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NETWORK ANALYSIS

What to explore in a Network?


 Who is influential person in a particular
network
 Network Flow
 What are the parameters of judging the
influence
 Influence is a single dimension parameter or
more than it?
 Is there any locational advantage exist in N/W?

Network Structure useful for


business?
 Whom to target for online
marketing campaign ?
 Who can increase my reach?
 Who is more influential ?
 How to reach him ?
 How to make promotional event
successful?
3

Locational Advantage /
Disadvantage

Locational Advantage /
Disadvantage
A

G
E

Locational Advantage / Disadvantage


E

F
D

Networks and Power:

1
2

3
1

3
4
4
5
5

Who has more Power?

Network Representation
 Actors (Nodes, vertices or points)
 Represented as points
 Position of actor : Favourable position
v/s constraint position

 Relationship (Edges, Arcs, Lines, Ties)


 Dyad : A tie between two actors
 Triad: A relationship between three
actors
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Continued..
 Graph
 Directed / undirected

 Subgroup : A small group of few


members of any network
 Centrality
 Diameter
 Modularity
9

Network Structure and Data Sources


Actors- Nodes or Vertex

NETWORK REPRESENTATION
B

NETWORK REPRESENTATION
B

Network Data
In general, a relation can be:
Binary or Valued
Directed or Undirected
b

d
4

Undirected, Valued

Directed, binary

Undirected, binary

c
Directed, Valued

Network Structure and Data Sources


Relations- Ties, Edges, arcs, Links

Undirected

Network Structure and Data Sources


Relations- Ties, Edges, arcs, Links
Undirected
Weight

Network Elements
Relations- Ties, Edges, arcs, Links
Directed

Basic Data Structures


From matrices to lists
a b c d e
a
1
b 1
1
c
1 1
1
d
1
1
e
1 1

Adjacency List
ab
bac
cbde
dce
ecd

Arc List
ab
ba
bc
cb
cd
ce
dc
de
ec
ed

Network Structure

How To Define the Power of a


particular Node in a Network ?
 Concepts of Centrality
 Diameter : Longest distance between
any pair in the network
 Density : How the individual nodes
sharing information
 High density more connections quick
sharing of information

Network Centrality





Degree Centrality
Closeness Centrality
Betweenness Centrality
Eigen vector Centrality

Degree Centrality
 Number of Links attached to a
particular node
 More links more connections
 Directed /Undirected links
 In degree Number of links directed
to the node
 Out degree Number of links
directed from that node

Degree Centrality ..
 High in-degree More people are
following that node (more popular)
 High out degree gregariousness
and social / generous

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Degree Distribution
A

A =2
B =2
C =4
D =1
E =1

Degree Distribution

2.5

2
1.5
1
0.5
0
1

Degree

Degree Distribution
3

4
4

Degree Distribution
3

2
Degree Distribution
4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

4
4

DEGREE

Degree Centrality
J

I
H

R=

F=

D=

B=

A
Q

N
M

P
D
O

B
C

POWER LAW DISTRIBUTION

Which Node is Most


Important?
B

A
J

R
L
N

M
P
O

F
E

Which Node is Most Important?


J

I
H

A
Q

N
M

P
D
O

B
C

Closeness Centrality
 It defines the proximity of the nodes
 Distance between two nodes is
expressed as the number of links
present between them
 Actors who can reach to other actors in
shorter path lengths are at favoured
positions

 Shortest path How easily one can


reach to other
 Smaller number is better

Closeness Centrality
I
J

G
R

P
F

=18/
10

1.8

Closeness Centrality
I
J

G
R

P
F

=19/
10

1.9

Between ness Centrality

Between-ness Centrality
 Measure of Nodes Influence
 The number of shortest paths from all
vertices to all others that pass
through that node.
 Degree to which a particular node is
work as a gate keeper to the network
 High betweenness more important
the node is.

Betweenness Centrality
 The degree to which a actor lies
between other nodes
 The data will pass through in between
node
 Actors with high betweenness can serve
as broker agent and play important role
in transfer of data
 In- between node failure will cease the
communication between the nodes
 This measure can be calculated in
absolute value, as well as in percentage

Between ness Centrality


A

B
E

C
D

F
H

Eigen Vector Centrality


 Measure of nodes importance.
 Iterative matrix computation that
gives more weight to nodes if they
are connected to influential nodes.
 The backbone to techniques like
Googles PageRank which ranks web
pages.
 Weight to the links

DENSITY
EDGES: 5

A
A
D
B

E
C

DENSITY

Nodes: 8
Edges: 12
Total Possible
Edges: ??

DENSITY

Nodes: 8
Edges: 12
Total Possible
Edges: ??
# Nodes * (# Nodes 1)
2

DENSITY

Nodes: 8
Edges: 12
Total Possible
Edges: ??

# Nodes * (# Nodes 1 )
2
(8 * 7 ) 56
=
= 28
2
2

Density:
12/28=0.43

Network Modularity and


Community Identification

 Modularity : Subgroups in a big group


 Subgroups are having high density
among itself.
 Giant component : Largest
component of all the connected nodes
 Giant component : used to filter out
the network

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NETWORK MODULARITY
Merry
Mike
Mia
Bob

Emma

LIZ

Allen

Lisa

Jill
Mark
Shane

John

Tom

Leah
Jen

Sean

NETWORK MODULARITY
Merry
Mike
Mia
Bob

Emma
LIZ

Allen

Lisa

Jill
Mark
Shane

John

Tom

Leah
Jen

Sean

NETWORK MODULARITY
Merry
Mike
Mia
Bob

Emma

LIZ

Allen

Lisa

Jill
Mark
Sha
ne

John

Tom

Leah
Jen

Sean

GAINT MODULARITY
Merry
Mike
Bob

Mia
Emma

LIZ

Allen

Lisa

Jill
Mark
Shane

John

Tom

Leah
Jen

Sean

NETWORK MODULARITY
Merry
Mike
Bob

Mia
Emma

LIZ

Allen

Lisa

Jill
Mark
Shane

John

Tom

Leah
Jen

Sean

Connectivity and
Cohesion
Minimum number of nodes to remove before the
network become disconnected
A

F
B

A
C

F
G

E
Cohesion
=1

G
Cohesion
=2

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