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Cellular Respiration

Making ATP
Happens inside the cell
Glucose ATP
ATP has 3 phosphates
Extract energy from the breakdown of glucose to make 36 ATP
Not making ATP from scratch
Its connecting a phosphate to the existing ADP to make an ADP
ADP + P = ATP x 36
Process of phosphorylation = it can work both ways
ADP ATP and from ATP ADP
Endothermic reaction= Breaking bonds: getting the energy by breaking the bonds in
Breaking covalent bonds
Must use enzymes - proteins work either in the mitochondrion or

Stage 1:Glycolysis
1. Happens in the cytoplasm.
2. Activation: Glucose gets activated, increasing its energy from ATP, so Glucose gets
3. The cell has now restructured Glucose Fructose
4. ATP is giving more energy by transferring two phosphates (Phosphorylation)
5. Lysis: the splitting of glucose (fructose an isomer of glucose)
6. The enzyme just splits the glucose from a 6 carbon chain into a 3 carbon chain
7. Oxidation: gain of oxygen or loss of hydrogen
a. NAD+ (Nicotnamide) an enzyme breaks covalently bonded
Hydrogen, the electrons and hydrogen are transffered to NAD + which is a coenzyme
that fits into the active site.
b. NAD+ + 2e- + H+ NADH
8. Phosphorylation: transfer of Phosphate from the substrate chemicals to ADP to
make ATP (the process is carried out 4 times and is carried out at the end of Glycolysis, to
make 4 ATP)
9. Results after glycolysis: 2 ATP (net), 2 NADH, 2 Pyruvic acid (pyruvate)
Stage 2: Anaerobic Respiration: Lack of O2 in the cell
1. Pyruvate acid is converted into lactic acid it doesnt produce more energy
2. Purpose: to allow Glycolysis to continue, no glycolysis= cell is dead
3. If the cell doesnt have enough oxygen, this is the only way the cell can produce
Stage 2: Aerobic Respiration: enough O2 in the cell
1. Pyruvic acid is transported into the mitochondrion (matrix central part)
2. When it goes into the mitochondrion its going to be broken down more
a. Link Reaction happens Carbon Dioxide is removed
from the piruvate=decarboxylation the release off carbon dioxide
b. Oxidation: H+ and electrons are transffered to NAD+
making NADH (the substrate chemicals are oxidized, the NAD is
reduced and it gains the electrons)
c. Results: 2 carbon chain chemical is left (acetyl = C2H3O)
Stage 3: Krebs Cycle (in the matrix of the mitochondrion)
1. C2H3O + 4C chemical C6H8O7
2. Decarboxylation (CO2 is removed) 5 c chain remains, decarboxylation happens again
and a 4 c chain remains
2 Carbon dioxide = waste products
3x oxidation into NADH
1x oxidation into FADH2 (FAD+ + 2e + 2H+ FADH2)
1x Phosphorylation into ATP

Oxidative Phosphorylation: electron transport chain

Hydrogen ions are stored in the intermembrane space

Electrons transport proteins work in a chain = ETC
Oxidation: NAD has to feed electrons into the electron transport chain/protein
The electrons will jump from transport protein to transport protein in the electron
transport chain
And the protons are pumped across the transport protein from the inner membrane to
the outer membrane
Electrons are picked up by oxygen to form H2O
O2 + e- + H+ H2O
1 NADH : 3 H+
Oxidative Phosphorylation
The protons go to the ATPase or ATP synthase (the protons that were transferred in
the intermembrane)
The protons will power a tiny machine (watermill like structure),
when it spins it actually powers the enzyme unit, the mill part the
proton mill which is connected to the turbine which is connected to the
So when the mill spins it powers the turbine (enzyme) transmitting a force into the
active site that pushes and combines ADP with Phosphate to produce ATP
Chemiosmosis: There is a channel through the mill part through which protons flow
Example of an enzyme which is powered by a mechanical force whoch generates
electrical energy
1 ATP : 1 H+ ratio

Light Dependent reactions:

1. Chlorophyll absorbs light energy
2. Photosystem II transfers e from Chlorophyll to ETC 1
3. Photosystem II splits water molecules into H+, O2, and e Photolysis
a. Oxygen is released (not needed for photosynthesis)
b. Electrons are transferred to Chlorophyll in the Photosystem II
c. H+ are added to the photon gradient inside the thylakoid
4. ETC1 pumps hydrogen ions into the thylakoid then electrons pass through it
5. Hydrogen ions gradient (high concentration of protons) inside the
thylakoid membrane can cause a flow of protons across the ATP synthesis.
a. ATP synthesis combines ADP and P to make ATP
6. Electrons continue from ETC1 to Photosystem I (next one in the chain)
a. Electrons are recharged to a higher energy level in the Chlorophyll
molecules of the Photosystem I
7. Electrons are transferred from Photosystem I to a second ETC2 which will denote the
electrons to NADP+
8. Products of light dependent stage are used in the light independent stage:
a. ATP and NADPh (that carries electrons and hydrogen ions).
Light independent reactions (happens in the stroma):
1. Carbon (dioxide) fixation
a. O2 molecules are connected to an organic chemical with 5 C
b. CO2 + C5 = Ribulose Biophosphate (RuBP)
2. C6 breaks down into 2 x C3 (3 carbon chain molecule) (because C6 is unstable)
3. C3 molecule is activated by Phosphorylation using ATP
a. C3 becomes C3-Phosphate
4. C3-Phosphate is undergoing a reducation using electrons and hydrogen ions from
5. C3-Phorphate now becomes Triose-Phosphate
6. Triose-Phosphate is the final product of photosynthesis
a. Plants can use 2x Triose Phosphate to
7. Some of the Triose Phosphate product is used for making
RUBISCO = Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase

Plant Biology
Plants make their organic products in the leaves and then transport it down to the
roots (where they cant photosynthesise.
1. Absorption of mineral ions from the soil by root hair (cells) active
transport across the membrane
a. Requires ATP and a pump (that allows the transfer of ions, its a
membrane protein)
b. Require oxygen (oxygen comes from the soil a lot of
space in between the soil molecules
c. Absorption of mineral ions by active transport results in high
concentration of mineral ions in root tissue
d. Water moves from a low solute to high solute (dissolved chemicals)
e. So hypotonic to hypertonic
f. High water potential to low water potential
2. Water + Mineral ion solution diffuses to the vascular tissue (xylem tissue) in the
center of the roots
a. Pressure diffuses causes the flow lowers pressure or
lower water potential in the xylem
3. Evaporation of water from leaves causes low pressure in the
a. Leaf pores (stomata) open when there is light
photosynthesis, etc.
b. When its open, immediately the leaf will start producing water
c. More water inside than outside
d. Water diffuses from high potential inside the leaf to a lower potential
in air
e. transpiration
4. Pressure gradient in the leaves is pulling water out of the xylem in veins
a. H2O molecules in the xylem are conducted by Cohesion= Cohesive
forces behaviour H2O molecules because of Hydrogen Bonds
b. Pressure difference caused in leaves is transmitted through the
columns of water in the xylem in vessels
c. Fell all the way down to the root xylem
Translocation= transport of organic products
Transport in any direction
Source to Sink
Create high pressure
Regions of excess carbohydrates, primarily mature leaves
Active Transport of sucrose into sieve tubes causes osmosis of H2O
into sieve tubes
Create low pressure
Regions where the carbohydrate is needed
Active Transport of sucrose out of sieve tubes causes osmosis of H2O
out of sieve tubes
Leaves -----> Roots
Uses other vascular tissue = Phloem

Plant hormones
Plant use hormones to coordinate functions like people
Auxin growth hormone for plants
phototropism: a fast growth response to the direction of light
When a plant starts growing its important that its
orientated towards the light to maximize the absorption of light
1. Chemical is produced from the tip of the shoot under the influence of light
2. Auxin diffuses down from the tip and is transported to the opposite side of the shoot
(dark side). Cells of the shiit have Efflux pumps that transport the auxin to the side that is
opposite to the direction of light.
3. High concentration of auxin on the dark side
a. Auxin activates H+ pumps
b. H+ is pumped into cell wall and affects pH
c. Charge in pH activates enzymes
d. Enzymes cut the chemicals that cross-link (fix) the cellulose
e. Cellulose fibres can now slide cell wall stretches and
cells grow larger making the shoot bend towards the light
Plant reproduction: