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# NETWORK ANALYSIS

## What to explore in a Network?

 Who is influential person in a particular
network
 Network Flow
 What are the parameters of judging the
influence
 Influence is a single dimension parameter or
more than it?
 Is there any locational advantage exist in N/W?

## Network Structure useful for

 Whom to target for online
marketing campaign ?
 Who can increase my reach?
 Who is more influential ?
 How to reach him ?
 How to make promotional event
successful?
3

A

G
E

E

F
D

1
2

3
1

3
4
4
5
5

## Who has more Power?

Network Representation
 Actors (Nodes, vertices or points)
 Represented as points
 Position of actor : Favourable position
v/s constraint position

##  Relationship (Edges, Arcs, Lines, Ties)

 Dyad : A tie between two actors
 Triad: A relationship between three
actors
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Continued..
 Graph
 Directed / undirected

##  Subgroup : A small group of few

members of any network
 Centrality
 Diameter
 Modularity
9

## Network Structure and Data Sources

Actors- Nodes or Vertex

NETWORK REPRESENTATION
B

NETWORK REPRESENTATION
B

Network Data
In general, a relation can be:
Binary or Valued
Directed or Undirected
b

d
4

Undirected, Valued

Directed, binary

Undirected, binary

c
Directed, Valued

Undirected

Undirected
Weight

Network Elements
Directed

## Basic Data Structures

From matrices to lists
a b c d e
a
1
b 1
1
c
1 1
1
d
1
1
e
1 1

ab
bac
cbde
dce
ecd

Arc List
ab
ba
bc
cb
cd
ce
dc
de
ec
ed

Network Structure

## How To Define the Power of a

particular Node in a Network ?
 Concepts of Centrality
 Diameter : Longest distance between
any pair in the network
 Density : How the individual nodes
sharing information
 High density more connections quick
sharing of information

Network Centrality





Degree Centrality
Closeness Centrality
Betweenness Centrality
Eigen vector Centrality

Degree Centrality
 Number of Links attached to a
particular node
 In degree Number of links directed
to the node
 Out degree Number of links
directed from that node

Degree Centrality ..
 High in-degree More people are
following that node (more popular)
 High out degree gregariousness
and social / generous

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Degree Distribution
A

A =2
B =2
C =4
D =1
E =1

Degree Distribution

2.5

2
1.5
1
0.5
0
1

Degree

Degree Distribution
3

4
4

Degree Distribution
3

2
Degree Distribution
4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

4
4

DEGREE

Degree Centrality
J

I
H

R=

F=

D=

B=

A
Q

N
M

P
D
O

B
C

Important?
B

A
J

R
L
N

M
P
O

F
E

## Which Node is Most Important?

J

I
H

A
Q

N
M

P
D
O

B
C

Closeness Centrality
 It defines the proximity of the nodes
 Distance between two nodes is
expressed as the number of links
present between them
 Actors who can reach to other actors in
shorter path lengths are at favoured
positions

##  Shortest path How easily one can

reach to other
 Smaller number is better

Closeness Centrality
I
J

G
R

P
F

=18/
10

1.8

Closeness Centrality
I
J

G
R

P
F

=19/
10

1.9

## Between ness Centrality

Between-ness Centrality
 Measure of Nodes Influence
 The number of shortest paths from all
vertices to all others that pass
through that node.
 Degree to which a particular node is
work as a gate keeper to the network
 High betweenness more important
the node is.

Betweenness Centrality
 The degree to which a actor lies
between other nodes
 The data will pass through in between
node
 Actors with high betweenness can serve
as broker agent and play important role
in transfer of data
 In- between node failure will cease the
communication between the nodes
 This measure can be calculated in
absolute value, as well as in percentage

A

B
E

C
D

F
H

## Eigen Vector Centrality

 Measure of nodes importance.
 Iterative matrix computation that
gives more weight to nodes if they
are connected to influential nodes.
 The backbone to techniques like
pages.

DENSITY
EDGES: 5

A
A
D
B

E
C

DENSITY

Nodes: 8
Edges: 12
Total Possible
Edges: ??

DENSITY

Nodes: 8
Edges: 12
Total Possible
Edges: ??
# Nodes * (# Nodes 1)
2

DENSITY

Nodes: 8
Edges: 12
Total Possible
Edges: ??

# Nodes * (# Nodes 1 )
2
(8 * 7 ) 56
=
= 28
2
2

Density:
12/28=0.43

## Network Modularity and

Community Identification

##  Modularity : Subgroups in a big group

 Subgroups are having high density
among itself.
 Giant component : Largest
component of all the connected nodes
 Giant component : used to filter out
the network

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NETWORK MODULARITY
Merry
Mike
Mia
Bob

Emma

LIZ

Allen

Lisa

Jill
Mark
Shane

John

Tom

Leah
Jen

Sean

NETWORK MODULARITY
Merry
Mike
Mia
Bob

Emma
LIZ

Allen

Lisa

Jill
Mark
Shane

John

Tom

Leah
Jen

Sean

NETWORK MODULARITY
Merry
Mike
Mia
Bob

Emma

LIZ

Allen

Lisa

Jill
Mark
Sha
ne

John

Tom

Leah
Jen

Sean

GAINT MODULARITY
Merry
Mike
Bob

Mia
Emma

LIZ

Allen

Lisa

Jill
Mark
Shane

John

Tom

Leah
Jen

Sean

NETWORK MODULARITY
Merry
Mike
Bob

Mia
Emma

LIZ

Allen

Lisa

Jill
Mark
Shane

John

Tom

Leah
Jen

Sean

Connectivity and
Cohesion
Minimum number of nodes to remove before the
network become disconnected
A

F
B

A
C

F
G

E
Cohesion
=1

G
Cohesion
=2

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