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Cambridge Pre-U Revised Syllabus

om
.c

s
er

Cambridge International Advanced Subsidiary and Advanced Level


in Chemistry (9701)

For use from 2016 in all papers for the above


syllabus, except practical examinations.

CSTxxx

**

Cambridge Pre-U Revised Syllabus


Contents: Tables of Chemical Data
Page no.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Important values, constants and standards


Ionisation energies (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th) of selected elements in kJ mol1
Bond energies
Standard electrode potential and redox potentials, E at 298K (25 C)
Atomic and ionic radii
Typical proton (1H) chemical shift values () relative to TMS = 0
Typical carbon (13C) chemical shift values () relative to TMS = 0
Characteristic infra-red absorption frequencies for some selected bonds
The orientating effect of groups in aromatic substitution reactions
Names, structures and abbreviations of some amino acids
The Periodic Table of Elements

3
4
5
7
10
12
13
14
15
16
17

Cambridge Pre-U Revised Syllabus


1 Important values, constants and standards
molar gas constant

= 8.31 J K1 mol1

the Faraday constant

= 9.65 104 C mol1

the Avogadro constant

= 6.02 1023 mol1

the Planck constant

= 6.63 1034 J s

speed of light in a vacuum

= 3.00 108 m s1

rest mass of proton, 11H

mp = 1.67 1027 kg

rest mass of neutron, 1 n

mn = 1.67 1027 kg

rest mass of electron,

0
1

me = 9.11 1031 kg

electronic charge

molar volume of gas

Vm = 22.4 dm3 mol1 at s.t.p.


Vm = 24.0 dm3 mol1 under room conditions
(where s.t.p. is expressed as 101 kPa,
approximately, and 273 K [0 C])

ionic product of water

Kw = 1.00 1014 mol2 dm6


(at 298 K [25 C])

specific heat capacity of water

= 1.60 1019 C

= 4.18 kJ kg1 K1
(= 4.18 J g1 K1)

Cambridge Pre-U Revised Syllabus


2 Ionisation energies (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th) of selected elements, in kJ mol1

Proton
number
1

First
1310

Second

Third

Fourth

He

2370

5250

Li

519

7300

11800

Be

900

1760

14800

21000

799

2420

3660

25000

1090

2350

4610

6220

1400

2860

4590

7480

1310

3390

5320

7450

1680

3370

6040

8410

Ne

10

2080

3950

6150

9290

Na

11

494

4560

6940

9540

Mg

12

736

1450

7740

10500

Al

13

577

1820

2740

11600

Si

14

786

1580

3230

4360

15

1060

1900

2920

4960

16

1000

2260

3390

4540

Cl

17

1260

2300

3850

5150

Ar

18

1520

2660

3950

5770

19

418

3070

4600

5860

Ca

20

590

1150

4940

6480

Sc

21

632

1240

2390

7110

Ti

22

661

1310

2720

4170

23

648

1370

2870

4600

Cr

24

653

1590

2990

4770

Mn

25

716

1510

3250

5190

Fe

26

762

1560

2960

5400

Co

27

757

1640

3230

5100

Ni

28

736

1750

3390

5400

Cu

29

745

1960

3350

5690

Zn

30

908

1730

3828

5980

Ga

31

577

1980

2960

6190

Br

35

1140

2080

3460

4850

Rb

37

403

4632

3900

5080

Sr

38

548

1060

4120

5440

Ag

47

731

2074

3361

53

1010

1840

2040

4030

Cs

55

376

2420

3300

Ba

56

502

966

3390

Cambridge Pre-U Revised Syllabus


3 Bond Energies
3(a) Bond energies in diatomic molecules (these are exact values)
Homonuclear

Heteronuclear

Bond

Energy / kJ mol1

Bond

Energy / kJ mol1

HH

436

HF

562

DD

442

HCl

431

NN

944

HBr

366

O= O

496

HI

299

PP

485

CO

1077

S=S

425

FF

158

Cl Cl

242

BrBr

193

II

151

Cambridge Pre-U Revised Syllabus


3(b) Bond energies in polyatomic molecules (these are average values)
Homonuclear

Heteronuclear

Bond

Energy / kJ mol1

Bond

Energy / kJ mol1

CC

350

CH

410

C=C

610

CCl

340

CC

840

CBr

280

C.C (benzene)

520

CI

240

NN

160

CN

305

N=N

410

C=N

610

OO

150

CN

890

SiSi

222

CO

360

PP

200

C=O

740

SS

264

C=O in CO2

805

NH

390

NCl

310

OH

460

SiCl

359

SiH

320

SiO (in SiO2(s))

460

Si=O (in SiO2(g))

640

PH

320

PCl

330

PO

340

P=O

540

SH

347

SCl

250

SO

360

S=O

500

Cambridge Pre-U Revised Syllabus


4 Standard electrode potential and redox potentials, E

at 298 K (25 oC)

For ease of reference, two tables are given:


(a) an extended list in alphabetical order;
(b) a shorter list in decreasing order of magnitude, i.e. a redox series.
(a) E

in alphabetical order
E /V

Electrode reaction
Ag+ + e
Al 3+ + 3e
Ba2+ + 2e
Br2 + 2e
Ca2+ + 2e
Cl2 + 2e
2HOCl + 2H+ + 2e
Cl O + H2O + 2e
Co2+ + 2e
Co3+ + e
[Co(NH3)6]2+ + 2e
Cr2+ + 2e
Cr3+ + 3e
Cr3+ + e
Cr2O72 + 14H+ + 6e
Cu+ + e
Cu2+ + 2e
Cu2+ + e
[Cu(NH3)4]2+ + 2e
F2 + 2e
Fe2+ + 2e
Fe3+ + 3e
Fe3+ + e
[Fe(CN)6]3 + e
Fe(OH)3 + e
2H+ + 2e
2H2O + 2e
I2 + 2e
K + + e
Li+ + e
2+
Mg + 2e
Mn2+ + 2e
Mn3+ + e
MnO2 + 4H+ + 2e
MnO4 + e

MnO4 + 4H+ + 3e
MnO4 + 8H+ + 5e
NO3 + 2H+ + e
NO3 + 3H+ + 2e
NO3 + 10H+ + 8e

Ag
Al
Ba
2Br
Ca
2Cl
Cl2 + 2H2O
Cl + 2OH
Co
Co2+
Co + 6NH3
Cr
Cr
Cr2+
2Cr3+ + 7H2O
Cu
Cu
Cu+
Cu + 4NH3
2F
Fe
Fe
Fe2+
[Fe(CN)6]4
Fe(OH)2 + OH
H2
H2 + 2OH
2I
K
Li
Mg
Mn
Mn2+
Mn2+ + 2H2O
MnO42
MnO2 + 2H2O
Mn2+ + 4H2O
NO2 + H2O
HNO2 + H2O
NH4+ + 3H2O

+0.80
1.66
2.90
+1.07
2.87
+1.36
+1.64
+0.89
0.28
+1.82
0.43
0.91
0.74
0.41
+1.33
+0.52
+0.34
+0.15
0.05
+2.87
0.44
0.04
+0.77
+0.36
0.56
0.00
0.83
+0.54
2.92
3.04
2.38
1.18
+1.49
+1.23
+0.56
+1.67
+1.52
+0.81
+0.94
+0.87

Cambridge Pre-U Revised Syllabus


E /V

Electrode reaction
Na+ + e
Ni2+ + 2e
[Ni(NH3)6]2+ + 2e
H2O2 + 2H+ + 2e
HO2 + H2O + 2e
O2 + 4H+ + 4e
O2 + 2H2O + 4e
O2 + 2H+ + 2e
O2 + H2O + 2e
Pb2+ + 2e
Pb4+ + 2e
PbO2 + 4H+ + 2e
SO42 + 4H+ + 2e
S2O82+ 2e
S4O62+ 2e
Sn2+ + 2e
Sn4+ + 2e
V2+ + 2e
V3+ + e
2+
VO + 2H+ + e
VO2+ + 2H+ + e
VO3 + 4H+ + e
Zn2+ + 2e

Na
Ni
Ni + 6NH3
2H2O
3OH
2H2O
4OH
H2O2
HO2 + OH
Pb
Pb2+
Pb2+ + 2H2O
SO2 + 2H2O
2SO42
2S2O32
Sn
Sn2+
V
V2+
V3+ + H2O
VO2+ + H2O
VO2+ + 2H2O
Zn

2.71
0.25
0.51
+1.77
+0.88
+1.23
+0.40
+0.68
0.08
0.13
+1.69
+1.47
+0.17
+2.01
+0.09
0.14
+0.15
1.20
0.26
+0.34
+1.00
+1.00
0.76

All ionic states refer to aqueous ions but other state symbols have been omitted.

Cambridge Pre-U Revised Syllabus


(b) E

in decreasing order of oxidising power

(a selection only see also the extended alphabetical list on the previous pages)
E /V

Electrode reaction
F2 + 2e
S2O82+ 2e
H2O2 + 2H+ + 2e
MnO4 + 8H+ + 5e
PbO2 + 4H+ + 2e
Cl2 + 2e
2
Cr2O7 + 14H+ + 6e
O2 + 4H+ + 4e
Br2 + 2e
ClO + H2O + 2e
NO3 + 10H+ + 8e
NO3 + 2H+ + e
Ag+ + e
Fe3+ + e
I2 + 2e
O2 + 2H2O + 4e
Cu2+ + 2e
2
SO4 + 4H+ + 2e
Sn4+ + 2e
S4O62+ 2e
2H+ + 2e
Pb2+ + 2e
Sn2+ + 2e
Fe2+ + 2e
Zn2+ + 2e
2H2O + 2e
V2+ + 2e
Mg2+ + 2e
Ca2+ + 2e
K + + e

2F
2SO42
2H2O
Mn2+ + 4H2O
Pb2+ + 2H2O
2Cl
2Cr3+ + 7H2O
2H2O
2Br
Cl + 2OH
NH4+ + 3H2O
NO2 + H2O
Ag
Fe2+
2I
4OH
Cu
SO2 + 2H2O
Sn2+
2S2O32
H2
Pb
Sn
Fe
Zn
H2 + 2OH
V
Mg
Ca
K

+2.87
+2.01
+1.77
+1.52
+1.47
+1.36
+1.33
+1.23
+1.07
+0.89
+0.87
+0.81
+0.80
+0.77
+0.54
+0.40
+0.34
+0.17
+0.15
+0.09
0.00
0.13
0.14
0.44
0.76
0.83
1.20
2.38
2.87
2.92

Cambridge Pre-U Revised Syllabus


5 Atomic and ionic radii
(a)

(b)

Period 1

atomic / nm

ionic / nm

single covalent

0.037

van der Waals

He

0.140

Period 2

atomic / nm

ionic / nm

metallic

Li

0.152

Li+

0.060

Be

0.112

Be2+

0.031

0.080

B3+

0.020

0.077

C4+

0.015

single covalent

(c)

C4

0.260

0.074

N3

0.171

0.073

O2

0.140

0.072

0.136

van der Waals

Ne

0.160

Period 3

atomic / nm

ionic / nm

metallic

Na

0.186

Na+

0.095

Mg

0.160

Mg2+

0.065

Al

0.143

Al 3+

0.050

Si

0.117

Si4+

0.041

0.110

P3

0.212

0.104

S2

0.184

Cl

0.099

Cl

0.181

van der Waals

Ar

0.190

Group 2

atomic / nm

ionic / nm

metallic

Be

0.112

Be2+

0.031

Mg

0.160

Mg2+

0.065

Ca

0.197

Ca2+

0.099

Sr

0.215

Sr2+

0.113

Ba

0.217

Ba2+

0.135

Ra

0.220

Ra2+

0.140

single covalent

(d)

0.208

10

Cambridge Pre-U Revised Syllabus

(e)

Group 14

atomic / nm

ionic / nm

single covalent

0.077

C4+

0.015

Si

0.117

Si4+

0.041

Ge

0.122

Ge2+

0.093

Sn

0.162

Sn2+

0.112

Pb

0.175

Pb2+

0.120

metallic

(f)

(g)

Group 17

atomic / nm

ionic / nm

single covalent

0.072

0.136

Cl

0.099

Cl

0.181

Br

0.114

Br

0.195

0.133

0.216

At

0.140

First row transition


elements

atomic / nm

ionic / nm

metallic

Sc

0.164

Ti

0.146

Ti2+

0.135

Cr

Sc3+

0.081

0.090

Ti3+

0.067

V2+

0.079

V3+

0.064

0.129

Cr2+

0.073

Cr3+

0.062

Mn

0.132

Mn2+

0.067

Mn3+

0.062

Fe

0.126

Fe2+

0.061

Fe3+

0.055

Co

0.125

Co2+

0.078

Co2+

0.053

Ni

0.124

Ni2+

0.070

Ni3+

0.056

Cu

0.128

Cu2+

0.073

Zn

0.135

Zn2+

0.075

11

Cambridge Pre-U Revised Syllabus


6 Typical proton (1H) chemical shift values () relative to TMS = 0
type of
proton

environment of proton

example structures

chemical shift
range ()

CH3, CH2, >CH

0.91.7

CH3C=O, CH2C=O, >CHC=O

2.23.0

alkyl next to aromatic


ring

CH3Ar, CH2Ar, >CHAr

2.33.0

alkyl next to
electronegative atom

CH3O, CH2O, CH2Cl, >CHBr

3.24.0

attached to alkyne

CH

1.83.1

attached to alkene

=CH2, =CH

4.56.0

alkane
alkyl next to C=O

CH

attached to aromatic ring

6.09.0

O
aldehyde

9.310.5

H
alcohol

O-H
(see
note
below)

ROH

0.56.0

phenol

OH

4.57.0

O
carboxylic acid

9.013.0

O
alkyl amine

RNH

1.05.0

aryl amine

NH2

N-H
(see
note
below)

3.06.0

amide

5.012.0
N

Note: values for O-H and N-H protons can vary depending on solvent and concentration

12

Cambridge Pre-U Revised Syllabus


7 Typical carbon (13C) chemical shift values () relative to TMS = 0
hybridisation of
the carbon
atom

environment of carbon
atom

example structures

chemical
shift range
()

sp3

alkyl

CH3, CH2, CH<

050

sp3

next to alkene/arene

CH2

1040

CH2C=C,
sp3

next to carbonyl/carboxyl

sp3

next to nitrogen

sp3

next to chlorine
(-CH2-Br and -CH2-I are in
the same range as alkyl)

sp3

next to oxygen

CH2COR, CH2CO2R

2550

CH2NH2, CH2NR2,
CH2NHCO

3065

CH2Cl

3060

CH2OH, CH2OCO

5070

sp2

alkene or arene
>C=C<,

C
C

110160

sp2

carboxyl

RCO2H, RCO2R

160185

sp2

carbonyl

RCHO, RCOR

190220

sp

alkyne

RCC

6585

sp

nitrile

RCN

100125

13

Cambridge Pre-U Revised Syllabus


8 Characteristic infra-red absorption frequencies for some selected bonds

bond

functional groups
containing the bond

absorption range (in


wavenumbers) /cm1

appearance of peak
(s = strong,
w = weak)

CO

alcohols, ethers, esters

10401300

C=C

aromatic compounds,
alkenes

15001680

w unless conjugated

C=O

amides,
ketones and aldehydes
esters,

16401690
16701740
17101750

s
s
s

CC

alkynes

21502250

w unless conjugated

CN

nitriles

22002250

CH

alkanes, CH2H
alkenes/arenes, =CH

28502950
30003100

s
w

NH

amines, amides

33003500

OH

carboxylic acids, RCO2H


Hbonded alcohol, ROH
free alcohol, ROH

25003000
32003600
35803650

s and very broad


s
s and sharp

14

Cambridge Pre-U Revised Syllabus


9 The orientating effect of groups in aromatic substitution reactions.
The position of the incoming group, Y, is determined by the nature of the group, X, already bonded
to the ring, and not by the nature of the incoming group Y.

X
2

+ Y+

+ H+

3
4

X- groups that direct the incoming


Y group to the 2- or 4- positions

X- groups that direct the incoming


Y group to the 3- position

NH2, NHR or NR2

NO2

OH or OR

NH3

NHCOR

CN

CH3, alkyl

CHO, COR

Cl

CO2H, CO2R

15

Cambridge Pre-U Revised Syllabus


10 Names, structures and abbreviations of some amino acids
structure of side chain R- in
name

3-letter abbreviation

NH2

1-letter symbol

CH
CO2H

alanine

Ala

CH3

aspartic acid

Asp

HO2CCH2

cysteine

Cys

HSCH2

glutamic acid

Glu

HO2CCH2CH2

glycine

Gly

lysine

Lys

H2NCH2CH2CH2CH2

phenylalanine

Phe

serine

Ser

tyrosine

Tyr

CH2
HOCH2

HO

CH2
CH3

valine

Val

CH3

16

CH

The Periodic Table of Elements


Group

13

14

15

16

17

Key

18
2

He

hydrogen

helium

1.0

4.0
10

atomic number

Li

Be

atomic symbol

Ne

lithium

beryllium

name

boron

carbon

nitrogen

oxygen

fluorine

neon

6.9
11

9.0
12

relative atomic mass

10.8
13

12.0
14

14.0
15

16.0
16

19.0
17

20.2
18

17

Na

Mg

Al

Si

Cl

Ar

sodium

magnesium

phosphorus

sulfur

chlorine

argon

24.3
20

silicon

23.0
19

aluminium

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

27.0
31

28.1
32

31.0
33

32.1
34

35.5
35

39.9
36

Ca

Sc

Ti

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Ga

Ge

As

Se

Br

Kr

potassium

calcium

scandium

titanium

vanadium

chromium

manganese

iron

cobalt

nickel

copper

zinc

gallium

germanium

arsenic

selenium

bromine

krypton

39.1
37

40.1
38

45.0
39

47.9
40

50.9
41

52.0
42

54.9
43

55.8
44

58.9
45

58.7
46

63.5
47

65.4
48

69.7
49

72.6
50

74.9
51

79.0
52

79.9
53

83.8
54

Mo

Tc

In

Rb

Sr

Zr

Nb

rubidium

strontium

yttrium

zirconium

niobium

85.5

87.6

88.9

91.2

92.9

molybdenum technetium

95.9

10

11

12

Ru

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd

Sn

Sb

Te

ruthenium

rhodium

palladium

silver

cadmium

indium

tin

antimony

tellurium

iodine

xenon

Xe

101.1

102.9

106.4

107.9

112.4

116.7

121.8

127.6

131.3

82

83

84

126.9
85

Pb

Bi

Po

At

Rn

55

56

5771

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

114.8
81

Cs

Ba

lanthanoids

Hf

Ta

Re

Os

Au

Hg

Tl

caesium

barium

hafnium

tantalum

tungsten

rhenium

osmium

Ir

Pt

iridium

platinum

gold

mercury

thallium

lead

bismuth

polonium

astatine

radon

132.9

137.3

178.5

180.9

183.8

186.2

190.2

195.1

197.0

200.6

204.4

207.2

209.0

87

88

89103

104

105

106

107

108

192.2
109

110

111

112

Fr

Ra

actinoids

Rf

Db

Sg

Bh

Hs

Mt

Ds

Rg

Cr

francium

radium

rutherfordium

dubnium

seaborgium

bohrium

hassium

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

Pr

Nd

57

lanthanoids

actinoids

La

Ce

lanthanum

cerium

138.9
89

140.1
90

praseodymium neodymium

140.9
91

144.4
92

114

meitnerium darmstadtium roentgenium copernicium

67

116

Fl

Lv

flerovium

livermorium

68

69

70

71

Pm

Sm

Eu

Gd

Tb

Dy

Ho

Er

Tm

Yb

Lu

promethium

samarium

europium

gadolinium

terbium

dysprosium

holmium

erbium

thulium

ytterbium

lutetium

93

150.4
94

152.0
95

157.3
96

158.9
97

162.5
98

164.9
99

167.3
100

168.9
101

173.1
102

175.0
103

Ac

Th

Pa

Np

Pu

Am

Cm

Bk

Cf

Es

Fm

Md

No

Lr

actinium

thorium

protactinium

uranium

neptunium

plutonium

americium

curium

berkelium

californium

einsteinium

fermium

mendelevium

nobelium

lawrencium

232.0

231.0

238.0

86

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