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# DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

JUNE NOV.2015
GE6152 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
Year/Sem

: I/I

Branch

: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Faculty

## : S KARTHICK AND J JAYABASKAR

GE6152 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS

LTPC20 3 4

OBJECTIVES:

## To develop in students, graphic skills for communication of concepts, ideas and

design
Of engineering products

## Importance of graphics in engineering applications Use of drafting instruments BIS

conventions and specifications Size, layout and f olding of drawing sheets Lettering
and dimensioning.
UNIT I PLANE CURVES AND FREE HAND SKETCHING

5+9

## Basic Geometrical constructions, Curves used in engineering practices: Conics

Construction of ellipse, parabola and hyperbola by eccentricity method Construction of
cycloid construction of involutes of square and c ircle Drawing of tangents and normal
to the above curves, Scales: Construction of Diagonal and Vernier scales. Visualization
concepts and Free Hand sketching: Visualization principles Representation of Three
Dimensional objects Layout of views- Free hand sk etching of multiple views from
pictorial views of objects
UNIT II PROJECTION OF POINTS, LINES AND PLANE SURFACES
5+9
1

## Orthographic projection- principles-Principal planes-First angle projection-projection of

points. Projection of straight lines (only First angle projections) inclined to both the
principal planes - Determination of true lengths and true inclinations by rotating line
method and traces Projection of planes (polygonal and circular surfaces) inclined to both
the principal planes by rotating object method.
UNIT III PROJECTION OF SOLIDS

5+9

Projection of simple solids like prisms, pyramids, cylinder, cone and truncated solids when
the axis is inclined to one of the principal planes by rotating object method and auxiliary
plane method.
UNIT IV PROJECTION OF SECTIONED SOLIDS AND DEVELOPMENT OF
SURFACES

5+9

Sectioning of above solids in simple vertical position when the cutting plane is inclined to
the one of the principal planes and perpendicular to the other obtaining true shape of
section. Development of lateral surfaces of simple and sectioned solids Prisms, pyramids
cylinders and cones. Development of lateral surfaces of solids with cut-outs and holes
UNIT V ISOMETRIC AND PERSPECTIVE PROJECTIONS

6+9

## Principles of isometric projection isometric scal e Isometric projections of simple solids

and truncated solids - Prisms, pyramids, cylinders, cones- combination of two solid objects
in simple vertical positions and miscellaneous problems. Perspective projection of simple
solids-Prisms, pyramids and cylinders by visual ray method.
UNIT I
1. The head lamp of a motor car has a maximum rim diameter of 130mm and
maximum depth of 100mm. Draw the profile of the reflector and name it.
2. Draw an ellipse when the distance of focus from the directrix is equal to 35mm
and eccentricity is . Also draw a tangent to a poi nt on the ellipse
3. Draw an ellipse given the following: (i) Distance of the focus from the directrix
=60mm (ii) Eccentricity =
4. Draw a parabola when the distance of focus from directrix is equal to 40mm
5. Draw a hyperbola when the distance of focus from the directrix is equal to 35mm
and eccentricity is 4/3
2

6. The vertex of the hyperbola is 65mm from its focus. Draw the curve if the
eccentricity is 3/2. Draw also a tangent and normal at any point on the curve
7. Draw a hyperbola given the distance of the focus from the directrix as 55mm and
eccentricity
8. Construct an involute of a circle of radius 30mm. Also draw tangent to point on
the involute.
9. A circle of 50mm diameter rolls on a straight line without slipping. Trace the locus
of a point P on the circumference of the circle rolling for one revolution. Name the
curve. Draw normal and tangent to the curve at any point on the curve.
10. A circle of diameter 50mm rolls on the outside of another circle of diameter 10
mm without sliding. Draw the path traced by a point on the smaller circle.
11. A circle of diameter 50mm rolls along the inside of another circle of diameter
200mm without slipping. Draw the path traced by appoint on the smaller circle.
12. Draw a hypocycloid of a circle of 40 mm diameter which rolls inside another
circle of 200mm diameter for one revolution. Draw a tangent and normal at any
point on it.
13. A rocket is flying at a speed of 720Kmph. Construct a diagonal scale to represent
10Km by 2cm and long enough to measure up to 60Km. Also mark the distance
covered by the rocket at (i) 4 minutes and 44 sec, (ii) 3 minutes and 28 seconds.
14. The distance between Guindy and T-Nagar is 5Km, on the road map its equivalent
distance measures 10cm. Construct the diagonal scale to show the distance of
5980m on it.
15. Draw the elevation (front view), plan (top view) and right side view of the given
object

16. Draw the elevation (front view), plan (top view) and right side view of the given
object

17. Draw the elevation (front view), plan (top view) and right side view of the given
object

18. Draw the elevation (front view), plan (top view) and left side view of the given
object

19. Draw the elevation (front view), plan (top view) and right side view of the given
object

20. Draw the elevation (front view), plan (top view) and right side view of the given
object

21. Draw the elevation (front view), plan (top view) and right side view of the given
object

22. . Draw the elevation (front view), plan (top view) and right side view of the given
object
5

23. Draw the elevation (front view), plan (top view) and right side view of the given
object

UNIT - II
1. One end P of a line PQ, 55mm long is 35mm in front of the VP and 25mm above
o

the HP. The line is inclined at 40 to the HP and 30 to the VP. Draw the projections
of PQ
2. A line EF, 85mm long has its end E, 25mm above the HP and 20mm in front of the
VP. The top and front view of the line has length of 55mm and 70mm respectively.
Draw the projections of the line and find its true inclination with the VP and HP
3. A line PF, 65mm long has its end P, 15mm above the HP and 15mm in front of the
o

## VP. It is inclined at 55 to the HP and 35 to the VP. Draw its projection.

4. A straight line AB, 80mm long has its end A, 50 mm in front of the VP and 15mm
above the HP. The length of the top view of the line is 52mm. The end B is 15mm
6

in front of the VP and is above the HP. Draw the front view and measures its
length. Also determine the true inclination of the line.
o

5. The front view of a line AB, 80mm long is inclined at 45 to XY line. The front
view measures 60mm. Point A located at 20mm above the HP and is in the VP.
Draw the projections of the line and find its inclination.
6. A line PQ has its end P, 10mm above the HP and 20mm in front of the VP. The end
Q is 35mm in front of the VP. The front view of the line measures 75mm. The
distance between the end projectors is 50mm. Draw the projections of the line and
find its true length and its true inclination with the VP and HP
o

7. A straight line AB, 86mm long is inclined at 30 to the HP and 45 to the VP. Its
midpoint is 62mm above the HP and 52mm in front of the VP. Draw its projections
8. One end S of a line SR, 70mm long is in both the HP and VP. The line is inclined at
o

## 40 to the HP and 35 to the VP. Draw its projections

9. A line AB has its end A in HP and 40mm in front of VP. Its front view is inclined at
o

50 to XY and has a length of 70mm. The other end B is in VP. Draw its projection
10. A line AB 85mm long has its end A 25mm above HP and 20mm in front of VP. The
end B is 60mm above HP and 50mm in front of VP. Draw the projections and find
its inclination with HP and VP.
11. A line AB has its end A 20mm above HP and 25mm in front of VP. The other end B
is 45mm above HP and 55mm in front of VP. The distance between the end
projectors is 60mm. Draw its projections. Also find the true length and true
inclination of the line with HP and VP.
12. A line AB measuring 75mm long has one of its ends 50mm in front of VP and
15mm above HP. The top view of the line is 50mm long. Draw and measure the
front view. The other end is 15mm in front of VP and is above HP. Determine the
true inclinations and traces.
13. A straight line ST has its end S, 10mm in front of the VP and nearer to it. The
midpoint M of the line is 50mm in front of the VP and 40mm above the HP. The
front and top view measure 100mm and 120mm respectively. Draw the projections
of the line. Also find its true length and true inclination with the HP and VP.

o

## Inclined at 30 to VP. Its surface is inclined at 60 to HP. Draw its projections

o

15. A hexagonal plate is side 20mm rest on the HP and one of its sides inclined at 45 to
o

the VP. The surface of the plate makes an angle of 30 with the HP. Draw the front
and top views of the plate
16. A hexagonal plate of side 30mm is resting on one of its sides on VP and inclined at
o

## 40 to HP. The surface is inclined at 35 to VP. Draw its projections.

17. A pentagonal plate of side 30mm is resting on HP on one of its corners with its
o

surface inclined at 45 to HP. The side opposite to the resting corner is parallel to
VP and farther away from it. Draw its projections.
18. A hexagonal plate of side 30mm has one of its corner on HP, and the opposite
0

corner on VP. The plate makes 60 with HP and 30 with VP. Draw the projection of
the plate
19. A circular plate of diameter 50mm resting on the HP on a point on the
o

circumference. Its surface is kept inclined at 45 to HP. Draw its projections when
the line representing its diameter and passing through the resting point is inclined at
o

30 to VP
20. A triangular plane of 60mm side is resting on one of its edge on HP, inclined to VP,
such that the corner opposite to the resting edge is 30mm above HP. Then its resting
o

## edge is inclined at 40 to VP. Draw its projections.

21. A rectangular plate of size 70 x 40mm is resting on VP on one its shorter side. The
o

side on which it rest on VP makes an angle 40 to HP. Draw the projections if its
front view is a square of side 40mm
22. A circular lamina of diameter 60mm has the end P of the diameter PQ in the HP
o

and the end Q in the VP. Draw its projections when its surface is inclined at 60 to
o

## the HP and 30 to the VP.

23. A hexagonal lamina of side 35mm rests on one of its edge on the HP. This edge is
o

parallel to the VP. The surface of the lamina is inclined at 60 to the HP. Draw the
projections.
24. Draw the projections of the following points on a common reference line. Take
30mm distance between the projectors.
A 35mm above HP and 25mm in front of VP
B 40mm below HP and 15mm behind VP
8

## C 50mm above HP and 25mm behind VP

D 45mm below HP and 20mm in front of VP
E 30mm behind VP and on HP
F 35mm below HP and on VP
G on both HP and VP
H 25mm below HP and 25mm in front of VP
UNIT III
1. A square prism side of base 35mm and axis 55mm long has an edge of its base in
o

HP. Its axis is inclined of 60 to HP and parallel to VP. Draw its projections.
2. A pentagonal prism side of base 25mm and axis height 50mm rests with one of its
edges on HP, such that the base, containing the edge makes an angle of 30o to HP
and its axis parallel to VP. Draw its projections.
3. A hexagonal prism, side of base 25 mm and axis 50mm long rests with one of its
o

base corners on HP. Such that its base makes an angle of 60 to HP and its axis is
parallel to VP. Draw its projections.
4. A pentagonal pyramid side of base 20mm and axis height 45mm rests with one of
o

its corner on HP, such that the base is inclined at an angle of 60 to HP and one side
of base is perpendicular to VP. Draw its projections
5. A hexagonal pyramid, side of base 25 mm and axis 50mm long rests with one of the
o

edges of its base on the HP and its axis is inclined at 30 to HP parallel to VP. Draw
its projections.
6. A cylinder of base diameter 50mm and 70mm height resting on the ground with its
o

axis making an angle of 50 with HP. Its axis parallel to VP. Draw its projections.
7. A cone of base diameter 45mm and axis length 65mm is resting on HP on a point
o

on the circumference of the base. Its base is inclined at 50 to HP and axis parallel
to VP. Draw its projections.
8. A Square prism of a base side 35mm and axis length 60mm is resting on HP on one
of its longer edges with its axis inclined 55o to VP. One of the faces containing
o

## resting edge inclined at 35 to HP. Draw its projections.

9. Draw the projections of a pentagonal prism of 30mm side of base and 65mm long
lying on one of its longer edges on the HP with one rectangular face perpendicular
to the HP such that the axis makes with VP.
9

10. A pentagonal prism of base side 30mm and axis length 60mm is resting on HP on
o

one of its rectangular faces with its axis inclined at 40 to VP. Draw its projections.
11. A cylinder of a base diameter 50mm and axis length 60mm resting on one its
o

## generator on HP with its axis inclined at 45 to VP. Draw its projections.

12. A hexagonal pyramid of base side 40mm and axis length 55mm is resting on HP
with its base edges containing the corner are equally inclined to HP. The axis is
o

## inclined at 35 to VP and parallel to HP. Draw its projections

13. A pentagonal pyramid of base side 35mm and axis length 60mm is resting on HP on
one of its triangular faces with its axis parallel to VP. Draw its projections.
14. A hexagonal pyramid of base side of 30mm and axis length 60mm is resting on HP
on one of its base edges with the face containing the resting edge perpendicular to
HP and VP.
15. A pentagonal pyramid of base side 35mm and axis length 60mm is resting on HP on
one of its base corners with its axis parallel to VP. Draw its projections when the
slant edge containing the resting corner vertical.
16. A cone of base diameter 45mm and axis length 65mm is resting on HP on one of its
generators with its axis parallel to VP. Draw its projections.
17. Draw the projections of a cone of diameter 40mm and height 70mm lying on the
ground on one of its base points with a generator perpendicular to HP.
18. Draw the projections of a cube of 40mm edge resting on the HP on one of its corner
with a solid diagonal vertical.
19. A cylinder of a base diameter 50mm and axis length 60mm resting on HP on its
base, with a solid diagonal perpendicular HP and VP.
20. Draw the projections of a pentagonal prism of 30mm side of base and 65mm with
its solid diagonal perpendicular to HP and VP and its axis parallel to HP.
UNIT IV
SECTION OF SOLIDS
1. A cube of 60mm side has its base edges are equally inclined to VP. It is cut by a
plane perpendicular to VP, such that the true shape of the cut section is a regular
hexagon. Locate the plane and determine the angle of inclination. Draw the
sectional top view.
10

2. A hexagonal prism of base sides 35mm and axis length 55mm is resting on HP on
one of its base with two of the vertical faces perpendicular to VP. It is cut by a plane
o

## inclined at 50 , to HP and perpendicular to VP and passing through a point at a

distance 15mm from the top base. Draw the front view, sectional top view and true
shape of the section.
3. A square pyramid of side of base 25mm and height 60mm rests on HP on its base
with a base edge perpendicular to VP. It is cut by a plane perpendicular to VP and
o

inclined at 30 to HP. The cutting plane meets. The axis at 25mm from the vertex.
Draw the elevation, sectional plan and true shape of the section
4. A square pyramid of base side 25mm and axis 70mm is resting on its base on HP
with two of its base sides equally inclined to VP. It is cut by a section plane
o

## perpendicular to VP and inclined 40 to HP passes through the axis at a height of

30mm above the base. Draw the front view, sectional top view and true shape of the
section
5. A square pyramid of base side 30mm and axis 50mm lies in the HP on its base with
its base edges equally inclined to VP. It is cut by a plane perpendicular to VP and
inclined to HP cuts the base also, such that true shape is isosceles triangle of base
side 20mm and altitude 45mm. Draw the projection and find the inclined of the
section plane.
6. A pentagonal pyramid of base side 40mm and altitude 75mm rests with its base on
HP and with a side of base parallel to VP. It is cut by a section plane perpendicular
o

to VP and inclined at 35 to HP and bisecting the axis. Draw the sectional plane of
the pyramid and the true shape of the section.
7. A hexagonal pyramid side of base 25mm and altitude 70mm rests with its base on
o

## HP and with a side of base parallel to VP. It is cut by a plan inclined at 35 to HP

and bisecting the axis. Draw the section plan of the pyramid and the true shape of
the section.
8. A cylinder of diameter 45mm and height 65 rest on its base on HP. It is cut by plane
o

perpendicular to VP and inclined at 30 to HP. The plane bisects the axis. Draw the
front view, sectional top view and the true shape of the section.
9. A cylinder of diameter of 50mm and height of 60mm rests on its base on HP. It is
o

## cut by plane perpendicular to VP and inclined at 45 to HP. The cutting plane

11

meets the axis at a distance of 15mm from the top. Draw the sectional plan and
true shape of section.
10. A cone of 65mm diameter and axis 80mm stands vertically with its base on HP. The
vertical trace of a section plane perpendicular to VP and parallel to one of the end
generators of the cone passes at a distance of 15mm from it. Draw the sectional top
view and the true shape of the section. Name the curve of the true shape of section.
11. A cone of base diameter 50mm and axis length 60mm is resting on HP on its base.
o

## It is cut by a plane perpendicular to VP and inclined at 75 to HP and passing

through the apex of the cone draw its front view, sectional top view and true shape
of section.
12. A cylinder of base diameter 50mm and axis length 60mm is resting on HP on its
o

## base. It is cut by a plane inclined at 50 to VP and perpendicular to HP and is 15mm

away from the axis. Draw its top view, sectional front view and true shape of the
section.
13. A right circular cone of base diameter 60mm and height 70mm rests its base on HP.
o

## A section plane perpendicular to HP and inclined at 40 to VP cuts the cone at a

distance of 5mm from the axis and in front of it. Draw its top view, sectional front
view and true shape of the section.
14. A pentagonal pyramid 40 mm sides and axis 70mm long is resting on its base on
HP so that the edge of the base nearer to VP is parallel to it. A vertical section
plane, inclined at 45o to VP, cuts the pyramid at a distance of 7mm from the axis.
Draw the top view, sectional front view and the auxiliary front view on an AVP
parallel to section plane.
DEVELOPMENT OF SURFACES
1. A square prism of base side 30mm and axis length 60mm is resting on HP on its
o

base with a side of base inclined at 30o to VP. It is cut by a plane inclined at 40 to
HP and perpendicular to VP and is bisecting the axis. Draw the development of the
remaining portion of the prism.
2. A pentagonal prism of base side 30mm and axis length 60mm is resting on HP on
o

its base with a side of base is parallel to VP. It is cut by a plane inclined at 35 to
12

HP and meets the axis at a distance 35mm from the base. Draw the development
of the lower portion of the prism.
3. A hexagonal prism of base side 30mm and axis length 60mm is resting on HP on its
base with of it vertical faces perpendicular to VP. It is cut by a plane inclined at 50

to HP and perpendicular to VP and meets the axis of prism at a distance 10mm from
the top end. Draw the development of the lateral surface of the prism.
4. Draw the development of the lower portion of a cylinder of diameter 50mm and
o

## axis 70mm when sectioned by a plane inclined at 40 to HP, perpendicular to VP

and bisecting the axis.
o

## 5. A vertical chimney of 70cm diameter joins a roof sloping at 35 with horizontal.

The shortest portion over the roof is 32cm. Obtain the shape of the sheet metal from
which the chimney can be fabricated.
6. A square pyramid of base side 30mm and altitude 60mm rests on its base with the
base edges equally inclined to the VP. It is cut by a plane perpendicular to the VP
o

and inclined at 30 to the HP meeting the axis at 20mm above the HP. Draw the
development of the lateral surface of the square pyramid.
7. A pentagonal pyramid of base side 30mm and axis length 60mm is resting on HP on
its base is perpendicular to VP. It is cut by a plane perpendicular to VP and parallel
to HP and meets the axis at a distance of 25mm from the vertex. Draw the
development of the remaining portion of the pyramid.
8. A hexagonal pyramid of side 30mm and altitude 60mm is resting on HP on its base
with two of the base sides are perpendicular to VP. The pyramid is cut by a plane
o

## inclined at 30 to HP and perpendicular to VP and is bisecting the axis. Draw the

development of the portion of the pyramid
9. A hexagonal prism of base side 30mm and height 60mm rest vertically on the HP
with a side of base is parallel to VP. A string is wound around the surface of the
prism starting from left extreme point on the base to the diametrically opposite
corner on the top base and ending at the same point. Find graphically shortest length
same point. Find graphically the shortest length of the string required. Also sketch it
in the front view.
10. A cone of base 50mm diameter and height 70mm with its base on HP. A section
o

## plane perpendicular to VP and inclined at 30 to HP bisects the axis of the cone.

Draw the development of the lateral surface of the truncated cone.
13

11. A right circular cone base diameter 60mm and height 70mm is cut by an inclined
plane cutting the axis at appoint 15mm above the base. The cutting is inclined to the
o

## HP at 60 . Draw the development of the cut base.

12. A hexagonal pyramid of side of base 25mm and altitude 70mm rests on its base on
HP such that a base edge is parallel to VP. It is cut by two cutting planes,
o

perpendicular to VP. One of the planes is inclined at 30 to HP and meeting the axis
at a point of 40mm from the base as centre. Develop the lateral surfaces of the
remaining portion of the pyramid.
13. A hexagonal pyramid of the base side 30mm and height 60mm rests vertically on
HP with one of the base side parallel to VP. A string is wound round the surfaces of
the pyramid from the left extreme point on the base and ends of the same point.
Find graphically the shortest length of the string required. Also trace the path of the
string in the front and top views.
14. A pentagonal pyramid of base side 30mm and height 70mm rests vertically on HP
o

with one of the base sides making 36 to VP. A string is wound around the surfaces
of the pyramid from the left, extreme point on the base and ending at the same
point. Find graphically the shortest length of the string required. Also trace the path
of the string in the front and top views.
15. A hexagonal prism of base edge 50mm height 70mm rests on one of its ends on HP
with a vertical face parallel to VP. A horizontal hole of diameter 40mm is drilled
centrally right through the prism with its axis perpendicular to the VP. Draw the
development of the lateral surfaces of the prism with the hole.
16. A pentagonal prism of base edge 20mm and axis length 50mm slants on one of its
ends on the HP with a vertical face parallel to the VP and farther away from it. A
square slot of diagonal 26mm is drilled centrally right through the prism, in such a
way that one diagonal coincides with the axis of the prism. The axis of the square
slot is perpendicular to the VP. Draw the development of the lateral surface of the
prism with the square cut-out.
17. A hexagonal pyramid side of base 30mm and height 80mm stand with the base on
HP. A circular hole of 30mm diameter pyramid is directly such that the axis of the
hole is perpendicular to VP and intersects the axis of the pyramid 20mm above the
base. Draw the development of the lateral surface of the pyramid.

14

18. A cone of base diameter 40mm and height 50mm stands on its base on the HP. A
cylindrical hole of diameter 20mm is drilled right through the cone. The axis of the
hole is perpendicular to the VP and meets the axis of the cone at 15mm above the
base of the cone. Draw the development of the lateral surface of the cone with the
hole.

UNIT V
1. Draw the isometric view of a frustum of hexagonal pyramid of base side 30mm, and
top face side is 20mm and height 60mm, when its axis is vertical. Draw the
isometric view of the frustum of the pyramid.
2. A pentagonal pyramid, base 25mm and height 65mm stands with its base on HP. An
edge of the base is parallel to VP and nearer to it. A horizontal section plane cuts the
pyramids and passes through a point on the axis at a distance 25mm from the apex.
Draw the isometric view of the frustum of the pyramid.
3. Draw the isometric view of a frustum of cone of base diameter 60mm, top face
diameter 30mm and height 50mm. draw the isometric view of the frustum of the
pyramid.
4. A square prism of side 40mm and height 60mm is resting on the HP on its base such
that two of the base edges are parallel to VP. It is cut by a section plane which is
o

## perpendicular to VP, inclined at 30 to HP and bisecting the axis. Draw the

isometric view of the bottom portion of the prism.
5. A hexagonal prism of base edge 30mm and height 70mm is resting on the HP on its
base such that two of its base edges are parallel to VP. It is cut by a section plane
o

which is perpendicular to VP, inclined at 40 to HP and bisecting the axis. Draw the
isometric view of the bottom portion of the prism.
6. A hexagonal prism of base edge 30mm and height 70mm is resting on the HP on its
base such that two of its base edges are parallel to VP. It is cut by a section plane
o

which is perpendicular to VP, inclined at 45 to HP and bisecting the axis. Draw the
isometric view of the bottom portion of the prism.
7. A cylinder of diameter 50mm and axis height 70mm is resting on the ground on its
o

## base. It is cut by a section plane which is perpendicular to VP and inclined at 40 to

HP. the section plane passes through a point at a distance 30mm from the base along
the axis. Draw the isometric view of the prism.
15

8. A cylinder of diameter 50mm and axis height 60mm is resting on the ground on its
o

## base. It is cut by a section plane which is perpendicular to VP and inclined at 55 to

HP. the section plane passes through a point at a distance 30mm from the base along
the axis. Draw the isometric view of the prism.
9. A square pyramid of base edge 40mm and axis height 70mm is resting on the HP on
its base such that two of its base edges are parallel to VP. It is cut by a section plane
o

## which is perpendicular to VP, inclined at 30 to HP and passing through a point at a

distance 40mm from the base along the axis. Draw the isometric view of the axis.
10. A pentagonal pyramid of base edge 30mm and axis height 65mm is resting on the
HP on its base such that one of its nearest base edges is parallel to VP. It is cut by a
o

## section plane which is perpendicular to VP, inclined at 30 to HP and passing

through a point at a distance 35mm from the base along the axis. Draw the
isometric view of the pyramid.
11. A cone of base diameter 50mm and axis height 80mm with its base on HP. A cone is
o

## cut by a section plane perpendicular to VP, inclined at 30 to HP and passing

through a point 50mm above the base along the axis. Draw the isometric view of
the pyramid.
12. A pentagonal pyramid of base edge 30mm and axis height 65mm is resting on the
HP on its base such that one of its base edges is perpendicular to VP. It is cut by a
o

## section plane which is perpendicular to VP, inclined at 30 to HP and passing

through a point at a distance 30mm from the apex along the axis. Draw the
isometric view of the pyramid.
13. A hexagonal shaped slab of base edges 30mm and height 60mm has a right circular
through hole of 40mm diameter. Draw the isometric projection of the slab, if the
axes of the hole and slab coincide.
14. A dust bin is in the form of a frustum of a hollow square pyramid with the base
dimensions of 20mm sides and the top open surface of 45mm sides. Draw the
isometric view of the hollow dust bin, if its height is 50mm and the wall thickness is
negligible.
15. A cylindrical slab of 75mm diameter and 45mm thick is surmounted by a cube of
38mm side. On the top of the cube rest a square pyramid of altitude of 38mm and

16

side of base 25mm. The axes of the solids are in the same straight line. Draw the
isometric view of the setup.
16. Three square rods of 30x30mm cross section and length mm, mm and mm are
nailed together to form a letter H. . Draw the isometric view of the letter H.
17. A solid is in a form of a square prism of side of base 40mm up to a height of 60mm
and thereafter tapers into a frustum of a square pyramid whose top surface is a
square of 20mm side. The total height of the solid is 90mm. Draw the isometric
view of the pyramid.
18. A sphere of diameter 40mm centrally on top of a cube of side 50mm. Draw the
isometric projection of the solids.
19. A frustum of a cone having 25mm as top diameter, 50mm bottom diameter and
50mm axis length is placed vertically on a cylindrical block of 75mm diameter and
is 25mm thick such that both the solids have the common axis. Draw the isometric
projection of the combination of these solids.

17

UNIT I
1. The head lamp of a motor car has a maximum rim diameter of 130mm and
maximum depth of 100mm. Draw the profile of the reflector and name it.

18

2. Draw an ellipse when the distance of focus from the directrix is equal to 35mm and
eccentricity is . Also draw a tangent to a point o n the ellipse

19

3. Draw an ellipse given the following: (i) Distance of the focus from the directrix
=60mm (ii) Eccentricity =

20

4. Draw a parabola when the distance of focus from directrix is equal to 40mm

2
1

5. Draw a hyperbola when the distance of focus from the directrix is equal to 35mm
and eccentricity is 4/3

22

6. The vertex of the hyperbola is 65mm from its focus. Draw the curve if the eccentricity
is 3/2. Draw also a tangent and normal at any point on the curve

23

7. Draw a hyperbola given the distance of the focus from the directrix as 55mm and
eccentricity

24

8. Construct an involute of a circle of radius 30mm. Also draw tangent to point on the
involute.

25

9. A circle of 50mm diameter rolls on a straight line without slipping. Trace the locus of a
point P on the circumference of the circle rolling for one revolution. Name the curve.
Draw normal and tangent to the curve at any point on the curve.

10. A circle of diameter 50mm rolls on the outside of another circle of diameter 10 mm
without sliding. Draw the path traced by a point on the smaller circle

26

11. A circle of diameter 50mm rolls along the inside of another circle of diameter
200mm without slipping. Draw the path traced by appoint on the smaller circle.

12. Draw a hypocycloid of a circle of 40 mm diameter which rolls inside another circle
of 200mm diameter for one revolution. Draw a tangent and normal at any point on it.

27

## 13. A rocket is flying at a speed of 720Kmph. Construct a diagonal scale to represent

10Km by 2cm and long enough to measure up to 60Km. Also mark the distance covered
by the rocket at (i) 4 minutes and 44 sec, (ii) 3 minutes and 28 seconds

14. The distance between Guindy and T-Nagar is 5Km, on the road map its equivalent
distance measures 10cm. Construct the diagonal scale to show the distance of 5980m on
it

28

15. Draw the elevation (front view), plan (top view) and right side view of the given
object

29

16. Draw the elevation (front view), plan (top view) and right side view of the given
object

30

17. Draw the elevation (front view), plan (top view) and right side view of the given object

31

18. Draw the elevation (front view), plan (top view) and right side view of the given
object

32

19. Draw the elevation (front view), plan (top view) and right side view of the given
object

33

20. Draw the elevation (front view), plan (top view) and right side view of the given
object

34

21. Draw the elevation (front view), plan (top view) and right side view of the given
object

35

22. Draw the elevation (front view), plan (top view) and right side view of the given
object

36

23. Draw the elevation (front view), plan (top view) and right side view of the given
object

37

24. Draw the elevation (front view), plan (top view) and right side view of the given
object.

38

UNIT - II
1. One end P of a line PQ, 55mm long is 35mm in front of the VP and 25mm above
0

the HP. The line is inclined at 40 to the HP and 30 to the VP. Draw the
projections of PQ

39

2. A line EF, 85mm long has its end E, 25mm above the HP and 20mm in front of the
VP. The top and front view of the line have length of 55mm and 70mm
respectively . Draw the projections of the line and find its true inclination with the
VP and HP.

40

3. A line PF, 65mm long has its end P, 15mm above the HP and 15mm in front of the
0

## VP. It si inclined at 55 to the HP and 35 to the VP. Draw its projection.

41

4. A straight line AB, 80mm long has its end A, 50 mm in front of the VP and 15mm
above the HP. The length of the top view of the line is 52mm. The end B is 15mm
in front of the VP and is above the HP. Draw the front view and measures its length.
Also determine the true inclination of the line.

42

5. The front view of a line AB, 80mm long is inclined at 45 to XY line. The front

view measures 60mm. Point A located at 20mm above the HP and is in the VP.
Draw the projections of the line and find its inclination.

43

6. A line PQ has its end P, 10mm above the HP and 20mm in front of the VP. The end
Q is 35mm in front of the VP. The front view of the line measures 75mm. The
distance between the end projectors is 50mm. Draw the projections of the line and
find its true length and its true inclination with the VP and HP

44

7. A straight line AB, 86mm long is inclined at 30 to the HP and 45 to the VP. Its

midpoint is 62mm above the HP and 52mm in front of the VP. Draw its projections

45

8. One end S of a line SR, 70mm long is in both the HP and VP. The line is inclined
0

## at 40 to the HP and 35 to the VP. Draw its projections

46

9. A line AB has its end A in HP and 40mm in front of VP. Its front view is inclined
0

at 50 to XY and has a length of 70mm. The other end B is in VP. Draw its
projection

47

10. A line AB 85mm long has its end A 25mm above HP and 20mm in front of VP. The
end B is 60mm above HP and 50mm in front of VP. Draw the projections and find
its inclination with HP and VP.

48

11. A line AB has its end A 20mm above HP and 25mm in front of VP. The other end
B is 45mm above HP and 55mm in front of VP. The distance between the end
projectors is 60mm. Draw its projections. Also find the true length and true
inclination of the line with HP and VP.

49

12. A line AB measuring 75mm long has one of its ends 50mm in front of VP and
15mm above HP. The top view of the line is 50mm long. Draw and measure the
front view. The other end is 15mm in front of VP and is above HP. Determine the
true inclinations and traces.

50

13. A straight line ST has its end S, 10mm in front of the VP and nearer to it. The
midpoint M of the line is 50mm in front of the VP and 40mm above the HP. The
front and top view measure 100mm and 120mm respectively. Draw the projections
of the line. Also find its true length and true inclination with the HP and VP.

51

0

## Inclined at 30 to VP. Its surface is inclined at 60 to HP. Draw its projections

52

15. A hexagonal plate os side 20mm rest on the HP an one of its sides inclined at 45 to
0

the VP. The surface of the plate makes an angle of 30 with the HP. Draw the front
and top views of the plate

53

16. A hexagonal plate of side 30mm is resting on one of its sides on VP and inclined at
0

## 40 to HP. The surface is inclined at 35 to VP. Draw its projections.

54

17. A pentagonal plate of side 30mm is resting on HP on one of its corners with its
0

surface inclined at 45 to HP. The side opposite to the resting corner is parallel to
VP and farther away from it. Draw its projections.

55

18. A hexagonal plate of side 30mm has one of its corner on HP, and the opposite
0

corner on VP. The plate makes 60 with HP and 30 with VP. Draw the projection
of the plate

56

## 19. A circular plate of diameter 50mm resting on the HP on a point on the

0

circumference. Its surface is kept inclined at 45 to HP. Draw its projections when
the line representing its diameter and passing through the resting point is inclined at
0
30 to VP

57

20. A triangular plane of 60mm side, is resting on one of its edge on HP, inclined to
VP, such that the corner opposite to the resting edge is 30mm above HP. Then its
0
resting edge is inclined at 40 to VP. Draw its projections.

58

21. A rectangular plate of size 70 x 40mm is resting on VP on one its shorter side. The
0

side on which it rest on VP makes an angle 40 to HP. Draw the projections if its
front view is a square of side 40mm

59

22. A circular lamina of diameter 60mm has the end P of the diameter PQ in the HP
0

and the end Q in the VP. Draw its projections when its surface is inclined at 60 to
0
the HP and 30 to the VP.

60

23. A hexagonal lamina of side 35mm rests on one of its edge on the HP. This edge is
0

parallel to the VP. The surface of the lamina is inclined at 60 to the HP. Draw the
projections.

61

24. Draw the projections of the following points on a common reference line. Take
30mm distance between the projectors.
A 35mm above HP and 25mm in front of VP
B 40mm below HP and 15mm behind VP
C 50mm above HP and 25mm behind VP
D 45mm below HP and 20mm in front of VP
E 30mm behind VP and on HP
F 35mm below HP and on VP
G on both HP and VP
H 25mm below HP and 25mm in front of VP

62

UNIT III
PROBLEMS ON AXIS INCLINED TO HP AND PARALLEL TO VP
1. A square prism side of base 35mm and axis 55mm long has an edge of its base in HP. Its axis
o

## is inclined of 60 to HP and parallel to VP. Draw its projections.

2. A pentagonal prism side of base 25mm and axis height 50mm rests with one of its edges on
HP, such that the base, containing the edge makes an angle of 30o to HP and its axis parallel
to VP. Draw its projections.

63

3. A hexagonal prism, side of base 25 mm and axis 50mm long rests with one of its base
o

corners on HP. Such that its base makes an angle of 60 to HP and its axis is parallel to VP.
Draw its projections.

4. A pentagonal pyramid side of base 20mm and axis height 45mm rests with one of its corner
o

on HP, such that the base is inclined at an angle of 60 to HP and one side of base is
perpendicular to VP. Draw its projections.

64

5. A hexagonal pyramid, side of base 25 mm and axis 50mm long rests with one of the edges of
o

its base on the HP and its axis is inclined at 30 to HP parallel to VP. Draw its projections.

6. A cylinder of base diameter 50mm and 70mm height resting on the ground with its axis
o

making an angle of 50 with HP. Its axis parallel to VP. Draw its projections.

65

## AUXILLARY PLANE METHOD

7. A cone of base diameter 45mm and axis length 65mm is resting on HP on a point on the
o

circumference of the base. Its base is inclined at 50 to HP and axis parallel to VP. Draw its
projections.

66

## PROBLEMS ON AXIS INCLINED TO VP AND PARALLEL TO HP

1. A Square prism of a base side 35mm and axis length 60mm is resting on HP on one of its
longer edges with its axis inclined 55o to VP. One of the faces containing resting edge
o
inclined at 35 to HP. Draw its projections.

67

2. Draw the projections of a pentagonal prism of 30mm side of base and 65mm long lying on
one of its longer edges on the HP with one rectangular face perpendicular to the HP such that
the axis makes with VP.

3. A pentagonal prism of base side 30mm and axis length 60mm is resting on HP on one of its
o

rectangular faces with its axis inclined at 40 to VP. Draw its projections.

68

## AUXILLARY PLANE METHOD

4. A cylinder of a base diameter 50mm and axis length 60mm resting on one its generator on
o

## HP with its axis inclined at 45 to VP. Draw its projections.

69

5. A hexagonal pyramid of base side 40mm and axis length 55mm is resting on HP with its base
o

edges containing the corner are equally inclined to HP. The axis is inclined at 35 to VP and
parallel to HP. Draw its projections.

## RESTING CONDITIONS PROBLEMS (Without Axis Inclination)

1. A pentagonal pyramid of base side 35mm and axis length 60mm is resting on HP on one of
its triangular faces with its axis parallel to VP. Draw its projections.

70

## AUXILLARY PLANE METHOD

2. A hexagonal pyramid of base side of 30mm and axis length 60mm is resting on HP on one of
its base edges with the face containing the resting edge perpendicular to HP and VP.

71

3. A pentagonal pyramid of base side 35mm and axis length 60mm is resting on HP on one of
its base corners with its axis parallel to VP. Draw its projections when the slant edge
containing the resting corner vertical.

4. A cone of base diameter 45mm and axis length 65mm is resting on HP on one of its
generators with its axis parallel to VP. Draw its projections.

72

5. Draw the projections of a cone of diameter 40mm and height 70mm lying on the ground on
one of its base points with a generator perpendicular to HP.

## SOLID DIAGONAL PERPENDICULAR TO HP AND VP

(Simple Position is Decided Based Up On the Base Resting or Axis of the Solid)
1. Draw the projections of a cube of 40mm edge resting on the HP on one of its corner with a
solid diagonal vertical.

73

UNIT IV
SECTION OF SOLIDS
1. A cube of 60mm side has its base edges are equally inclined to VP. It is cut by a plane
perpendicular to VP, such that the true shape of the cut section is a regular hexagon.
Locate the plane and determine the angle of inclination. Draw the sectional top view.

74

2. A hexagonal prism of base sides 35mm and axis length 55mm is resting on HP on one of
o

its base with two of the vertical faces perpendicular to VP. It is cut by a plane inclined at 50 ,
to HP and perpendicular to VP and passing through a point at a distance 15mm from the top
base. Draw the front view, sectional top view and true shape of the section.

3. A square pyramid of side of base 25mm and height 60mm rests on HP on its base with a base
o

## edge perpendicular to VP. It is cut by a plane perpendicular to VP and inclined at 30 to HP.

The cutting plane meets. The axis at 25mm from the vertex. Draw the elevation, sectional
plan and true shape of the section

75

4. A square pyramid of base side 25mm and axis 70mm is resting on its base on HP with two
of its base sides equally inclined to VP. It is cut by a section plane perpendicular to VP and
o
inclined 40 to HP passes through the axis at a height of 30mm above the base. Draw the
front view, sectional top view and true shape of the section.

5. A square pyramid of base side 30mm and axis 50mm lies in the HP on its base with its base
edges equally inclined to VP. It is cut by a plane perpendicular to VP and inclined to HP cuts
the base also, such that true shape is isosceles triangle of base side 20mm and altitude 45mm.
Draw the projection and find the inclined of the section plane.

76

6. A pentagonal pyramid of base side 40mm and altitude 75mm rests with its base on HP and
with a side of base parallel to VP. It is cut by a section plane perpendicular to VP and
o
inclined at 35 to HP and bisecting the axis. Draw the sectional plane of the pyramid and the
true shape of the section.

7. A hexagonal pyramid side of base 25mm and altitude 70mm rests with its base on HP and
o

with a side of base parallel to VP. It is cut by a plan inclined at 35 to HP and bisecting the
axis. Draw the section plan of the pyramid and the true shape of the section.

77

8. A cylinder of diameter 45mm and height 65 rest on its base on HP. It is cut by plane
o

perpendicular to VP and inclined at 30 to HP. The plane bisects the axis. Draw the front
view, sectional top view and the true shape of the section.

9. A cylinder of diameter of 50mm and height of 60mm rests on its base on HP. It is cut by
o

plane perpendicular to VP and inclined at 45 to HP. The cutting plane meets the axis at a
distance of 15mm from the top. Draw the sectional plan and true shape of section.

78

10. A cone diameter of base 65mm and axis 80mm long is resting on its base on HP. It is cut by
o

a section plane perpendicular to VP and inclined at 45 to HP. The vertical trace of the
section plane passes through the axis at a point 40mm above HP. Draw the sectional top
view, front view and the true shape of section.

11. A cone of 65mm diameter and axis 80mm stands vertically with its base on HP. The vertical
trace of a section plane perpendicular to VP and parallel to one of the end generators of the
cone passes at a distance of 15mm from it. Draw the sectional top view and the true shape of
the section. Name the curve of the true shape of section.

79

12. A cone of base diameter 50mm and axis length 60mm is resting on HP on its base. It is cut
o
by a plane perpendicular to VP and inclined at 75 to HP and passing through the apex of the
cone draw its front view, sectional top view and true shape of section.

13. A cylinder of base diameter 50mm and axis length 60mm is resting on HP on its base. It is
o
cut by a plane inclined at 50 to VP and perpendicular to HP and is 15mm away from the
axis. Draw its top view, sectional front view and true shape of the section.

80

14. A right circular cone of base diameter 60mm and height 70mm rests its base on HP. A
o

## section plane perpendicular to HP and inclined at 40 to VP cuts the cone at a distance of

5mm from the axis and in front of it. Draw its top view, sectional front view and true shape
of the section.

15. A pentagonal pyramid 40 mm sides and axis 70mm long is resting on its base on HP so that
the edge of the base nearer to VP is parallel to it. A vertical section plane, inclined at 45o to
VP, cuts the pyramid at a distance of 7mm from the axis. Draw the top view, sectional front
view and the auxiliary front view on an AVP parallel to section plane.

81

DEVELOPMENT OF SURFACES
1. A square prism of base side 30mm and axis length 60mm is resting on HP on its base with a
o

side of base inclined at 30o to VP. It is cut by a plane inclined at 40 to HP and perpendicular
to VP and is bisecting the axis. Draw the development of the remaining portion of the prism.

2. A pentagonal prism of base side 30mm and axis length 60mm is resting on HP on its base
o

with a side of base is parallel to VP. It is cut by a plane inclined at 35 to HP and meets the
axis at a distance 35mm from the base. Draw the development of the lower portion of the
prism.

82

3. A hexagonal prism of base side 30mm and axis length 60mm is resting on HP on its base
o

## with of it vertical faces perpendicular to VP. It is cut by a plane inclined at 50 to HP and

perpendicular to VP and meets the axis of prism at a distance 10mm from the top end. Draw
the development of the lateral surface of the prism.

4. Draw the development of the lower portion of a cylinder of diameter 50mm and axis 70mm
o

when sectioned by a plane inclined at 40 to HP, perpendicular to VP and bisecting the axis.

83

5. A vertical chimney of 70cm diameter joins a roof sloping at 35 with horizontal. The
shortest portion over the roof is 32cm. Obtain the shape of the sheet metal from which the
chimney can be fabricated.

6. A square pyramid of base side 30mm and altitude 60mm rests on its base with the base
edges equally inclined to the VP. It is cut by a plane perpendicular to the VP and inclined at
o
30 to the HP meeting the axis at 20mm above the HP. Draw the development of the lateral
surface of the square pyramid.

84

7. A pentagonal pyramid of base side 30mm and axis length 60mm is resting on HP on its base is
perpendicular
to VP. It is cut by a plane perpendicular to VP and parallel to HP and meets the axis at a
distance of 25mm
from the vertex. Draw the development of the remaining portion of the pyramid.

8. A hexagonal pyramid of side 30mm and altitude 60mm is resting on HP on its base with two
of the base sides are perpendicular to VP. The pyramid is cut by a plane inclined at 30o to HP
and perpendicular to VP and is bisecting the axis. Draw the development of the portion of the
pyramid

85

9. A hexagonal prism of base side 30mm and height 60mm rest vertically on the HP with a side
of base is parallel to VP. A string is wound around the surface of the prism starting from left
extreme point on the base to the diametrically opposite corner on the top base and ending at
the same point. Find graphically shortest length same point. Find graphically the shortest
length of the string required. Also sketch it in the front view.

10. A cone of base 50mm diameter and height 70mm with its base on HP. A section plane
perpendicular to VP and inclined at 30o to HP bisects the axis of the cone. Draw the
development of the lateral surface of the truncated cone.

86

11. A right circular cone base diameter 60mm and height 70mm is cut by an inclined plane
cutting the axis at appoint 15mm above the base. The cutting is inclined to the HP at 60o.
Draw the development of the cut base.

12. A hexagonal pyramid of side of base 25mm and altitude 70mm rests on its base on HP such
that a base edge is parallel to VP. It is cut by two cutting planes, perpendicular to VP. One of
the planes is inclined at 30o to HP and meeting the axis at a point of 40mm from the base as
centre. Develop the lateral surfaces of the remaining portion of the pyramid.

87

13. A hexagonal pyramid of the base side 30mm and height 60mm rests vertically on HP with
one of the base side parallel to VP. A string is wound round the surfaces of the pyramid from
the left extreme point on the base and ends of the same point. Find graphically the shortest
length of the string required. Also trace the path of the string in the front and top views.

14. A pentagonal pyramid of base side 30mm and height 70mm rests vertically on HP with one
of the base sides making 36o to VP. A string is wound around the surfaces of the pyramid
from the left, extreme point on the base and ending at the same point. Find graphically the
shortest length of the string required. Also trace the path of the string in the front and top
views.

88

15. A hexagonal prism of base edge 50mm height 70mm rests on one of its ends on HP with a
vertical face parallel to VP. A horizontal hole of diameter 40mm is drilled centrally right through
the prism with its axis perpendicular to the VP. Draw the development of the lateral surfaces of
the prism with the hole.

16. A pentagonal prism of base edge 20mm and axis length 50mm slants on one of its ends on
the HP with a vertical face parallel to the VP and farther away from it. A square slot of
diagonal 26mm is drilled centrally right through the prism, in such a way that one diagonal
coincides with the axis of the prism. The axis of the square slot is perpendicular to the VP.
Draw the development of the lateral surface of the prism with the square cut-out.

89

17. A hexagonal pyramid side of base 30mm and height 80mm stand with the base on HP. A
circular hole of 30mm diameter pyramid is directly such that the axis of the hole is
perpendicular to VP and intersects the axis of the pyramid 20mm above the base. Draw the
development of the lateral surface of the pyramid.

18. A cone of base diameter 40mm and height 50mm stands on its base on the HP. A cylindrical
hole of diameter 20mm is drilled right through the cone. The axis of the hole is perpendicular
to the VP and meets the axis of the cone at 15mm above the base of the cone. Draw the
development of the lateral surface of the cone with the hole.

90

UNIT V
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
FRUSTUM OF PYRAMIDS
1. Draw the isometric view of a frustum of hexagonal pyramid of base side 30mm, and top face
side is 20mm and height 60mm, when its axis is vertical. Draw the isometric view of the
frustum of the pyramid.

2. Draw the isometric view of a frustum of cone of base diameter 60mm, top face diameter
30mm and height 50mm. draw the isometric view of the frustum of the pyramid.

91

TRUNCATED SOLIDS
3. A square prism of side 40mm and height 60mm is resting on the HP on its base such that two

of the base edges are parallel to VP. It is cut by a section plane which is perpendicular to VP,
o
inclined at 30 to HP and bisecting the axis. Draw the isometric view of the bottom portion of
the prism.

4. A hexagonal prism of base edge 30mm and height 70mm is resting on the HP on its base

such that two of its base edges are parallel to VP. It is cut by a section plane which is
o
perpendicular to VP, inclined at 40 to HP and bisecting the axis. Draw the isometric view of
the bottom portion of the prism.

92

5. A hexagonal prism of base edge 30mm and height 70mm is resting on the HP on its base

such that two of its base edges are parallel to VP. It is cut by a section plane which is
o
perpendicular to VP, inclined at 45 to HP and bisecting the axis. Draw the isometric view of
the bottom portion of the prism.

6. A cylinder of diameter 50mm and axis height 70mm is resting on the ground on its base. It is
o

cut by a section plane which is perpendicular to VP and inclined at 40 to HP. the section
plane passes through a point at a distance 30mm from the base along the axis. Draw the
isometric view of the prism.

93

7. A cylinder of diameter 50mm and axis height 60mm is resting on the ground on its base. It is
o

cut by a section plane which is perpendicular to VP and inclined at 55 to HP. the section
plane passes through a point at a distance 30mm from the base along the axis. Draw the
isometric view of the prism.

8. A square pyramid of base edge 40mm and axis height 70mm is resting on the HP on its base

such that two of its base edges are parallel to VP. It is cut by a section plane which is
o
perpendicular to VP, inclined at 30 to HP and passing through a point at a distance 40mm
from the base along the axis. Draw the isometric view of the axis.

94

9. A pentagonal pyramid of base edge 30mm and axis height 65mm is resting on the HP on its

base such that one of its nearest base edges is parallel to VP. It is cut by a section plane which
o
is perpendicular to VP, inclined at 30 to HP and passing through a point at a distance 35mm
from the base along the axis. Draw the isometric view of the pyramid.

10. A cone of base diameter 50mm and axis height 80mm with its base on HP. A cone is cut by a
o

section plane perpendicular to VP, inclined at 30 to HP and passing through a point 50mm
above the base along the axis. Draw the isometric view of the pyramid.

95

11. A pentagonal pyramid of base edge 30mm and axis height 65mm is resting on the HP on its

base such that one of its base edges is perpendicular to VP. It is cut by a section plane which
o
is perpendicular to VP, inclined at 30 to HP and passing through a point at a distance 30mm
from the apex along the axis. Draw the isometric view of the pyramid.

COMBINATION OF SOLIDS
12. A hexagonal shaped slab of base edges 30mm and height 60mm has a right circular through
hole of 40mm diameter. Draw the isometric projection of the slab, if the axes of the hole and
slab coincide.

96

13. A dust bin is in the form of a frustum of a hollow square pyramid with the base dimensions
of 20mm sides and the top open surface of 45mm sides. Draw the isometric view of the
hollow dust bin, if its height is 50mm and the wall thickness is negligible.

14. A cylindrical slab of 75mm diameter and 45mm thick is surmounted by a cube of 38mm side.
On the top of the cube rest a square pyramid of altitude of 38mm and side of base 25mm.
The axes of the solids are in the same straight line. Draw the isometric view of the setup.

97

15. Three square rods of 30x30mm cross section and length mm, mm and mm are nailed together
to form a letter H. . Draw the isometric view of the letter H.

16. A solid is in a form of a square prism of side of base 40mm up to a height of 60mm and
thereafter tapers into a frustum of a square pyramid whose top surface is a square of 20mm
side. The total height of the solid is 90mm. Draw the isometric view of the pyramid.

98

17. A sphere of diameter 40mm centrally on top of a cube of side 50mm. Draw the isometric
projection of the solids.

18. A frustum of a cone having 25mm as top diameter, 50mm bottom diameter and 50mm axis
length is placed vertically on a cylindrical block of 75mm diameter and is 25mm thick such
that both the solids have the common axis. Draw the isometric projection of the combination
of these solids.

99

PRESPECTIVE PROJECTION
1. A square prism of side 40mm and height 50mm is resting on the ground on its base. One of
its vertical faces is touching the PP and the central plane is 40mm to the right of the axis of
the prism. The station point is 25mm in front of PP and 65mm above the ground. Draw the
perspective view of the solid.

100

2. A Square prism of side 30mm and axis height 50mm is resting on the ground on its base that
one of its vertical faces is parallel to and 20mm behind PP. the central plane is 45mm to the
right of the axis of the prism. The station point is 60mm in front of PP and 65mm above the
ground. Draw the perspective view of the solid.

101

3. A Square prism of side 40mm and axis height 55mm is resting on the ground on its base. the
picture plane is passing through the axis of the prism such that one of its vertical faces is
parallel to PP. the central plane is 50mm to the right of the axis of the prism. The station
point is 40mm in front of PP and 70mm above the ground. Draw the perspective view of the
solid.

102

4. A hexagonal prism of base edge 20mm and axis height 40mm is resting on the ground on its
base such that the nearest base edge is parallel to and 15mm behind PP. The central plane is
30mm to the right of the nearest vertical edge of the prism. The station point is 70mm in
front of PP and 90mm above the ground. Draw the perspective view of the solid.

103

5. A cylinder of base diameter and axis height 60mm is resting on the ground on one of its
generators such that its nearest end is 15mm behind PP. the central plane is 70mm to right of
the axis of the cylinder. The station point is 80mm in front of PP and 60mm above GL. Draw
the perspective view of the solid.

104

6. A hexagonal pyramid of base edge 30mm and axis height 70mm is resting on the ground
on its base such that the nearest base edge is parallel to and 20mm behind PP. the central
plane is 60mm to the left of the axis of the solid. The station point is 110mm in front of
PP and 80mm above the ground. Draw the perspective view of the solid.

105

7. A rectangular pyramid of base 60x40mm is resting on the ground on its base such that one
of its longer edges touching PP and the solid is resting behind PP. the central plane is
20mm to the left of the nearest smaller base edge which is perpendicular to PP. the station
point is 35mm in front of PP and 80mm above GL. Draw the perspective view of the
pyramid.

106

8. A pentagonal pyramid of base side 30mm and height 50mm rests on ground plane, such
that one of the base edges is parallel to picture plane and 20mm behind PP. The station
point is 50mm in front of PP and 30mm above GP, 30mm to the left of the pyramid axis.
Draw the perspective view of the pyramid.

107

9. A cylinder of base diameter 50mm and axis length 50mm is placed on GP on one of its
base. The axis of the cylinder is 35mm behind PP. The station point is 70mm in front of
PP and 70mm above GP and is 50mm to the left of the axis. Draw the perspective view of
the cylinder.

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## SIDE VIEW METHOD

10. A Pentagonal pyramid of base edge 30mm and axis height 65mm resting on the ground
on its base such that one of its base edges is on PP. the station point is 50mm in front of
PP and 80mm above the ground. The central plane passes through the apex of the
pyramid. Draw the perspective view of the pyramid.

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11. Draw the perspective view of a pentagonal prism of base side 20 mm and height 40mm
when it rests on its base on the ground plane with one of its rectangular faces parallel to
and 20mm behind the PP. The station point is 45 mm in front of the PP and 60mm above
GP. The observer is 20mm to the left of the axis. Use the top view and the end view to
draw the perspective by visual ray method.

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