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IMPACT OF AGRICULTURE MODERNIZATION ON PASTORALISM IN

UGANDA,
A CASE STUDY OF MUTUTU PARISH, KINONO SUB COUNTY,
KIRUHURA DISTRICT

BY
KYABAGYE ANNAH
REG: No; 13/U/25936/NTE

A RESEARCH DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT


FOR THE AWARD OF A BACHELORS DEGREE OF ARTS IN SOCIAL
DEVELOPMENT OF MAKERERE UNIVERSITY

SEPTEMBER 2016

DECLARATION
I Kyabagye Annah registration number 13/U/25936/NTE do declare that the work presented in
this research report is my original work and has never been presented to any other University or
institution of higher learning for the award of any academic qualification.
Signature: Date: .
Kyabagye Annah
(Student)

APPROVAL
This is to certify that this research report has been submitted in partial fulfillment of the
requirement for the award of A Degree in Social Development of Makerere University under my
supervision.
Signed: .. Date: ..
Ms. Bbosa Christine
(Supervisor)

DEDICATION
With great Joy and heartfelt feelings, I dedicate this research work to my great and beloved
mother Mrs. Flora Kyofa for the endless financial, spiritual and moral support towards me and
my education;
To my sisters Ester, Molly, Alice; my brothers Jeff, Lawrence, Naboth for their support in all
ways;
God bless you abundantly.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I acknowledge with deep pressure, the almighty God for enabling me complete the course and
this research work safely and for the wisdom he has given me.
My gratitude and sincere thanks also goes to my parent; Mrs Flora, my Brother Naboth for their
consistent efforts, sacrifice and their supportive words of encouragement towards my success in
education.
I also Love to extend my gratitude appreciation to my university supervisor Ms. Bbosa Chiristine
for her tremendous efforts in guiding me during the time I started research work up to the time of
submission, and to all lectures for equipping me with skills required by a researcher and as a
social worker.
Finally, massive appreciation goes my friends Dorcus, Pamela for their guidance and moral
support rendered to me during my studies and the entire researcher work.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
DECLARATION.....................................................................................................................i
APPROVAL............................................................................................................................ii
DEDICATION.......................................................................................................................iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.....................................................................................................iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS........................................................................................................v
LIST OF TABLES...............................................................................................................viii
LIST OF FIGURES...............................................................................................................ix
ACRONYMS/ABBREVIATIONS.........................................................................................x
ABSTRACT...........................................................................................................................xi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND.........................................1
1.0 Introduction.......................................................................................................................1
1.1

Background of the Study.............................................................................................1

1.2 Problem Statement............................................................................................................5


1.3 Objectives of the Study.....................................................................................................5
1.3.1 Purpose of the study.......................................................................................................5
1.3.2 Objectives of the study...................................................................................................5
1.4 Research Questions...........................................................................................................6
1.5 Significance of the Study..................................................................................................6
1.6 Scope of the Study............................................................................................................7
1.6.1 Geographical scope........................................................................................................7
1.6.2 Time scope.....................................................................................................................7
1.6.3 Content scope.................................................................................................................7
1.7 Operational Definitions.....................................................................................................7
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW....................................................................8
2.0 Introduction.......................................................................................................................8
2.1 Introduction of Modernisation policy in Uganda..............................................................8
2.2 Origin of Modernization...................................................................................................9
2.2 Forms of Pastoralism......................................................................................................10
2.3 The livestock-livelihoods services..................................................................................11
2.4 Modernization and live hoods of pastoralists.................................................................14
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2.4 Challenges faced by pastoralists.....................................................................................15


2.5 Strategies of improving pastoralists livelihoods............................................................18
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY.................................................21
1.0 Introduction.....................................................................................................................21
3.1 Research Design..............................................................................................................21
3.2 Study Area.......................................................................................................................21
3.3 Population of Study.........................................................................................................21
3.4 Sample Size.....................................................................................................................22
3.5 Sampling Procedure........................................................................................................22
3.6 Sources of Data...............................................................................................................23
3.6.1 Primary Data................................................................................................................23
3.6.1.1 Data Collection Methods..........................................................................................23
Interview method..................................................................................................................24
Focus Group interviews........................................................................................................24
3.6.2 Secondary Data............................................................................................................25
Documentary review.............................................................................................................25
3.7 Reliability and Validity of research instruments.............................................................25
3.7.1 Validity.........................................................................................................................25
3.7.2 Reliability.....................................................................................................................25
3.8 Data Processing and Analysis.........................................................................................26
3.8.1 Organizing....................................................................................................................26
3.8.2 Editing..........................................................................................................................26
3.8.3 Coding..........................................................................................................................26
3.8.4 Tabulation.....................................................................................................................27
3.9 Limitations of the study..................................................................................................27
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS AND DATA ANALYSIS.........28
4.0 Introduction.....................................................................................................................28
4.1 Background information of the Respondents.................................................................28
4.1.1 Gender Distribution of the Respondents......................................................................28
4.1.2 Age of the Respondents...............................................................................................29
4.1.3 Respondents Marital Status..........................................................................................30
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4.1.4 Level of education of respondents...............................................................................30


4.2 Characteristics of pastoralists.........................................................................................31
4.3 Pillars of Pastoralism......................................................................................................32
4.4 Natural resources pastoralists depend on........................................................................33
4.5 Why pastoralists move from place to place....................................................................35
4.6 Impact of modernization on pastoralists livelihood.......................................................37
4.8 Strategies of improving livelihood of pastoralists..........................................................40
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS.......43
5.0 Introduction.....................................................................................................................43
5.1 Summary.........................................................................................................................43
5.2 Conclusion......................................................................................................................44
5.3 Recommendations...........................................................................................................45
REFERENCES.....................................................................................................................47
APPENDIX I........................................................................................................................49
APPENDIX II.......................................................................................................................56
APPENDIX III: Estimated Budget for the Bachelors Degree research study.....................57
APPENDIX III: A Research Work Plan for the period of June/July 2016...........................58

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: A table showing Gender Distribution of the Respondents...............................................28
Table 2: Showing age intervals of respondents.............................................................................29
Table 3: Showing marital status of respondents............................................................................30
Table 4: Showing level of education of respondents.....................................................................31
Table 5: showing Reponses on the characteristics of pastoralists.................................................31
Table 6: Showing responses on the different pillars of pastoralism..............................................32
Table 7: showing responses on the different Natural resources pastoralists depend on................34
Table 8: Showing responses on why pastoralists move from place to place.................................35
Table 9: showing the impact of modernization on pastoralists livelihood...................................37
Table 10: showing the responses on the challenges of pastoralists...............................................39
Table 11: showing the responses on the strategies to improve pastoralists livelihoods...............40

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: A Pie Chart showing the Gender Distribution of the Respondents................................29

ACRONYMS/ABBREVIATIONS
WHO

World Health Organization

PMA

plan for modernization of agriculture

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ABSTRACT
The purpose of the study was carried out to assess the impact of Agriculture modernization on
pastoralism in Uganda, a case study of Matutu, Kiruhura district.
The study research was guided by specific objectives which were meant to examine the impact
of modernization on livelihoods of pastoralists, find out the challenges facing the pastoralists in
Matutu Parish, suggest possible strategies of improving pastoralists livelihoods in Matutu
Parish, Kinono Sub County, Kiruhura District
Regarding the literature review, in chapter Two, variables were reviewed under themes that
constituted sub-headings. They included modernization and pastoralists livelihoods, challenges
faced by pastoralists and strategies that can help problems pastoralist communities face. Of the
impact of modernization, pastoralists have gained access to improved livestock services like
extension workers, farmer worker shops, access to improved breeds, they also have access to
market and increased value for their livestock products. Pastoralists face a number of challenges
that include among others Inadequate provision of water points and animal health services,
Inadequate livestock marketing services and infrastructure, conflicts and insecurity among
others.
The research study used both explanatory and descriptive designs. Explanatory design was used
to explain the impact of modernization, challenges and strategies that can help reduce the
problems faced by pastoralists whereas descriptive design was used to explore the magnitude of
the problem that was under study was.
The selection of respondents was by simple random and purposive sampling basing a sample size
of 80 respondents who included pastoralists, community members, and extension officers within
the area of study. Data collection methods used to collect data included self administered
questionnaires, interview method, focus group discussion and review of documents like reports
and journals all which helped the researcher to access data needed for the research.
Data collected was analyzed and processed using special statistical package for social scientists
(SPSS) to get sample characteristics, distribution of frequency and to generate the intended
results in forma of tables and pie-charts.
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In chapter four, findings from the impact of agriculture modernization showed that pastoralists
now have access to good markets for their animals and infrastructure, extensional agriculture
services and veterinary services. Other findings showed that monitoring the provision of public
services in pastoralist areas can help solve most of the problems faced by pastoralist.

Basing on the findings, it is therefore recommended that the government through the ministry of
agriculture should strengthen pastoralists access to markets and livestock trade through better
linkages between pastoralists and traders, road construction, improved veterinary services
(including issuing vaccination certificates, which are essential for international livestock trade);
lobbying to ease taxation on livestock marketing during droughts; and changing policies which
make it difficult for the private sector to operate in pastoralist areas. Also there should
Addressing conflict in pastoral areas through facilitation of local-level dialogue. Dialogue should
be done in pastoral communities, hold regular assemblies for pastoralists, so they can air out
their grievances and help in providing solutions themselves the stakeholders can do to solve their
problem.

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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND


1.0 Introduction
This chapter covers the background to the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the
study, research questions, scope of the study, significance of the study and operational
definitions.
Pastoralists are common in Kiruhura district though there has been a plan for modernizing their
way of living and improve their livestock, improve production, market access and improve their
income.
1.1 Background of the Study
The background contains global and national information on the impact of agricultural
modernization on pastoralism in Uganda. Pastoralism is high and animals are reared in
traditional way of farming. This affecting quantity of milk produce for commercial purposes in
Kiruhura District; about 80% of farmers practice traditional way of rearing animals that affects
their produce and income.
Modernity is a term of art used in humanities and social sciences to designate both a
historical period (the modern era), as well as ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms,
attitudes and practices that arose in post-medieval Europe and have developed since, in
various ways and at historical processes and cultural phenomenon ( from fashion to modern
warfare), it can also refer to the existential experience of the conditions they produce,
and their ongoing impact on human culture, institutions and politics (Berman, 2010).
On the other side, According to Kratli and Swift (2014), the term pastoralist can be used to
indicate a cultural identity and a production/ livelihood system. This means that it can refer to
people who practice pastoralism, those who share a pastoralist background or those involved in
activities related to pastoralism. Also, The World Initiative for Sustainable Pastoralism (WISP)
defines pastoralism as any predominantly livestock-based production system that is mainly
extensive in nature and uses some form of mobility of livestock (Hatfield and Davies, 2006).
Research has shown that modernization theory is a description and explanation of the purposes
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of transformation from traditional or underdeveloped to modern societies. Modernization theory


attempts to identify the social variables that contribute to social, and seeks to explain the
processes of social evolution (Rostow, 1960). Modernization theory attempts to identify the
social variables that contribute to social progress and development of societies, and seeks to
explain the process of social evolution.
The way livestock contribute to household livelihoods depends on availability of both private
and public goods. Examples of private goods are the livestock themselves, feed, shelters and
drugs for animals among others; public goods include roads, market places, market information
systems, government-run animal health posts along major trekking routes. For example, in
Kenya, the new dairy policy framework has legalized the activities of small-scale milk vendors,
which were previously banned, thereby creating opportunities for a smallholder-based growth of
the dairy sector (Kaitibie et al., 2008); at the same time, the existing policy framework in the
country discourages and limits the activities of community animal health workers, which some
studies have shown can effectively provide animal health services to smallholders (Mugunieri et
al., 2004). The formal and informal rules and regulations that influence the way households
make use of their assets, including livestock, are usually termed policies and institutions, and
the popular policy objective of creating an enabling environment equates to formulating and
implementing policy and institutional reforms which allow households making a socially
desirable use of their, often scarce, resources.
In Tanzania, recent studies on Usangu basin include those by Walsh (2007), Sosovele et al.
(2006), Franks et al. (2004), Kadigi (2006). Walsh (2007) assessed the situation of pastoralists in
Tanzania in the light of current and future policy and environmental changes; and identified
practical responses that will help ensure pastoralism provides a sustainable livelihood to the
millions of people who depend on it while contributing to the national economy of the country.
Kenyas pastoralist communities are very diverse, much more so than their counterparts in
neighboring Uganda, where there are essentially two major groups of cattle keeping pastoralists.
They differ in religion and culture, as well as in the form of pastoralism practiced. Some
communities keep cattle, others camels, and a few both; in most cases combined in various ways
with shoats (sheep and goats).
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According to research, French and British colonial rule in the West African savannah began at
the turn of the century, shortly after a widespread render pest epidemic and destroyed the cattle
herds comprising the economic and military basis of the Fulani Empire (Hopen, 1959:16).
Attempts were made by both colonial powers to restrict the economic and political power of the
region's nomads. This began with attempts to alter traditional forms of labor relationships
through the abolition of slavery.
In addition in northern Nigeria, large European owned ranching operations took advantage of the
new tax by purchasing Fulani cattle at the time it was collected. The marketing of cattle at tax
time, in fact, became a major economic activity in northern Nigeria under the control of Syrian
and African merchants (Stenning, 1959). Hatfield et al. (2006) noted that the value of pastoralism
should not be confined to that which can be captured in the marketplace as pastoralism has a
wide array of values that are entirely overlooked by market oriented surveys. When practiced
effectively, pastoralism creates and maintains ecosystem health and stability, and as such it is
responsible for a range of environmental goods and services, which are enjoyed far beyond the
boundaries of the pastoral system itself (Hatfield et al., 2006).
Other studies that are cited by Odhiombo (2006) include Hugo (1992) who attempts to
understand and value the interaction between pastoral people and their environment, and to
model the economic behavior of a specific pastoral group. The paper submits that subsistence
economies can serve as examples for Western people and their economies in exploring how to
respect nature and use it sustainably. Hesse et al. (2006) frames the economic argument for
pastoralism by identifying the common preconceptions and misconceptions held by many
decision-makers in Africa about pastoralists and their way of life.
In Uganda, the attitude from the Head of State right down to district authority level is that the
pastoralists need to settle and modernise. This has implications for pastoralists, particularly in the
relatively peaceful south, many of whom have lost their land as a result of privatization and
enclosure by wealthy pastoral elites. Uganda has a total land area of 241,550.7km2 (Statistical
Abstracts, MFP&ED, June 2014). Rangelands in Uganda make up 42% of the countrys total
land area (Kisamba Mugerwa 2001). This area forms what is commonly known as the cattle
corridor which is generally arid and semi-arid. The area covers parts of Isingiro, Mbarara,
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Rakai, Masaka, Kasese and Kabarole districts, parts of Kibale and Mubende, Nakaseke,
Nakasongola and Mukono Districts, the eastern parts of Masindi district, the northern parts of
Kamuli district and extends through parts of Apac, Lira, Soroti and districts of Karamoja.
The main cattle keeping communities are the Bahima in areas around Kiruhura, the Basongora
near Rwenzori Mountain in Kasese district, and the Karimojong in the northeast. Others include
the Itesot in the East, the Baruli of Nakasongola district and those of mixed ethnic backgrounds
in Kiboga, Mubende, Luwero, Masaka and Masindi districts. The Iteso and the Baruli practice
sedentary cattle keeping, while the Basongora and Karimojong practice transhumance. Karamoja
is the most pastoralist part of Uganda comprising nearly 10% of the countrys land surface. The
short-horned zebu type of cattle is predominant in Karamoja while the Bahima traditionally keep
the long-horned Ankole cattle.
Government has endeavored to put in policies and institution to address constraints to
responsible use of pastoral communities. These include: gazerting of land as game reserves and
game parks; the Cattle Grazing act of (1964), construction of water points under Livestock
Services Project. The Plan Modernization of Agriculture is a framework which sets out the
strategic vision and principles upon which interventions to address poverty eradication through
transformation of the agricultural sector can be developed .none the less, the plan for agricultural
modernization has proved much output in Kiruhura district most especially via pastoralism
transformation.
Ugandas PMA, was issued in 2000 (MPED, 2000), after a long and inclusive consultative
process, and it has been implemented since 2001. The vision of the PMA is to eradicate poverty
through a profitable, competitive, sustainable and dynamic agricultural and agro-industrial
sector. The mission is clearly and briefly defined as transforming subsistence agriculture to
commercial agriculture. The PMA is not in itself an investment plan. Rather, it defines the
visions, and the principles and strategies which Central Government, Local Councils and
farmers/rural households may apply to develop policies and investment plans that are relevant
for improving agriculture-based livelihoods.

1.2 Problem Statement


Despite the efforts the Ugandan government has put in place to modernize pastoralists and
ensure their livelihoods are changed by the activities they perform, through the Plan for
Modernization of Agriculture program and its contribution towards the social economic lives and
livelihoods of pastoralists; many people still have low standards of living with no substantial
income to upgrade themselves yet they keep and have large herds of animals. Few people have
access and reliable information of what constitutes the agricultural modernization policy,
nonetheless few people can testify over the contribution of the policy to the lives of pastoralists
in Uganda. Many researchers have carried out their research in an attempt to assess the
contribution of modernization of agriculture to the pastoralists however there are still much gaps
because pastoralists are still living the same life as before the introduction of the modernization
policy.
In Kiruhura district particularly, Kinono Parish, The modernization policy has done less in
improving the pastoralists ways of keeping and carrying out agriculture. Many pastoralists still
have large herds of cattle but with less production to increase their income. Therefore its against
this that attracted the researcher to carry out the research aiming at analyzing the performance
and contribution of modernization policy on pastoralists in Uganda.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.3.1 Purpose of the study
To assess the contribution of agriculture modernization on pastoralism in Matutu Parish, Kinono
Sub county, Kiruhura District
1.3.2 Objectives of the study
To assess the impact of Agriculture modernization on the livelihoods of pastoralists in Matutu
Parish, Kinono Sub county, Kiruhura District
To find out the challenges facing the pastoralists in Matutu Parish, Kinono Sub county, Kiruhura
District

To suggest possible strategies of improving pastoralists livelihoods in Matutu Parish, Kinono


Sub county, Kiruhura District
1.4 Research Questions
What is the impact of agriculture modernization on the livelihoods of pastoralists?
What challenges do pastoralists face?
Which of the strategies can help in improving livelihoods of pastoralists?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The results of this study benefited in the following ways;
The study acted as an eye opener to future researchers in making more analysis and criticizes the
problems related to the study phenomenon. The available data was of great importance to the
academicians interested in the field of the study phenomenon. Therefore academicians who wish
to undertake further research on the impact of modernization policy of agriculture on pastoralism
and found the literature arising from this study to be of great value.
The study helped the Government, research analysts and administrators like agriculture extension
officers and the ministry of agriculture to realize and assess the impact of Agriculture
modernization on pastoralism, the problems affecting pastoralists and used the research strategies
to solve such problems that affect the pastoralists.
Training Institutions such as agricultural training institutions, universities, colleges and other
educational institutions found the study of importance as a reference source. During their
training, institutions stressed the emphasis of imparting more skills and how to handle the
modernization of pastoralists and related issues with the help of the study material used in the
research.
The research findings were of importance to policy makers at national and local levels as they
design policies aimed at enhancing a strong modernization policy and helped in guiding
formulation of new policies that help in reducing the problems pastoralists face.
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1.6 Scope of the Study


The scope of the study covered the geographical, time and content scope
1.6.1 Geographical scope
The research was carried out in Matutu Parish, Kinono Sub County, Kiruhura District,
southwestern Uganda the area in Kiruhura district were most pastoralists come and do most of
their activities from thus this made the research easier.
1.6.2 Time scope
The study took a period of 8 months that was from February 2016-August 2016
1.6.3 Content scope
The study was carried out on modernization and its impact on pastoralists, in Kinono Sub County
where by the researcher acquired respondents who helped to provide information concerning her
topic of study. This helped to get information from various people especially adults and the youth
in the area.
1.7 Operational Definitions
Modernisation; changing something so that it is more suitable for the present time by using new
equipment or methods
Pastoralists; mean people who practice pastoralism

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW


2.0 Introduction
This chapter covers the views of the researcher and those of other scholars about the
topic/problem under study. The literature therefore focuses on the general Impact, contributions,
challenges as well as the different strategies that can be done to help in improving livelihood of
pastoralists in Uganda, Africa and in the whole world at large.
2.1 Introduction of Modernisation policy in Uganda
Modernisation of pastoralists is very important in this modern error where livelihood has to be
improved, fit and contribute positively to the growth of the countrys GDP.
One of the key champions of the agriculture modernization in Kinono Sub County, Kiruhura
district, is the National Agricultural Advisory Services (NAADS) which is a Ugandan
government agency created in 2001 to improve rural livelihoods by increasing agricultural
productivity and profitability. With an annual budget of Ug.Shs 97bn ($51m), NAADS is funded
by international donors (80%), such as the European Union and the UK's Department for
International Development, the Ugandan government, local government and farmer groups
(Roudart 1998). It is one of the seven pillars of the Plan for Modernization of Agriculture, which
aims to replace Uganda's predominantly subsistence farming with market-oriented agriculture.
Charles Abed, from the NAADS department from Kiruhura district, in which the main diary is
located, says that a key feature of the NAADS's strategy is providing demand-driven services.
And he argued that on the arrangement, Cattle keepers form groups of between 15 and 30 people
and meet at parish and sub-county level to select agricultural activities for which they need key
information and advice. But however he argues that Farmers must be advised to select activities
that will result in marketable, profitable goods, with low production costs and about which there
is ample knowledge in the district. And to him adapting to modernization of cattle rearing
patterns is so far the best in Kiruhura.
Well as Elizabeth 2000 argues that Ankole Longhorn cattle can survive in extremely harsh, dry
conditions such as those in sub-Saharan Africa which is becoming drier and hotter. In a context
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where herders are strongly encouraged to keep exotic and hybrid cattle, the innovative LIFE
approach led Ugandan herders including those in Kiruhura to revalue the Longhorns for their
economic and cultural value. And all this was as a result of the modernization policy in the
agriculture sector.
2.2 Origin of Modernization
Modernization refers to a model of a progressive transition from a 'pre-modern' or 'traditional' to
a 'modern' society (Khan 1965). The theory looks at the internal factors of a country while
assuming that, with assistance, "traditional" countries can be brought to development in the same
manner more developed countries have. Modernization theory attempts to identify the social
variables that contribute to social progress and development of societies, and seeks to explain the
process of social evolution. It also looks at internal dynamics while referring to social and
cultural structures and the adaptation of new technologies.
Ugandas modernization of agriculture was issued in 2000, after a long and inclusive consultative
process, and it was implemented in 2001. The plan for modernization of agriculture (PMA) is an
integral part of the strategies of the national Poverty Eradication Action Plan, PEAP, and
contributes directly to the PEAP goals: (1): rapid and sustainable economic growth and structural
transformation, and (3): increased ability of the poor to raise their incomes. The vision of the
PMA is to eradicate poverty through a profitable, competitive, sustainable and dynamic
agricultural and agro-industrial sector. The mission is clearly and briefly defined as transforming
subsistence agriculture to commercial agriculture. The modernization for agriculture not in itself
an investment plan rather it defines the visions, and the principles and strategies which Central
Government, Local Councils and farmers/rural households may apply to develop policies and
investment plans that are relevant for improving agriculture-based livelihoods (MPED, 2000).
Nonetheless, a 2014 study by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) found that
while NAADS as a product for modernization policy in Uganda had promoted the use of
improved production technologies and high-yielding crop varieties, including the different
animal species in herd men and most parts of the country, only a few farmers were using them
even within sub-counties where there service was operating. As a result there was no difference
in yield growth between NAADS sub-counties and those without its assistance.
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Other studies have found that because NAADS was favoring wealthier farmers as the poorest
subsistence farmers in greatest need were unable to fully articulate their demands. For instance a
2004 paper by Oxfam and the Forum for Women in Development said that only people with
convertible assets (such as a cow) or external sources of funding were benefiting from NAADS
and this left majority pastoralists in Kiruhura un attended to and it is against such back ground
that I found it vital to analyze the performance of the modernization policy in agriculture and in
that case on the pastoralists side in Kiruhura district (FAO 2005).
Conclusively, much as different stake holders including government has done much in
transforming the lives of pastoralists in Kiruhura district through various mechanisms including
the plan to completely modernize agriculture, much need to be done on the grass root and I think
that forms the focus of my research largely.
2.2 Forms of Pastoralism
Pastoralism is categorized according to the degree of mobility. The Food and Agricultural
Organisation (FAO 2011) identifies four broad categories of extensive livestock production
systems: nomadism, transhumance, agro-pastoralism and enclosed pastoralism/ranching.
Nomadism
Nomads follow seasonal migratory patterns which are largely determined by the need for pasture
and water for livestock. Nomads do not create permanent settlements but rather live in temporary
shelter (Busingye Harriet, 2003). This practice has largely died out in Uganda.
Transhumance
Transhumance is the seasonal movement of herds among fixed points in order to exploit the
seasonal availability of pastures In Uganda, transhumance is practiced by the Basongora in
Kasese district and Karamojong in the North East.

Agro-pastoralism

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FAO describes agro-pastoralists as settled communities who cultivate sufficient areas to feed
their families from their own crop production (http://www.fao.org). They hold land rights and
keep smaller herds of livestock. Agro-pastoralism is practiced in parts of Karamoja, most of
Teso, Nakaseke and Nakasongola.
Ranching /enclosed livestock production
This is an extensive livestock production system under which land is individually owned and
usually fenced. Ranching is common in Ankole area in Western Uganda.
Sedentarisation
Sedentarisation involves keeping livestock near farms and villages all year-round (Weber and
Horst, 2011) without moving to distant locations. In Uganda, it is practiced by the Itesot and the
Baruli. Three of the four categories of pastoralism above, that is, nomadic-pastoralism,
transhumance and agro-pastoralism are sometimes regarded as stages towards sedentarisation.
2.3 The livestock-livelihoods services
Policies are effective and have a positive impact on the ground, at least in the medium to long
term, when they are participatory, evidence-based and supportive of household livelihoods
strategies, i.e. when they are consistent with the system of incentives that underpin household
production and consumption decisions. Spielman and Pandya-Lorch (2009), commenting on 20
agricultural development instances that helped to substantially reduce hunger and poverty, note
that: even with sustained public investment in science, technology, and complementary
investment areas, little can be achieved without the right incentives. By putting policies in place
that encourage farmers, entrepreneurs, and companies to invest in agriculture ... the likelihood
of success in agricultural development increases incentives work best when market participants
can respond effectively to these incentives collectively or individually (Spielman and PandyaLorch, 2009).
Livestock provide a variety of livelihoods services to rural households, both monetary and nonmonetary ones (Ayalew et al., 2003; Bebe et al., 2003; Moll, 2005; Upton, 2004). For example,
Starkey (2000) reviews the role of livestock for tillage and domestic transport in Africa; Lybbert
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et al. (2004) look at the role of livestock as a risk-management tool in Southern Ethiopia;
Randolph et al. (2007) present a comprehensive review of livestocks contribution to human
nutrition and health for poverty reduction in the developing world; Kazianga and Udry (2006)
examine the extent to which livestock (as well as grain storage and inter-household transfers)
help mitigate risk and reduce income fluctuations in Burkina Faso; Jackson and Mtengeti (2005)
provide an assessment of livestock manure production, management and utilization in the
Njombe district of Southern Tanzania. Sandford and Ashley (2010) identify nine major rationales
for households to keep livestock in the Horn of Africa, and in the developing world in general
especially in form of monetary terms.
The contribution of livestock to household income, either to total income or to agricultural
income, is a simple measure of the monetary benefits of livestock for rural households. A review
of the available evidence for the IGAD region suggests that: Livestock contribute significantly to
household cash income particularly in pastoral areas, where crop agriculture is marginally viable;
in other production systems livestock are only one of the many assets of households, which
rarely specialize in animal production (Ellis and Bahiigwa, 2003; Gryseels, 1988; Karugia et al.,
2006; Little et al., 2008; Nega et al., 2009). Well-off households derive some significant cash
from sales of livestock and livestock products/by-products, whereas poor households marginally
participate in livestock markets (FEWSNET, 2010a; FEWSNET, 2010b; IFAD, 2009; LIU,
2007a; Markakis, 2004; Pica-Ciamarra et al. 2010b).
Provision of animal food Livestock generates a regular supply of animal source food (ASF), that
provides a critical supplement and diversity to staple plant-based diets. This is particularly true
for milk and eggs but less true for meat, as slaughtering animals for meat purpose is more
infrequent, occurring just when animals become sick, unproductive or for exceptional occasions
such as religious ceremonies or hospitality. A review of consumption of animal food in the IGAD
region suggests that: The majority of the livestock-dependent poor are net buyers of food items,
and tend to sell livestock and animal foods to buy cheaper sources of calories, typically staple
grains (Fadul Kabbar, 2009; Herrero et al. 2009; ILRI 2010; Levinsohn and Mcmillan 2005;
Niur Abdi, 2006; Zezza et al. 2008).

12

There is a positive relationship between livestock ownership and consumption of animal food,
which is mediated through a variety of channels, including increased income, reduced
vulnerability, reduced drudgery, increased access to credit, and other factors that may help
households access animal protein (Aklilu et al., 2008; Leroy and Fronglillo, 2007; SDP, 2004;
Vella et al., 1995).
Financial services, both access to credit and insurance facilities, are rarely available in rural
areas. Livestock accumulation is one of the strategies farmers use to overcome their limited
access to financial services: animals do not depreciate along time (i.e. they are a hedge against
inflation) and can be easily liquidated both to finance productive investments and to cope with
either minor or major shocks (Rahmato, 1991; LIU, 2007a; LIU, 2007b). The evidence in the
IGAD region suggests that: Households accumulate livestock for both savings and insurance
purposes (Abegaz et al., 2008; Dercon, 1996; Kibreab Habtom and Ruys, 2007; Obwona and
Ddumba-Seentamy, 1995; Ogola et al. 2010). Also that Livestock accumulation strategies, on
their own, are not always effective at sustaining the livelihoods of farmers, agro-pastoralists and
pastoralists, particular in time of drought (allAfrica.com, 2010; Blench and Marriage, 1999;
Desta and Coppock, 2000; Sudan Tribune, 2009).
Continuous cultivation of land results in soil fertility decline in most agricultural systems in subSaharan Africa, because small-scale farmers rarely can afford buying fertilizers at market prices
(Fleshman, 2006). A key resource that could be useful in reversing this trend is manure from
livestock. In effect, in large parts of Africa manure represents up to 35-40 percent of the nitrogen
needed for growing crops, making it a major source of soil nutrients in these regions; in some
areas, manure is even more important than the stalks, leaves and other crop residues, which are
fed back into soils by farmers after harvesting (Liu et al., 2010). The evidence in the IGAD
region suggests that: Application of livestock manure significantly increases crop yields
(Abusuwar and El Zilal, 2010; Baltenweck et al., 2007; FAO, 2004; Kimbi et al., 1992; Marere
et al., 2001) and Households make very little use of fertilizers, including both chemicals and
manure from livestock (Africa news, 2007; FAO, 2006; World Bank, 2000).
Livestock has the ability to convert the otherwise under or non utilized crop by products, grasses
and fibrous forage of farms, and communal gazing areas into food and other useful products
13

(Kassa, 2000). For pastoralists, not only livestock are a means of subsistence and prestige goods
that enable individuals to establish social relations with other members of society, but also the
animals enable individuals to establish and achieve mystic linkage with the supernatural. Being a
provider of basic needs, pastoralists have developed a special attachment to livestock that
outsiders find hard to comprehend.
2.4 Modernization and live hoods of pastoralists
The livestock sector is growing faster than any other agricultural sub-sector (Bolwig et al.,
2007), internationally as well as regionally and nationally. According to the FAO, global meat
and milk production must double by 2050 if demand is to be met.
However, Africa supplies only 2% of global trade, much of which is from industrialized
production (Babagana, 2008). There is a clear opportunity for East African governments to
capitalise on the rapid projected growth in demand for livestock products over the next couple of
decades by focusing on the latent opportunities in pastoral production systems, especially since
pastoralism has been shown to be the most productive use of land for the rearing and production
of livestock (two to ten times higher per hectare than ranching systems) (Scoones, 1995 cited in
Mortimore, 2008), and evidence also suggests that there is a strong preference for meat from
pastoral areas in regional markets (Kratli, 2008; Letara et al., 2006).
Past attempts to introduce more intensive production systems into dry lands have largely resulted
in failure e.g. attempts at large-scale irrigated agriculture and intensive ranching in the 1970s and
1980s (Mortimore et al., 2008; SOS Sahel UK, 2008). Mobile pastoralists are better-off than
those who have settled, especially where access to secondary education is limited. A study
conducted by Little et al. (2008) in Kenya showed that, in 80% of pastoralist households, those
that practiced mobility were generally better-off (less likely to lose their livestock assets and
become food insecure) than those who had fewer animals and were sedentary. Another study in
Ethiopia confirms these findings, showing that livestock are more at risk of succumbing to
drought in areas where pastoralists are settled into a semi sedentary lifestyle. In 2004, many
pastoral settlements were partially or entirely abandoned, as people left to escape drought
(Devereux, 2006).

14

Pastoralists maintain social relationships in order to exercise effective, well-thought- out


mobility strategies in response to changes in their natural, political and economic environments
(Mortimore et al., 2008). They move not only to ensure food for their herds, but also to access
markets, avoid disease, escape conflict and enhance exchanges with other land users (e.g.
exchanging manure for crop residue with farmers). Depending on circumstances, movements can
be highly predictable or unpredictable, and the scale at which they move can vary sometimes
whole households move and sometimes just the animals and herders. Pastoralists need for static
links varies also. If land tenure is an issue they may need to be visible and have a static link to
stake claims, or if they need to access services that are not available through other means, like
education and healthcare (IIED, 2008). Examples of ensuring tenure through static links have
been seen in many areas in Tanzania and Kenya, where pastoralists will farm knowing that
harvests will partially fail, if not entirely, just to prove that they have a claim to the land
(Homewood and Chevenix-Trench, 2008).
2.4 Challenges faced by pastoralists
Pastoralists face a number of challenges that hinder their way of life and stifle their ability to
adapt to changes in their external environment. Taken together, these challenges account for the
poverty and lack of essential services (Mike Shanahan, 2012). Pastoralist women and men face a
series of challenges that hinder their way of life and stifle their ability to adapt to changes in their
external environment. These challenges account for the poor human-development statistics in
pastoral societies.
Laws and Policies
Uganda has enacted laws and passed policies that are cognizant of pastoralism. Good policies
provide an enabling environment for pastoralism to flourish. Studies have shown that
desertification often occurs where policies undermine the pastoralist system, while where
pastoralism has been supported by appropriate policies, biodiversity and ecosystem integrity
have usually been enhanced (Hatfield and Davies, 2006). Pastoralists are among the minority and
marginalized groups and as such, laws and policies concerning rights of minorities, vulnerable
and marginalized groups are relevant to them. But however, they continue to face challenges
relating to land wrangles with fellow pastoralists and neighborhoods.
15

According to research made by (Swift J. 2014), Kenya has an active and dynamic pastoral civil
society, with a mixed experience in terms of both success and failure on which the AU process
can draw and build. The major policy challenges facing pastoralism are manifest in Kenya:
periodic droughts, conflicts, constraints to mobility and inadequate socio-economic
infrastructure.
Other constraints include, cross border dimensions, cattle rustling and insecurity, diseases,
marketing and mobility restrictions. Interesting changes are going on in the political and
economic arena that provide both opportunities and threats to pastoralism and which call for
concerted policy action to secure pastoralism and pastoral livelihoods. As a result, Kenya is an
appropriate laboratory for generating experiences that would enrich the AU Policy Framework
on Pastoralism (African Union Pastoral Policy Framework for Africa, 2008).
Pastoralist communities across East Africa are starting to learn to live with the reality of climate
change, adapting as they can to its impacts. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Changes
climate models for East Africa show an increase in temperature of up to 24C by the 2080s,
with more intense rain predicted to fall in the short rains (OctoberDecember) over much of
Kenya, Uganda, and northern Tanzania as soon as the 2020s, and becoming more pronounced in
the following decades. It could result in less frequent drought, which may mean more time for
people to rebuild their assets between lean times. However, there are also significant negative
consequences including loss of livestock through heat stress, loss of land to agricultural
encroachment as the rise in rainfall raises the productive potential of arid areas, an increase in
frequency of flooding, and the spread of human and livestock diseases that thrive during the wet
season. (Oxfam 2008)
For decades pastoralists have been side-lined in decision-making processes in East Africa. The
result is chronic under-investment in pastoralist communities across the region, and the
consequent increase in vulnerability. According to C.B. Barrett (2006), Pastoralist communities
are marginalized on the basis of their geographical remoteness, their ethnicity, and their
livelihood, which is still seen by many governments across the region as an outmoded way of life
that needs replacing with modern livelihood systems. All too often pastoralists are not aware of
their rights and have no experience of accountable government D. Ray (1986). Services such as
16

health and education are not adequately provided nor adapted to the population of the dry lands
of East Africa. Furthermore, there has been a severe lack of either public or private investment in
infrastructure and economic development in arid areas, combined with poor access to markets.
According to Africa news (2007), the net effect is one of increasing insecurity. The Jie people of
Karamoja in Northern Uganda are a case in point. The district administration is unable to address
the needs of the Jie as its allocation from the central government is low and its own revenue
minimal. There is little work available in the towns to provide an alternative or supplementary
income and food insecurity in Karamoja has increased and communities now dependent on relief
food distribution since the 1980s (Africa news 2007).
In addition, over the past few decades greater pressure has been put on pastoralist grazing lands
and water resources, as populations have increased and grazing land has been taken for
cultivation, conservation areas, and state use Abalu G., R. Hassan (1999). Pastoral livestock has
been squeezed onto lands that are too small to be sustainable for pastoral production, as
pastoralists rely on freedom of movement to be able to manage the rangelands effectively
Abegaz S. G. Abebe and K. Awgichew (2008).
Resource competition also significantly increases the risk of conflict between different groups of
land users. This risk is greatest during times of stress, for example drought or floods, when
available resources are even more restricted. For example, during the 2005/6 drought, an incident
in Turkana in Kenya reportedly left 40 people dead in a clash between Turkana and neighboring
Ethiopian pastoralists Neselle (2006). Nessele adds that the groups fight between communities
seeking to access grazing land and water in the Kenyan pastoral areas. Community agreements
governing access and the sharing of resources have been developed to prevent conflicts of this
kind, but these have not been well disseminated R. Grahn (2007).
Over the past few decades greater pressure has been put on pastoralist grazing lands and water
resources, as populations have increased and grazing land has been taken for cultivation,
conservation areas, and state use. In Tanzania, conservation areas have led to more land being
taken from pastoralists than all other factors put together. Research according to Oxfam (2008)
further shows that Pastoral livestock have been squeezed onto lands that are too small to be
sustainable for pastoral production as pastoralists rely on freedom of movement to be able to
17

manage the rangelands effectively. Key resource areas, for example dry-season grazing lands, are
a target for agricultural use because of their productive potential. Livestock numbers in East
Africa have remained fairly constant over recent years because of disease epidemics and
starvation associated with floods and recurrent drought. The result is more pastoralists reliant on
fewer livestock Whetton (2007). This risk is greatest during times of stress, for example drought
or floods, when available resources are even more restricted. Increasingly, many pastoralists can
no longer rely on livestock alone to provide them with a livelihood, yet other income-earning
opportunities remain limited, as the growing number of the thousands of destitute ex-pastoralists
shows.
However, despite the suitability of mobile livestock-herding to the vast arid lands that cover East
Africa, and the evidence of its productivity and value, many pastoralist people are among the
poorest and most vulnerable in Africa. All too often the direct economic value generated by
pastoralists is not retained in their communities, and the indirect value is un-rewarded and even
unacknowledged by decision-makers.
2.5 Strategies of improving pastoralists livelihoods
Years of political and economic marginalization, inappropriate development policies, an increase
in resource competition, and an increase in abnormal climatic events have reduced the ability of
some pastoralists to maintain a sustainable livelihood (Irene Karani, 2008). Whether increasing
climate change will see a worsening of their current situation or whether pastoralists will be able
to adapt and even take advantage of the opportunities it may bring will depend on how these
environmental and developmental challenges are tackled by both national governments and
international donors, and the extent to which pastoralists themselves are involved in the process.
According to Mussa (2007), Pastoralist communities need more investment in good basic
services such as health care and education, flood-proof transport and communication links,
financial and technical support services, livestock-marketing opportunities, drought and flood
mitigation and preparedness systems, access to climate information, and effective conflictmitigation mechanisms. Both women's and men's needs and interests must be taken into account.
Civil society and local communities need support to build strong and representative pastoral

18

organisations. Governments need to strengthen the accountability and responsiveness of their


institutions to pastoralist needs.
Governments must in addition support the activities that pastoralists themselves are already
undertaking in order to deal with climate variability and climate change Birch and R. Grahn
(2004). Pastoralists have long used traditional livestock and land-management strategies in order
to manage drought and flood cycles, alongside community support schemes.
According to Omar (2002), adaptation to climate change also involves the movement of some
people out of pastoralism and into other livelihoods. According to research by Olenasha (2006)
much as pastoralism is in itself is a viable economic activity, there is also a need to create
alternative livelihoods for women and men who have dropped out of pastoralism, to alleviate the
growing population pressure on the land, as well as to increase the range of cash sources
available to pastoralist families.
Pastoral advocacy needs to move from protest to positive engagement (Jonathan Davies 2008).
Creating strategic alliances with other producer groups and establishing a sustainable framework
for monitoring policy implementation are paramount. Thirdly, pastoralists should take advantage
of ongoing changes in the national political environment and help define the agenda of the newly
established Ministry of Development of Northern Kenya and other Arid Lands.
The Policy Framework will define norms and values and set objectives, but the action to realize
all this has to be done at the national level. Therefore, national governments have to domesticate
the provisions of the Policy Framework into national policy instruments for pastoralism.
According to (Michael Odhiambo 2008) Once policies are made, they have to be implemented
through the establishment of institutions, mobilization of resources (human, financial and
material), design of implementation strategies and plans, monitoring and evaluation.
Pastoral advocacy needs to move from protest to positive engagement. Creating strategic
alliances with other producer groups and establishing a sustainable framework for monitoring
policy implementation are paramount Olenasha (2006). Pastoralists should take advantage of
ongoing changes in the national political environment. Furthermore, using the process to advance
the policy debate on pastoralism particularly with regards to the adoption and implementation of
19

policies such as the Policy, the Livestock Policy, the Land Policy, and mobilize to mainstream
pastoralism. The AU policy framework (2008) shows that in Kenya, there is a long experience of
dealing with the challenges of policy making regarding pastoralism resulting in mixed impact on
the situation of pastoralists in the country serious constraints remain but at the same time
significant inroads have been made in the policy arena with regards to how pastoralism is
perceived.
Birchs research (2008), shows that Governments in the East Africa region also need to join
forces to address cross-border issues like conflict and migration, as well as opportunities for
cross-border livestock marketing.
Fahey, Dan, and David K. Leonard (2007), asserts that adaptation of diversification also involves
the movement of some people out of pastoralism and into other livelihoods. As much as
pastoralism is in itself a viable economic activity, there is also a need to find ways of alleviating
the growing population pressure on the land, as well as increasing the range of cash sources
available to pastoralist families, many of whom currently rely on remittances sent from family
members working elsewhere. There are already thousands of destitute ex-pastoralists who will
need special support and attention to enable them to enter other livelihoods, through accessing
their right to education, health care, and other services. Ex-pastoralists should benefit from
increased investment in pastoral areas, but national governments urgently need to acknowledge
and address the specific needs of this group in their development strategies, given that expastoralists are unlikely to re-enter pastoral production (UNEP 2013).
According to (Fahey and Leonard 2007), Diversification is important given the stresses on
pastoral communities and the growth in population, but there are risks. For example, although
many pastoralists undertake some farming activities, diversification efforts need to ensure that
the scope and space for mobile livestock-herding is not compromised. Pastoralists needs are
distinct from other farming groups and the potential returns from farming are limited. Therefore,
herd mobility and herd diversification remain the major means of managing risk in pastoral
areas, and efforts to encourage diversification should not impede these strategies.

20

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


1.0 Introduction
This chapter presents the methodology that was used during the study; it gives a description of
the research design and the methods that was used to collect data from the field by the researcher.
The methodology also gave a summary of the study area, population of the study, sample size,
sampling procedure, data collection instruments, sources of data, Data analysis, and the
anticipated problems that may be encountered during data collection for the purpose of getting
the description of the impact of modernization theory on the pastoralists in Mututu Parish,
Kinono Sub County, Kiruhura District.
3.1 Research Design
The study used both explanatory and descriptive research designs. Explanatory research designs
were used to explain the impact of modernization of agriculture on pastoralists. The design was
used to explain why things happen the way they do among the pastoralist communities.
Descriptive research design was also used to explore the magnitude and generate a clear insight
and aim of discovering the content of the problem under study. The selected designs were
preferred due to economic status of the researcher, coupled with limited time under which the
study carried out. These were used to help the researcher get explanations and descriptions of the
phenomenon under the study. This helped the researcher to understand the variables in a bid to
bring new knowledge to the field of research.
3.2 Study Area
The study area was Mututu Parish, Kinono Sub County, around 35Km from Kiruhuru District
head quarters along Rweburundo road. The study targeted covering views of all the pastoralists,
local leaders, agriculture extension workers, and the community members within Mututu parish.
3.3 Population of Study
The study population was pastoralists and community members where the herds men operate. A
list of members from whom the respondents were chosen was obtained from local leaders offices
21

and acted as a sampling frame for the study. This study was limited to only 80 members because
the researcher could not cover the entire population of Mututu Parish and due to time and
financial constraints.
3.4 Sample Size
According to Emiru (2000), a sample is a representation of the entire whole. The researcher
selected 80 respondents to represent the whole population of 760 people in the parish where 05
were local leaders, 04 community leaders, 04 extension officers/workers, 10 community elders,
17 community members and 40 pastoralists. The researcher used the sample size of 80
respondents due to time constraint and not all the population could be covered and interviewed.
Table I: Sampling population
Category of Respondents
Pastoralists

Target number of people


100

Sample size
40

Sample Technique used


Purposive sampling

Community members
Community elders

300
23

17
10

Simple random sampling


Purposive sampling

Extension officers/workers

07

04

Purposive sampling

Community leaders

16

04

Purposive sampling

Local leaders

10

05

Purposive sampling

TOTAL

456

80

Source: primary source (2016)


3.5 Sampling Procedure
The study used the sampling procedures of both probability and non-probability and consisted of
random and purposive sampling techniques.
Random sampling method involved selecting respondents from the study population. Here, every
respondent had an equal chance of being chosen in the sample population. This method was used
especially to select respondents who did not have major positions that were major in the study.
For this case, the study employed random sampling to the community members.
Purposive sampling on the other hand involved selecting a certain number of respondents based
on the nature of work they do. This method was appropriate because it enabled selection of
22

informed persons who knew important comprehensive information that enabled the researcher
gain a better insight into a problem. In the study, respondents were contacted in person as the
researcher wanted fast hand information from them and the study keenly inquired respondents
views on the subject matter under study.
3.6 Sources of Data
3.6.1 Primary Data
Primary data was gathered from respondents of Matutu Parish who were assumed to give
firsthand information on the research topic under study/review.
3.6.1.1 Data Collection Methods
The study was incorporated with the use of various methods in the process of data collection and
in a bid to come up with better, concrete and credible research findings. The researcher therefore
used a number of methods that included questionnaires, interviews in the process of collecting
primary data.
Questionnaire method
According to Robson (1993), a questionnaire is commonly applied to research, designed to
collect data from a specific population or a sample from that population. Questionnaires are
commonly used as research instruments because of the distinct advantages they yield (Leary,
1995). This method was used to collect data because it is time saving and some respondents who
were literate therefore there was no need of interviewing some of these respondents. The
Questionnaires were applied to majorly literate respondents who had no time for the interview
time. Therefore this method made the work easy and enabled the researcher to obtain accurate
data.
Questionnaires consisted of open and closed ended questions that gave respondents chance of
expressing their ideas rather than forcing respondents to choose between limited responses. This
open form of Questionnaire also permitted the respondents to answer freely and fully in their
own words and frame of reference. This method of collecting data gave the responds an
opportunity to reveal their motives or attitudes and to specify the back ground of provisional
23

conditions upon their answers. Questionnaires are stable, consistent and provide uniform
measure without variations (Salantokos, 1997).
Interview method
This method was used in such a way that an interview schedule was designed and questions
asked to the respondents as they replied. These were posed to different people especially to the
pastoralists, community members, community elders and local leaders. The method was used in
order to help the researcher to get clear information and also helped the researcher to compare
different views of the respondents because each respondent was contacted individually. The
researcher also asked questions to the respondents as data was recorded down. This made work
easy and the method enabled the researcher to repeat questions to the respondents who were
unable to understand some of the questions during the interview time.
Focus Group interviews
This method was applied to the pastoralists only; this was used because all the selected
respondents belonged to the target study population and in the same category with the same
characteristics. Questions surrounding perceptions of the pastoralists on modernization, how
modernization has affected their livelihood, challenges they face and what can really be do to
help them. This method allowed the pastoralists to remind themselves on issues that affect their
livelihood as pastoralists, and to help them build confidence while putting forward their mind.
Only 2 FGDs were used to interview only 24 of the respondents from the pastoralists who were
part of the original respondents. Each group was composed of 12 pastoralists and this was
intended to get information from at least every member.
Focus group discussions therefore helped the researcher to gather data relating to feelings and
opinions of a group of the respondents sampled from the respondents. Listening to other group
members views encouraged respondents to voice their own opinions readily and this helped the
researcher to acquire information on the study the more. This methodology provided rich data
and insights that would be less accessible without the interaction within groups.
3.6.2 Secondary Data

24

Secondary data was obtained from sources like; Annual reports of Kiruhura district and Kinono
Sub county particularly NAADS department, records, selected Institutions reports and Journal
articles, internet, magazines, and text books related to drug abuse and youth. These materials
were consulted at length to extract the information required to support the findings of the study
and acted as documentary.
Documentary review
Review of documents for the district and different sources and agricultural departments, how to
improve their pastoralists livelihoods, acquire background information among others were
contacted at length.
3.7 Reliability and Validity of research instruments
3.7.1 Validity
Law and kelton 1991 suggests that if a questionnaire model is valid, then the decisions made
with the questionnaire model should be similar to those that would be made by physically
experimenting with the system. A questionnaire model is said to be credible when its results are
acceptable by respondents as being valid, and being valid and used as an aid tool in collecting
data.
The validity of questionnaires was obtained by presenting it to at least 5 professionals, including
my research supervisor because according to Amin (2005), content and construct validity is
determined by expert judgment.
3.7.2 Reliability
Reliability, according to Miles & Huber man (1994), has to do with the extent to which the
instruments generate consistent responses over several trials with different audiences in the same
circumstances. The reliability of research instruments and data was established following a pretested procedure of instruments before they were used with actual research respondents.

25

3.8 Data Processing and Analysis


During the process of data processing and analysis, the data collected was designed and put in
order to obtain meaningful form and make it look simpler and easier for interpreting and reading
by other readers.
Qualitative and quantitative methods of data analysis were used. Quantitative analysis methods
included personal communication. Quantitative data collected was organized and presented
according to the objectives and research questions. Using the qualitative methods, responses
obtained were organized, coded and tabulated for easy analysis. The coded data was analyzed to
generate the intended results in form of tables and graphs.
3.8.1 Organizing
This method was used in data processing and data was organized through labeling on data
according to the targeted category of respondents so as to get easy differentiation of data in
accordance to editing, coding and tabulation. All these were used in order to promote accuracy of
data that was collected during the research process.
It also helped the researcher to identify the gaps in the data collection methods and easily
classified responses according to the questions set into a meaningful information. Tables were
used in the presentation of the data and percentages used in the data analysis.
3.8.2 Editing
This was done in order to check and reduce on mistakes and errors of responses obtained from
questionnaires and other unnecessary information. This assisted the researcher to ensure that
there was accuracy and conformity of data collected; Follow-up of interview schedules was done
by the interviewer/Researcher to ensure that data collected had no errors and omissions so that
mistakes were corrected before coding took place.
3.8.3 Coding
The information needed by the researcher was obtained by making coding frames to tabulate the
collected data into simple tables, percentages according to the respondent regarding particular
26

questions. Coding was used to identify and put similar responses/information together in order
for the researcher to come up with quality data and with a clear meaning for easy understanding.
3.8.4 Tabulation
The researcher after organizing editing, coding, tabulated the coded information and presented it
into a table form and expressed the data into percentages from the tools used during data
collection. This helped the researcher to come up with quality information on the study problem.
3.9 Limitations of the study
Time; the time allowed to do this research was not enough to allow exhaustive study and obtain
all the essential information for much more suitable conclusions. The problem was minimized by
putting much effort on this research so as to meet the deadline.
Slow and Non- response; since the researcher did not know the kind of respondents that were
being dealt with, some of them failed to respond to questionnaires, others delayed to fill them
and others were rear.
Therefore this required the researcher to set appropriate appointment with the respondents in
order to ensure that data was availed in time.
Information hiding; Due to the sensitivity of the study, some respondents refused to give some
data to the researcher citing the reason behind the study. The researcher however tried to
overcome this by showing an introductory letter acquired from the university fully explaining the
purpose of the research. The researcher also assured respondents that their ideas would be treated
with the necessarily confidentiality.

27

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS AND DATA ANALYSIS


4.0 Introduction
This chapter attempts to analyze the data collected and its interpretation in relation to the studied
themes. The empirical findings of the study are presented, analyzed and interpreted in this
chapter. The collected data was organized from the responses on the questionnaires and the
interview guide administered to the pastoralists, local leaders and heads, extension workers and
community workers who were used in the study.
The chapter also highlights the demographic characteristics of the respondents in terms of
gender, age of respondents, marital status and level of education in society in relation to their
views and perceptions towards the effect of alcohol abuse on academic performance of youth.
The reason for including the biographic data was such that variables would assist in generating
varied information in all aspects hence helping the researcher to understand the responses of the
study variables.
4.1 Background information of the Respondents
4.1.1 Gender Distribution of the Respondents
Table 1: A table showing Gender Distribution of the Respondents
Sex

Frequency (No.)

Male
55
Female
25
Total
80
Source: Primary data, 2016

Percent (%)
69
31
100

Table two above shows that male were 55 (69%) and female 25 (31%). Both sexes were
considered so that information got from the field of study is not biased against one sex. But
rather be seen varied.

28

Figure 1: A Pie Chart showing the Gender Distribution of the Respondents

Sex (%ge)

Female; 31%

Male; 69%

Figure I above the numbers of respondents in terms of sex was 69 male and 31 female. Male
respondents were quiet many because they were assumed to be the most involved in that activity
when it comes to pastoralism. This enabled the researcher to acquire appropriate data from all
sexes as her respondents during the study.
4.1.2 Age of the Respondents
Further analysis was made on the age of respondents to determine whether decisions on activities
performed were dependent on their age. The respondents were therefore asked to identify their
age and responses were tabulated as below;
Table 2: Showing age intervals of respondents
Age Bracket

Frequency (No.)

15-30
31-45
46-60
61+
Total
Source: primary data, 2016

(%ge)
16

20

25
31
8
80

31
39
10
100

29

Majority of the respondents were in the age brackets of (46 - 60) representing 31(39%) while the
age bracket of 31 - 45 was rated at 25(31%), 15-30 at (20%) and 61+ were 8(10%) respectively.
This implies that most of the respondents used were in ages of 46 to 60. Therefore basing on the
age groups interviewed it can be interpreted that data was obtained from mature respondents who
were believed to reliable in giving more reliable data.
4.1.3 Respondents Marital Status
The researcher also considered the marital status background of respondents to establish how
different marital status perceives alcohol abuse. The findings are presented in table IV below
Table 3: Showing marital status of respondents
Marital Status

Frequency (No.)

Single
Married
Widow
Separated
Total
Source: Primary data, 2016

(%ge)
17
55
05
03
80

21
69
06
04
100

The majority of the respondents were that 55 (69%) were married, followed by the single ones
who were, 17(21%), separated respondents were 03(04%), and widows were represented by the
percentage of 06% at a frequency of 05 respondents, who participated in the study. This implied
that majority of the respondents were married. This meant that most respondents were married.
The study therefore dealt with the right respondents who determined the agriculture
modernization and pastoralists.
4.1.4 Level of education of respondents
The researcher also had an interest in the academic qualifications of the respondents as part of
their bio data and the responses acquired were given as in the table below;

Table 4: Showing level of education of respondents

30

Level of education
No formal education
Primary Level
Secondary Level
Tertiary
Total
Source: Primary data, 2016

Frequency (No.)
42
10
16
12
80

Percentage (%)
53
13
20
15
100

Table V shows that most of respondents represented by 42(53%) have never been in a formal set
up of education in other wards they are not educated 10 (13) had attained primary 16 (20%) had
attained secondary while those who at least reached tertiary were only 12(15%). This meant that
most respondents used in the study had not attained formal education according to responses
attained during field research though most of these knew how to read and write in English.
4.2 Characteristics of pastoralists
Table 5: showing Reponses on the characteristics of pastoralists
Response
Frequency (No.)
Families depend on livestock for a significant proportion of their 17

%ge
21

food and income;


Some pastoralists cultivate to supplement their subsistence needs;

10

13

Livestock are raised mainly for subsistence

16

20

Livestock herds are composed mainly of indigenous breeds;

09

11

They define and provide social identity and security;

10

13

Livestock are heavily dependent on natural pastures for their diets;

14

17

Natural resources are managed through common property regimes 04

05

where access to pastures and water are negotiated and dependent on


reciprocal arrangements.
Total
Source: field findings

80

100

From the table above, most of the respondents showed that raising livestock is mainly
subsistence revealed by 16(20%). According to findings, most of the respondents said that almost
all pastoralists keep animals for subsistence purposes and do not think of commercial as in
selling for money.

31

During an interview, a respondents said; accordingly, I have never seen pastoralists keep
animals for commercial purposes, my neighbor himself is a pastoralist but keeps animals for
prestige purposes and to be seen as very important and rich people in the society.
The above statement therefore displays that animals kept by pastoralists are subsistence and do
not for income purposes majorly.
Other respondents gave different characteristics like cultivation is practiced to supplement their
subsistence needs by 10(13%) as well as others who revealed defining their social identity and
security, 9(11%) of the respondents also revealed that livestock kept by pastoralists are mainly
indigenous breeds and other 4(5%) of the respondents revealed that pastoralists manage Natural
resources through common property regimes where access to pastures and water are negotiated
and dependent on reciprocal arrangements.
4.3 Pillars of Pastoralism
According to respondents, pastoralism is composed of different pillars as their responses
revealed. Their responses were as follows;
Table 6: Showing responses on the different pillars of pastoralism
Response
Natural resources
The livestock herd
Family
Total
Source: field findings 2016

Frequency (No.)
30
35
15
80

(%ge)
38
44
18
100

From table 7, respondents revealed that there are three pillars common in their area. According to
35(44%) of the respondents, livestock herds are the common pillar. Livestock is a common pillar.
It involves animals they keep.
A respondent on this note lamented that; Every pastoralist to be part of the pastoralism
community has to own animals in whatever case. One who has no cows here is not a pastoralist
The above statement shows that livestock herd is a pillar of pastoralism.

32

Further responses revealed that another pillar is natural resources. 30(38%) of the respondents
pointed out that all pastoralist with their animals depend on natural resources like pasture, rain
and according to respondents, pastoralists have no control over the natural resources.
However, some respondents revealed that in an attempt to have pasture, some pastoralists tend to
carry out bush burning in order for them to have pasture. Sometimes it takes wrong for the burnt
bush to regain grass because of delay in rainfall.
Other respondents revealed a family as another pillar of pastoralism. Respondents that totaled to
15(18%) stressed the fact that pastoralists have families they belong to. Those married have
children; those not married have parents among others.
Respondents revealed that a pastoralist at least has a belonging and is attached to a certain family
for identity.
4.4 Natural resources pastoralists depend on
During research, respondents were also asked to identify the different natural resource
pastoralists depend on common in your areas. This is because pastoralists are dependent on
natural resources for their livelihood and that of their animals. Their responses were as follows;

Table 7: showing responses on the different Natural resources pastoralists depend on


Response
Pasture
Water for people and livestock;

Frequency (No.)
20
18

(%ge)
25
23

Wood for fuel, building, etc; and

10

12

Natural salt pans and crop residues for livestock diets

15

19

Herbs and tree products for human diet


Total

17
80

21
100

33

Source: field findings


From the table above, pastoralist are seen as people who depend on natural resources. According
to 20(25%) of the respondents revealed that pastoralists depend on pasture to rear their animals.
A respondent during an interview with him said all pastoralists feed their animals on pasture;
none of them according to what I know has other means of how they feed their animals
Another respondent who was a pastoralists lamented I and my friends and family obviously feed
our animals on pasture only, some try to feed their animals on other feeds bought but however
those people end up coming again and resorting to pasture because they cannot only leave their
animals feed on artificial feeds for survival
The above statements therefore display how important pasture is so important to pastoralists.
Pasture is in form of grasses and trees and pastoralists use if to feed their livestock.
Further 18(23%) of respondents showed that pastoralists depend on water for cooking, drinking
and for their animals. Responses pointed out that water is so important that all pastoralists need it
according to respondents. None of the pastoralists can live without using water.
Other 17(21%) of the respondents revealed that pastoralists also depend on Herbs and tree
products for human diet. According to a respondent, pastoralists do not visit modern clinics and
hospitals when they fall sick, they get herbs and use it as medicine.
A respondent said ahhhaa we cannot visit hospitals for medicine, like malaria, we have a herb
that can cure us in just 1 hour without even paying an fee because herbs are as many in the bush
areas
The above statement shows how pastoralists praise the use of herbs meaning them a natural
resource so important to them and certain herbs and tree products (pods, leaves, bark) for human
diets and medicine for both people and livestock.
Other 10(12%) respondents pointed out that pastoralists use wood for fuel and for building while
15(19%) of the respondents revealed that they use natural salt pans and crop residues for
livestock diets.

34

Therefore as responses showed, natural resources are vital for pastoralists and their livestock to
survive.
4.5 Why pastoralists move from place to place
Contrary to popular belief, mobility of pastoralists is strategic and good for managing the scarce
resources. It is carefully planned to make the best use of seasonally available natural resources
Pastoralists do not spent much of their time and period in the place. Therefore, they were asked
to reveal why like moving form place to place. Their responses were as follows.
Table 8: Showing responses on why pastoralists move from place to place.
Response
Resource tracking and in search of pasture and water

Frequency (No.) (%ge)


22
28

Resource management to preserve dry season pastures and water

17

21

Movements at the start of the rains in search of fresh pasture


Periodic movements to avoid drought and insecurity
Mobility to avoid wildlife and diseases
Movement for social interactions e.g. marriage.

14
15
07
05

18
19
9
6

80

100

Total
Source: field findings

According to the findings in the table above, 22(28%) of the respondents revealed that the major
reason to why pastoralists move was resource tracking and in search of pasture and water.
Responses showed that though Matutu has permanent pastoralists who are permanent residents,
they still move form their area to other areas in search for pasture and water.
A respondent during the interview said; I am a full resident of the place but sometimes we move
with our animals from here to the border of Tanzania just in search of water and pasture. This
gives our home land a rest and regains pastures so that we graze from there when we return from
the journey of looking for pasture
The response above shows a reason to why they move from place to place.
Further 17 (21%) respondents showed that Resource management to preserve dry season
pastures and water is a reason to why they move form place to place. The findings revealed that

35

pastoralists just move in order for them to leave their home pasture for a season that they may
think wont be easy for them.
Others revealed periodic movements are done to avoid drought and insecurity. 15(19%) of the
respondents reported during research findings that many pastoralists who move from place to
place are at times in fear of their animals being stolen by thieves and attackers when they are
away from their home areas.
A respondent on this case narrated a story where they were invaded simply because people had
understood their movements and wanted to steal their livestock.
Findings further revealed that pastoralists move from place to place at the start of rains in search
of fresh pasture for their animals. 14(18%) of the respondents revealed that when rains start,
different areas gain new and fresh pastures good for their animals therefore a need for them to
move from place to place, 05(6%) revealed that pastoralists move for social interactions and
others move to avoid wildlife and diseases.
Therefore the above are the reasons that explain why pastoralists move form place to place.

4.6 Impact of modernization on pastoralists livelihood


The livestock sector is growing faster than any other agricultural sub-sector (Bolwig et al.,
2007), internationally as well as regionally and nationally. Therefore the need to modernize
pastoralists has not left them the same.
A question on the impact of modernization on pastoralist lives was asked to respondents and the
following where the responses acquired.
Table 9: showing the impact of modernization on pastoralists livelihood
Response
Helps in increasing livestock products
Help in maintaining a social relationship
Promotes market and increases value for their livestock products
Promoted education among pastoralist as well as a well defined
36

Frequency (No.)
16
13
17
15

(%ge)
20
16
21
19

health care
Improved access to improved livestock services like extension 19
workers, farmer worker shops, access to improved breeds
Total
Source: field findings

80

24
100

According to the table above, respondents revealed and expressed different ideas on the impact
of modernization on pastoralists livelihoods. On this question, the highest number of
respondents 19(24%) revealed that modernization helps in Improving access to improved
livestock services like extension workers, farmer worker shops, access to improved breeds,
16(20%) showed that it helps in increasing the pastoralists livestock products, other 17(21%)
revealed that modernization promotes market and increases value for their livestock products.
A respondent on this note said; modernization of agriculture has helped me to access market
where I can now sell my animals than before, at least a vehicle comes in our area with buyers
who buy our cows, goats and sheep. This had never happened before but since the introduction
of NAADS in our area, we can now sell.
Therefore the above statement by one of the pastoralists showed how modernization of
agriculture is now linking them to markets where they can now sell their animals.
Further findings revealed that 15 (19%) of the respondents showed that agriculture
modernization has promoted education among pastoralist as well as a well defined health care.
According to respondents, pastoralists have access to education services, their children can now
study in better schools and can also access medical services from health clinics and services.
A respondent part of the pastoralist community said, we can now have medical officers check us
and treat us. They always provide outreach medical services in our areas and treat diseases,
provide counseling among other many services
The statement by a respondent showed us how agriculture modernization has helped improve the
livelihoods of pastoralists.
Also 13(16%) of the respondents revealed that modernization has promoted a social relationship
in the areas of Matutu parish. Pastoralists so called farmers come into one umbrella to discuss
issues affecting them; pastoralists have social groups, like women groups, community
37

associations (BATAAKA-word in local language meaning residents in a community). All these


bring pastoralists as one to share their problems.
Therefore, all the above shows how agriculture modernization has helped in improving the
livelihoods of pastoralists.
4.7 Challenges faced by pastoralists
Pastoralists face a number of challenges that hinder their way of life and stifle their ability to
adapt to changes in their external environment. Taken together, these challenges account for the
poverty and lack of essential services (Mike Shanahan, 2012).
Of the respondents ideas, the following were the responses got from the respondents.

38

Table 10: showing the responses on the challenges of pastoralists


Response
Conflicts and insecurity
Inadequate livestock marketing services and infrastructure
Inadequate provision of social services in education and

Frequency (No.)
13
15
09

Health
Inadequate provision of water points and animal health 17
services
Climate change
Corruption and poor local governance
Total
Source: field findings

12
14
80

Percentage (%)
16
19
11
21
15
18
100

From the table above, 17(21%) of the respondents revealed that Inadequate provision of water
points and animal health services is the most challenge pastoralist face in Matutu parish.
Pastoralist and their animals move in search for water for their animals. According to
respondents, some dig pitches around their farms but still water is there during the rainy season
only.
During an interview with a respondent, he lamented if we had water points nearby our farms, it
would be easy for us to settle in one place but at times we have to move looking for water to give
to our animals because or animals survive on water. Where water is not, there is no living for
cows.
Therefore this challenge when solved can help improve the livelihood of pastoralists the better
since its one of the factors that makes pastoralists move form place to place.
Further findings from 15(19%) respondents revealed that pastoralists face a challenge of
inadequate livestock marketing services and infrastructure; they find it had to get good markets
for their animals and access to markets is low. Available markets are not worth the price of their
animals according to respondents;
A respondent lamented we have no markets around our area. We only see middle men who
come, bargain with us and bring money without us going to market or facing face to face with
buyers.

39

This shows that pastoralists in the area still face challenges of accessing valuable market for their
animals.
Other challenges as revealed by respondents included resource conflict between groups and land
users, cross border dimensions, cattle rustling, population increase, laws and policies of the
government.
4.8 Strategies of improving livelihood of pastoralists
The challenges facing pastoralists in their grazing and activity events have reduced the ability of
some pastoralists to maintain a sustainable livelihood. Therefore respondents were asked to
identify some of the strategies that could be of helpful in improving the livelihood of pastoralists
and the following were their responses;
Table 11: showing the responses on the strategies to improve pastoralists livelihoods
Responses
Frequency (No)
Monitor and evaluate implementation of policies and laws on 12

(%ge)
15

pastoralism
Monitor provision of public services in pastoralist areas

16

20

Give voice to pastoralist communities themselves

14

18

Give voice to pastoralist organisations

13

16

Provide information to pastoralists that can help them to make 10

13

informed choices and decisions


Highlight challenges and risks facing pastoralists to bring them to 15

17

the attention of decision makers


Total

80

100

Source: field findings


According to findings from the table above, most respondents revealed that Monitoring provision
of public services in pastoralist areas will help improve livelihood of pastoralists. Pastoralists
need to access public services in form of health, education, roads, and markets among others that
help improve the livelihood of pastoralists. 16(20%) of the respondents reported that once these
are done in the area, pastoralists can be productive than before.
40

A respondent said increasing public service provision in the areas of pastoralism would
seriously increase access to services and help pastoralists in having better livelihoods.
Other respondents in a number of 15(17%) revealed that highlighting challenges and risks facing
pastoralists to bring these challenges to the attention of decision makers is another best strategy
according to respondents. Findings revealed that if this is put under consideration, then
pastoralists would be able to live better lives and improve their ways of rearing animals.
Further findings from 14(18%) of the respondents revealed that another strategy can be giving a
voice to pastoralists communities so that they manage and be part decision making process.
Findings revealed that if pastoralists were considered part of the planning process and for their
committees. Findings showed the need by extension workers and district NAADS officers to
engage pastoralists in the planning process of their own needs and how they can solve their
problems.
A respondent lamented we at times see programs just coming our way; the planners do not
mind whether we need them or not, they decide minus our understanding
The above statement therefore describes how pastoralists feel when they just see projects fall
upon them just without knowing why and who. This according to findings attracts less
pastoralists to take up the project because some of the pastoralists just ignore the projects
brought to them.
Findings further showed that giving a voice to pastoralist organisations would work better in
improving the livelihood of pastoralists; it would be through the organisations of pastoralists that
their problems concerning their modernization would be presented to the responsible bodies for
solving and solution generation.
A respondent said I wish the pastoralists organisations were given chance in district
committees to represent other pastoralists at the local government level.
This would help the pastoralists have a voice in having their grievances aired out by themselves.
According to other findings, respondents revealed that monitoring and evaluating
implementation of policies and law on pastoralism, laws are essential in keeping livelihood of
41

people in a society better. Therefore, according to 12(15%) of the respondents, monitoring of


policies implemented by the government can help improve pastoralists by enabling them.
Other 10(13%) of the respondents also revealed that providing information to pastoralists that
can help them to make informed choices and decisions on how to rear and run their farms. This
would be done with the assistance of agriculture extension workers.
On this incidence, a respondent was heard to lament if we were allowed to make decisions of
improving our livestock directly and inform the government representatives to deliver the
requests, then our livelihoods would be changed and improved.
Meaning the above statement shows how important allowing pastoralists to make informed
decisions can help them in having better livelihoods.
Other respondents revealed strategies like Pastoralist communities need more investment in good
basic services such as health care and education, flood-proof transport and communication links,
financial and technical support services, livestock-marketing opportunities, drought and flood
mitigation and preparedness systems, access to climate information, effective conflict-mitigation
mechanisms, support the activities that pastoralists themselves are already undertaking,
advocating for pastoral needs among others.
Therefore, according to findings, the above strategies are important in improving the livelihoods
of pastoralists as per the research findings found out.

42

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS


5.0 Introduction
The study was meant to assess the impact of agriculture modernization on pastoralism in Matutu
Parish, Kinono Sub County, Kiruhura district. This chapter presents the discussion on research
findings, conclusions and recommendations made according to the findings of the study.
5.1 Summary
According to field findings, majority of the pastoralists livelihoods have been changed due to
impact of modernization of agriculture in the area. Agriculture according to findings greatly
impacts on the livelihoods of pastoralists, the research findings on the impact of agriculture
modernization revealed that the program policy has improved their livestock services by 24%,
promoted a well health and education system by 19% of the respondents, promoted market and
value for their livestock products by 21% among others.
This impact has made pastoralist change their way of living to a better and standard way of
livelihood with better access to health care services, better infrastructure, market, education and
social interaction above all, according to findings pastoralists have a better income than before.
Despite such impact of modernization on the livelihood of pastoralists, findings revealed that
pastoralists still face challenges related to the development and advancement of their livelihoods.
Findings showed that pastoralists are majorly affected by a problem of inadequate provision of
water points and animal health service revealed by 21% respondents, followed by 19% that
revealed that another challenge is inadequate marketing services and infrastructure, 16% that
revealed conflicts and insecurity for their lives and animals from invaders and thieves. Also 18%
of the respondents displayed that corruption among leaders and poor local governance at the
local government level has greatly affected their operation.
However of the challenges faced, responses regarding strategies on how the problem can be
mitigated showed that great efforts are needed in involving pastoralists in decision making,
improving laws on pastoralists, improving and building markets in the area, carrying agriculture
extension services, monitoring of public services provided and giving voice to pastoralists and

43

their organisations and their unions/organisations. This can help the pastoralist have better and
better livelihoods than ever.
It was finally learnt that involving pastoralists themselves n the process of making decisions
aiming at improving their livelihoods like through their trade union groups, organisations,
associations among others can help greatly in improving the livelihood of pastoralists.
5.2 Conclusion
Modernity is a term of art used in humanities and social sciences to designate both a
historical period (the modern era), as well as ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms,
attitudes and practices of a group. And research showed that the livestock sector is growing
faster than any other agricultural sub-sector (Bolwig et al., 2007), internationally as well as
regionally and nationally. According to the FAO, global meat and milk production must double
by 2050 if demand is to be met.
Pastoralist livelihoods have come under increasing strain as a result of external shocks, both
natural and man-made. In order for their livelihoods systems to become more resilient to crises,
pastoralists need to be able to move location to access critical natural resources, and need access
to markets and stable terms of trade. Pastoralists who have lost their livestock and have dropped
out of pastoralism need viable options to make a sustainable transition to alternative livelihoods.
The problems pastoralists face are structural ones. Protecting, building and rebuilding the
livelihood assets of pastoralists requires an integrated approach to risk management that goes
beyond cash or food transfers to address the underlying causes of pastoral livelihood
vulnerability (Behnke et al., 2007). However effective a disaster management system, it must be
implemented within the broader structural development framework.
There the conclusion clauses that drought needs to be seen as a normal and often predictable
event, and efforts must be focused on strengthening response capacity while at the same time
continuing long-term development efforts in trying to improve livelihoods of pastoralists,
develop market that enable access by pastoralists, provide better veterinary services among other
strategies to improve livelihoods of pastoralist in Matutu, Kiruhura District.

44

5.3 Recommendations
From the above discussions, the following are the proposed recommendations the researcher
recommends in order to improve the livelihood of pastoralists in Matutu and Uganda at large.
The problem can be worked upon by different stake holders working hand in hand with the
government, agricultural extension officers, Community Based Organisations and Non
Government organizations in helping pastoralists have better livelihoods and their improve the
way of keeping their livestock and increase value for their cattle products.
The research recommends that further studies should be done to cover wider parts of Kiruhura
and Uganda at large to assess the impact of Agriculture modernization on livelihoods of
pastoralists.
There is an urgent need by the ministry of Agriculture and animal husbandry to promote joined
up humanitarian and development interventions based on a sound understanding of local
livelihoods systems. This entails livelihoods-based interventions along the full cycle of the
drought cycle management system, with a long-term commitment. At the same time, efforts
should be made to develop a concerted, agreed platform with other national and international
actors to advocate for policy changes aimed at strengthening pastoralist livelihoods.
The government through the ministry of agriculture should strengthen pastoralists access to
markets and livestock trade through better linkages between pastoralists and traders, road
construction, improved veterinary services (including issuing vaccination certificates, which are
essential for international livestock trade); lobbying to ease taxation on livestock marketing
during droughts; and changing policies which make it difficult for the private sector to operate in
pastoralist areas.
Also there should Addressing conflict in pastoral areas through facilitation of local-level
dialogue. Dialogue should be done in pastoral communities, hold regular assemblies for
pastoralists, so they can air out their grievances and help in providing solutions themselves the
stakeholders can do to solve their problem.

45

The local government should support and encourage Pastoralist Standing Committee, and engage
them in providing a good foundation to further promote pastoralist representation and address
persistent negative attitudes about pastoralism among policy-makers.
Policy dialogue to strengthen pastoral development and drought response should be promoted
both with the government of Uganda and with donors. Such dialogue needs to be underpinned by
further evidence about the cost-effectiveness of livelihoods interventions in crisis. This study has
documented pastoralists appreciation for emergency livelihoods interventions and perceptions
about their usefulness. Further evidence is needed to prove the benefit of these responses. This
initiative will also provide a useful instrument to improve coordination, coherence of approach
and exchange of information on good practice amongst operational agencies, and promote
awareness of such interventions among government and donors.
The government through the local leaders should Support pastoral institutions. In collaboration
with other partners: the Core Group should support pastoralist institutions and representatives to
strengthen their engagement in policy formulation and enhance their role at national and local
sub-county levels.
There is need by local leaders and pastoral associations to improve coordination and
communication during response. Information flow and communication between implementing
agencies and pastoral communities during drought emergencies is critical, especially for
interventions such as commercial destocking, slaughter destocking and disease control.
The central government and other supportive organisations should consider Investing more in
appropriate development initiatives that have climate-change adaptation integrated into them in
pastoralist areas, including: livestock marketing opportunities, including the dissemination of
livestock marketing information and climate information through local radio stations and mobile
phone networks; facilitating the provision of enterprise and business skills to women and men;
improving livestock market infrastructure; and encouraging alternative economic activity using
other appropriate livestock products e.g. animal hides, milk, wool etc. financial and technical
support services, including micro credit, weather risk insurance, and veterinary and agricultural
extension services; Mainstream climate-change adaptation and mitigation into all relevant
national policies
46

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Policy Framework for Pastoralism in Africa: 2010; Addis Ababa, Ethiopia


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Republic of Uganda, Statistical Abstract 2014 p. 200
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UNDP; Human Development Report (various years); New York

48

APPENDIX I
Dear respondent
My name is Kyabagye Annah, a student of Makerere University carrying out a research on the
topic; The impact of agriculture Modernisation on pastoralism in Uganda: A case study of
Matutu parish, Kiruhura district in the partial fulfillments of the requirements for the Award
of the Bachelors degree in social development of Makerere University. Thus, this research is
purely academic and the information obtained will serve academic purposes.
You have been selected to participate in this study and your participation is voluntary. I kindly
request you to answer the questions asked in this questionnaire by ticking in the box provided.
Your participation in administering this questionnaire will go a long way in ensuring success of
this study. Information you give will be used for academic purposes and will be treated with
utmost confidentiality.
Am so grateful to you for sparing your time in filling this questionnaire
SECTION A: IMPACT OF AGRICULTURE MODERNISATION ON PASTORALIST
LIVELIHOOD
Demographic characteristics:
1. Age
a) 15-30

b) 31-45

c) 46-60

d) 60 above

2. What is your marital status?


a) Male

b) Female

3. Religion
a) Protestant

b) Catholic

c) Moslem

4. What is your education level?


a) Primary

b) Tertiary
49

d) Others specify

c) Secondary

d) others specify

PART A
5. Monthly income level (shs)
a) Less than 50,000

b) 50,000-100,000

c) 100,000-150,000

d) Over 150,000

6. How long have you lived in this sub-county (Specify period)..


7. Are you a resident of this area?
a) Yes

b) No

8. If no where did you come from?


(Specify)..
9. Do you rear any livestock or are you a pastoralist?
a) Yes

b) No

10. If yes, which types of livestock do you rear? specify number (s)
a) Cattle

b) Goats

c) Sheep

..

d) Poultry: Chicken

..

e) Others specify...
11. How do you rear these animals or livestock?..........................................................................
(Use options in the key that follows).

50

KEY
1) Paddocks

2) Free range

3) Zero grazing

4) Tethering

5) Others specify..
a) Cattle

b) Goats

c) Sheep

d) Poultry

e) Others specify..
PART B
12. What are the natural resources pastoralists depend on?
a) Pasture

b) Herbs and tree leaves

13. Why do you rear livestock?


a) Sale

b) Food

c) Customary requirements (dowry)

d) Others specify.
14. If for sale, who are the major consumers?
a) Local residents

b) Nearby villages

c) Neighbouring districts

d) Neighbouring countries

e) Others specify
15. If for food, what type food do you obtain?
a) Meat

b) Milk

c) Blood

d) Ghee

e) Others specify

16. Are the prices for your products motivating you?


a) Yes

b) No

17. Is the income you obtain enough for your family?

51

a) Yes

b) No

18. If No, what are your other sources of money?............................................................................


19. How many members are there in the family? .
20. Do you do any value addition to your products?
a) Yes

No

c) I dont know
21. If No, why?
22. Where do you see the economic lives of pastoralists in the next 10
years?.................................................................................................................................................
PART C
22. Do you know anything about; Agriculture modernization?
a) Yes

b) No

23. If yes, what do you know about it?..............................................................................................


24. Do you know any program that intends to modernize and improve pastoralists in your area?
a) Yes

b) No

25. If yes, what is that program....................................................................................................


26. Is the program doing any better?
a) Yes

b) No

c) Not sure

26. What do you think should be done to improve the livelihood of pastoralists in your
area?...................................................................................................................................................
27. How do you rate the pace of modernizing pastoralists in your area?
a) Very fast

b) fast

c) Very slow
52

d) Slow

28. What challenges do agricultural extension officers face in an attempt to modernize


pastoralists
29. What do you think are the dependants of pastoralists in keeping their animals?

30. According to you, what do you think are the pillars of pastoralism?

31. Why do you think pastoralists move from one place to another?

32. What are the common characteristics of pastoralists in your area?


..
33. What are some of the livestock livelihood activities from pastoralists known to you?

34. Do you think agriculture modernization has some impact on the livelihood of pastoralists in
your area?

35. If yes how and what impact has it contributed towards changing lives of pastoralists?

36. What are the challenges facing pastoralism in your area?

37. What do you think can be done to improve the livelihood of pastoralists in your area?

53


SECTION B: CHALLENGES FACED BY PASTORALISTS
Instructions
Apply a tick where applicable using the following key signs
A-Agree, D-Disagree, NS- Not sure
STRATEGIES TO MITIGATE CHALLENGES FACED BY
PASTORALISTS
Conflicts and insecurity
Inadequate livestock marketing services and infrastructure
Inadequate provision of social services in education and Health
Inadequate provision of water points and animal health services
Climate change
Corruption and poor local governance
Population increase
Laws and policies of the government.

54

NS

SECTION C: STRATEGIES OF IMPROVING PASTORALIST LIVELIHOOD


Instructions
Apply a tick where applicable using the following key signs
A-Agree, D-Disagree, NS- Not sure
CHALLENGES FACED BY PASTORALISTS
Monitor and evaluate implementation of policies and laws on pastoralism

Monitor provision of public services in pastoralist areas


Give voice to pastoralist communities themselves
Give voice to pastoralist organisations
Provide information to pastoralists that can help them to make informed
choices and decisions
Highlight challenges and risks facing pastoralists to bring them to the
attention of decision makers

Thank you very much for your great participation in this research

55

NS

APPENDIX II
BACKGROUND INFORMATION OF RESPODENTS
1. Age
a) 15-30

b) 31-45

c) 46-60

d) 60 above

2. What is your marital status?


a) Male

b) Female

3. Religion
a) Protestant

b) Catholic

c) Moslem

d) Others specify

4. What is your education level?


a) Primary

b) Tertiary

c) Secondary

d) others specify

INTERVIEW QUESTIONS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

How long have you lived in this area?


What categories of animals do pastoralists rear in this area?
Have you ever heard of agriculture modernization?
What are the forms of pastoralism known to you?
A there government agriculture officers in your area?
Do they provide veterinary services to the pastoralists?
How many pastoralists do you think are in this area?
Which are some of the benefits have they gained since NAADS was introduced in the

area?
9. Do you think modernization of agriculture has improved pastoralists livelihoods?
10. How has modernization of agriculture improved their livelihoods?
11. What challenges do you think pastoralists encounter in your area?
12. Has government or local leaders done anything to solve the problems facing pastoralists
in your area?
13. What strategies have they employed if yes in No. 12 above?
14. Please suggest some strategies that can be employed to help in improving livelihoods of
pastoralists.

56

APPENDIX III: Estimated Budget for the Bachelors Degree research study
ACTIVITY
Stationary
Pens and pencils
Typing and printing
Transports costs
Lunch
Miscellaneous
TOTAL

QTY
12
30 Plates

UNIT COST
500
4.000

Prepared by:
Sign:
KYABAGYE ANNAH
(Researcher)

57

AMOUNT (Ug Sh.)


100.000
6.000
100.000
120.000
120.000
100.000
546.000

APPENDIX III: A Research Work Plan for the period of June/July 2016
ACTIVITY

PERIOD

Identification of Research Topic


Submission of Research Topic for approval
Proposal writing
Submission of proposal for approval
Data collection & Interview of respondents
Data analysis and organizing
Dissertation writing and Submission

June 2016
June/July 2016
July 2016
July 2016
July 2016
July 2016
August 2016

Prepared by:
Sign:
KYABAGYE ANNAH
(Researcher)

58