria shall be Level C of SA-578.

10.2.12.3

Plates with thickness more than 12.5 mm (0.5 inch) and less than 50 mm
(2.0 inches) shall be ultrasonically examined in accordance with ASME
SA-435. Any area where one or more discontinuities produce a
continuous total loss of back reflection accompanied by continuous
indications on the same plane (within 5% of plate thickness) that cannot
be encompassed within a 25 mm (1 inch) diameter circle is unacceptable.

10.2.13.4

100% Ultrasonic examination is required for the following weld joints:


a)

Butt-welds in exchanger supports.

b)

Full-penetration welds in external attachments (supports, brackets,


lugs, etc.) to pressure retaining parts.

10.2.12.5

All forgings shall be 100% ultrasonically examined in accordance with


ASME SA388. Acceptance criteria shall be in accordance with ASME
SEC VIII D2, paragraph 3.3.4.2. Indications per ASME SEC VIII D2,
paragraphs 3.3.4.3 and 3.3.4.4 are not acceptable.

10.2.12.6

100% conventional ultrasonic examination is required for all full


penetration welds in exchnager supports. Alternatively, 100%
radiography examination shall be used.

10.2.12.7

Detection method and acceptance criteria of reheat transverse cracking in


submerged arc welds in 2 Cr-1 Mo, 2 Cr-1 Mo- V, 3 Cr-1 Mo and
3 Cr-1 Mo- V steels shall be according to API RP 934-A, Annex A.

10.2.13

Final acceptance of the exchanger shall be based on completion of all


required NDE after the final postweld heat treatment.

10.3

Pressure Testing

10.3.2

(Exception) An independent hydrostatic test of shell-side and tube-side


shall be performed. The temperature of the water during hydrostatic
testing shall be maintained at not less than 17C throughout the testing
cycle.

10.3.3

(Exception) Water used for pressure testing shall be potable and the
hydrostatic test pressure shall be held for a minimum of one hour per 25
mm of exchanger shell/channel thickness and in no case less than one
hour.

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10.3.12

After completion of all external and internal welding, nondestructive


examination, repair and heat treatment, as applicable, and prior to
painting, exchangers shall be pressure tested using water as the testing
media in accordance with the applicable Code and this specification.

10.3.13

Pneumatic testing in lieu of hydrostatic testing requires the approval


from Saudi Aramco Inspection Department.

10.3.14

No preliminary pressure testing shall be made prior to postweld heat


treatment.

10.3.15

The use of shellacs, glues, lead, etc., on gaskets during testing is


prohibited. No paint or primer shall be applied to an exchanger prior to
hydrostatic testing.

10.3.16

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall furnish all test materials and


facilities, including blinds, bolting, and gaskets.

10.3.17

Hydrostatic pressure testing shall be performed with gaskets and bolting


identical to those required in service and as specified on the data sheet.
These gaskets may be used as service gaskets if the bolted joint is not
disassembled after completion of hydrostatic pressure testing.

10.3.18

The manufacturer shall supply the following:


a)

Minimum two sets of spare gaskets with a blind flange for each
manway and blinded nozzle in the exchanger..

b)

Minimum one set of service gasket set and two sets of spare
gaskets for each nozzle with companion flanges in the exchanger.

c)

All bolting with minimum 10% spare bolting (3 minimum for each
size) per exchanger.

10.3.19

After testing, the exchanger shall be completely drained and thoroughly


dried including around the internals.

10.3.20

For other than differential-pressure design exchangers, test pressure for


the shell side and the tube side shall be as per the applicable code

10.3.21

For differential-pressure design exchangers, test pressure shall be as per


the applicable code.

10.3.22

Vertical exchangers that are tested in the horizontal position shall be


adequately supported such that the primary stresses in any part of the
exchanger do not exceed 90% of the minimum specified yield strength of
the exchanger material.
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10.3.23

Horizontal exchangers are to be tested while resting on their permanent


support saddles, without additional supports or cribbing. Primary
stresses in any part of the exchanger for this case shall not exceed 90%
of the minimum specified yield strength of the exchanger material.

10.3.24

All welded attachments provided with tell-tale holes shall be


pneumatically tested at minimum 35 kPa (5 psi) prior to heat treatment
and exchanger pressure testing. Tell-tale holes must not be plugged
during the exchanger pressure test.

10.3.25

For Division 1 exchangers: Test pressure shall be 1.3 times its


calculated MAWP in the hot and corroded condition multiplied by the
lowest ratio (for the materials of which the tube side is constructed) of
the allowable stress for the test temperature to the allowable stress for the
design temperature.
For Division 2 exchangers: Test pressure be 1.25 times its calculated
MAWP in the hot and corroded condition multiplied by the lowest ratio
(for the materials of which the tube side is constructed) of the stress
intensity for the test temperature to the stress intensity for the design
temperature.

10.4

Nameplates and Stampings

10.4.1

Nameplates shall be 3 mm minimum thickness and manufactured from


type 304 stainless steel or Monel and welded to the mounting bracket
according to PIP VEFV1100.

10.4.4

Each exchanger shall be identified by a nameplate and marked with the


information required by the applicable Code and the requirements of this
specification.

10.4.5

The nameplate and its mounting bracket shall be located such that the
nameplate will not be covered by insulation and is easily readable from
grade or platform. Brackets shall extend from the outside of the
exchanger to clear insulation, and with sufficient access for surface
preparation and painting. The nameplate markings as required by
the applicable Code shall be stamped or engraved such that the
nameplate material is permanently deformed with the symbols.

10.4.6

Exchangers shall be Code stamped for all services, in accordance with


the applicable Code.

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Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

11

10.4.7

The mounting bracket material shall conform to Table 1 and it shall be


continuously seal-welded and positioned such as not to allow for
collection of moisture or rain.

10.4.8

Nameplate for internally coated exchangers shall show: the Saudi


Aramco Painting System Numbers, type of coating, brand name, and
date of application.

10.5

Repairs during Fabrication

10.5.1

The Saudi Aramco Engineer must review and approve crack repair
procedures, required by the applicable Code, prior to commencement of
the repair work. It is the responsibility of the manufacturer to ensure that
repairs done by the mill of any material defects, per the applicable Code,
are documented.

10.5.2

After completion of repairs required by the applicable Code, the


following shall be repeated:
a)

Heat treatment of the repaired section if it has been heat-treated


prior to the repairs.

b)

All nondestructive examinations (radiography, magnetic particle,


dye-penetrant, etc.) performed on the repaired section prior to the
repairs.

c)

A weld map of all repairs shall be made a part of the final


exchanger documentation. The weld map shall include the
nondestructive examination procedure and results, the welding
procedure specifications and stress relief charts.

Preparation for Shipment


11.1

Protection

11.1.2

(Exception) Exchangers is to be cleaned from all loose scales, weld


slags, dirt and debris to the satisfaction of the Saudi Aramco Inspector.

11.1.10

The Manufacture shall protect the equipment from mechanical and


corrosion damage in order to assure that the equipment will be serviceable
after shipping, storage, and construction. The duration of these activities
is assumed to be 24 months. If longer period is specified, the required
protection measures shall be determined on a case-by-case basis.

11.1.11

Prior to shipping, exchangers are to be completely dried.

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11.1.12

Temporary covers, 3 mm thick steel or wood cover with neoprene


gasket, for flanges shall be bolted in place with a minimum of 4 bolts
equally spaced and sufficient to contain the protective media inside the
exchanger. Bolts shall be protected from external corrosion by a rust
preventive grease or equivalent substance liberally applied over the bolt
surface. Flanges with permanent blind flanges shall be secured with the
gaskets and bolting specified for service.

11.1.13

Threaded nozzle connections shall be protected with threaded plugs and


by the use of an appropriate lubricant with rust preventive compound
such as Cortec VpCI-369 or equivalent.

11.1.14

Tell-tale holes in reinforcing pads shall be protected with wooden plugs


or packed with rust preventative grease such as Denso paste.

11.1.15

Flanged connections and all other machined surfaces not described


elsewhere in this section shall be protected by use of an appropriate
lubricant with rust preventive compound such as Cortec VpCI-369 or
equivalent.

11.1.16

Export packing, marking, and shipping shall be in accordance with the


purchase order.

11.1.17

The exchanger manufacturer is responsible for ensuring that the


exchangers being shipped are adequately braced and shall provide
temporary supports where appropriate to ensure adequate support of the
exchanger during shipment.

11.1.19

Internal & External Protection

11.1.19.1

For carbon steel and stainless steel fully assembled heat exchangers,
spray interior surfaces (both shell and tube side) with a vapor phase
inhibitor such as Cortec VpCI-307 or 309 or equivalent. Apply the
Cortec product at a rate of 0.3 kg/m. Other manufacturer's products
should be applied at treatment rates recommended by the manufacturer if
greater than the specified treatment rates of 0.3 kg/m. If possible, vapor
phase inhibitor powder shall be sprayed directly into the tubes so that it
can be easily detected exiting from the opposite end of the tube. For
copper alloy construction, VpCI-307 or equivalent shall be specified.
Exchangers must be sealed vapor tight using metallic covers for the
inhibitor to be effective.

11.1. 19.2

The shell and external surfaces shall be protected by preparing the


surface and fully coating the external surfaces using the specified Saudi
Aramco coating specification prior to shipment.
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11.1.19.3

Solid stainless steel exchangers which are to be shipped by ocean freight


or are to be stored in a coastal or near coastal location but are not
specified to be coated in service shall be protected by the application of a
temporary soft external coating such as Cortec VpCI 368 or Daubert
Chemical's Tectyl 506 or equivalent. Coating shall be removed prior to
service using a non-caustic steam wash. Alternatively, solid stainless
steel exchangers shall be 100% wrapped and sealed in a 4-mil thick
anticorrosion polyethylene film containing vapor phase corrosion
inhibitor such as Cortec VpCI 126 Blue or equivalent. Equipment that is
an emergency spare for long term storage shall be wrapped in Cortec's
10-mil thick MillCorr film or equivalent. Stainless steel exchangers
shipped by ocean freight must be protected from sea spray, rain, etcetera.

11.1.19.4

Tube bundles shipped separately from shells must be adequately


protected and supported to prevent mechanical and corrosion damage.
Tube internals shall be protected using Cortec VpCI-307 or VpCI-309 or
equivalent as detailed in Paragraph 11.1.19.1, above. External surfaces
shall be protected by spraying with Cortec VpCI 368 or Tectyl 506 or
equivalent. These coatings must be removed prior to operation in cases
where they might cause a contamination problem. Alternatively, the
complete tube bundle shall be 100% wrapped and sealed in a 4-mil thick
anticorrosion polyethylene film containing vapor phase corrosion
inhibitor such as Cortec VpCI 126 Blue or equivalent. Equipment that is
an emergency spare for long term storage shall be wrapped in Cortec's
10-mil thick MillCorr film or equivalent.

11.1.20

Use of Nitrogen blanketing with temporary rust preventive substance


such as Tectyl 846 or a vapor proof bag with moisture control is an
acceptable protection measure for carbon and low chrome alloy steels
without Austenitic Stainless Steels internally cladded or Austenitic
Stainless Steels weld over-layed exchangers.

11.1. 21

Nitrogen blanketing at a pressure of 35 kPa (5 psi) shall be provided for


Austenitic Stainless Steels or internally cladded or Austenitic Stainless
Steels weld over-layed exchangers in the following conditions:

11.1.22

1)

During transportation (Ocean and Land).

2)

At fabrication shop/site after completion of its fabrication.

3)

At construction site from its arrival until its commissioning.

Nitrogen blanketing at a pressure of 35 kPa (5 psi) shall be provided for


components that can not be protected properly by the use of vapor phase
inhibitor due to inaccessible difficulties such as shell's internal surface
for fixed tubesheet heat exchangers.
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12

11.1.23

Temporary internal coatings for use on exchangers with corrosion


resistant linings (such as stainless steel and Monel clad) must be chloride
free, suitable for its intended use and not result in crevice corrosion.

11.1.24

For exchangers which have permanent internal coatings, the Exchanger


Manufacturer shall contact the Saudi Aramco Engineer for any corrosion
protection required.

11.1.25

Martensitic stainless steels such as Type 410 and Type 420 are
particularly prone to atmospheric corrosion especially when shipped by
sea. The Manufacturer shall prepare a preservation and shipping plan for
approval by CSD.

11.1.26

For dry gas and liquefied gas systems, excess powder vapor phase
inhibitors shall be removed from major equipment at a convenient point
in construction operations before start-up if there could be a risk of
compressor fouling, filter plugging, or similar problems.

11.1.27

Bolt heads shall also be protected with a rust preventative compound to


prevent corrosion during shipment, storage and construction.

11.1.28

Spare bolts shall be protected with a rust preventative compound to


prevent corrosion during shipment, storage and construction.

Supplemental Requirements
12.1

General
(Exception) Exchangers with cylindrical pressure components greater
than 50 mm thick shall be manufactured in accordance with Section 9
and the requirements for thick wall exchangers as detailed in this
specification.

20 November 2007
5 April 2008
15 August 2009
23 June 2010
1 December 2013

Revision Summary
Major revision.
Editorial revision.
Editorial revision to replace cancelled SAES-A-301 with NACE MR0175/ISO 15156.
Editorial revision to add paragraph 8.1.11.
Major revision.

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Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Table 1 Nondestructive Examination Requirements


Weld Joint
Category

A and B

Liquid
Radiography Ultrasonic Penetrant (LP)
(RT)
(UT)
or Magnetic
Particle (MP)
Per Design
Code
See
Criteria
(2) &
Notes
(Spot or
(3)
(1) &
100%)

100%

(3)
(3)

100%

See Note

(4)

100%

(3)

See Note
(4)

100%
See Note

(6)

(4)

Notes:
(1) 100% RT is required for exchangers under any of the following services or design conditions:

Weld joints requiring full radiography per the applicable code.

Lethal services.

Hydrogen services.

Cyclic services.

Unfired steam boilers with design pressure exceeding 50 psi.

Thick wall exchangers.

(2) 100% conventional UT is required for only exchangers under any of the services or design conditions per note
1 of this table.
(3) 100% UT, employing methods that generate permanent records may be used as a substitute for the
combination of 100% RT and 100% conventional UT specified for exchangers under common services and
design conditions per notes 1 and 2 of this table. Such UT methods must be approved by Inspection
Department prior to commencement of any work.
(4) Inspection for Category - D weld joint shall meet the following:
a)

100% RT and 100% Conventional UT on joints for design conditions/ services Group I per paragraph 8.5.2
of this specification. Alternatively, 100% UT employing methods that generate permanent records can be
used and must be approved by the Inspection Department prior to commencement of any work.

b)

Following design details shall be used where RT is required for Category - D weld joint:
i.
ii.

For Division 1 exchangers: Figures UW-16.1: (f-1), (f-2), (f-3) or (f-4).


For Division 2 exchangers: Figures 4.2.13: (1), (2), (3), (4), (5) or (6).

c)

100% UT shall be performed from an accessible side, where RT cannot be utilized due to only geometry,
on joints for design conditions/ services Group II per paragraph 8.5.2 of this specification. If conventional
UT method cannot be utilized, other UT methods shall be used and must be approved by Inspection
Department prior to commencement of any work.

d)

Following examinations shall be performed, where RT and UT cannot be utilized due to only geometry, on
joints used for design conditions/ services Group II per paragraph 8.5.2 of this specification:
i.

For attachments without a reinforcing pad, the whole joint shall be either 100% magnetic particle (MP)
or 100% liquid penetrant (LP) examined at the root pass, after each 6 mm depth of weld deposit and
at the final weld surface. Where PWHT is required, final surfaces of weld joints shall be examined for
acceptance after final PWHT.

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ii.

For attachments with a reinforcing plate, similar examination as in (i) above shall be performed at the
nozzle. 100% MT or 100% LP shall be also performed on the final surface of the fillet welds attaching
the reinforcing pad to exchanger and nozzle.

(5) Inspection requirements for connections attached to nozzles and manways per paragraph 8.5.2 shall be
according to note 4 of this table.
(6) 100% MT or 100% LP shall be applied to the root pass and final surface of lap-welded Category - C weld joint.

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