Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 5

Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies Vol. 60, No.

3, March 2012


Problems in the sTog Palace Manuscript of the

BhaiSajyavastu of the MUlasarvAstivAda-vinaya
Yao Fumi
This paper reports four instances in the Tibetan version of the BhaiSajyavastuBhVof
the MUlasarvAstivAda-vinayaMSV, in which the sTog Palace manuscriptSshows its
uniqueness in the structure of the text itself as compared with six other major editions: sDe
dge xylographD, Peking xylographP, sNar thang xylographN, London manuscript
L, Tokyo manuscriptT, and Phug brag manuscriptF. These six editions, repre-

senting the Them spangs ma, Tshal pa and independent lineages, all disagree with S on the
following four points.

1. List of former BuddhasThe latter part of BhV lists the names of the seventy Bud-

dhas who were served by ZAkyamuni Buddha in his former lives. Only S lacks this list.
There seems to be no contextual problem whether or not the list occurs in this portion. The
leaves of the Sanskrit manuscript with that part have been lost. The Chinese version of
BhV lacks this list.2

2. One uddAnaIn contrast to the above, this is an example of a passage that exists only
in S. BhV has eighteen uddAnas, verses which serve as the table of contents, and three of
the uddAnas list 35 of 41 stories about the Buddhas former lives told by the Buddha himself to King Prasenajit. Each of the uddAnas is placed before each of the three groups of
stories: nos. 115, 1625 and 2635. However, none of the uddAnas lists the last six stories 3
see Table 1. Only S has this fourth uddAna:
ston pa mig mdzes lkug phye dang/ rtsibs kyi mu khyud gnag las skyes// thugs bskyed od ldan
tshogs bsags thub// sangs rgyas bsnyen bkur mtshan mu stegs// ma dros gleng gzhi tha mao//
Teacher Sunetra, MUkapaGgu, AraNemi, Govinda, PrabhAsa who made up his mind, one
who heaped equipment up, MuNi, names of the Buddhas served, heretics and Anavatapta which is
the last occasion.

The rst six items, Teacher Sunetra . . . one who heaped equipment up, should indicate the six stories, nos. 3641. Whether or not the uddAna in question is in the Sanskrit

66 Problems in the sTog Palace Manuscript of the BhaiSajyavastu of the MUlasarvAstivAda-vinayaF. Yao

version is not certain because the relevant leaves have been lost. The Chinese version lacks
this uddAna, but the Chinese version also lacks many other uddAnas.4

3. Four uddAnas in the Anavatapta-gAthAThe Anavatapta-gAthAAG, appearing

in the latter part of BhV, is a series of verses on former lives chanted by the Buddha and
his disciples at Lake Anavatapta. The whole text of AG is divided into 37 chapters and has
four uddAnas. The question is the order of these uddAnas and chapters. In DPNTLF, each
uddAna lists titles of the preceding chapterssee Table 2. That is, the rst uddAna, which
lists titles from KAzyapa to Nandika, is after chapter 10; Nandika, and the other three
uddAnas are placed in the same manner. This is irregular, because all the other uddAnas in
BhV list titles of the following passages.5In contrast, in S, four uddAnas list the titles of
the following chapters. For example, the rst uddAna is before chapter 1, KAzyapa. Although the reason for this placement is not clear, one possibility is that S represents an attempt to standardize all the uddAnas in BhV. In the partial Sanskrit manuscript in this portion, the rst and only conrmable uddAna is after chapter 10, as is the case in DPNTLF.
The Chinese version lacks all uddAnas in AG.6

4. Story of Prince VizvantaraAmong the 41 stories of the former lives of the Buddha in BhV, the story of Prince Vizvantara strangely appears twice in succession and these
two storiesversion I and version IIshare a rough outline although they differ in many
details.7The Sanskrit manuscript of this part has not been preserved in the published Gilgit manuscripts, and the Chinese translation has only version I.8The relationship between
these two stories is a curious problem, but here I limit myself to the discussion to the characteristics of S as compared with the other editions: the lack of version I and insertion of
two passages of version I into version II. Table 3 shows the differences between the two
versions and the inserted passages. In these two passages, the original sentences in version
II were replaced with the more detailed passages from version I. These insertions, therefore, must result from the intention of unifying the two versions, not from any scribal error.
It seems likely that the aim of the editorsengaged in this re-edition was to reduce the
number of seemingly useless repetitions of almost the same stories, although such cannot
be denitely concluded at this stage.
These examples make it clear that attempts were made to change the text of BhV signicantly and systematically at some stage of transmission of S or the preceding manuscripts.
Evidence of such attempts might also be found in many other parts of the Vinaya. We can

Problems in the sTog Palace Manuscript of the BhaiSajyavastu of the MUlasarvAstivAda-vinayaF. Yao 67

be fairly certain that S is a version that demands special care in studying the Tibetan MSV.
AntaroddAna MAndhAtR
1 MAndhAtR, . . . 16 SaMdhAna


UddAna BAlAhaka
17 BAlAhaka, . . . 26 A merchant
UddAna Six tusks
27 The six tusked elephant, . . . 35 DhRtarASTra
UddAna Teacher Sunetra only in S
36 Teacher Sunetra, 37 MUkapaGgu, 38 AraNemi, 39 Govinda, 40 PrabhAsa, 41 BRhaddyuti
Table. 1 Stories told to King Prasenajit

Udd. KAzyapa
Chap.1 KAzyapa . . . 10 Nandika
Udd. KAzyapa
Udd. Yazas
Chap.11 Yazas . . . 20 JaGghAkAzyapa
Udd. Yazas
Udd. CUDapanthaka
Chap. 21 CUDapanthaka . . . 30 LavaNabhadrika
Udd. CUDapanthaka Udd. MadhuvAsiSTha
Chap. 31 MadhuvAsiSTha . . . 37 Sugata
Udd. MadhuvAsiSTha
Table. 2 UddAnas in AGUdd.: uddAna

Table. 3 Story of Prince Vizvantara

Version I
1 A set phrase for starting the story.
2 The reign of King VizvAmitraK
3 The birth of the princewithout reference to
his name.
4 Charity of Prince VizvantaraV
in detail without reference to his other name.

Version II
A set phrase for starting the story.
The reign of Knot abbreviated.

The birth of the princewith reference to his

Charity of Vdescribed briey with reference
to another of his names: SarvaMdada.
Vs Marriage to MAdrIMand the birth of
their son and daughter.
K orders V not to give Elephant bKra shis ldan
and the minor kings conspire with each other
to obtain that Elephant.

7 V gives his carriage to a brahmin.

8 V gives Elephant rGyal srid phrel to a brah- V gives bKra shis ldan to a brahmin sent by
min sent by the enemy.
the minor kings.
9 K banishes V from the country. V decides to K scolds V. V tells his wish to go to the forest
go to the forest and M insists on following him voluntarily and M says that she will follow him
in detail. V says farewell to K.
briey. V says farewell to K.
10 V leaves with his family and persuades the citi- V leaves with his family.
zens who followed him to go back.
11 A brahmin demands Vs carriage and V gives A brahmin demands Vs carriage and V gives
it to him despite Ms angerin detail.
it to himbriey. V gives horses to another
12 V and his family arrive at the forest and dwell V and his family arrive at a valley in Mt.
KailAsa and dwell there.

68 Problems in the sTog Palace Manuscript of the BhaiSajyavastu of the MUlasarvAstivAda-vinayaF. Yao
A brahmin nGan to re gets married and looks
for some servants for his wife.
A brahmin comes and demands Vs children in The Brahmin nGan to re comes and demands
Ms absence. V gives the brahmin the children Vs children in Ms absence. V gives the brahafter much anguished thoughtin detail.
min the childrenbriey.
The earth quakesin detail. The children are DPNLTF: The earth S: The same as Iextaken away after a conversation with V. M hur- quakesbriey.
cluding the earthries home.
A god stands in Ms way and M makes him go. Indra stands in Ms way and M makes him go.
M returns and grieves when she hears that V DPNLTF: M returns S: The same as I.
gave away the childrenin detail. V tells her and accuses V of givhis resolution for charity and she complies with ing away the children
his wish.
V shows M the bleeding from his body due to

his love for his children.

V gives M to Indra who had disguised himself V gives M to Indra who had disguised himself
as a brahmin. Indra reveals his true shape and as a brahmin. Indra reveals his true shape and
gives her back to Vin detail.
gives her back to Vbriey.
K nds Vs children sold by the brahmin and K nds Vs children sold by the brahmin, rerecalls V. After Ks death, V gets back to the deems them and recalls V. V becomes king. V
capital and becomes king. Called SarvaMdada, praises charity after hundreds of thousands of
V dispenses and praises charity.
years of charity.
A set phrase for ending the story.
A set phrase for ending the story.







-I am indebted to Professor Shayne Clarke for helpful comments on a draft of this paper.
Over the past few decades scholars have raised a number of signicant points about the characteristics of S in comparison with other editions of the Kanjur: modern orthography that S shows
against the other Them spangs ma editionsL and T, variant readings of S in common with Tshal pa
tradition, and agreement between S and Tshal pa tradition on the arrangement of the Vinaya part of the
KanjurHelmut Eimer, Zur Beurteilung der Textqualitt der Kanjurhandschrift aus dem Palast in
Tog/Ladakh, Indological and Buddhist Studies: Volume in Honour of Professor J. W. de Jong on his
Sixtieth Birthday, Australian National University, 1982, pp.121136; Rab tu byuG bai gi: Die tibe
tische bersetzung des PravrajyAvastu im Vinaya der MUlasarvAstivAdins, Otto Harrassowitz, 1983,
pp.8083; Some Results of Recent Kanjur Research, VGH Wissenschaftsverlag, 1983, p.22, n.67. Peter Skilling, MahAsUtras vol.I, The Pali Text Society, 1994, pp.xlivxlvi.. Clarke noted that the rules
in the Tibetan bhikSuNI vibhaGga of the MSV are numbered with numerals only in SShayne Clarke,
GuNaprabha, Yijing, Bu sTon and the Lack of a Coherent System of Rules for Nuns in the Tibetan
Tradition of the MUlasarvAstivAda-vinaya, Conference on Buddhist Nuns in India, at University of
Toronto, April 16, 2011, and he suggested that this is the result of an attempt to reconcile the stated
number of rules with the actual number of rules found in the text. The problems of S which this paper

Problems in the sTog Palace Manuscript of the BhaiSajyavastu of the MUlasarvAstivAda-vinayaF. Yao 69
addresses might be related to these problems. S: Kha374b5; D: Kha279b5280a3, P:
Ge258b4259a2, N: Kha502b5503a7, L: Nya113a4b5, T: Nya108b6109a7, F: Kha367b5368a5;
Taish 24.76a1
. Hereafter parentheses indicate the lack of passages in question.Cf. Jampa
Losang Panglung, Preliminary Remarks on the uddAnas in the Vinaya of the MUlasarvAstivAdin. Ti
betan Studies in Honour of Hugh Richardson, Aris & Phillips, 1980, pp.228230.S: Kha
348a67;D: Kha261a6, P: Ge243b4, N: Kha473b, L: Nya87a8, T: Nya84a5, F: Kha345b2;Taish
.This might result from the process of insertion of AG into BhV. Cf. Richard Salomon, Two GAndhArI Manuscripts of the Songs of Lake AnavataptaAnavatapta-gAthA, University
of Washington Press, 2008, pp.5157.UddAna KAzyapa S: Kha382b67; D: Kha291b1, P:
Ge270a4, N: Kha522a7, L: Nya130a2, T: Nya126b8127a1, F: Kha383b2, Sanskrit: 205r1Klaus
Wille, Die handschriftliche berlieferung des Vinayavastu der MUlasarvAstivAdin, Franz Steiner Verlag, 1990, p.89. Yazas S: Kha392b23; D: Kha299b1, P: Ge277b56, N: Kha534b6, L: Nya140b8,
T: Nya138a56, F: Kha393b67. CUDapanthaka S: Kha404a4; D: Kha307a5, P: Ge285a12, N:
Kha547a23, L: Nya151b12, T: Nya149a6, F: Kha403a4. Madhu
vAsiSTha S: Kha415b45; D:
Ga14a1, P: Ge12b67, N: Ga20a34, L: Nya180b23, T: Nya179b12, F: Ga20a6.For parallel stories in the SaGghabhedavastu and the Gilgit manuscript, see Panglung, op. cit., pp.229230.
S: Kha297b7308a6; D: Kha219a6227b4/ 227b4232b7, P: Ga206b2214a4/ 214a4218b4, N:
Kha408b1420b7/ 420b7429a3, L: Nya30a340b7/ 40b747b7, T: Nya28a539a1/ 39a145b8, F:
Kha291b8303b1/ 303b1310b1; Taish 24.64c2668b16.
Key wordsMUlasarvAstivAda-vinaya, BhaiSajyavastu, sTog Palace manuscript, uddAna
The University of Tokyo, Project Researcher, Ph.D.