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Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

Multiple Choice Questions

1. The length of time between the purchase of inventory and the receipt of cash from the sale
of that inventory is called the:
A. operating cycle.
B. inventory period.
C. accounts receivable period.
D. accounts payable period.
E. cash cycle.
Refer to section 18.2

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Operating cycle

2. The length of time that elapses between the day a firm purchases an inventory item and the
day that item sells is called the:
A. operating cycle.
B. inventory period.
C. accounts receivable period.
D. accounts payable period.
E. cash cycle.
Refer to section 18.2

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Inventory period

18-1

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

3. The length of time between the sale of inventory and the collection of the payment for that
sale is called the:
A. operating cycle.
B. inventory period.
C. accounts receivable period.
D. accounts payable period.
E. cash cycle.
Refer to section 18.2

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Accounts receivable period

4. The length of time between the day a firm purchases an item from its supplier until the day
that supplier is paid for that purchase is called the:
A. operating cycle.
B. inventory period.
C. accounts receivable period.
D. accounts payable period.
E. cash cycle.
Refer to section 18.2

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Accounts payable period

18-2

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

5. Central Supply purchased a toboggan for inventory this morning and paid cash for it. The
time period between today and the day Central Supply will receive cash from the sale of this
toboggan is called the:
A. operating cycle.
B. inventory period.
C. accounts receivable period.
D. accounts payable period.
E. cash cycle.
Refer to section 18.2

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Cash cycle

6. A graphical representation of the operating and cash cycles is called a(n):


A. operating chart.
B. cash flow time line.
C. production flow line.
D. component chart.
E. working time line.
Refer to section 18.2

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Cash flow time line

18-3

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

7. Costs that increase as a firm acquires additional current assets are called _____ costs.
A. carrying
B. shortage
C. order
D. safety
E. trading
Refer to section 18.3

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-2
Section: 18.3
Topic: Carrying costs

8. Costs that decrease as a firm acquires additional current assets are called _____ costs.
A. carrying
B. shortage
C. debt
D. equity
E. payables
Refer to section 18.3

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-2
Section: 18.3
Topic: Shortage costs

18-4

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

9. Steve has estimated the cash inflows and outflows for his hardware store for next year. The
report that he has prepared recapping these cash flows is called a:
A. pro forma income statement.
B. sales projection.
C. cash budget.
D. receivables analysis.
E. credit analysis.
Refer to section 18.4

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.4
Topic: Cash budget

10. Taylor Supply has made an agreement with its bank that it can borrow up to $10,000 at
any time over the next year. This arrangement is called a(n):
A. floor loan.
B. open loan.
C. compensating balance.
D. line of credit.
E. bank note.
Refer to section 18.5

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.5
Topic: Line of credit

18-5

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

11. Money deposited by a borrower with the bank in a low or non-interest-bearing account as
a condition of a loan agreement is called a:
A. compensating balance.
B. secured credit deposit.
C. letter of credit.
D. line of credit.
E. pledge.
Refer to section 18.5

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.5
Topic: Compensating balances

12. Brustle's Pottery either factors or assigns all of its receivables to other firms. This is
known as:
A. accounts receivable financing.
B. pledged financing.
C. capital funding.
D. daily funding.
E. capital financing.
Refer to section 18.5

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.5
Topic: Accounts receivable financing

18-6

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

13. Rose's Gift Shop borrows money on a short-term basis by pledging its inventory as
collateral. This is an example of a(n):
A. debenture.
B. line of credit.
C. banker's acceptance.
D. working loan.
E. inventory loan.
Refer to section 18.5

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.5
Topic: Inventory loan

14. Which one of the following increases cash?


A. granting credit to a customer
B. purchasing new machinery
C. making a payment on a bank loan
D. purchasing inventory
E. accepting credit from a supplier
Refer to section 18.1

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-4
Section: 18.1
Topic: Sources and uses of cash

18-7

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

15. Which of the following are uses of cash?


I. collecting a receivable
II. increasing inventory
III. obtaining a bank loan
IV. paying a supplier for previous purchases
A. I and III only
B. II and IV only
C. I and II only
D. I, II, and IV only
E. II, III, and IV only
Refer to section 18.1

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-4
Section: 18.1
Topic: Sources and uses of cash

16. Which one of the following will increase net working capital? Assume the current ratio is
greater than 1.0.
A. paying a supplier for a previous purchase
B. paying off a long-term debt
C. selling inventory at cost
D. purchasing inventory on credit
E. selling inventory at a profit on credit
Refer to section 18.1

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-4
Section: 18.1
Topic: Net working capital

18-8

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

17. Which one of the following will decrease the net working capital of a firm? Assume the
current ratio is greater than 1.0.
A. selling inventory at cost
B. collecting payment from a customer
C. paying a payment on a long-term debt
D. selling a fixed asset for book value
E. paying a supplier for the purchase of an inventory item
Refer to section 18.1

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-4
Section: 18.1
Topic: Net working capital

18. Which of the following are sources of cash?


I. decrease in inventory
II. increase in accounts receivable
III. repayment of a bond
IV. sale of preferred stock
A. I and III only
B. I and IV only
C. II and III only
D. I, II, and III only
E. I, III, and IV only
Refer to section 18.1

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-4
Section: 18.1
Topic: Sources of cash

18-9

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

19. Which of the following will increase the operating cycle?


I. increasing the inventory turnover rate
II. increasing the payables period
III. decreasing the receivable turnover rate
IV. decreasing the inventory level
A. I only
B. III only
C. II and IV only
D. I and IV only
E. II and III only
Refer to section 18.2

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Operating cycle

20. Which one of the following equals the operating cycle?


A. cash cycle plus accounts receivable period
B. inventory period plus the accounts receivable period
C. inventory period plus the accounts payable period
D. accounts payable period minus the cash cycle
E. accounts payable period plus the accounts receivable period
Refer to section 18.2

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Operating cycle

18-10

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

21. Which one of the following will decrease the operating cycle?
A. decreasing the inventory turnover rate
B. decreasing the accounts payable period
C. increasing the accounts receivable turnover rate
D. increasing the accounts payable period
E. increasing the accounts receivable period
Refer to section 18.2

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Operating cycle

22. The operating cycle describes how a product:


A. is priced.
B. is sold.
C. moves through the current asset accounts.
D. moves through the production process.
E. generates a profit.
Refer to section 18.2

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Operating cycle

18-11

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

23. Which of the following determines the length of the operating cycle?
I. cash cycle
II. inventory period
III. accounts payable period
IV. accounts receivable period
A. I and III only
B. II and IV only
C. I, II, and IV only
D. II, III, and IV only
E. I, II, III, and IV
Refer to section 18.2

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Operating cycle

24. Which of the following will increase the cash cycle, all else constant?
I. increasing the inventory period
II. decreasing the accounts receivable turnover rate
III. increasing the accounts payable period
IV. decreasing the accounts receivable period
A. I and II only
B. III and IV only
C. I and IV only
D. I, II, and III only
E. I, III, and IV only
Refer to section 18.2

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Cash cycle

18-12

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

25. An increase in which one of the following will decrease the cash cycle, all else equal?
A. payables turnover
B. days sales in inventory
C. operating cycle
D. inventory turnover rate
E. accounts receivable period
Refer to section 18.2

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Cash cycle

26. Metal Designs, Inc., historically produced products for inventory. Now, the firm only
produces a product when it receives an actual order from a customer. All else equal, this
change will:
A. increase the operating cycle.
B. lengthen the accounts receivable period.
C. shorten the accounts payable period.
D. decrease the cash cycle.
E. decrease the inventory turnover rate.
Refer to section 18.2

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Cash cycle

18-13

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

27. Which of the following statements are correct?


I. An increase in the accounts payable period shortens the cash cycle.
II. The cash cycle is equal to the operating cycle minus the inventory period.
III. A negative cash cycle is preferable to a positive cash cycle.
IV. The cash cycle plus the accounts receivable period is equal to the operating cycle.
A. I only
B. III and IV only
C. I and III only
D. I and IV only
E. I, II, and III only
Refer to section 18.2

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Cash cycle

28. Which one of the following statements is correct concerning the cash cycle?
A. The longer the cash cycle, the more likely a firm will need external financing.
B. Increasing the accounts payable period increases the cash cycle.
C. A positive cash cycle is preferable to a negative cash cycle.
D. The cash cycle can exceed the operating cycle if the payables period is equal to zero.
E. Offering early payment discounts to customers will tend to increase the cash cycle.
Refer to section 18.2

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Cash cycle

18-14

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

29. Which of the following actions will tend to decrease the inventory period?
I. discontinuing all slow-selling merchandise
II. selling obsolete inventory below cost just to get rid of it
III. buying raw materials only as needed for the manufacturing process
IV. producing goods on demand versus for inventory
A. I and III only
B. II and IV only
C. II, III, and IV only
D. I, II, and III only
E. I, II, III, and IV
Refer to section 18.2

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Inventory period

30. Which one of the following actions will tend to increase the accounts receivable period?
Assume the accounts receivable period is currently 34 days.
A. tightening the standards for granting credit to customers
B. refusing to grant additional credit to any customer who pays late
C. increasing the finance charges applied to all customer balances outstanding over thirty days
D. granting discounts for cash sales
E. eliminating the discount for early payment by credit customers
Refer to section 18.2

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Accounts receivable period

18-15

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

31. An increase in which one of the following is an indicator that an accounts receivable
policy is becoming more restrictive?
A. bad debts
B. accounts receivable turnover rate
C. accounts receivable period
D. credit sales
E. operating cycle
Refer to section 18.2

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Accounts receivable period

32. If you pay your suppliers five days sooner, then:


A. your payables turnover rate will decrease.
B. you may require additional funds from other sources to fund the cash cycle.
C. the cash cycle will decrease.
D. your operating cycle will increase.
E. the accounts receivable period will decrease.
Refer to section 18.2

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Accounts payable period

18-16

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

33. Which one of the following will increase the accounts payable period, all else constant?
A. an increase in the cost of goods sold account value
B. an increase in the ending accounts payable balance
C. an increase in the cash cycle
D. a decrease in the operating cycle
E. an increase in the accounts payable turnover rate
Refer to section 18.2

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Accounts payable period

34. Which one of the following managers determines which customers must pay cash and
which can charge their purchases?
A. purchasing manager
B. credit manager
C. controller
D. production manager
E. payables manager
Refer to section 18.2

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Organizational chart

18-17

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

35. Which one of the following managers determines when a supplier will be paid?
A. controller
B. payables manager
C. credit manager
D. purchasing manager
E. production manager
Refer to section 18.2

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Organizational chart

36. A firm with a flexible short-term financial policy will:


A. maintain a low balance in accounts receivables.
B. only have minimal amounts, if any, invested in marketable securities.
C. invest heavily in inventory.
D. have low cash balances.
E. have tight restrictions on granting credit to customers.
Refer to section 18.3

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-2
Section: 18.3
Topic: Short-term financial policy

18-18

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

37. Which one of the following is indicative of a short-term restrictive financial policy?
A. purchasing inventory on an as-needed basis
B. granting credit to all customers
C. investing heavily in marketable securities
D. maintaining a large accounts receivable balance
E. keeping inventory levels high
Refer to section 18.3

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-2
Section: 18.3
Topic: Short-term financial policy

38. Which of the following are associated with a restrictive short-term financial policy?
I. little, if any, investment in marketable securities
II. liberal credit terms for customers
III. low cash balances
IV. increasing inventory levels
A. I and III only
B. II and IV only
C. I and IV only
D. III and IV only
E. I, II, and III only
Refer to section 18.3

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-2
Section: 18.3
Topic: Short-term financial policy

18-19

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

39. The Lumber Mart recently replaced its management team. As a result, the firm is
implementing a restrictive short-term policy in place of the flexible policy under which the
firm had been operating. Which of the following should the employees expect as a result of
this policy change?
I. reduction in sales due to stock outs
II. greater inventory selection
III. decreased sales due to the new accounts receivable credit policy
IV. decreased investment in marketable securities
A. I and II only
B. II and IV only
C. I, II, and IV only
D. I, III, and IV only
E. I, II, III, and IV
Refer to section 18.3

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-2
Section: 18.3
Topic: Short-term financial policy

40. A flexible short-term financial policy:


A. increases a firm's need for long-term financing.
B. minimizes net working capital.
C. avoids bad debts by only selling items for cash.
D. maximizes fixed assets and minimizes current assets.
E. is most appropriate for a firm with relatively high carrying costs and relatively low
shortage costs.
Refer to section 18.3

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-2
Section: 18.3
Topic: Short-term financial policy

18-20

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

41. A flexible short-term financial policy:


I. increases shortage costs due to frequent cash-outs.
II. tends to increase sales as compared to a restrictive policy.
III. requires a sizeable investment in current assets.
IV. incurs more carrying costs than a restrictive policy.
A. I and IV only
B. II and III only
C. I, II, and III only
D. II, III, and IV only
E. I, III, and IV only
Refer to section 18.3

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-2
Section: 18.3
Topic: Short-term financial policy

42. Shortage costs include which of the following?


I. disruption of production schedules
II. inventory ordering costs
III. lost customer goodwill
IV. brokerage costs
A. I and II only
B. II and III only
C. II, III, and IV only
D. I, II, and III only
E. I, II, III, and IV
Refer to section 18.3

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-2
Section: 18.3
Topic: Shortage costs

18-21

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

43. The optimal investment in current assets for an operating firm occurs at the point where:
A. both shortage costs and carrying costs equal zero.
B. shortage costs are equal to zero.
C. carrying costs are equal to zero.
D. carrying costs exceed shortage costs.
E. the total costs of holding current assets is minimized.
Refer to section 18.3

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-2
Section: 18.3
Topic: Optimal point

44. Which one of the following statements is correct?


A. A firm with a restrictive financing policy secures sufficient long-term financing to fund all
its assets.
B. A firm with a flexible financing policy frequently invests in marketable securities.
C. A firm with a flexible financing policy tends to use short-term financing on a frequent
basis.
D. Firms tend to avoid short-term financing under both restrictive and flexible financing
policies.
E. Firms with seasonal sales select flexible financing policies.
Refer to section 18.3

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-2
Section: 18.3
Topic: Asset financing policies

18-22

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

45. Which one of the following statements is correct?


A. Seasonal needs are financed externally when firms adhere to a flexible financing policy.
B. A flexible financing policy tends to increase the risk of encountering financial distress.
C. Long-term interest rates tend to be less volatile than short-term rates.
D. Most firms tend to finance inventory with long-term debt.
E. Short-term interest rates are generally higher than long-term rates.
Refer to section 18.3

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-2
Section: 18.3
Topic: Financing policies

46. Assume each month has 30 days and a firm has a 60-day accounts receivable period.
During the second calendar quarter of the year, that firm will collect payment for the sales it
made during which of the following months?
A. October, November, and December
B. November, December, and January
C. December, January, and February
D. January, February, and March
E. February, March, and April
Refer to section 18.4

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.4
Topic: Cash collections

18-23

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

47. The Harvester collects 25 percent of sales in the month of sale, 60 percent of sales in the
month following the month of sale, and 15 percent of sales in the second month following the
month of sale. During the month of April, the firm will collect:
A. 60 percent of February sales.
B. 15 percent of April sales.
C. 60 percent of March sales.
D. 15 percent of March sales.
E. 25 percent of February sales.
Refer to section 18.4

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.4
Topic: Cash collections

48. A manufacturing firm has a 90 day collection period. The firm produces seasonal
merchandise and thus has the least sales during the first quarter of a year and the highest level
of sales during the fourth quarter of a year. The firm maintains a relatively steady level of
production which means that its cash disbursements are fairly equal in all quarters. The firm is
most apt to face a cash-out situation in:
A. the first quarter.
B. the second quarter.
C. the third quarter.
D. the fourth quarter.
E. any quarter with equal probabilities of occurrence.
Refer to section 18.4

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.4
Topic: Cash collections

18-24

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

49. Jill is the CFO of Summertime Adventures which is a seasonal firm specializing in
products related to water sports. The firm purchases inventory one month before it is sold and
pays for its purchases 60 days after the invoice date. Sales are highest during July and August.
Currently, Jill is preparing the cash disbursements section of the firm's cash budget. Which
one of the following statements is supported by this information?
A. Inventory purchases will be highest during the months of July and August.
B. Inventory purchases will be highest during the months of May and June.
C. Payments to suppliers will be highest during the months of June and July.
D. Payments to suppliers will be highest during the months of July and August.
E. Payments to suppliers will be highest during the months of August and September.
Refer to section 18.4

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.4
Topic: Cash disbursements

50. Which two of the following are most apt to cause a cash-out for a firm that is generally
financially sound?
I. fixed expenses
II. fixed asset purchases
III. flexible financing policy
IV. highly seasonal sales
A. I and III only
B. II and IV only
C. III and IV only
D. I, II, and III only
E. II, III, and IV only
Refer to section 18.4

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.4
Topic: Cash-out

18-25

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

51. Which one of the following statements is correct concerning the cash balance of a firm?
A. Most firms attempt to maintain a zero cash balance at all times.
B. The cumulative cash surplus shown on a cash budget is equal to the ending cash balance
plus the minimum desired cash balance.
C. On a cash balance report, the cumulative cash surplus at the end of May is used as June's
beginning cash balance.
D. A cumulative cash deficit indicates a borrowing need.
E. The ending cash balance must equal the minimum desired cash balance.
Refer to section 18.4

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.4
Topic: Cash balance

52. A cumulative cash deficit indicates a firm:


A. has at least a short-term need for external funding.
B. is facing long-term financial distress.
C. will go out of business within the year.
D. is capable of funding all of its needs internally.
E. is using its cash wisely.
Refer to section 18.4

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.4
Topic: Cash balance

18-26

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

53. The most common means of financing a temporary cash deficit is a:


A. long-term secured bank loan.
B. short-term secured bank loan.
C. short-term issue of corporate bonds.
D. long-term unsecured bank loan.
E. short-term unsecured bank loan.
Refer to section 18.5

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.5
Topic: Short-term borrowing

54. The primary difference between a line of credit and a revolving credit arrangement is the:
A. type of collateral used to secure the loan.
B. length of the credit period.
C. fact that the line of credit is a secured loan and the revolving credit arrangement is
unsecured.
D. fact that the line of credit is an unsecured loan and the revolving credit arrangement is
secured.
E. classification as either a committed or a noncommitted loan.
Refer to section 18.5

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.5
Topic: Short-term borrowing

18-27

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

55. A compensating balance:


I. is required when a firm acquires any bank financing other than a line of credit.
II. increases the cost of short-term bank financing.
III. may be required even if a firm never borrows funds.
IV. is often used as a means of paying for banking services received.
A. I and III only
B. II and IV only
C. II and III only
D. I and IV only
E. II, III, and IV only
Refer to section 18.5

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.5
Topic: Short-term borrowing

56. High Point Hotel (HPH) has $165,000 in accounts receivable. To finance a major
purchase, the company assigns these receivables to Cross Town Bank. Which one of the
following statements correctly describes this transaction?
A. HPH will immediately receive $165,000 and will have no further obligation related to
these receivables.
B. HPH will receive some amount of cash immediately while maintaining full responsibility
for any uncollected receivables.
C. Cross Town Bank accepts full responsibility for the collection of the accounts receivables
and, in exchange, immediately pays HPH a discounted value for its receivables.
D. Cross Town Bank accepts full responsibility for collecting the accounts receivables and
pays HPH a discounted price for the accounts collected after the normal collection period has
elapsed.
E. HPH receives the full amount of its receivables upon assignment but must reimburse Cross
Town Bank for any uncollected account.
Refer to section 18.5

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.5
Topic: Short-term borrowing

18-28

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

57. Which one of the following statements is correct?


A. The assignment of receivables involves selling the firm's accounts receivables at full price.
B. Lines of credit frequently require a cleanup period.
C. With maturity factoring, the borrower receives the loan amount immediately.
D. Commercial paper is short-term financing offered to highly-rated corporations by major
banks.
E. Credit card receivables funding is a relatively inexpensive method of borrowing on a shortterm basis.
Refer to section 18.5

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.5
Topic: Short-term borrowing

58. Which of the following are benefits derived from short-term financial planning?
I. having advance notice of when your firm will require external financing
II. being able to determine the extent of time for which a loan is required
III. having the ability to time capital expenditures in order to place the least financial burden
possible on a firm
IV. knowing for certain what your cash balance will be six months in advance
A. I and III only
B. I, II, and III only
C. II, III, and IV only
D. I, II, and IV only
E. I, II, III, and IV
Refer to section 18.6

AACSB: N/A
Bloom's: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.6
Topic: Short-term financial plan

18-29

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

59. Denver Interiors, Inc., has sales of $836,000 and cost of goods sold of $601,000. The firm
had a beginning inventory of $41,000 and an ending inventory of $47,000. What is the length
of the inventory period?
A. 19.21 days
B. 20.89 days
C. 26.72 days
D. 30.53 days
E. 33.69 days
Inventory turnover = $601,000/[($41,000 + $47,000)/2] = 13.65909
Inventory period = 365/13.65909 = 26.72 days

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Inventory period

60. A national firm has sales of $729,000 and cost of goods sold of $478,000. At the
beginning of the year, the inventory was $37,000. At the end of the year, the inventory
balance was $41,000. What is the inventory turnover rate?
A. 12.26 times
B. 12.78 times
C. 14.22 times
D. 18.56 times
E. 19.70 times
Inventory turnover = $478,000/[($37,000 + $41,000)/2] = 12.26 times

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Inventory turnover

18-30

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

61. North Side Wholesalers has sales of $948,000. The cost of goods sold is equal to 72
percent of sales. The firm has an average inventory of $23,000. How many days on average
does it take the firm to sell its inventory?
A. 11.24 days
B. 12.30 days
C. 16.48 days
D. 26.35 days
E. 29.68 days
Inventory turnover = ($948,000 0.72)/$23,000 = 29.6765
Inventory period = 365/29.6765 = 12.30 days

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Inventory period

62. The Bear Rug has sales of $811,000. The cost of goods sold is equal to 63 percent of
sales. The beginning accounts receivable balance is $41,000 and the ending accounts
receivable balance is $38,000. How long on average does it take the firm to collect its
receivables?
A. 17.26 days
B. 17.78 days
C. 18.58 days
D. 20.44 days
E. 29.77 days
Receivables turnover = $811,000/[($41,000 + $38,000)/2] = 20.53165
Receivables period = 365/20.53165 = 17.78 Days

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Accounts receivable period

18-31

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

63. The Blue Star has sales of $387,000, costs of goods sold of $259,000, average accounts
receivable of $9,800, and average accounts payable of $12,600. How long does it take for the
firm's credit customers to pay for their purchases?
A. 7.67 days
B. 8.78 days
C. 9.24 days
D. 11.88 days
E. 13.81 days
Receivables turnover = $387,000/$9,800 = 39.4898
Receivables period = 365/39.4898 = 9.24 days

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Accounts receivable period

64. The Mountain Top Shoppe has sales of $512,000, average accounts receivable of $31,400
and average accounts payable of $24,800. The cost of goods sold is equivalent to 71 percent
of sales. How long does it take The Mountain Top Shoppe to pay its suppliers?
A. 21.76 days
B. 22.38 days
C. 24.90 days
D. 25.89 days
E. 26.67 days
Payables turnover = ($512,000 0.71)/$24,800 = 14.6581
Payables period = 365/14.6581 = 24.90 days

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Accounts payable period

18-32

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

65. HG Livery Supply had a beginning accounts payable balance of $57,300 and an ending
accounts payable balance of $55,100. Sales for the period were $610,000 and costs of goods
sold were $442,000. What is the payables turnover rate?
A. 7.86 times
B. 8.39 times
C. 9.02 times
D. 9.86 times
E. 10.85 times
Payables turnover = $442,000/[($57,300 + $55,100)/2)] = 7.86 times

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Accounts payable turnover

66. Your firm has an inventory turnover rate of 14, a payables turnover rate of 8, and a
receivables turnover rate of 19. How long is your firm's operating cycle?
A. 45.06 days
B. 45.28 days
C. 45.63 days
D. 53.13 days
E. 53.78 days
Inventory period = 365/14 = 26.07 days
Accounts receivable period = 365/19 = 19.21 days
Operating cycle = 26.07 + 19.21 days = 45.28 days

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Operating cycle

18-33

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

67. Merryl Enterprises currently has an operating cycle of 62 days. The firm is analyzing
some operational changes, which are expected to increase the accounts receivable period by 2
days and decrease the inventory period by 5 days. The accounts payable turnover rate is
expected to increase from 42 to 46 times per year. If all of these changes are adopted, what
will the firm's new operating cycle be?
A. 51 days
B. 57 days
C. 59 days
D. 60 days
E. 65 days
Operating cycle = 62 + 2 - 5 = 59 days

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Operating cycle

68. On average, Furniture & More is able to sell its inventory in 27 days. The firm takes 87
days on average to pay for its purchases. On the other hand, its average customer pays with a
credit card which allows the firm to collect its receivables in 4 days. Given this information,
what is the length of operating cycle?
A. 31 days
B. 38 days
C. 45 days
D. 56 days
E. 62 days
Operating cycle = 27 + 4 = 31 days

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Operating cycle

18-34

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

69. Interior Designs has an inventory period of 46 days, an accounts payable period of 38
days, and an accounts receivable period of 32 days. Management is considering an offer from
their suppliers to pay within 10 days and receive a 2 percent discount. If the new discount is
taken, the accounts payable period is expected to decline by 26 days. If the new discount is
taken, the operating cycle will be _____ days.
A. 52
B. 62
C. 71
D. 78
E. 91
Original operating cycle = 46 + 32 = 78 days; The operating cycle will not change as the
accounts payable period does not affect the operating cycle, only the cash cycle.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Operating cycle

70. Metal Products Co. has an inventory period of 53 days, an accounts payable period of 68
days, and an accounts receivable turnover rate of 18. What is the length of the cash cycle?
A. 3.00 days
B. 5.28 days
C. 26.28 days
D. 71.00 days
E. 73.28 days
Cash cycle = (365/18) + 53 - 68 = 5.28 days

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Cash cycle

18-35

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

71. West Chester Automation has an inventory turnover of 16 and an accounts payable
turnover of 11. The accounts receivable period is 36 days. What is the length of the cash
cycle?
A. 5.67 days
B. 25.63 days
C. 41.00 days
D. 52.00 days
E. 58.81 days
Cash cycle = (365/16) + 36 - (365/11) = 25.63 days

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Cash cycle

72. Peterson's Antiquities currently has a 31 day cash cycle. Assume the firm changes its
operations such that it decreases its receivables period by 2 days, decreases its inventory
period by 3 days, and decreases its payables period by 4 days. What will the length of the cash
cycle be after these changes?
A. 22 days
B. 23 days
C. 29 days
D. 30 days
E. 31 days
Cash cycle = 31 - 2 - 3 + 4 = 30 days

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Cash cycle

18-36

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

73. A company currently has a 48 day cash cycle. Assume the firm changes its operations
such that it decreases its receivables period by 2 days, increases its inventory period by 3
days, and increases its payables period by 4 days. What will the length of the cash cycle be
after these changes?
A. 42 days
B. 43 days
C. 45 days
D. 47 days
E. 49 days
Cash cycle = 48 - 2 + 3 - 4 = 45 days

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Cash cycle

74. Tall Guys Clothing has a 45 day collection period. Sales for the next calendar year are
estimated at $2,100, $1,600, $2,500 and $2,300, respectively, by quarter, starting with the first
quarter of the year. Given this information, which one of the following statements is correct?
Assume a year has 360 days.
A. The firm will collect $800 in Quarter 2.
B. The accounts receivable balance at the beginning of Quarter 4 will be $1,150.
C. The firm will collect $2,000 in Quarter 3.
D. The firm will have an accounts receivable balance of $2,300 at the end of the year.
E. The firm will collect a total of $2,400 in Quarter 4.
Q4 collections = 45/90 ($2,500) + 45/90 ($2,300) = $2,400

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.4
Topic: Cash collections

18-37

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

75. Forest Gardens, Inc., has a beginning receivables balance on February 1 of $730. Sales for
February through May are $720, $760, $820, and $850, respectively. The accounts receivable
period is 30 days. What is the amount of the April collections? Assume a year has 360 days.
A. $720
B. $760
C. $790
D. $820
E. $850
In April, the firm would collect March sales of $760.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.4
Topic: Cash collections

76. Davis and Davis have expected sales of $490, $465, $450, and $570 for the months of
January through April, respectively. The accounts receivable period is 28 days. What is the
accounts receivable balance at the end of March? Assume a year has 360 days.
A. $420
B. $426
C. $440
D. $450
E. $482
March ending receivables = (28/30) $450 = $420

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.4
Topic: Accounts receivable balance

18-38

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

77. The Athletic Sports Store has a beginning receivables balance on January 1 of $410. Sales
for January through April are $440, $460, $690, and $720, respectively. The accounts
receivable period is 60 days. How much did the firm collect in the month of April? Assume a
year has 360 days.
A. $410
B. $440
C. $460
D. $690
E. $720
April collections = February sales = $460

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.4
Topic: Cash collections

78. Breakwater Aquatics has a 45 day accounts receivable period. The estimated quarterly
sales for this year, starting with the first quarter, are $6,800, $7,100, $8,200, and $6,400,
respectively. What is the accounts receivable balance at the beginning of the third quarter?
Assume a year has 360 days.
A. $3,400
B. $3,550
C. $6,950
D. $7,100
E. $7,650
A/R Begin Q3 = A/R End Q2 = (45/90) $7,100 = $3,550

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.4
Topic: Accounts receivable balance

18-39

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

79. The Dog House expects sales of $560, $650, $670, and $610 for the months of May
through August, respectively. The firm collects 20 percent of sales in the month of sale, 70
percent in the month following the month of sale, and 8 percent in the second month
following the month of sale. The remaining 2 percent of sales is never collected. How much
money does the firm expect to collect in the month of August?
A. $621
B. $628
C. $633
D. $639
E. $643
August collections = 0.20($610) + 0.70($670) + 0.08($650) = $643

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.4
Topic: Cash collections

80. The Wire House purchases its inventory one quarter prior to the quarter of sale. The
purchase price is 55 percent of the sales price. The accounts payable period is 45 days. The
accounts payable balance at the beginning of quarter one is $62,000. What is the amount of
the expected disbursements for quarter two given the following expected quarterly sales?

A. $20,500
B. $21,725
C. $24,250
D. $26,000
E. $26,675
Q2 disbursements = [(45/90) (0.55) $36,000] + [(45/90) (0.55) $43,000] = $21,725

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.4
Topic: Cash disbursements

18-40

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

81. Nadine's Boutique has a 30 day accounts payable period. The firm has expected quarterly
sales of $1,100, $1,400, $1,700, and $2,100, respectively, for next year. The quarterly cost of
goods sold is equal to 68 percent of the next quarter's sales. The firm has a beginning accounts
payable balance of $550 as of Quarter 1. What is the amount of the projected cash
disbursements for accounts payable for Quarter 3 of the next year? Assume a year has 360
days.
A. $1,195
B. $1,208
C. $1,247
D. $1,337
E. $1,380
Disbursement = [(30/90) (0.68 $1,700)] + [(60/90) (0.68 $2,100)] = $1,337

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.4
Topic: Cash disbursements

82. Kid's Delight expects to sell $8,200 worth of toys in December, $3,700 worth in January,
$4,400 in February, and $6,100 in March. The wholesale cost is 72 percent of the retail price.
The firm has a receivables period of 30 days, a payables period of 60 days, and buys
inventory one month prior to selling it. Which one of the following statements is correct?
A. The February payments to suppliers are $2,992.
B. The March collections are $3,700.
C. The accounts receivable balance at the end of March is $4,400.
D. The purchases for February are $3,168.
E. The accounts payable balance at the end of January is $5,832.
January ending A/P balance = 0.72($3,700) + 0.72($4,400) = $5,832

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Intermediate
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.4
Topic: Accounts payable balance

18-41

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

83. As of the beginning of the quarter, Swenson's, Inc. had a cash balance of $460. During the
quarter, the company collected $520 from customers and paid suppliers $360. The company
also paid an interest payment of $20 and a tax payment of $110. In addition, the company
repaid $140 on its long-term debt. What is Callahan's cash balance at the end of the quarter?
A. -$110
B. $320
C. $350
D. $430
E. $490
Cash balance = $460 + $520 - $360 - $20 - $110 - $140 = $350

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.4
Topic: Cash balance

84. On May 1, your firm had a beginning cash balance of $175. Your sales for April were
$430 and your May sales were $480. During May, you had cash expenses of $110 and
payments on your accounts payable of $290. Your accounts receivable period is 30 days.
What is your firm's beginning cash balance on June 1?
A. $145
B. $155
C. $205
D. $215
E. $265
Cash balance = $175 - $110 - $290 + $430 = $205

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.4
Topic: Cash balance

18-42

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

85. The Mish Mash Store has a beginning cash balance of $440 on March 1. The firm has
projected sales of $610 in February, $680 in March, and $740 in April. The cost of goods sold
is equal to 70 percent of sales. Goods are purchased one month prior to the month of sale. The
accounts payable period is 30 days and the accounts receivable period is 10 days. The firm
has monthly cash expenses of $160. What is the projected ending cash balance at the end of
March? Assume every month has 30 days.
A. $258
B. $461
C. $507
D. $567
E. $621
March collections = (10/30) $610 + (20/30) $680 = $657
March disbursements for payables = 0.70 ($680) = $476
March ending cash balance = $440 + $657 - $476 - $160 = $461

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.4
Topic: Cash balance

86. Fancy Footwear has a line of credit with a local bank in the amount of $80,000. The loan
agreement calls for interest of 7 percent with a compensating balance of 5 percent, which is
based on the total amount borrowed. The compensating balance will be deposited into an
interest-free account. What is the effective interest rate on the loan if the firm needs to borrow
$75,000 for one year to cover operating expenses?
A. 7.37 percent
B. 7.43 percent
C. 7.56 percent
D. 8.17 percent
E. 8.33 percent
Amount borrowed = $75,000/(1 - 0.05) = $78,947.37
Annual interest = $78,947.37 0.07 = $5,526.32
Effective interest rate = $5,526.32/$75,000 = 7.37 percent

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Analysis
Difficulty: Intermediate
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.5
Topic: Interest rate with compensating balance

18-43

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

87. Juno Industrial Supply has a $150,000 line of credit with a 6.5 percent interest rate. The
loan agreement requires a 2 percent compensating balance, which is based on the total amount
borrowed, and which will be held in an interest-free account. What is the effective interest
rate if the firm borrows $90,000 on the line of credit for one year?
A. 6.42 percent
B. 6.47 percent
C. 6.50 percent
D. 6.58 percent
E. 6.63 percent
Amount borrowed = $90,000/(1 - 0.02) = $91,836.73
Annual interest = $91,836.73 0.065 = $5,969.39
Effective interest rate = $5,969.39/$90,000 = 6.63 percent

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Analysis
Difficulty: Intermediate
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.5
Topic: Interest rate with compensating balance

88. Rachel's has a $50,000 line of credit with Uptown Bank. The line of credit calls for an
interest rate of 8 percent and a compensating balance of 4 percent. The compensating balance
is based on the total amount borrowed and will be held in an interest-free account. What is the
effective annual interest rate if the firm borrows $35,000 for one year?
A. 7.76 percent
B. 8.00 percent
C. 8.17 percent
D. 8.33 percent
E. 8.42 percent
Amount borrowed = $35,000/(1 - 0.04) = $36,458.33
Annual interest = $36,458.33 0.08 = $2,916.67
Effective interest rate = $2,916.67/$35,000 = 8.33 percent

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Analysis
Difficulty: Intermediate
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.5
Topic: Effective interest with compensating balance

18-44

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

89. The Delta Fish Hatchery factors its accounts receivables immediately at a 1.5 percent
discount. The average collection period is 34 days. Assume that all accounts are collected in
full. What is the effective annual interest rate on this arrangement?
A. 17.61 percent
B. 18.20 percent
C. 18.36 percent
D. 18.78 percent
E. 19.04 percent
Interest rate for 34 days = 0.015/(1 - 0.015) = 0.015228
Number of periods per year = 365/34 = 10.735294
Effective annual rate = 1.01522810.735294 - 1 = 17.61 percent

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Analysis
Difficulty: Intermediate
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.5
Topic: Accounts receivable factoring

90. New York Bank provides Food Canning, Inc. a $250,000 line of credit with an interest
rate of 1.75 percent per quarter. The credit line also requires that 1 percent of the unused
portion of the credit line be deposited in a non-interest bearing account as a compensating
balance. Food Canning, Inc.'s short-term investments are paying 1.2 percent per quarter. What
is the effective annual interest rate on this arrangement if the line of credit goes unused all
year? Assume any funds borrowed or invested use compound interest.
A. 4.76 percent
B. 4.80 percent
C. 4.89 percent
D. 7.00 percent
E. 7.27 percent
Effective annual interest = (1.012)4 - 1 = 4.89 percent

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Analysis
Difficulty: Intermediate
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.5
Topic: Rate on unused credit line

18-45

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

91. The Sports Store has a $100,000 line of credit with City Bank. The loan agreement
requires that 2 percent of the unused portion of the credit line be deposited in a non-interest
bearing account as a compensating balance. The interest rate on the borrowed funds is 1.4
percent per quarter. The Sport Store's short-term investments are paying 1.5 percent per
quarter. What is the effective annual interest rate on the line of credit if The Sports Store
borrows the entire $100,000 for one year? Assume any funds borrowed or invested use
compound interest.
A. 5.72 percent
B. 5.76 percent
C. 6.00 percent
D. 6.08 percent
E. 6.14 percent
Effective annual interest = (1.014)4 - 1 = 5.72 percent

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Analysis
Difficulty: Intermediate
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.5
Topic: Rate on unused credit line

92. Your bank offers you a $40,000 line of credit with an interest rate of 1.75 percent per
quarter. The loan agreement also requires that 2 percent of the unused portion of the credit
line be deposited in a non-interest bearing account as a compensating balance. Your shortterm investments are paying 0.20 percent per month. What is your effective annual interest
rate on this arrangement if you do not borrow any money on this credit line during the year?
Assume any funds borrowed or invested use compound interest.
A. 2.00 percent
B. 2.43 percent
C. 3.18 percent
D. 7.00 percent
E. 7.19 percent
Effective annual interest = (1.002)12 - 1 = 2.43 percent

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Analysis
Difficulty: Intermediate
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.5
Topic: Rate on unused line of credit

18-46

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

93. New Town Bank offers you a $40,000 line of credit with an interest rate of 1.85 percent
per quarter. The loan agreement also requires that 3 percent of the unused portion of the credit
line be deposited in a non-interest bearing account as a compensating balance. Short-term
investments are currently paying 1.1 percent per quarter. What is the effective annual interest
rate on the line of credit if you borrow the entire $40,000 for one year? Assume any funds
borrowed or invested use compound interest.
A. 4.47 percent
B. 4.58 percent
C. 7.61 percent
D. 7.78 percent
E. 12.33 percent
Effective annual interest = (1.0185)4 - 1 = 7.61 percent

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Analysis
Difficulty: Intermediate
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.5
Topic: Short-term borrowing

94. Josie's Craft Shack has a beginning cash balance for the quarter of $1,126. The store has a
policy of maintaining a minimum cash balance of $1,000 and is willing to borrow funds as
needed to maintain that balance. Currently, the firm has a loan balance of $480. How much
will the store borrow or repay if the net cash flow for the quarter is -$280?
A. $0
B. $28
C. $126
D. $154
E. $280
Cash deficit = $1,126 - $280 - $1,000 = -$154
The firm needs to borrow $154.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.6
Topic: Minimum cash balance

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Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

95. The Cement Works has a beginning cash balance for the quarter of $784. Susie, the firm's
president, requires that a minimum cash balance of $800 be maintained and requires that
borrowing be used to maintain that balance. If funds have been borrowed, then she requires
that those loans be repaid as soon as excess funds are available. Currently, the firm has a loan
outstanding of $1,260. How much will the firm borrow or repay this quarter if the quarterly
receipts are $3,918 and the quarterly disbursements are $3,774?
A. borrow $16
B. borrow $128
C. borrow $144
D. repay $128
E. repay $144
Cash surplus = $784 + $3,918 - $3,774 - $800 = $128.
The firm will repay $128 this quarter.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.6
Topic: Short-term financial plan

96. At the beginning of the year, you have an outstanding short-term loan of $274 which was
used to cover your cash needs for the previous year. The interest expense for the year is $19.
The projected net cash flow for this year is $123, prior to any payment of principal or interest
on this loan. What is your anticipated loan balance at year end?
A. $151
B. $170
C. $176
D. $189
E. $193
Loan balance = $274 + $19 - $123 = $170

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.6
Topic: Short-term financial plan

18-48

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

Essay Questions

97. List and describe the three basic types of secured inventory loans. Compare the
advantages and disadvantages of these loans.
The three types are blanket lien, trust receipts, and field warehouse financing. The blanket lien
is certainly the easiest for the firm since the lender places a lien on the firm's entire inventory.
Generally, the borrower does not have to provide any details on the inventory items. Trust
receipt financing requires the borrower and lender to specify the exact inventory item which
secures each advance. This can be a time-consuming and cumbersome type of financing for
the firm. Field warehouse financing requires that an independent company supervise the
collateral for the lender. This, too, can be a cumbersome type of financing.
Feedback: Refer to section 18.5

AACSB: Reflective thinking


Bloom's: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.5
Topic: Secured inventory loans

98. Using two separate graphs, illustrate a flexible and a restrictive short-term financing
policy. Place costs on the vertical axis and current assets on the horizontal axis. On each
graph, indicate the shortage costs, carrying costs, total costs, and indicate the optimal
investment in current assets.
Students should replicate graphs A and B in Figure 18.2 in the text.
Feedback: Refer to section 18.3

AACSB: Reflective thinking


Bloom's: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic
Learning Objective: 18-2
Section: 18.3
Topic: Financing policies

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Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

99. Assume that long-term interest rates are substantially higher than short-term interest rates
and are expected to remain that way for the foreseeable future. How does this affect a firm's
selection of a financing policy for its current assets?
In this situation, firms will tend to prefer short-term debt over long-term debt and thus will
tend to opt for a restrictive financing policy.
Feedback: Refer to section 18.3

AACSB: Reflective thinking


Bloom's: Analysis
Difficulty: Intermediate
Learning Objective: 18-2
Section: 18.3
Topic: Financing policies

100. Compensating balances are frequently a part of revolving lending arrangements with
banks, yet they add to the cost of financing for the borrower. Why, then, would borrowers
agree to such terms? What other types of alternative financing are available?
Revolvers are flexible lending arrangements which make it convenient for firms to borrow
funds on short notice for short periods of time. This is particularly applicable to firms that
adhere to a restrictive financing policy. Furthermore, since the compensating balance is
typically required only if the borrower draws on the line, the cost is incurred only while loans
are outstanding. Alternative types of financing include letters of credit, accounts receivable
financing, inventory loans, commercial paper, and trade credit.
Feedback: Refer to section 18.4

AACSB: Reflective thinking


Bloom's: Analysis
Difficulty: Intermediate
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.4
Topic: Compensating balances

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Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

Multiple Choice Questions

101. Details Corp. has a book net worth of $8,150. Long-term debt is $1,650. Net working
capital, other than cash, is $2,150. Fixed assets are $2,000. How much cash does the company
have?
A. $4,250
B. $4,550
C. $5,150
D. $5,650
E. $6,750
Cash = $8,150 + $1,650 - $2,150 - $2,000 = $5,650

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
EOC #: 18-2
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.1
Topic: Cash equation

102. The Wake-Up Coffee Company has projected the following quarterly sales amounts for
the coming year:

Accounts receivable at the beginning of the year are $200. Wake-Up has a 60-day collection
period. What is the amount of the accounts receivable balance at the end of Quarter 3?
A. $375
B. $450
C. $500
D. $600
E. $700
A/R Q3 end = (60/90) $750 = $500

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
EOC #: 18-5
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.3
Topic: Accounts receivable balance

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Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

103. Consider the following financial statement information for the Bulldog Icers
Corporation:

How long is the cash cycle?


A. 36.6 days
B. 37.2 days
C. 41.0 days
D. 41.4 days
E. 42.8 days
Inventory turnover = $58,638/[($9,338 + $11,442)/2] = 5.6437 times
Inventory period = 365/5.6437 = 64.67 days
Receivables turnover = $91,544/[($5,670 + $6,947)/2] = 14.5112 times
Receivables period = 365/14.5112 = 25.15 days
Payables turnover = $58,638/[($7,689 + $9,421)/2] = 6.8542 times
Payables period = 365/6.8542 = 53.25 days
Cash cycle = 64.67 + 25.15 - 53.25 = 36.6 days

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
EOC #: 18-6
Learning Objective: 18-1
Section: 18.2
Topic: Cash cycle

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Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

104. Your firm has an average collection period of 42 days. Current practice is to factor all
receivables immediately at a 4 percent discount. Assume that default is extremely unlikely.
What is the effective cost of borrowing?
A. 28.79 percent
B. 36.20 percent
C. 37.78 percent
D. 40.97 percent
E. 42.58 percent
Number of periods = 365/42 = 8.6905
EAR = {1 + [0.04/(1 - 0.04)]8.6905 - 1 = 42.58 percent

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
EOC #: 18-7
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.5
Topic: Factoring receivables

105. Workout Together has projected the following sales for the coming year:

Sales in the year following this one are projected to be 18 percent greater in each quarter.
Assume the firm places orders during each quarter equal to 29 percent of projected sales for
the next quarter. How much will the firm pay to its suppliers in Quarter 2 if its accounts
payable period is 60 days?
A. $212.67
B. $224.33
C. $241.67
D. $251.33
E. $256.67
Q2 payments = (60/90) 0.29 $800 + (30/90) 0.29 $900 = $241.67

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
EOC #: 18-8
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.4
Topic: Payments

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Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

106. The Thunder Dan's Corporation's purchases from suppliers in a quarter are equal to 65
percent of the next quarter's forecasted sales. The payables period is 60 days. Wages, taxes,
and other expenses are 16 percent of sales, and interest and dividends are $60 per quarter. No
capital expenditures are planned. Sales for the first quarter of the following year are projected
at $720. The projected quarterly sales are:

What is the amount of the total disbursements for Quarter 2?


A. $564.27
B. $579.43
C. $582.15
D. $585.30
E. $590.67
Payment of accounts = (60/90) 0.65 $660 + (30/90) 0.65 $590 = $413.83
Total disbursements = $413.83 + (0.16 $660) + $60 = $579.43

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
EOC #: 18-9
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.4
Topic: Payments

18-54

Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

107. The following is the sales budget for Duck-n-Run, Inc., for the first quarter of 2009:

The accounts receivable balance at the end of the previous quarter was $45,000 ($32,000 of
which was uncollected December sales.) What is the amount of the January collections?
A. $112,400.00
B. $112,408.16
C. $115,703.03
D. $122,356.33
E. $125,400.00
January collections = 0.67 $120,000 + (0.23/0.33) $32,000 + $45,000 - $32,000 =
$115,703.03

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
EOC #: 18-10
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.4
Topic: Cash collections

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Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

108. Here are some important figures from the budget of Nashville Nougats, Inc., for the
second quarter of 2009:

The company predicts that 3 percent of its credit sales will never be collected, 36 percent of
its sales will be collected in the month of sale, and the remaining 61 percent will be collected
in the following month. Credit purchases will be paid in the month following the purchase.
In March 2009, credit sales were $302,400, and credit purchases were $224,640. The April 1
cash balance was $403,200. What is the cash balance at the end of May?
A. $348,887
B. $366,846
C. $414,141
D. $457,777
E. $477,374
April cash balance = $403,200 + (0.36 $547,200) + (0.61 $302,400) - $224,640 - $57,240
- $16,410 - $119,520 = $366,846
May cash balance = $366,846 + (0.36 $570,240) + (0.61 $547,200) - $211,680 - $69,420 $16,410 - $131,040 = $477,374

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
EOC #: 18-11
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.4
Topic: Cash budget

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Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

109. You've worked out a line of credit arrangement that allows you to borrow up to $50
million at any time. The interest rate is 0.5 percent per month. In addition, 5 percent of the
amount that you borrow must be deposited in a non-interest bearing account. Assume your
bank uses compound interest on its line of credit loans. What is the effective annual interest
rate on this lending arrangement?
A. 6.50 percent
B. 6.62 percent
C. 6.81 percent
D. 6.87 percent
E. 6.94 percent
Monthly interest = $50,000,000 (0.005) = $250,000
Amount received = (1 - 0.05) $50,000,000 = $47,500,000
Periodic interest = $250,000/$47,500,000 = 0.005263
EAR = (1 + 0.005263)12 - 1 = 6.50 percent

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
EOC #: 18-13
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.5
Topic: Cost of borrowing

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Chapter 18 - Short-Term Finance and Planning

110. A bank offers your firm a revolving credit arrangement for up to $115 million at an
interest rate of 2 percent per quarter. The bank also requires you to maintain a compensating
balance of 5 percent against the unused portion of the credit line, to be deposited in a noninterest-bearing account. Assume you have a short-term investment account at the bank that
pays 1.3 percent per quarter, and assume the bank uses compound interest on its revolving
credit loans. What is the effective annual interest rate on the revolving credit arrangement if
your firm does not borrow any money during the year?
A. 0 percent
B. 5.0 percent
C. 5.2 percent
D. 5.3 percent
E. 5.5 percent
EAR = (1 + 0.013)4 - 1 = 5.30 percent

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Application
Difficulty: Basic
EOC #: 18-14
Learning Objective: 18-3
Section: 18.5
Topic: Cost of borrowing

18-58