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Masters Theses

Student Research & Creative Works

1970

Clay mineralogy and compaction characteristics of


residual clay soils used in earth dam construction in
the Ozark Province of Missouri
Arthur David Alcott

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Department: Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering
Recommended Citation
Alcott, Arthur David, "Clay mineralogy and compaction characteristics of residual clay soils used in earth dam construction in the
Ozark Province of Missouri" (1970). Masters Theses. Paper 7177.

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CLAY MINERALOGY AND COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS


OF RESIDUAL CLAY SOILS USED IN EARTH DAM CONSTRUCTION
IN THE OZARK PROVINCE OF MISSOURI

BY

ARTHUR DAVID ALCOTT, 1941-

THESIS
submitted to the faculty of

UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI - ROLLA


in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
Degree of

MASTER OF SCIENCE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING


Rolla, Missouri

1970

19C853

ii

ABSTRACT
The clay mineralogy and Standard Proctor compaction
characteristics of clayey residual soils developed on the
Salem Plateau of the Ozark Physiographic Province and used
in earth dam construction were studied.
A review of the geology of the Salem Plateau is
presented along with a discussion of the factors controlling
the development of soils on carbonate bedrock in a high
leaching environment.

The predominant soil clay mineral

was found to be a poorly crystallized kaolinite rather


than halloysite as has been postulated by others.

Minor

amounts of triple-layer minerals and an undetermined amount


of an alumino-silicate gel are indicated.

The effects of

particle size and degree of crystallinity on the tests


used to determine clay mineralogy are discussed.
The effects of several soil properties on the
laboratory compaction of the clayey residual soils were
investigated.

Since the clay mineralogy was similar for

all of the soils investigated, this factor was discarded


as not being responsible for compaction differences.

The

percent clay was found to have the highest correlation


with the maximum dry density and the optimum moisture
content of the soils.

The plastic limit and cation-

exchange capacity were also closely correlated with the


compaction characteristics.

lll

It was determined that the pedular structure characteristic of the residual soils was not destroyed upon laboratory
compaction, particularly compaction dry of optimum moisture
content.

A theory of the compaction of clay soils is

postulated which deals primarily with the behavior and


changes in this ped structure with increasing moisture
content.
Scanning electron microscopy was used to illustrate
points brought out in the discussions on the morphology of
the soil clays and on the compaction characteristics of
the clays.

iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I wish to thank my adviser, Dr. N. 0. Schmidt, for his
assistance and guidance during the period that I have
attended graduate school and particularly during the period
that this paper has been written.
I also wish to express my appreciation to Dr. William
Hayes, Chief Geologist, and the Missouri Geological Survey
for financing the expenses related to the gathering of the
test soils and other field data and for allowing the author
to initiate an electron microscope study at the Survey's
expense.

Without this assistance, the project would not

have been feasible.


The clay mineralogy investigation required equipment
and technology found only from outside sources.

I wish to

thank Mr. W. M. Dressel for permitting the DTA and TGA


studies to be performed at the U.S. Bureau of Mines, Rolla,
Missouri.

I also acknowledge with thanks the assistance of

Mr. R. Rickey and Mr. M. Adams for performing the tests and
for their suggestions with regard to interpretation.
The transmission microscopy was performed by
Mr. Kuldip Chopra at the Ceramics Department, University of
Missouri - Rolla.

The scanning electron microscopy

investigation was performed at the Materials Research Center,


also at the University of Missouri - Rolla.

My sincere

thanks for their assistance.


Dr. W. D. Keller was most helpful in allowing the

author to use the x-ray diffraction facilities at the


University of Missouri - Columbia.

His discussions regarding

testing technique and data interpretation were invaluable


to this study.
Special thanks is also offered to Dr. J. L. Eades of
the Geology faculty of the University of Illinois.

His

independent analysis of the nature of the clay mineralogy


substantiated that of the author and is most appreciated.
The encouragement and assistance over the past two
years of Mr. J. H. Williams and Mr. E. E. Lutzen of the
Missouri Geological Survey is gratefully acknowledged.
Finally I wish to thank my wife, Molly, for her
understanding and help, particularly during the period
when this paper was being prepared.

vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

ABSTRACT . . . .

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

iv

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF TABLES .
I.

II.

xiv

INTRODUCTION

LITERATURE REVIEW . .

A.

GEOLOGY

B.

SOIL FORMATION

C.

. . . . ..

1.

Soils derived from limestones .

2.

Formation of Kaolins

3.

Kaolinite morphology

11
. .

. .

12

15

Soil gradation and index properties .

16

2.

Cation-exchange capacity

18

3.

Clay particle structure .

26

IV.

MATERIALS . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

SOIL GRADATION .

32

35

. . .

TEST PROCEDURES .

B.

1.

FIELD INVESTIGATION .

A.

. . .

COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS . . . .

II I.

v.

. . . . . . .

. . .
. . . .

40

40

1.

Sample preparation

. . .

40

2.

Coarse sieve analysis .

. . .

40

3.

Hydrometer analysis . .

. .

41

ATTERBERG LIMITS TESTS . . . . . . .

41

1.

Liquid limits . .

. . . .

41

vii

Table of Contents Continued

C.

2.

Wet liquid limits

41

3.

Dispersed liquid limit .

42

4.

Plastic limits .

53

MOISTURE-DENSITY RELATIONSHIPS

53

. . .
. . . . . . . . . .
X-RAY DIFFRACTION
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. General
2.
Preparation of samples
. . . .
Powdered samples . . . . . . .
3.
. . .

53

. . .

58

2.

4.
E.

53

. . . . .

1.

D.

Page

Natural samples
Dispersed samples

Potassium acetate treatment

DIFFERENTIAL THERMAL ANALYSIS

. . . . .

General

2.

Sample preparation and testing

. . . .
. . . . . . . .

G.

TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (TEM)

H.

. .
LOW-POWER MICROSCOPY (LPM)
.
SOIL CLAY CHEMISTRY .
. .
. . .
1 . General
. . . .
. . . . .
2.
Chemical analysis
. . . . .
3.
Soil pH in water .
. . .

K.

SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (SEM)

4.

Cation-exchange capacity

5.

Flame photometry

6.

Absorption spectrophotometry

SPECIFIC GRAVITY

58

61
63
64

. .
. .
. .

66

.
. .
.
..

72

. . . . .

. . . . .

57

60

1.

THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS

J.

55

60

F.

I .

55

72
72

72
73
75
75

. . . . .
. . . . .

77
77

viii
Table of Contents Continued
L.
VI.

B.
C.

79

82

CLAY MINERALOGY

82

. . .

1.

X-ray analysis

2.

Differential thermal analysis

3.

Thermogravimetric analysis

100

4.

Electron microscopy

102

5.

Chemical analysis

110

6.

Summary

. . .

82

90

112

SOIL CLASSIFICATION AND CATION-EXCHANGE


CAPACITY . . . . .

113

COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS

123

1.

Atterberg Limits . .

2.

Gradation and cation-exchange capacity

135

3.

Soil clay structure

135

CONCLUSIONS

123

147

A.

GENERAL .

147

B.

CLAY MORPHOLOGY

147

C.

SOIL CLASSIFICATION AND CATION-EXCHANGE


. . . .
. . . . . . .
CAPACITY

148

D.

CORRELATIONS WITH COMPACTION RESULTS

150

E.

THEORY OF RESIDUAL SOIL COMPACTION

150

F.

APPLICATION OF TEST RESULTS .

152

G.
VIII.

CORRELATION TESTS

ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
A.

VII.

Page

1.

Correlations

152

2.

Dam design - construction

152

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY

APPENDIX A - Dam Reports

157
159

lX

Table of Contents Continued

IX.
X.

Page

BIBLIOGRAPHY .

176

VITA . . . .

184

LIST OF FIGURES
Page

Figure
Clay Distribution in Clarksville Soil
(from Scrivner, 1960).

10

Location of Dam Sites.

33

3.

Particle-Size Analysis of Masters #1


and Masters # 2 .

44

Particle-Size Analysis of Terre Du Lac and


Timberline .

45

Particle-Size Analysis of Sayers, Little


Prarie, and Blackwell.

46

Particle-Size Analysis of Floyd, Ft.


Westside, and Rice .

47

Particle-Size Analysis of Sunrise Central,


Sunrise South, and Fabick.

48

Particle-Size Analysis of Hornsey, Elsey,


and Sunnen .

49

9.

Plasticity Chart Plot of Ozark Soils .

52

10.

X-Ray Diffractograms of the Sayers Soil.

85

11.

X-Ray Diffractograms of the Masters #1,


Timberline, and Terre Du Lac Soils .

86

Shift in 001 Peak of Georgia Kaolinite When


Treated With Potassium Acetate .

87

Differential Thermal Analysis of Georgia


Kaolinite and Indiana Halloysite .

93

1.

4.
5.

6.

7.
8.

12.

13.
14.

Differential Thermal Analysis of Ozark Soils

94

15.

Differential Thermal Analysis of Ozark Soils

95

16.

Differential Thermal Analysis of Ozark Soils

96

17.

Differential Thermal Analysis of Ozark Soils

97

18.

Thermogravimetric Analysis

101

xi
List of Figures continued
Figure
19.
TEM Terre DuLac Suspended Sample
(57000X) . . . . . .
20

21.
2 2.
2 3.

24.
25.
26.
2 7.
28.

Page
103

TEM Terre Du Lac Suspended Sample


(52000X) . . . . . .

103

TEM Terre Du Lac


(28000X) . . . . .

104

Suspended Sample

TEM Terre Du Lac Suspended Sample


(20000X).
. ..

104

SEM Terre Du Lac


(1000X) .

105

SEM Hornsey
(3000X)

Powdered Sample

Powdered Sample
105

SEM Hornsey Ped Sample


(3000X) . . .

106

SEM Hornsey
(10000X).

Ped Sample

106

SEM Hornsey
(10000X).

Ped Sample

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . . . . .

108

SEM Terre Du Lac Ped Sample


(10000X) . . . . . . . . . . .

108

29.

SEM Timberline
(10000X) . . . .

109

30.

Clay Content Versus Liquid Limit


(Clay Residual Soils) . . . . . .

115

31.

Clay Content Versus Plastic Limit


(Clay Residual Soils)

116

32.

Cation-Exchange Capacity Versus Liquid Limit


(Clay Residual Soils) . . .
. . . . . . . .

118

Cation-Exchange Capacity Versus Plastic Limit


(Clay Residual Soils) . . . . . . . . . . . . .

119

Cation-Exchange Capacity Versus Clay Content


(All Soils) . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .

120

Clay Content Versus Maximum Dry Density


(Clay Residual Soils) . .
. ...

124

33.
34.
35.

Ped Sample

xii
List of Figures continued
Figure
36.
Clay Content Versus Optimum Moisture Content
(Clay Residual Soils).
. . . . . .
37.
38.
39 .
40.
41.

42.
43.
44.
45.

46.

126

Cation-Exchange Capacity Versus Optimum


Moisture Content
(Clay Residual Soils) . .

127

Liquid Limit Versus Maximum Dry Density


(Clay Residual Soils).

128

Liquid Limit Versus Optimum Moisture Content


(Clay Residual Soils).
. ..

129

Plastic Limit Versus Maximum Dry Density


(Clay Residual Soils). .
. ..

130

Plastic Limit Versus Optimum Moisture Content


(Clay Residual Soils).
. . .
. ..

131

Clay Content Versus Maximum Dry Density


(All Soils) . . . .

132

Clay Content Versus Optimum Moisture Content


(All Soils) .

133

Optimum Moisture Content Versus Maximum


Dry Density
(Clay Residual Soils)

134

LPM

Terre Du Lac
(Black and White)
Compacted 3% Dry of Optimum
Compacted 5% Wet of Optimum

137

Terre Du Lac
(Color)
Compacted 3% Dry of Optimum
Compacted 5% Wet of Optimum

138

Terre Du Lac
(lOOX)
Compacted 3% Dry of Optimum
Compacted 5% Wet of Optimum

140

Terre DuLac
(300X).
Compacted 3% Dry of Optimum
Compacted 5% Wet of Optimum

141

LPM
a.)
b.)

48.

SEM
a.)
b.)

49.

SEM
a.)
b.)

50.

125

Cation-Exchange Capacity Versus Maximum


Dry Density
(Clay Residual Soils) .

a.)
b .)

47.

Page

SEM
a.)
b.)

Terre Du Lac
(3000X)
Compacted 3% Dry of Optimum
Compacted 5% Wet of Optimum

. . . .

142

xiii
List of Figures continued
Figure
51.
52.

Page
The Effect of Dispersion of the Standard
Proctor Compaction of Clayey Residual Soils.

. 146

Graphical Relationship of the Maximum Dry


Density to the Plastic Limit and the Clay
Content of the Clayey Residual Soils .

. 153

53.

Graphical Relationship of the Optimum Moisture


Content to the Plastic Limit and the Clay
Content of the Clayey Residual Soils .
. 154

54.

Graphical Relationship of the Maximum Dry


Density to the Plasticity Index and the
Liquid Limit of all Soils.

55.

. 155

Graphical Relationship of the Optimum Moisture


Content to the Plasticity Index and the Liquid
Limit of all Soils .
. 156

xiv

LIST OF TABLES
Page

Table
Affect of Crystal Structure on CationExchange Capacity (after Kelley and
Jenny).

22

Material of Dams Investigated

36

Comparison of Natural Field Moisture


With Atterberg Limits .

39

IV.

Summary of Particle Size Analysis .

43

V.

Comparison of Wet Liquid Limit And


Natural Atterberg Limits.

so

Comparison of Natural and Dispersed


Atterberg Limits.

so

VII.

Summary of Atterberg Limits Tests

51

VIII.

Result of Moisture-Density Tests.

54

X-Ray Machine Specifications.

56

Summary of Major DTA Temperature Peaks.

62

Chemical Analysis of Ozark Soils.

67

Summary of pH and Cation-Exchange Capacity


of Ozark Soils.

74

Concentration of Mg, Ca, Na, and K Cations


in meq/100 grams.

76

Specific Gravity of Ozark Soils

78

Correlations for Clayey Residual Ozark Soils.

80

I.

II.
I I I.

VI.

IX.

X.
XI.
XII.
XIII.
XIV.
XV.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Missouri has approximately 1600 man-made earth dams, as


many or possibly more than any other state in the Union.
About 700 of these dams are located in the Ozark
Physiographic Province, a series of plateau surfaces
developed principally on Paleozoic carbonate bedrock
formations.

A mantle of clayey residual soils up to 200

feet thick overlies these bedrock surfaces.


Earth dams constructed in this area, particularly
those constructed of the clayey residual soils, have a
history of poor performance.

Excess seepage, slope

instability, piping, and total embankment failures have


occured.

Further problems will emerge as urban expansion

and increasing numbers of recreational lake developments


extend into the area.

The purpose of this investigation

is to study the nature of these residual soils, the factors


which affect the compaction of the soils, and to recommend
procedures to improve the performance of the dams.
The stony nature of most of the embankments prohibited
the collection of near surface undisturbed samples with hand
tools.

Owner resistence and the expenses involved in

mobilizing and using mechanized equipment further prohibited


undisturbed sampling.
Only dams with a reservoir surface area greater than 15
acres were investigated.

The expectation was that this

restriction would limit the investigation to dams which were

constructed using accepted engineering practices.


not the case.

This was

Almost anything passes for accepted construc-

tion practice in this state where there is no legislation to


regulate dam design and construction.

Therefore, attempts

to relate dam performance with the nature of the embankment


materials or with the embankment performance were not
feasible.

One dam with flat slopes utilizing good materials

but poorly constructed might perform less satisfactorily


than another constructed with steep slopes and less suitable
materials, but well compacted.
The investigation has been directed, therefore, to a
study of the nature of the soils used in dam construction
and to the factors which affect the compaction of these
soils.

With this knowledge, it should be possible to assess

the potential for dam construction if good construction


techniques are followed.
The effect of significant soil properties on Standard
Proctor compaction parameters were investigated.

These

properties were chosen considering the clayey nature of


the soils.

They are:

(1) clay mineralogy,

Limits and grain-size distribution,

(2) Atterberg

(3) cation-exchange

capacity, and (4) soil clay structure.


Evidence indicates that the Tertiary climate of the
Ozark region was semi-tropical or tropical.

Where carbonate

bedrock is located in this type of climate, chemical


leaching is prominant and conditions favoring the formation

of kaolinitic and halloysitic soils are developed.

Terzaghi

(1958) reports the characteristics of a halloysitic soil of


tropical Kenya to be similar to that of the Ozark soils,
Graham (1969) sites the probable presence of halloysite in
the Ozark soils as being responsible for the low maximum
dry density and the high optimum moisture content of the
Springfield soil, an Ozark residual clayey soil.

The

mineralogical investigation was designed to determine more


explicitly the nature of the clay and possible changes in
its morphology from one portion of the Ozark Province to
another.
X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis,
thermogravimetric analysis, chemical analysis, transmission
electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy
techniques were chosen for this investigation.

The results

of several of these tests are shown to be affected by


mineral particle size, degree of crystallinity, and other
factors.

These factors can lead to errors in interpretation

if they are not recognized and considered.

The electron

microscopy studies, particularly those of the transmission


electron microscope, provide keys to clay mineral
identification.
Harris (1969) has made numerous correlations between
independent soil properties as the percent fines, the percent
clay, the liquid and plastic limits and the Standard Proctor
compaction test variables, the maximum dry density and the
optimum moisture content.

It was decided to determine if

similar correlations exist for the Ozark residual soils.


It was chosen to study the nature of the clay structure
of the laboratory compacted samples with the scanning
electron microscope at various magnifications

particularly

samples compacted wet and dry of the optimum moisture


content.

II.
A.

LITERATURE REVIEW

GEOLOGY
The geology of the Missouri Ozarks is illustrated on

the Geologic Map of Missouri published by the Missouri


Geological Survey.

The general geology of the Ozark

Plateaus is that of a horizontal sequence of sedimentary


formations deposited by shallow marine seas which moved
onto and off of a Precambrian dome centered in the St.
Francois Mountains.

The Ozark Province has been divided

into four subprovinces by Thornbury (1965):

(1) the

St. Francois Mountains - the Precambrian igneous core of


the province;

(2) the Salem Plateau - underlain by

Cambrian and Ordovician dolomites with some sandstones;


(3)

the Springfield Plateau - underlain primarily by

Mississippian and Pennsylvanian limestones; and (4) the


Boston Mountains - rugged topography developed on shales,
limestones and sandstones.
The topography of the northern flank of the Salem
Plateau where the darns investigated are located is characterized by steep-sided ridges with closely spaced
drainage.

Broad uplands are developed in portions of

Phelps, Dent, and Crawford Counties on the Roubidoux and


Jefferson City formations.
The youngest formation exposed in the area is the
Ordovician Jefferson City dolomite, and oldest is the

Cambrian Potosi dolomite.

The stratigraphy of these

formations is described in detail in The Stratigraphic


Succession in Missouri published by the Missouri Geological
Survey.
Bretz (1965) attributes the plateau development to
weathering cycles which extended through three periods
of peneplanation forming the three plateau levels.

These

stages of peneplanation correspond to, and are the result


of, tectonic pulses triggered within the province dome.
Evidence of later, minor pulses are noted in terraces and
rejuvenated streams.
He dates the plateaus as follows:

(1) Boston Mount-

ains (pre-Tertiary?), (2) Springfield Plateau (early Tertiary?), and (3) Salem Plateau (post-early Eocene).

The

minor pulses are dated as Pliocene (?) and pre-Pleistocene(?).

According to the theoretical cycles of pene-

planation, the Salem Plateau is now in the early mature


stage.

Bretz bases his postulation on the following

evidences of peneplanation noted in the area:

(1)

accordant summits, (2) flat interfluvial divides, and


(3) monadnocks.
Quinn (1956) disputes the hypothesis of peneplanation
and postulates that the plateaus, ".

. were eroded in

place by alternating periods of stream entrenchment


providing the escarpments, and periods of escarpment
retreat (pedimentation), forming the plateau surfaces."

Valley entrenchment occurs during periods of high


moisture which results in rejuvenation of streams resulting
in erosion.

During alternating periods of arid conditions

streams aggrade and mechanical weathering predominates.


Quinn relates these alternating cycles to correspond with
the glacial and interglacial climatic conditions.
The two proposals vary considerable in dating the
development of the Salem Plateau.

Bretz dates the plateau

as post-Eocene, pre-Pliocene; Quinn dates the plateau as


late Pleistocene.

The age of the residual soils must coin-

cide with or be somewhat younger than the plateau itself.


The soils must be older than the Pleistocene loess deposits
which often covers the residium, particularly in the northeastern portion of the plateau.

The exact age of the soils

has not been determined.


During the Tertiary period, what is now the Gulf
of Mexico extended far up into the Mississippi River Valley.
This near-shore (probably tropical) environment could
have provided the moisture required to produce a climate
favorable to laterization forming the clayey residual
soils on carbonate bedrock.

Toward the end of the Tertiary

with the advent of the Pleistocene glacial stages, these


favorable conditions ceased and the existing soil forming
cycle was terminated.

B.

SOIL FORMATION
1.

Soils derived from limestones.

The residual soils

investigated in this study are classified as Ultisols


(U.S.D.A., 1960).

Earlier systems classified the soils

as Red-Yellow Podzolics.

Where

Red~Yellow

Podzolics are

usually developed in tropical climates, Ramann (as reported


in Miller, 1965) noted a tendency of tropical soils to penetrate into temperate climates on limestone formation.
This is possible because the permeable limestones, or
dolomites, permit rapid percolation with a resultant
decrease in ground water influence on soil formation.
The principle clay minerals in these Red-Yellow
Podzols developed on limestones are kaolinites and
halloysites.

The soils also exhibit an increase in iron

and clay content with depth (Scrivner, 1960).


The laterization process is considered to be the
dominant process in the genesis of these residual soils
(Simonson, 1949).

There is little evidence that eluviation

and illuviation have acted as a major process to concentrate clay in the B horizon.

Simonson further suggests

that the dominant process in these soils is the destruction


of clays in the upper horizons and the formation of new
clay minerals in the deeper horizons.
Jenny (1941) notes that in humid regions the limestone
derived soils are closely related to the impurities in the

parent material.

Carroll and Hathaway (1953) discuss the

soils developed on the Lenoir limestone in Virginia.

The

limestone contains partings of hydrous mica and montmorillonite.

Their investigation shows that the mica and mont-

morillonite were changed during the leaching process to


kaolinitic and chloritic clay soils.

The clay content,

particularly that of kaolinite, and the cation-exchange


capacity increased with depth through the soil profile.
Scrivner (1960) notes this variation of clay content with
depth and a graph from his study illustrating this
variation is presented as Figure 1.
In a study of the Lebanon soil in Missouri, Scrivner
(1960) reports that a limestone which contains illite
weathered by chemical leaching to produce a soil profile
which contains predominantly kaolinite.

The soils also

contain some montmorillonite, an intermediate product of


illite weathering.
Miller (1965) studied four Ozark soils developed by
chemical weathering of four different carbonate bedrock
formations.

The formations ranged in age from Ordovician

to Mississippian and the sources of the samples were


separated by distances of up to 100 miles.

There is a

marked similarity in the soil profiles and mineralogy,


0

which consists primarily of kaolinite and some 14 A


minerals.

The only clay mineral present in any

significant amount in the bedrock formations is illite.

10

10
Clay ( 0.002 mm) as
percent of less
than 2 mm soil

20
30

Limestone
40
50

,.-....

r-f
..__,

...c:
.j.J
0.

60
70

Q)

80
90
100
110
120

10

20

30

40

50

Clay Content

FIGURE 1.

60

70

80

90

100

(%)

Clay Distribution in Clarksville Soil


(from Scrivner, 1960)

11

2.

Formation of Kaolins.

The most common minerals

of the kaolin group or family of minerals are allophane,


halloysite (hydrated and non-hydrated), and kaolinite.
Investigators present two primary modes of kaolin formation; as precipitated gels and as particles from
solution.

Hauser (1952) postulates that after chemical

leaching, hydration and adsorption of ions, the silica and


alumina gels react to form halloysite.

Then, by conden-

sation, kaolinite and montmorillonite, mica and other


minerals may be formed depending on what ions are present.
Bates (1952) favors the theory of formation of
particles from solution.

The kaolin mineral produced

depends on many factors; time, temperature, pressure,


humidity, pH, and the composition of the solution.

Sherman

(1952) relates the kaolinite formation to the intensity of


the chemical weathering (amount, intensity, and distribution of annual rainfall) and the length of time the
material has been subjected to weathering.

Kaolin

formation is maximized by moderate, non-cyclic annual


rainfall and good internal drainage.

With increased age

and/or greater annual rainfall, the kaolinitic clays


decompose into their individual hydrated oxides which are
concentrated to form laterites.
Keller (1968) presents a detailed study of the crystallization of clay minerals from solution which is beyond
the scope of this investigation.

In his summary he states,

12

"
. it may be said that the
factors which are important in the
development of kaolin-type minerals
from alumino-silicates are the
complete removal of the metal cations
(other than Al and Si) and the
introduction of H ions (Ross, 1943),
and a relatively low silica~alumina
ratio."
The conditions required to produce the above factors are
a humid climate where precipitation exceeds evaporation,
permeable bedrock to allow continued leaching, and an
oxidizing environment to remove Fe from solution.
Scrivner (1960) presents a mechanism whereby aluminosilicates arrive in solution from which they are subsequently precipitated as kaolins.

His research describes

the destruction o the illite, alumina feldspars, and


quartz from the carbonate bedrock by an acid soil
environment to produce a solution of alumino-silicates.
The metallic Mg and Ca ions are removed by leaching from
the solution and the Fe is oxidized to Fe 2 o3 .

The

requirements outlined above by Keller have been satisfied.


A pH change immediately above bedrock from acidic to
basic keys the precipitation of a kaolinitic mineral out
of solution.
3.

Kaolinite morphology.

In the preceeding

paragraphs the formation of kaolinitic minerals from


solution has been discussed, but the morphology of these
minerals has not been considered.

A number o minerals

from well-crystallized kaolinite to halloysite to

13

allophane may be the product of this precipitation.


Keller et al (1970) emphasize the question of kaolin
group morphology when they state,
" A long-standing problem of the
kaolin group minerals has been the
question:
'What geologic or geochemical
environments determine whether wellcrystallized kaolinite; b-axis disordered,
'fire-clay' mineral; kaolinite of
hexagonal, elongate plate, tubular or
other external morphology; endellite,
halloysite, allophane, dickite of
differing IR absorptions; or possible
other varieties, are formed?' A corallary
question asks 'is there a sequence,
either possible or necessary, in either
direction, between allophane, endell1te,
kaolinite, dickite.
. ?'"
In a discussion of the interrelationship of morphology
and chemistry, Bates (1959) cites the following factors
that determine the degree of curvature and therefore the
shape of the minerals.

The first is the degree of misfit

between the tetrahedral and octahedral sheets which are


affected by the number and size of cations.

The second is

the strength of the interlayer bond which is a product


of the size and polarizing power of the cations and the
distribution of H ions.

The platy kaolinites are favored

over the lath or tubular materials as the H20 content


decreases and as the Si0 2 :Al 2o 3 increases

(as the number

of cations decreases).
Bates further postulates that there is a complete
morphological cycle in the kaolin group from the wellcrystallized hexagonal plates of kaolinite to elongate

14

plates, to laths with crystallographic terminations to


curved laths to tubes of halloysite (4H 2 0).

halloysite-allophane transition has also been postulated


(Sudo and Takahashi, 1956).

It is therefore possible that

a complete morphological series from allophane to


well-crystallized kaolinite exists.
In his discussion of soil clays Bramao (1952) notes
three morphological classes:

(1) hexagonal plates,

(2)

cylindrical or rod-like particles, and (3) irregular


layered particles having curved surfaces.

This third

class exhibits x-ray and thermal properties of both


halloysite and kaolinite.

The clay particles are

generally fine, have roughly hexagonal or elongate shape


with rounded edges, and a roughness of texture.
Bramao further summarizes the conditions under which
this irregular soil clay kaolin would form.
"The small particle size and
evident poor crystallinity of much
of the soil kaolin are results of
the weathering conditions in soils.
Soils are subject to wetting and
drying cycles; a kaolinite crystal
may begin to synthesize in one part
of the cycle, and its growth may be
interrupted or retarded during
another part. The next increment
of crystal growth might be more
hydrous, or have a slightly different
chemical composition and physical
structure.
Soil formation is
characterized by the simultaneous
presence or a large number of free
ions and colloidal systems; the
latter, particularly the hydrous
oxides of aluminum and iron, may well

15

affect the development of clay


mineral crystals. Where halloysite
and kaolinite can grow undisturbed
in an ideal environment, they can
attain their characteristic euhedral
forms. Where weathering conditions
are dynamic and reflect the interplay
of a host of variables, as in soils,
perfect crystal formation would be
only fortuitous."
Bramao further postulates that halloysite may be a
special form of kaolinite, one which has been deformed by
the presence of excess water molecules.

He believes that

the poorly developed kaolin which forms in the above type


of environment is not necessarily a transitional crystalline form but one which, ".

. may be an equilibrium

form peculiarly developed in a soil environment."


C.

COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS
The compaction of soils is affected by many factors

including such natural variables as mineralogy, gradation,


classification, moisture content, and mechanical variables
as type and intensity of compactive effort.

This inves-

tigation proposes to study the effect of three of these


variables; soil gradation and index properties, cationexchange capacity, and clay-particle structure, on the
compaction characteristics of the Ozark soils.

Corre-

lations are made of the interrelationships between these


factors and the compaction characteristics of the soils.
These characteristics are the maximum dry density and

16

optimum moisture content as defined by ASTM D 1557-66.


1.

Soil gradation and index properties.

The effect

of the gravel content of the soil (percentage of material


retained on the No. 4 sieve) has been discussed by several
authors.

Holtz and Lewitz

(1957) note that the compaction

of the fines is not affected if the soil contains less than


about 30% gravel.

For soils containing from 30-50% gravel

there is some interference with the compaction of the fines.


As the plasticity of the fines increases, the soil is able
to tolerate a greater percentage of gravel before the compaction of the fines is affected.
Zeigler (1948) discusses the effect on the moisturedensity relationship which occurs when varying amounts of
gravel are added to a loamy sand.

The addition of SO%

gravel (material finer than 3/4" and retained on the No. 4


sieve) increases the maximum dry density from 119.2 pcf
to 133.5 pcf and the optimum moisture content from 13.5%
to 7.5%.

The trend of the increase approaches linearity.

Harris (1969) has conducted a detailed investigation


into the interrelationships between independent variables
(soil gradation, index properties) and dependent variables
(engineering properties as cohesion, angle of internal
friction, and compaction characteristics).

The major

objection of his study was to develop predictive


relationships for evaluating the dependent variables.

17

Two recent studies noted by Harris concentrate on the


prediction of the moisture-density values of soils.

Ring

et al (1962) conducted studies for the Bureau of Public


Roads.

The first study produced curves relating the

liquid and plastic limits to the maximum dry density and


the optimum moisture content.

A later study reported by

the same authors developed equations and curves relating


the plastic limit and fineness average (defined as one-sixth
of the summation of the percentage of particles finer by
weight than the following sizes in millimeters:
0.42, 0.074, 0.020, 0.005, 0.001).

2.0,

It was found that the

values of optimum moisture and maximum dry density are


more closely predicted when related to plastic limit and
fineness average than when related to the plastic limit
and liquid limit.

These studies utilize linear regression

to analyze the relationships.


Harris summarizes a report by the U.S. Army Engineer
Waterways Experiment Station (1962) which presents the
relationships between compaction, consolidation and
strength characteristics and the index properties of the
soils.

The study develops correlations between index

properties and soil gradation, index properties and


specific gravity of the soils, and the index properties
and the compaction characteristics.
Harris (1969) concentrates his study to correlations

18

involving plastic fine-grained soils.

He finds that the

compaction values are significantly related to the plasticity indices and the percent clay.

The liquid limit

provides the highest degree of simple correlation.

very high degree of correlation was obtained for the


optimum moisture content versus maximum dry density.
His study indicates that a high degree of correlation
between the compaction characteristics and the liquid
limit holds also for residual soils.
is noted with the plastic limit.

A lesser correlation

The correlation of

compaction values with soil gradation is less significant.


For the glacial soils the gradation is more closely
correlated with the optimum moisture and maximum dry
density than with the index properties.

The specific

gravity correlates poorly with other properties.


Few of the residual soils studied by Harris exhibit
the high percentage of clays, the high degree of plasticity,
or the low density characteristics typical of the soils
tested in this study of Ozark soils.

It may well be that

the relationships determined by Harris will not hold for the


Ozark residual soils.
2.

Cation-exchange capacity.

That cations exdst in

the clay-water system and that they affect the properties


of the system has been known for some time.

During the

18th century, it was determined that the process of cation-

19

exchange occurred and that the phenomenon was restricted


to the clay fraction of the soil (Grim, 1952).

Other

early studies were carried out by investigators in the field


of soil chemistry.
Hauth and Davidson (1950) and Grim (1953) discuss
three methods by which clay minerals adsorb these cations.
In the first, cations are attracted to the edges of the
clay plates which hold a negative charge.

The second

occurs as a result of substitution within the clay lattice.


Substitution of divalent ions for trivalent aluminum ions
results in a deficiency of positive charges which is
satisfied by cations which become strongly attached to the
clay particles.

The third method involves the exchange

of the hydrogen in exposed hydroxyls by other cations.


The first method, while active in all clays, is responsible
for most of the exchange capacity of the kaolinite family
minerals.

The platy kaolinite minerals which have a layer

of hydroxyls exposed along their basal cleavage surfaces


may also derive some of their exchange potential from
method three.

The substitution of cations within the

clay lattice is most prevalent in the triple-layer minerals


where it is responsible for up to 80 percent of the total
cation-exchange capacity (Grim, 1953).
The exchange reaction in clay is very complex and as
of 1958 no one had been able to develop a qualitative

20

hypothesis which completely describes the reaction or the


sequence in which different cations would become involved
in the exchange reaction (Grim, 1958).

As early as 1939,

Grim gave the following approximate order of cation


exchangeability; Na>K>NH 4 >Mg>Ca.

It appears that divalent

cations replace monovalent cations more readily than vice


versa.

Other factors involved in the exchange reaction

include the total population of exchange positions, the


concentration of the replacing ions, the nature and
concentrations of the anions, the size and polarity of the
ions, and the hydration tendency of the ions (Grim, 1952).
Certain exchange relationships have been observed and
reported in the literature.

Grim (1953), and a number of

other authors, report typical values of the cation-exchange


capacity of clay minerals:
CEC meq/100 gr.
Kaolinite

3 - 15

Halloysite zH 2o

5 - 10

Halloysite 4H 2 o

40

Illite

10 - 40

Montmorillonite

80 - 150

50

Grim and Bray (1936) examine the properties of a number


of ceramic clays and showed that the cation-exchange capacity increased as particle size decreases.

Harmon and

21

Fraulini (1940) studied the properties of a kaolinite as


a function of particle size.

They note a pronounced

increase in the cation-exchange capacity, about four-fold,


as particle size decreased from 10-20 microns to less than
0.1 microns.

The authors also devoted a portion of the

study to the relationship between cation-exchange capacity,


specific surface, and permeability showing an increase in
permeability with increasing cation-exchange capacity and
decreasing particle size.
Kelley and Jenny (1936) determined that the cationexchange capacity of clay minerals increased markedly upon
the breakdown in crystal structure caused by grinding.
Table I modified from Kelly and Jenny shows that the
cation-exchange capacity of a kaolinite increased from 8
to 100 meq/100 gr. as the mineral was ground for 7 days.
Data for other minerals are also included in the Table.
These authors postulate that upon grinding, many OH ions
of the kaolinite lattice become exposed as breaks are
produced across the octahedral layer or parallel thereto.
The increased exchange capacity is due to these exposures
of unsatisfied negative charges.
These studies seem to indicate that the cation-exchange
capacity is a more dominant factor in montmorillonites than
in kaolinites and halloysites, and as the clay particle
size and degree of crystallinity decrease the cationexchange capacity increases.

22

TABLE I
Affect of Crystal Structure on Cation-Exchange Capacity
(after Kelley and Jenny)
Minerals

100 Mesh
48 hr

Grinding Time
7 days
72 hr

10. 5

. . .

76.0

. . .

Biotite

3.0

62.0

72.5

. . .

Kaolinite

8.0

57.5

70.4

100.5

Muscovite

Montmorillonite

126

. . .

238

. . .

Baver (1930) shows that the divalent cation Mg and Ca


flocculate at much lower concentrations than Na and K
cations and that they produce a structure which is favorable
to the movement of water and air; a structure which is
relatively stable.

Baver (1956) notes that, "The high

hydration and dispersive action of the Na ion makes the


plasticity of the Na-saturated soil greater than those
soils saturated with divalent ions."
Winterkorn and Moorman (1941) present data illustrating
the effect of different exchange ions on Atterberg Limits,
optimum moisture content and maximum dry density, total
consolidation and rate of consolidation, permeability, and
shear strength of compacted samples.

Saturating the soils

with different cations also causes changes in the results

23

with different cations also causes changes in the results


of hydrometer particle size analysis showing the effect of
each cation on the flocculated or dispersed nature of the
clay particles.
Davidson and Sheeler (1952) relate the cation-exchange
capacity of loess in southwestern Iowa to certain engineering properties of the soil.

At exchange capacities greater

than about 20 meq/100 gr. the curves relating CEC to


Atterberg Limits and percent clay appear to approach
linearity.

At least a very strong correlation is established.

Along with these investigations on the nature of the


cation-exchange reaction and its affect on the engineering
properties of clay soils were investigations into the claywater system itself and how the cation affected the system.
Winterkorn (1940) describes the oriented water film
surrounding clay particles and how if affected the plasticity
indices.
Grim (1952 and 1958) has expanded this explanation.
The properties of the clay-water system are a function of:
(1) the bond between the particles,

(2) the amount of

water between the particles, and (3) the nature of the


water adsorbed on the surfaces of the clay mineral
particles.
The bond between particles is dependent largely on the
cations held on the basal and edge surfaces of the clay

24

particles.

The valence, geometric size, and tendency of

the ion to hydrate affect the bonding strength.

The

geometric nature of this bonding restricts to a degree the


amount of water which can penetrate between particles.

The

exchangeable ions also affect the configuration of the water


molecules that envelope the clay surfaces.

The water for

some distance out from the surface is not a true liquid


since the molecules are probably arranged in a preferred
orientation different from that of liquid water.

There is

an indication that the nature of the water molecule


orientation may vary with the exchangeable ion and the
thickness of the adsorbed water later.
The Na ions tend to develop thick surrounding layers
of oriented water whereas Ca and Mg ions develop only thin
layers; tens of molecular layers for the Na ion versus only
about four for the Ca and Mg ions.

In addition there

appears to be no distinct boundary between the oriented and


liquid water systems when the Na ion is involved (Grim,
1958).
The "swarm" of water molecules and cations surrounding
the clay particles have been referred to as the double
layer.

A decrease in the thickness of the double layer

causes a reduction in the electrical repulsion between clay


particles.

Lambe (1960) has graphically illustrated the

effect of electrolytic concentration, ion valence, dielectric

25

constant, and temperature on the electrical potential of the


double layer system.

The higher the ion concentration of

the pore fluid, the greater the particle-to-particle


attraction and the less diffuse the double layer.

A similar

relationship exists as the valence of the ions in the pore


fluid increases.
Lambe and Martin (1960) note that the only exchangeable
ions likely to be important in soils are Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe,
and Al and that of these Ca and Mg generally account for
50 to 90 percent of the exchangeable ions except on extremely
acid soils of humid regions.
Recently in the field of soils stabilization research
the effects of exchangeable cations have been extensively
studied and utilized.

Vees and Winterkorn (1967) found that

the liquid and plastic limits of a kaolinitic soil increases


with the valence of the exchangeable ions and that this
indicates an increase in the flocculation effect of the
higher valence ions.

The addition of lime to soils acts to

decrease the dry density and to increase the optimum


moisture content of compacted samples (Ladd et al, 1960).
The addition of 10 percent lime caused a drop in dry density
from 98 to 87 pcf for a heavy clay with a liquid limit of
60 and a plastic index of 20.
Lambe (1962) extends the results of earlier studies to
cover the general effects of the addition of aggregates and

26

dispersants to compaction samples.

The aggregates produce

a strongly random structure which resists compaction effort


and results in a lowering of the maximum dry density and an
increase in the optimum molding water content.

Dispersants

such as sodium tetraphosphate reduce the electrical


attraction between particles causing a decrease in cohesion.
This leads to a significant decrease in the liquid limit.
The repelled clay particles can be easily moved relative to
each other and may be molded into a dense mass by mechanical
compaction.

The result is an increase in compaction with

the dispersed structure and a lowering of the optimum


moisture content.
3

Clay particle structure.

Lambe (1953) shows that

marine clays have a more flocculated structure than freshwater samples.

His research also shows that remolded

samples have a more oriented (parallel) fabric.

Mitchell

(1956) used a petrographic microscope to illustrate the


improved orientation of clay samples with remolding.
Lambe (1958) contributed a classic paper postulating
In this

the effect of structure on compacted clay samples.

paper, Lambe reviews the factors which affect the structure


of natural soils.

He also lists several variables which can

be altered by the engineer which will change the structure:


(1) type of compaction,

(2) amount of compaction,

of water, and (4) additives.

(3) amount

Lambe concludes that:

(1)

27

clays compacted dry of optimum owe their low density to a


flocculated structure; (2) this flocculated structure
results in part from a high electrolytic concentration of
ions with strong bonding capacity which prohibits the
development of a thick diffused double layer; and (3) wet
of optimum a dispersed structure is developed which allows
more efficient particle arrangement.
Seed and Chan (1959) conducted a number of tests on
clay samples compacted by different methods wet and dry of
optimum.

They investigated and reported the effect of

particle arrangement or structure on sample shrinkage,


swelling, and total and effective strength characteristics.
The results of these tests when interpreted in light of
Lambe's theory substantiate his conclusions with regard to
particle structure.

The authors also note the effect of

different methods of compaction.

They found that the soils

which had undergone the greatest amount of shear strain


had the greater degree of particle orientation and a
lower shear strength.
In his discussion of the physico-chemical properties
of soils, Michaels (1959) reports the possibility of
"packets" of parallel clay particles.

He believes the

packets act as "rigid solid entities" which resist attempts


at being forced into a coherent mass because the area of
contact between packets is so small.

Relative to

28

individual clay particles, there are few points of attraction


(cohesion) between packets of compacted, dry clay.
Trollope and Chan (1960) discuss a mechanism whereby
packets are formed.

They attribute the packets to a

strong electrolytic environment which forces particles to


move together.

The authors contend that only in zones of

large shear strains are the particles reoriented and that


compacted clay soils which are generally considered to be
remolded are for the most part not remolded.
Alymore and Quirk (1962) used transmission microscopy
to study the natural structure of clay soils.

They report

a "turbostatic" microstructure of clay particles.


"Turbostatic" structure refers to a twisted, swirl-like
clay particle arrangement similar to that noted by Borst
and Keller (1969) and discussed in a later section of this
paper.

This type of structure is noted in natural clays,

particularly kaolinite and illite.


Sloan and Kell (1966) used transmission microscopy to
illustrate the structure of compacted kaolin samples.

Their

study illustrates the predominance of packets of clay


particles in the compacted samples.
particles were noted.

Few individual clay

The packets appear to exhibit the

compacted arrangement (flocculated and dispersed) that


Lambe had postulated for single particles.

The kaolin

compacted dry of optimum exhibited random packet orientation.

29

Zones affected by higher shear strains (as those close to


the top of each layer in a compacted sample) show greater
orientation.

As water is added beyond that required for

optimum, greater packet orientation is observed.

Sloan and

Kell further state:


"The addition of molding water in
amounts less than that required to produce
a slurry or viscous suspension would
probably not disrupt the packets; hence
persistence of the packets through the
compaction process over the relatively
limited moisture range in this study
could be expected.
The relative absence
of individual particle edge-to-edge
relationships would seem to support this
view."
The investigation by Barden and Sides (1970) utilized
the scanning electron microscope to illustrate the compacted
structure of a clayey soil.

The structure of the soil

compacted at one-half Standard Proctor compaction effort at


2.8% dry of optimum and 5.2% wet of optimum was investigated.
Their study indicates that at low to moderate magnification
(20-SOOX) the structure of the compacted samples appears to
vary appreciably depending on the molding moisture content.
Dry of optimum, distinct "pellet-like" macropeds were
predominant.
particles.

Macropeds are packets or groupings of clay


Wet of optimum the structure was more

homogeneous, offering little evidence of macropeds.


higher magnification (1900-9500X) there was no marked

At

30

difference between the micrographs of samples compacted


wet and dry of optimum.

This would indicate that the

intrapacket or microstructure of samples is not dependent


on the molding water content.

Indeed, there appeared

to be little difference between high magnification


micrographs of the natural soils and those of the compacted
samples.
Barden and Sides postulate the following compaction
sequence.

At low compaction, moisture, the macropeds appear

to resist deformation and macrospaces filled with air exist


between the macropeds.

As more water is added the macropeds

become weaker and distort under compactive effort to reduce


and finally eliminate the macrospaces.

At this point the

soil appears fairly homogeneous and the dry density is at


a maximum.

The addition of more water causes a reduction

in the dry density as the water layers between soil


particles increases.
Obviously this explanation varies considerably from
that postulated by Lambe (1958) and Seed and Chan (1959)
where the change in particle orientation with change in
molding water content determines the compacted density.
To varying degrees Trollope and Chan (1960) and Sloan and
Kell (1966) had hinted at the compacted nature of clay
soils as outlined by Barden and Sides.
The significance of this "new" explanation of compacted
clay soils is evident.

The theories of soil swelling,

31

shrinkage, consolidation, and shear strength of compacted


clays based on the Lambe (1958) theory must undergo some
re-examination and revision to allow for the presence and
influence of the pedular nature of the compacted samples.

32

III.

FIELD INVESTIGATION

Sixteen Missouri Ozark earth dams were investigated.


Where possible soils were obtained from the borrow source
of the dams.

Where this was not possible, soils from the

vicinity of the dams were sampled.

Figure 2 shows the

locations of the dams investigated.


The physical parameters of the dams were determined with
a 100 ft. chain, an abney, and a Brunton compass.

The

parameters determined were the width, height, length,


location of water level, and the dimensions of upstream and
downstream embankment slopes.

The upstream slope values

are based on the angle of the slope above the reservoir


level.

The exact location of the darns were spotted in the

field on U.S.G.S. Quadrangle sheets.


Early attempts to obtain moisture content and
undisturbed samples from the darns with agricultural probes
and small augers were abandoned when it became obvious
that the hand equipment was not adequate to sample the
stony embankment material.
The location of the principle source of embankment
material at each darn was generally apparent or was obtained
from someone in the vicinity of the site.

At these sites

approximately 40 pounds of soil were obtained and placed


in a plastic sample bag.
Each darn was visually inspected to assess its perforrnance.

Particular attention was given to evidence of

34

slope instability and seepage below, around, and through


the darns.

The field investigation was completed during

the dry summer months of 1969 making seepage relatively


easy to locate and to differentiate from precipitation.

An

attempt was made to determine from the owners which darns


were constructed with a cut-off trench.
The general characteristics of the soils and bedrock
were noted in the field and compared with geologic and
soils maps to determine the soil series and bedrock
geology at each site.

Mr. James H. Williams, engineering

geologist with the Missouri Geological Survey, visited a


number of the sites with the investigator and was very
helpful in differentiating between the dolomitic
formations.
The bedrock formations, soil series, the darn parameters,
and a summary of the laboratory soils tests for each darn
site are presented in Appendix A as Darn Reports.

A typical

cross-section or cross-sections for most of the darns are


also illustrated.

35

IV.

MATERIALS

The soils investigated basically fit into three categories:

(1) alluvial-colluvial soils, (2) residuals

developed on sandstones, and (3) residuals developed on


carbonate rocks.

Table II outlines the geologic formations

and soil series present at each site.

The Sunnen sample

is an alluvial deposit or reworked Gasconade clay residium.


The Masters #1 and Elsey soils appear to be colluvial
deposits also derived from Gasconade clay residium.

The

Rice, Fabick, and Ft. Westside soils were developed all or


in part from the sandstones within the Roubidoux formation.
The remaining soils are residuals developed on the
Jefferson City, Gasconade, Eminence, and Potosi formations.
The clay residuals are classified as the Clarksville gravelly
or stony loams.

The Hanceville loam and the Lebanon silt

loam are characteristic of the non-clay residuals.


An attempt was made to collect each sample from the
lower B and C horizon.

Some, as the Sayers, Terre Du Lac,

and Sunrise Central were collected immediately above bedrock.

Depth to bedrock at the other sites was not apparent.


The Clarksville cherty residium is the typical soil

developed on the carbonate bedrock of the Salem plateau.


The percent of chert in the soil is highly variable from
site to site and throughout the profile at any one site.
The surface and upper horizons often have a heavy

36

TABLE

II

Materials of Dams Investigated

Soil

(Dam)

Location
(county)

Bedrock
Formation

Soil Series

Timberline

St. Francois

Potosi

Clarksville gv.

Terre Du Lac

St. Francois

Potosi

Clarksville gv.

Masters #1

Dent

colluvial (?) Clarksville st.


Gasconade

Masters #2

Dent

Gasconade

Clarksville st.

Sunrise South

Jefferson

Potosi

Clarksville st.

Sunrise Cent.

Jefferson

Potosi

Clarksville st.

Elsey

Washington

Gasconade

Clarksville st.

Blackwell

Dent

Gasconade

Clarksville st.

Floyd

Dent

Gasconade

Clarksville st.

Sayers

Washington

Potosi

Clarksville st.

Hornsey

Washington

Eminence

Clarksville st.

Sunnen

Washington

alluvial
Gasconade

Clarksville st.

Rice

Crawford

Roubidoux

Lebanon slt. lm.

Fabick

Dent

Roubidoux

Hanceville lm.

Ft. Westside

Crawford

Roubidoux (?) Lebanon slt. lm.

Lt. Prarie

Phelps

Jefferson Ct. Lebanon slt. lm.

37

accumulation of chert.

Sloping surfaces accumulate chert

as fines are washed downslope.

The Terre Du Lac and

Masters #2 samples contain almost no chert, whereas the


Blackwell and Floyd samples contain up to 50% chert.

The

quartz druze (secondary crystalline quartz deposits)


typical o the Potosi formation was found in the Timberline
and Sunrise samples.
The clay residuals exhibit many similarities from
one location to another.
color~

They are generally deep red in

an indication of high iron content.

A high degree

o blocky to sub-angular structure is developed throughout


the profiles.

The natural aggregate structural units of

soil particles are called peds.


sand to gravel sizes.

The peds occur from coarse

As a result of this structure which

exists throughout the profile, the natural soil deposits


are well-drained.
There are several factors related to the origin of the
soils which may have contributed to forming this pedular
structure.

The formation of the soil is associated with

the solution and lowering of the bedrock level.

This

lowering is accompanied by an adjustment (drop) in the


level of the residual mantle.

This adjustment could

fracture the soil mass resulting in the ped structure.


The slicken-sided ped surfaces may reflect this movement.
The ped structure may also be the result of dessication.

Later sections of this investigation will show that

38

the residual soils have rather high liquid limit values.


It was noted that the field moisture of the soils was
closer to the plastic limit than the liquid limit, Table III.
This is generally regarded as an indication of dessication.
The soils were formed ( and probably continue to be formed
at a reduced rate) in a humid warm climate.
Baver (1956) notes the specific effect on aggregate
formation caused by drying of the clay-soil mass.

He

related the unequal strains developed in the soil caused by


non-uniform drying as a cause of "shrinkage" cracks which
form the peds.

Wetting of the dried peds causes unequal

swelling which results in ped fragmentation and development


of smaller peds.

Upon wetting, unequal air pressure in

the peds caused by capillary adsorption of water also acts


to break down the larger peds.
The iron may play an important role in prohibiting the
breakdown of the peds by both water and mechanical action.
Iron acts to "cement" the particles together and/or to
increase the cationic concentration and attraction between
particles.
The alluvial deposits do not exhibit well-developed
profiles.

The residual clay structure has been modified

but not totally destroyed in most cases.

As the residuals

were water-worked, some of the clay was lost and sand was
concentrated.

The result is a deposit containing less

clay and more sand than the parent residuals.

39

TABLE III
Comparison of Natural Field Moisture
With Atterberg Limits

Soil

(Dam)

LL

PL

Field
Moisture

Fabick

25

16

17

Rice

27

15

14

Lt. Prarie

57

23

26

Masters #1

84

25

35

Masters #2

103

34

44

85

35

38

Floyd

40

V.

TEST PROCEDURES

Tests on the Ozark soils were performed to determine


results in four general areas:
Atterberg Limits,

(1)

soil gradation and

(2) compaction characteristics,

mineralogy and (4) soil clay chemistry.

(3) clay

The procedures

used to determine these values are presented in sections


essentially as outlined above.
A.

SOIL GRADATION
1.

Sample preparation.

A portion of the field sample,

approximately 1 lb., was prepared for soil classification


tests essentially as directed in ASTM D421-58, Dry
Preparation of Soil Samples for Particle-Size Analysis and
Determination of Soil Constants.

A Lancaster mixer was

used to break down the air-dried clay soil aggregates


after the stone portion, where size exceeded that of a No.
4 sieve, had been removed by hand.

A mortar and pestle

was used to further pulverize the soil for particle-size


analysis (No. 10 sieve) and tests for soil index properties
(No. 40 sieve).
2.

Coarse sieve analysis.

The pedular structure of

the clayey residual soils investigated in this study does


not break down completely during dry or wet sieving.
Representative 500 gr. samples which passed the No. 4
sieve were presoaked for 24 hours in a 4% sodium
hexametaphosphate (Calgon) solution, mixed in a dispersion

41

cup, and washed through a No. 10, a No. 40, and a No. 60
sieve.

The amount of the sample retained on each sieve

after oven drying was recorded and calculations made to


determine the amount finer than each of the sieves.

These

values are recorded in Table IV.


3.

Hydrometer analysis.

Hydrometer analyses were

performed as recommended in ASTM D422-63 except that the


sedimentation cylinders were not placed in a constant
temperature bath during tests.
were made later.

Temperature corrections

After sedimentation, the samples were

passed through a No. 60 and a No.

200 sieve for comparison

with the hydrometer analysis.


The results of the particle-size analyses were plotted
on grain-size distribution charts which are presented in
Figures 3 - 8.
B.

The results are summarized in Table IV.

ATTERBERG LIMITS TESTS


1.

Liquid limits.

Liquid limit test samples were

prepared and values determined in accordance to ASTM


D423-66 except that a Casagrande grooving tool was used.
Water was added to the pulverized samples until the soil
appeared to be slightly wet of liquid limit and then
allowed to age for 24 hours to allow water to be adsorbed
by the clay particles.

The liquid limit tests were

performed wet to dry.


2.

Wet liquid limits.

Graham (1969) noted a sizeable

difference between the wet and air-dried liquid limit

42

values of a residual soil similar to the soils investigated


in this study.

Several of the thesis soils were tested to

determine if a similar pattern was noted.


The wet liquid limit was determined by taking the soil
at field moisture, soaking it for 24 hours in distilled
water, mixing in a dispersion cup, and passing the mixture
through a No. 40 sieve.

The prepared mixture was then

placed in a dish and allowed to air dry to a consistency


just wet of the liquid limit.
determined as previously.

The liquid limit was then

These values are reported along

with normal air dry values in Table V, and compared with


Graham's results for a similar soil.
3.

Dispersed liquid limit.

In another portion of

this study, samples were mixed with sodium hexametaphosphate,


a dispersant, prior to performing compaction tests.

Small

portions of these air-dried samples were prepared and tested


to obtain Atterberg Limits as described in the previous
sections.
It was noted that the samples were particularly sensitive to manipulation and that the liquid limit values
vary depending on how long the samples were manipulated
before testing.

An attempt was made to be consistent in

preparing and mixing samples in each test, but it is


suggested that the values obtained are only approximate.
These values are reported in Table VI along with normal
air dry values for the same soils.

43

TABLE IV
Summary of Particle Size Analysis

PERCENT FINER
#10

#40

#60

100.0

99.9

Hornsey

99.4

Timberline

Soil

#200

10]J

2]J

l]J

99.4

98

94

92

90

98.6

98.5

97

95

93

91

99.5

94.8

91.2

85

80

79

78

Sunrise Cent.

98.9

94.9

93.4

92

87

83

82

Sunrise South

98.8

92.5

91.0

89

80

72

70

Sunnen

99.6

96.9

92.3

87

57

38

37

Elsey

99.2

97.6

96.0

94

86

71

69

Masters #1

100.0

99.8

99.6

96

83

76

71

Masters #2

100.0

99.6

99.4

99

99

95

94

Sayers

99.8

99.1

98.6

98

96

93

90

Blackwell

98.6

95.3

93.0

85

77

64

56

Ft. Westside

99.8

98.2

94.2

83

56

38

37

Rice

99.8

88.4

70.8

58

35

21

18

Fabick

99.6

94.0

78.0

61

38

19

16

Lt. Prarie

99.5

97.8

97.8

95

80

58

44

Floyd

99.3

98.0

98

98

97

87

83

(Darn)

Terre Du Lac

Sieve Size
No. 10
No. 40

No. 4

100

I'

II

I
I

II

+J

I
I

bO
rl
<l)

rl

r.....

40

I
I

I
I

~ 20

Maste s #2

2 Maste s #1

'I
I
I

I
I

uI
II

0
0
0

I
I

U.---~

_j_

rl

rl

rl

rl

"'

I
I

r------ ~

I
I

(!)

~----

@ r---

I
I
L

I'

+J
,::::

:I

I
I

<l)

~~

I
I

:>,

.0

---

I
I

II

:s: 60

,::::

I
I
I

..c:

80

No. 200

rl

rl

0
0

0
0

Particle Diameter in

~1illimeters
~

FIGURE 3.

Particle-Size Analysis of Masters #1 and Masters #2

No. 4

100

80
+J
..:

II

bO

,!

60

I
I

:>.

.0

I
I

Q)

s::
rl
~

40

I
I

s::Q)

Terre Du l ac

~ 20

Timbe line

0
0
0

rl

rl

II

I
I

1l

II
I
II

~
I

No. 200

...............

~
..__
I
I

I
II

I
I
I

I
I

I
I

I
I

I
I

I
I

rl

II

+J

No. 40

r--........

rl

:
I

Q)

--

fT

Sieve Size

No. 10

rl
0

r-l

r-l

0
0

0
0

Particle Diameter in

FIGURE 4.

~1illimeters

Particle-Size Analysis of Terre Du Lac and Timberline

.j:lo.
U'1

Sieve Size

No. 4

100

I'

I
II
I
II
'I

80

No. 10
I'

No. 40

--......

It

~ """""'
I
I
I

I
I

II

I
I

r-l

I
II
I
I

I
I
I

Q)

:3:

II

60

I
I

:>.

..0

I
I

Q)

s::

r-l

r.....

40

.f-1
I::
Q)
()
~

Sayer

Littl

lj
I

Pra jrie

~ 20

Black, ell

I
II
I

I
I

0
0
0

-K

I
I

..c:bO

.f-1

No. 200

I
I
I

iI

ll

I
I

I
I

I
I

lj

'
1\"
\

I
I
I
I
I

I
I

_l

_l

r-1

r--.....

r-1

r-1

r-1

r---......
~
I r----.::: -.......

--- <D

r-1
0

r-1
0
0

Particle Diameter in

FIGURE

5.

~1illimeters

Particle-Size Analysis of Sayers, Little Prarie, and Blackwell

.p.
0\

Sieve Size

No. 4

100

I
II

80

II
I

+'

bO

r-i

60

:>.

..0

~
(I)

J:!
r-i
~

,!

I
I

II

!\\

II
II

I
I

Floyd

I
I

Ft. W stsi de

'I

J:!

(I)
{)

~ 20

II

Rice

II

II

0
0
0

,..;

No. 200
I

""

'

I~

~ ,.,.

I
I

!
I

,..;

"" 1\

~0

"

"'"-...
"

(3)' ~

"'

l
I

I
I

,..;

1\\

I
I

~
I

,..;

Q" !'.......

I
I
I

11

+'

It

I
I

40

No. 40

" 1\

..c:
(I)

No. 10

!'--..

r---

,..;

,..;

0
0

Particle Diameter in

~1illirneters
.j::.
-....]

FIGURE 6.

Particle-Size Analysis of Floyd, Ft. Westside, and Rice

Sieve Size
No. 4

100

II

I
I

80

I
I

I
I

f.J

..c::

bO

o-1

(l)

:3 60

:>,
..0

H
(l)

s::
o-1
~

40
1

f.J

s::(l)
{)

~ 20

tl
0

rl

rl

iI \

.I

:I

I
II
I
I

[I

No. 200

T-

II

No. 40

r-::: ~ ~ :

I
I

I
I

II

!
Sunri: e Ce ~tra :
II
Sunrit e So ~th I
Fabid

r--.::

No. 10

~ r---..!..I
I

I
I

I
I
I

I
!I

I
I
I

0'

I
I

r--

~'---._

""""

I'--

I
rl

0'

I
I

'

"'\

---..... .........___

rl
0

rl

rl

0
0

0
0

Particle Diameter in :1i llimeters


~

00

FIGURE 7.

Particle-Size Analysis of Sunrise Central, Sunrise South, and Fabick

Sieve Size

No. 4

100

'I

I
II
I

80

!I
I

.f.J

No. 10

I
I
I

.c:

.-!

I
I

Q)

:3 60
~

..0
~

I
I

Q)

1=:
.-!

JJ...

40

Horns

Elsey

Q)
()

~ 20

~y

I
I

!
I
I

I
I

'1\.

"

(j)'

..___

I
I

rl

rl

rl

'

I
rl

II

I
I

II

I
I

tl
0

I
0
0

I
II

II

I
I

G)

I
I

I
I

Sunne~

--- H--

.....,._ r---.

!
I

.f.J
1=:

No. 200

~ ........
""'"
I

I
I

bO

No. 40

II

rl
0
0

Particle Diameter in 11illimeters

r-1
0
0
0

...
\.0

FIGURE 8.

Particle-Size Analysis of Hornsey, Elsey, and Sunnen

50

TABLE V
Comparison of Wet Liquid Limit And
Natural Atterberg Limits

Change
in LL

Soil

(Dam)

Wet LL

LL

Terre Du Lac

132

96

35

37

Hornsey

121

90

43

34

52

42

21

24

34.0

37

Sunnen
Springfield

144.8

PL

105.6

from Graham (1969)

TABLE VI
Comparison of Natural and Dispersed
Atterberg Limits

Dispersed
PI
PL

Natural
LL
PL

PI

LL

Terre Du Lac

96

35

61

73

34

39

Floyd

85

35

50

55

28

27

Soil

(Dam)

51

TABLE VI I
Summary of Atterberg Limits Tests

LL

PL

PI

Clay

Timberline

69

30

39

79

Terre Du Lac

96

35

61

92

Masters #1

84

25

59

76

Masters #2

103

34

69

95

Sunrise South

68

30

38

72

Sunrise Central

70

33

37

83

Elsey

84

25

59

71

Blackwell

60

23

37

64

Floyd

85

35

so

87

105

41

64

93

Hornsey

90

43

47

93

Sunnen

42

21

21

38

Rice

27

15

12

21

Fabick

25

16

19

Ft. Westside

48

21

27

38

Little Prarie

57

23

34

58

Soil

(Dam)

Sayers

52

80

60

Clayey Residual Soils

Sandy Residual Soils

0
0
0

"'"'
~
'--"

~
QJ

'"0

l=l

C)

r-l
+J

(/)

Cll

r-1
A<

20
D
D

0
0

20

40

Liquid Limit

FIGURE 9.

80

60

100

(%)

Plasticity Chart Plot of Ozark Soils

53

4.

Plastic limits.

Water was added to the powdered

samples until the approximate consistency of the plastic


limit was reached; the samples were then aged for 24 hours.
The plastic limit was determined in accordance with
ASTM D424-59, and the plasticity index calculated.

The

Atterberg Limits for all soils investigated are reported


in Table VII.

Figure 9 illustrated how these values plot

on the Plasticity Chart.


C.

MOISTURE-DENSITY RELATIONSHIPS
1.

Natural samples.

Soils for compaction tests were

prepared and tested in accordance with ASTM D698-70,


Moisture-Density Relations of Soils Using 5.5-lb. Rammer
and 12-in. Drop.
than the No.

Method A in which all material larger

4 sieve is discarded, was followed.

After

mixing with an amount of water predetermined to produce the


desired moisture, the samples were aged 24 hours before
testing.
2.

Dispersed samples.

Approximately 20 to 25 lb.

samples of several soils were crushed to pass the No. 4


sieve.

Each sample was soaked in a 4% solution of sodium

hexametaphosphate (Calgon).

The mixture was stirred to

assure that all of the sample was wetted.


After 24 hours of soaking, the sample was further
worked by mixing in a dispersion cup.

Additional distilled

water was required to dilute the mixture to a consistency


which could be handled by the dispersion apparatus.

Each

54

TABLE VI I I
Result of Moisture-Density Tests
Soil

(Dam)

Maximum
Dry Density
(pcf)

--

Optimum
Moisture

(%)

-Timberline

82

36

Terre Du Lac

79

37

Masters #1

84

25

Masters #2

81

36

Sunrise South

88

31

Sunrise Cent.

85

33

Elsey

89

26

Blackwell

92

24

Floyd

83

34

Sayers

74

42

Hornsey

77

38

Sunnen

108

18

Rice

121

13

Fabick

121

13

Ft. Westside

100

22

Lt. Prarie

94

27

Floyd - D

87

30

75

35

80

33

107

17

Sayers

T. D. Lac - D
Sunnen - D

--

--

55

portion of the sample was mixed until all lumps had disappeared, about 5 minutes.

The dispersed mixture was then

placed in two, 2' by 2' pans to a depth of less than 1


inch.
The pans were placed before a 20 inch fan and a small
electric heater until the soil dried; generally 3 days
were required.
The dried soil was again crushed to pass a No. 4 sieve,
the moisture content determined, and the sample separated
into portions.

Predetermined amounts of water were mixed

with each portion of soil to attain the desired moisture


content and the soil placed in plastic bags to age.

After

24 hours the samples were compacted by a procedure identical


to that used for the standard moisture-density tests.

The

results of all compaction tests are given in Table VIII.


Portions of the dispersed, dried, and crushed soil mixtures
were saved for Atterberg Limits testing.
D.

X-RAY DIFFRACTION
1.

General.

A number of authors including Bragg

(1949), Brindley (1951), Grim (1953), and Bradley (1964)


discuss the basic principles of x-ray diffraction theory
and technique.

The essence of these discussions are out-

lined by Schmidt (1965) where it is noted that clay mineral


analysis using x-ray diffraction is basically a determination of the thickness of a unit sheet of the mineral.

The

angle of incidence at which reinforcement occurs is directly


related to the thickness of a monomolecular layer of the

TABLE IX
X-Ray Machine Specifications

Location of
Machine

Type of
Machine

Geology Dept.
UMC

Norelco Wide-Angle
Diffractometer

Geology Dept.
UMR

General Electric
Model XRD-5

Time Delay
(seconds)
4

2 - 4

Counts per
Second
100 - 200

1000 - 2000

U1

0\

57

mineral.

The results of x-ray scanning are recorded on a

chart called a diffractogram which graphs twice the angle


of incidence of the x-ray against the magnitude of the count
of reflected x-rays.
For economic reasons, two x-ray machines were utilized
in this study.

This is not ideal since analysis and

comparison of diffractograms from different machines is


difficult.

Table IX gives pertinent data for the machines

used.
2.

Preparation of samples.

An attempt was made to

prepare sample slides using a procedure similar to that


described by Schmidt (1965) where 50 gram portions of soil
were soaked in distilled water for one week, mixed in a
dispersion cup, and sedimented in a 1000 ml. hydrometer
cylinder.

Some samples flocculated and settled rapidly.

The supernatent water was poured off, fresh distilled water


added, and the sample sedimented again.

After 3 cycles of

mixing with fresh distilled water had failed to disperse


these samples, 5 grams of sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon)
had to be added to the mix for the samples to be successfully dispersed.
According to Stokes' Law, after 24 hours all particles
larger than 2 microns (all sand and silt) had settled out
of suspension and a portion of the clay fraction was
siphoned off and concentrated by evaporation.

A few drops

of the concentrate was pipetted onto a 1" X 3" X 1 mm.

58

microscopic slide and dried before a heater.

The clay

plates tend to orient themselves upon drying.


It was this tendency of the clay plates to so completely orient themselves which rendered the sedimentation
method unsatisfactory in this study.

As shown in Brindley

(1951), Bramao (1952) and Grim (1953), the comparison and


identification of the kaolinite group minerals required
in part an analysis of the 020 peak which is not developed
in the oriented sedimented slides.
3.

No.

Powdered samples.

Samples, pulverized to pass a

200 sieve, were mixed with denatured alcohol before

being poured onto the 1n X 3" slides.

As the alcohol

evaporated, a film of sample adhered to the slide.

Best

results were obtained when a thin film of powder was produced.

This was especially evident at low 8 angles where

a thick film placed the reflection surfaces inside the


focal plane of the scanner resulting in a scattering of
the x-ray.
Powdered samples also develop a preferential orientation due to their platy structure, but there is enough
random orientation to allow development of other peaks not
associated with the c-axis, including the 020 peak
required in analysis of the kaolin group (Figures 10 and 11).
4.

Potassium acetate treatment.

Halloysite (4H 2 0)
0

with a basal 001 spacing of about 10.0 A is known to


0

collapse to around 7.2 A as the soil is dried.

Early

59

researchers thought this process was irreversible.

Wada

(1961) showed the process was reversible and expanded the


0

kaolin group mineral lattice to 14.1 A using potassium


acetate.

Upon washing with distilled water the kaolinites


0

collapsed back to 7.2 A whereas the halloysites collapsed


0

to about 10.1 A retaining a water molecule in the expanded


lattice.

Miller and Keller (1963) refined the procedure

by using ethylene glycol which helps to retain the expanded


0

10.1 A lattice since ethylene glycol evaporates more


slowly than water.
In accordance with this method, with some modifications discussed with one of the authors C Keller, 1970),
1.5 grams of potassium acetate was mixed in a small mortar
and pestle with 2.0 grams of air-dried soil passing the
No.

200 sieve.

This mixture was allowed to rest for 24

hours in a high humidity environment, after which it was


washed several times through filter paper with distilled
water.

A final wash using a solution of equal portions of

distilled water and ethylene glycol was used.

The washed

sample was diluted with ethylene glycol and placed on a


glass slide in a thin film.

The slide was subjected to

x-ray scanning while the film was still moist.

It is

noted that the specimens prepared in this manner remained


moist for longer than 24 hours.
The method of sample preparation used in this study
was tested to check its workability.

A sample of pure

60

Georgia Kaolinite was diffracted to determine its base


pattern.

Then a sample was x-rayed which had been treated

with potassium acetate and ethylene glycol as described


0

above.

There was no shift in the 7.2 A peak indicating no

permanent lattice expansion of the reference kaolinite.


A sample of pure Indiana Halloysite was x-rayed along
with a treated sample, Figure 12 shows the results for
this reference mineral with a definite shift in the basal
0

001 peak from 7.2 A to 10.0 A for the treated sample.

This

indicated the sample was halloysite and that the method


of sample preparation used in this study did produce the
expected results in the differentiation between control
specimens.

The results of similar tests on some of the

Ozark soils are described and presented in a later section.


E.

DIFFERENTIAL THERMAL ANALYSIS


1.

General.

Differential thermal tests were performed

at the U.S. Bureau of Mines, Rolla, in two furnaces


designed to conform with the specifications outlined by
Berkelhamer (1944).

Nickel specimen holders with a capacity

of approximately 0.5 grams were used with chromel-alumel


thermocouples, recommended for their sensitivity.

A Leeds

and Northrup automatic programmer was used to control the


rate of heating, 12C/min.

A Leeds and Northrup multiple

thermal differential recorded of the automatic pen-and-ink


type recorded the curves.

61

Samples of Georgia Kaolinite and Indiana Halloysite


were tested to obtain reference curves.
Figure 13.

They are shown in

Grim and Rowland (1942) show a number of curves

for various clay minerals which can be used for comparison


with test curves of the Ozark residual soils.
2.

Sample preparation and testing.

Specimens were

prepared for DTA by sieving a sample of air-dried soil


through a No.

200 sieve.

Mackenzie (1957) notes that

sieve size has little influence on the curves but that


the sample should be fairly fine (100 - 200 mesh)

to

insure good packing of the specimens.


The nature of the low temperature peak system is
dependent to a degree upon humidity variations, therefore,
the use of air dried samples may result in erroneous low
temperature peaks (Mackenzie, 1957).

Similarly, using

samples which have been oven-dried at about 100C may lead


to the eradication of the low temperature peaks altogether.
Mackenzie suggests that samples be equilibrated over a saturated solution of Mg(N0 3 )6H 2 0 in a dessicator for
several days.

This procedure standardizes the moisture

content of the test samples.

Eades

(1970) suggests that

the procedure while important for the triple-layer minerals


is not required for the kaolinite group minerals.

The

samples tested in this study were not pretreated as


described above.
Where small or very reactive samples are tested, they

62

TABLE X
Summary of Major DTA Temperature Peaks

Peak Temperatures (OC)


Soil

(Dam)

Low
Endothermic

Major
Endothermic

Exothermic

-Masters #1

100

560

Masters #2

120

550

925

545

905

Sunnen

90 ?

minor ?

Terre Du Lac

115

560

925

Sunrise South

120

550

920

Sayers

120

545

915

Blackwell

110

535

Timberline (1)

118

555

916

Timberline (2)

120

555

915

Timberline - leached

120

540

945

Hornsey

105 ?

550

915

128

562

930

Elsey (1)

125

540

920

Elsey (2)

110

545

920

Floyd

110

560

930

no peak

530

935

120

580

973

135

595

987

no peak

605

966

no peak

610

970

Hornsey

leached

3
Floyd - oven dried
hr. at 700C
Indiana Halloysite
same - oven dried 12
hr. at 70C
Georgia Kaolinite (1)
Georgia Kaolinite (2)

minor ?

63

are often mixed with an inert material such as calcined


kaolinite or aluminum which has been ground to a particle
size which approaches that of the sample.

Base line drift

and sample shrinkage can often be corrected with this


procedure.

The DTA base line is a horizontal line along

which the curve should return after recording each


endothermic and exothermic reaction.

A disadvantage of

mixtures with inert materials is that they effect the


areas under the peaks which distorts quantitative
determinations.

Samples tested in this study were not

mixed with inert material.


Some base line drift was encountered in early tests,
Figure 14, but this was corrected by packing the samples
more firmly in the specimen holder.

Factors such as

heating rate, size and construction of specimen holders,


and the degree of packing can radically alter the resulting
DTA curves.

Consistency of technique is the key to

obtaining curves which can be compared and analyzed.


Figures 14 thru 17 show DTA curves for a number of the
Ozark soils.

Table X summarizes the temperatures of the

important reactions.
F.

THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS
Portions of the minus 200 mesh samples prepared for

DTA were saved for thermogravimetric analysis, TGA.

Ugine-Eyraud Model B-60 Automatic Recording Balance and


furnace were used.

The heating rate, 10C/min., was

64

programmed by a Bristol's Model 565 Round-Chart Dynamaster


Pyrometer.

Test results were recorded by a Bristol's

Model 760 Strip-Chart Dynamaster.

The equipment and method

of testing is discussed at length in Duval (1963).


One hundred mg. samples of the powder were placed in
the sample holder in the furnace.

The balance was zeroed

and the sample heated to approximately 50C which temperature was held until there was no further noticeable weight
loss.

It is believed that most of the hygroscopic moisture

is expelled in this manner.

A heating process was utilized


0

in which the temperature was raised in steps of about 50 C


and held until the weight was stabilized.

The tests were

terminated at 1000C,
The data has been transformed to dehydration curves.
Curves for the standard minerals, Georgia Kaolinite and
Indiana Halloysite, were determined, converted to dehydration curves, and plotted along with the curves for several
of the Ozark soils in Figure 18.
G.

TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (TEM)


A Hitachi Model HU-llA transmission electron microscope

was used to study the size and shape of clay particles of


several soils in this investigation.

Both powdered and

colloidal suspension specimens were prepared for analysis.


The major reference for transmission microscopy is an
extensive study performed for the American Petroleum
Institute (Davis et al, 1950).

Later studies by Bates and

65

and Cromer (1955), Brindley and Cromer (1956), and Bates


and Cromer (1959) concentrate on applying transmission
microscopy in determining the morphology of the kaolin
group minerals.
A thin carbon film was evaporated (sputtered) onto
glass slides in a vacuum chamber.

The powdered sample

(finer than 200 mesh) was dusted onto the film which was
then floated off of the glass slide in a beaker of water.
An electron microscope grid was used to lift the carbon
film with sample from the beaker and mount the specimen in
the microscope.

The magnified image of the particles so

mounted was projected onto a screen for viewing and glass


plate photographic slides were obtained.
The 200 mesh powder specimens produced images of
aggregates of clay particles rather than of individual
particles.

These were difficult to analyze for particle

parameters such as size and shape.


Soils which had never been air-dried were suspended
in distilled water for a week before testing.
agitated often to separate the particles.

They were

Before testing,

the suspension was again agitated and a drop of the mixture


placed on the floated carbon film.
mounted as before.

The sample was then

This method of sample preparation

resulted in a much better segregation of the particles.


Photographs taken of the soil particles when utilizing this
method of sample preparation are presented in Figures 19-22.

66

H.

SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (SEM)


The scanning electron microscopic investigation was

conducted at the Materials Research Center, University of


Missouri - Rolla.

A JEOLCO (Japan Electron Optics Labora-

tory Company, Ltd.) Scanning Type Electron Microscope,


Model JSM-2 was used.

Samples were mounted on copper

disks, placed in a vacuum and subjected to electron


scanning.

Micrographs were taken with a mounted Polaroid

camera.
Initially, specimens were prepared by mounting airdried pulverized minus 200 mesh samples on the copper disk
with silver paint.

Figures 23 and 24 present several

micrographs taken from this portion of the study.


Borst and Keller (1969) present a technique of
mounting samples for scanning with a minimum of sample
disturbance.
fresh surface.

Air-dried peds were broken to expose a


These chips, about 1 em. by 1 em., were

mounted with silver paint on the disks and coated with a


thin film of gold in a vacuum chamher.
then exposed to scanning.

The specimens were

Micrographs resulting from this

portion of the study are presented in Figures 25 thru 29.


Compacted clay samples were also analyzed.

Chips

with fresh surfaces, as described above, were prepared for


testing.

These chips were mounted to expose to scanning

planes oriented perpendicular to and parallel to the direction of applied compactive effort.

Micrographs of this

TABLE XI
Chemical Analysis of Ozark Soils
Name of Lake

U.S. Bureau of Standards


Sample #98
Plastic Clay

M.G.S. Lab Analysis


S amp 1 e # 9 8
Plastic Clay

Analysis

Si0 2
Al 2o3

59.11
25.54

Fe 2o3
Ti0 2
MnO

2. OS

CaO
MgO
Na 2o

1. 43

0.005
0.21
0. 72
0. 2 8

K 20

3.17

Ignition Loss
- H2o 105C
+ H20 1000C
HCl Insol. Residue
HCl Soluble Si0 2
HCl Soluble Al 2o3
HCl Soluble Fe 2o 3
Oxides of Al, Fe,
Ti, Mn, P.

7.28

Totals

Blackwell

57.90
27.28
2.33
1. 03

50.40
24.48
6.81
0.46
--- --

0.16
0.70

0.50
1. 60
1. 97
1.15

0.35
2.40
8.17
0.84
7.33
83.72
0.71
5.36
1. 04
30.64

12.18
3.93
8. 2 5
-------- --- --

100.32

99.40

7.11
31.60

0\
'-]

TABLE XI

- continued

Name of Lake
Analysis
Si0 2
Al 2o3
Fe 2o3
Ti0 2
MnO
CaO
MgO
Na 2o
K20
Ignition Loss
- H20 105C
+ H20 1000C
HCl Insol. Residue
HCl Soluble Si0 2
HCl Soluble A1 2o3
HCl Soluble Fe 2o3
Oxides of Al, Fe,
Ti, Mn, P.
Totals

Sayers

Sunnen

Sunrise South

0
'o

40.86
27.06
9.99
0.43
- -- --

53.06
23.53
7.84
0. 71
-----

41.04
27.97
11. 49
0.46
- -- - -

0.46
2.20
0.23
0.94
17.96
7.04
10.92

0.18
1.10
0.20
1.14
12. 51
4.97
7.54
-------------

0.38
1. 31
0. 13
0. 72.
16. 55
6.36
10.19
----- --------

7.59
32.08

11.18
39.92

41. 52
0.79
25.57
9.98
37.48
100.13

~0

100.27

100.05

0\
00

TABLE XI - continued
Name of Lake
Analysis
Si0 2
A1 2o3
Fe 2o3
Ti0 2
MnO
GaO
MgO
Na 2o
K2o

Ignition Loss
- H 0 105C
2
+ H20 1000C
HCl Insol. Residue
HCl Soluble Si0 2
HCl Soluble Al 2o3
HCl Soluble Fe 2o3
Oxides of Al, Fe,
Ti, Mn, P.

Timberline

Terre du Lac

Hornsey

!!:0

42.04

42.6 8

42.32

28.08
9.99
0.51
-----

28.60
10.16
0.46

29.21
8.33
0.36

-----

-----

0.4.8

0.40

1. 30

1. 07

0.13
1. 03
16.13
5.59
10.54

0.18
0.65
16.05
5.73
10.32
45.20
0.75
26.47
10.47
39.22

0.40
1. 61
0.13
0.87
16.73
6.03
10.70
43.11
0.87
27.56
8.91
37.90

-----

--------10.06
38.58

(]\

\.0

Totals

99.69

100.20

99.93

TABLE XI - continued
Name of Lake
Analysis
Si0 2
Al 2o3
Fe 2o3
Ti0 2
MnO
CaO
MgO
Na 2o
K20
Ignition Loss
- H 0 105C
2
+ H20 1000C
HCl Insol. Residue
HC1 Soluble Si0 2
HCl Soluble Al 2o3
HCl Soluble Fe 2o3
Oxides of Al, Fe,
Ti, Mn, P.

Floyd

Masters #1

Elsey
~0

52.20
24.24
7.16
0.46

56.88
21.17
6.16
0.41

50.68
22.76
7.42
0.46

-----

-----

-----

0.10
1. 2 7
0.13
1. 30
11.96
3.38
8.58

0.37
1. 58
0.13
1. 20
12.44
4.81
7.63

0.42
2.15
0.23
1. 33
15.08
6.44
8.64

---------

---------

-----

-----

-----

---------

7.15
31.86

6.15
27.74

6.95
30.64
"'-J

Totals

98.66

100.30

100.45

TABLE XI - continued
Names of Lake
Analysis
Si0 2
Al 2o3
Fe 2o3
Ti0 2
MnO
CaO
MgO
Na 2o
K2o
Ignition Loss
- H 0 105C
2
+ H20 1000C
HCl Insol. Residue
HCl Soluble Si0 2
HCl Soluble Al 2o3
HCl Soluble Fe 2o3
Oxides of Al, Fe,
Ti, Mn, P.

Sunrise Central
%

Masters #2
%

40.96
29.44
10.41
0.41

46.30
24.68
9.66
0.36

-----

-----

0.52
1. 38
0.13
0.73
16.29
5.08
11.21

0.64
1. 77
0.16
1. 00
16.56
6.79
9.77

-------------

---------

10.38
40.26

8.78
34.70

-----

'-I

Totals

100.28

101.17

"'"'

72

portion of the study are presented in Figures 48, 49, and SO.
I.

LOW-POWER MICROSCOPY

(LPM)

A low-power (10-SOX) microscope study of the compacted


samples was conducted at the U.S. Bureau of Mines, Rolla,
Missouri.

Micrographs were taken at 17X both in black-and-

white and in color of samples of Terre Du Lac compacted


3% dry of optimum and 4.5% wet of optimum.

Micrographs

were taken with a Polaroid MP-3 Land Camera adapted to


accept Bausch and Lomb lenses.

A 72 mm lense was used.

These micrographs are presented in Figures 46 and 47.


J.

SOIL CLAY CHEMISTRY


1.

General.

All samples tested for chemical

properties were first air-dried and passed through a No. 4


sieve.

Where further preparation was required for specific

tests, it will be noted in the discussion.


2.

Chemical analysis.

In general, methods of chemical

analysis as outlined by Scott (1948), Standard Methods of


Chemical Analysis, were followed.

All tests were performed

on the clay fraction of the soils and major tests are outlined below with results presented in Table XI.
a.

Si0 2

gravimetric.

Clay is fused with sodium car-

bonate (Na 2 co 3 ), taken up in dilute hydrochloric


acid, dehydrated, filtered, ignited and silica
volatilized with hydroflouric acid.
p. 797-801)

(Scott,

73

b.

Al 20 3 - gravimetric.

filtrate from Si0 2 is used.

Ammonium hydroxide is added to precipitate hydroxides of Al, Fe, Ti, etc.

Al 2o 3 is calculated

by difference after determination of Fe 2o 3 ,


Ti0 2 , P 2 o 5 , and MnO.
c.

Fe 2o 3 - volumetric.

Oxides are fused with potas-

sium acid sulfate (KHS0 4 ), taken up in dilute


sulfuric acid (H 2 so 4 ), reduced with test lead,
and titrated with potassium permanganate.
(Scott, p. 470)
d.

Tio 2 - colorimetric.

Determination of titanium

with hydrogen peroxide.


e.

CaO - volumetric.

(Scott, p. 987)

Oxalate is added to filtrate

from precipitation of Al, Fe, hydroxides, etc.


forming a precipitate of calcium oxalate - dissolved
in dilute H2 so 4 and titrated with potassium
p erma n g an ate .
f.

( S cot t , p . 21 0 )

MgO - gravimetric.

Ammonium acid phosphate

(NH 4 ) 2 HP0 4 is added to filtrate of calcium oxalate


precipitation - forms precipitate which is ignited
to form magnesium pyrophosphate from which MgO
is calculated.
3.

(Scott, p. 532)

Soil pH in water.

Various soil-water ratios have

been used in pH determinations with a pH increase noted as


the soil-water ratio decreases.

As recommended by Peech

(1965) in Methods of Soil Analysis a 1:1 ratio was used in

74

TABLE XI I
Summary of pH and Cation-Exchange
Capacity of Ozark Soils

Soil

Si0 2 /Al 20 3

pH

CEC (rneq/100 gr)

Timberline

5.1

27.8

2.55

Terre Du Lac

7.1

27.9

2.53

Masters #1

5.4

21.9

4.57

Masters #2

7.5

35.8

3.20

Sunrise South

6.5

24.6

2.52

Sunrise Central

4.9

30.6

2.38

Elsey

7. 7

26.9

3.79

Blackwell

7.5

24.1

3.50

7. 5

44.9

2.56

Hornsey

4.8

42.1

2.46

Sunnen

4.9

11.5

3.82

Rice

5.2

8.7

----

Fabick

5.6

7.6

----

Ft. Westside

4.6

19.1

----

Little Prarie

7.8

13.7

----

Floyd

---

----

3.66

(Darn)

I Sayers

75

this study.

Twenty grams of soil were added to 20 grams of

distilled water, stirred for several minutes, and allowed


to sit for one hour.

A Corning Model 12 Research pH Meter

with a glass electrode was used to measure the pH.

Two

readings were taken and their average recorded in Table XII.


4.

Cation-exchange capacity.

The cation-exchange

capacity, CEC, was determined essentially as outlined by


Chapman (1965).

The method utilizing ammonium acetate to

saturate the sample was used.


Two hundred ml. of 1 N ammonium acetate were filtered
through 10 grams of soil placed in a Gooch crucible over a
500 ml. Erlenmeyer flask.
ther analysis.

The leachate was saved for fur-

The soil was then filtered with 100 ml. of

ethyl alcohol to wash out the excess ammonium acetate.


The leached soil was then placed in a Kjeldahl flask
with about 30 grams of magnesium oxide, a catalyst, and 200
ml. of distilled water and boiled for distillation.

Fifty

ml. of 4% boric acid was mixed with 150 ml. of the distillate
with the mixture then titrated with .1 N hydrochloric
The amount of acid in ml. required to reach the

acid.

end point is noted and recorded as the value of the


cation-exchange capacity in meq/100 grams.

Two samples

of each soil were tested, the results averaged and


reported in Table XII.
5.

Flame photometry.

Na+ and K+ were determined by

use of a Coleman Flame Photometer with a Coleman Electric

76

TABLE XIII
Concentration of Mg, Ca, Na
and K Cations in meq/100 grams
Mg++

Ca++

K+

9.3

10.1

0.50

0.40

Terre Du Lac

10.1

12.2

0.40

0.90

Masters #1

11.7

5.8

0.36

0.39

Masters #2

20.6

11.6

0.76

1. 50

Sunrise South

11.0

9.4

0.48

0.66

Sunrise Cent.

9.3

9.0

0.75

0.46

Elsey

21.3

6.5

0.79

0.41

Blackwell

14.6

13.6

0.60

0.30

Sayers

34.3

12.5

0.71

1.15

Hornsey

13.5

10.8

0.90

0.41

Sunnen

2. 8

1.4

0.45

0.20

Rice

1.4

5.1

0.31

0.19

Fabick

1.8

2.7

0.20

0.21

Ft. Westside

3.6

4.0

0.42

0.22

Lt. Prarie

7. 7

15.3

0.38

0.68

Soil (Dam)
Timberline

Na +

77

Colorimeter.
Rich (1965)

The theory is explained in the article by


in Methods of Soil Analysis.

The leachate from the CEC determination was placed in


a 250 ml. volumetric flask and brought to volume with the
addition of ammonium acetate.

Standard solutions contain-

.
k nown amounts o fN+
.
lng
a
an d K + .
ln ammonlum
acetate were
tested and the results used to construct graphs of colorimeter readings versus ion concentration of meq/100 gr. of
soil.

Two samples of each soil were then tested for each

ion, correlated with the graphs to determine concentration,


the values averaged, and reported in Table XIII.
6.

Absorption spectrophotometry.

The leachate from

the CEC determination was also used in the determination of


++
++
Five ml. of the leachate was placed in a
Mg
and Ca
.
50 ml. volumetric flask and brought to volume with 1000
ppm.

lanthanum.

A Jarrell-Ash Atomic Absorption Flame

Emission Spectrophotometer was used to analyze the samples.


Standard solutions of Mg++ and Ca++ were tested to construct
graphs relating the cation concentrations and the spectraphotometer values.

Two samples of each soil were tested,

the values averaged, and reported in Table XI I I.

This

method of testing is described by Prince (1965) in Methods


of Soil Analysis.

K.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY
Specific gravity tests were performed essentially as

outlined by ASTM D854-58 (1965).

The results of testing

78

TABLE XIV
Specific Gravity of Ozark Soils
Soil

Specific Gravity

(Dam)

Fabick

2.68

Rice

2.70

Ft. Westside
Sunnen

2. 7 2 ' 2.72

2. 7 2' 2.73

Blackwell

2.74

Lt. Prarie

2.77

Elsey

2.79

Floyd

2. 8 0' 2.80

Sunrise Cent.

2.82

Sunrise South

2. 8 2

Terre Du Lac

2.82

Timberline

2.83

Masters #1

2.83

Masters #2

2.84

Sayers

2.84

Hornsey

2.84, 2.84

79

are presented in Table XIV.

The dessicated nature of the

samples required some special procedures to be followed


to assure sample dispersion.
dried.

The samples tested were air-

Two samples identical to the one tested were oven-

dried for 24 hours at 105C.

The average moisture content

for the two samples was calculated and used as the moisture
content for the tested sample.
The samples were soaked for longer than 24 hours in
distilled water before testing.

The method of air

removal by boiling the sample for 10 minutes was followed.


As Table XIV indicates, several soils were tested twice
and reproductive results were
L.

obtained~

CORRELATION TESTS
Data to be correlated was analyzed by a computer

program written by Capt. W. Vogel, U.S. Army Corps of


Engineers, a graduate student in Civil Engineering at the
University of Missouri - Rolla.

A P-PLOT option was

implemented to plot the data and curves developed by the


analysis.
Y

A(O)

A least squares polynomial of the form:


+

A(l)X

A(2)X 2

+ .

A(N)XN was used to

analyze the data and to evaluate A(O), A(l), ... A(N).


Two values, sigma (a)

and the correlation coefficient

(r) were used to evaluate the curve fit where:


where:

x = X - X

y - y

80

TABLE XV
Correlations for Clayey Residual
Ozark Soils
x- axis
Coordinate

Sigma

y-axis
Coordinate

(a)

Correlation Coef.
(r)

Plastic Limit

Optimum Moist.

7. 9

0.92

Liquid Limit

Optimum Moist.

10.6

0.90

Cation-Exc. Cap.

Optimum Moist.

14.3

0.86

% Clay

Optimum Moist.

9.7

0.90

Optimum Moist.

8.8

0.95

Plastic Limit

Max. Dry Density

8.1

-0.89

Liquid Limit

Max. Dry Density

19.2

-0.88

Cation-Exc. Cap.

Max. Dry Density

23.0

- 0. 8 7

Max. Dry Density

5.9

-0.96

% Clay*

Max. Dry Density

10.9

-0.97

Optimum Moist.

Max. Dry Density

15.1

0.90

Cation-Exc. Cap. *

% Clay

Cation Exc. Cap.

Plastic Limit

Cation Exc. Cap.

Liquid Limit

% Clay

Plastic Limit

13.4

0.87

% Clay

Liquid Limit

61.1

0.95

9-D

9-0

Clay*

Clay

155
9. 2
139

0.88
0.91
0.81

----

*Correlations include values for sandy residual soils

81

and,

a =

E(y - Ycalc)

N - k - 1

where:

N
k

no. of data points


degree of polynomial

Ycalc

= calculated y value
for a given x
value

The correlation curves resulting from this analysis


were plotted and presented as Figures 30 thru 45 along
with the values of sigma (cr) and the correlation
coefficient (r).

These values are summarized in Table

XV.
The correlation coefficient, r, has a range in values
from -1.0 to +1.0.
where r

= 1.0.

Perfect correlation is demonstrated

Sigma (cr) is a common statistic used in

the earth sciences to express the summation of deviations


of data from a curve fitted through that data.

The value

of sigma which indicates a significant relationship depends


on the order of magnitude of values being correlated.

82

VI.
A.

ANALYSIS OF RESULTS

CLAY MINERALOGY
The mineralogy of the residual soils will be discussed

in sections corresponding to the method of testing.

No

method of testing in itself produced definitive data on


which to identify the clay mineralogy of the soils, but
when they are considered along with the probable environment of soil formation, a clear picture of the mineralogy
is developed.
1.

X-ray analysis.

Several x-ray diffractograms of

the soils investigated in this study are shown in Figures 10


and 11.

Powder slides were x-rayed to produce the diffracto-

grams.
The major peaks shown on these diffractograms are
located at the following 28 angles:

12.0-12.4 , 20.0 ,
0

21.0, 25.0-25.4, and 26.7. The peaks at 21.0 (4.26 A)


0

and 26.7 (3.34 A) are quartz peaks.


0

The 12.0-12.4

(7.15 A) and 25.0-25.4 (2.54 A) peaks represent basal


001 and 002 kaolinite reflections and the peak at 20.0

(4.45 A) represents the 020 kaolinite mineral reflection.


The reflections which occur for some soils at 20 angles of
0

24 (3.71 A)

and 33 (2.72 A) appear to represent the

021 and 022 reflections of the same group.


0

The reflections which occur at 10 A (Masters #1 and


Floyd) are probably basal illite peaks whereas those in the

83

area of 13.4-15 A (Timberline, Terre DuLac, etc.)


probably represent chlorite or montmorillonite group
minerals in the soil.

The weak peaks indicate that only

minor amounts of these minerals are present.


The apparent major constituent of the soils studied,
based on the

spacing~

magnitude and size of the reflection;

is a mineral of the kaolin family, probably halloysite or


kaolinite.

Brindley (1961) describes the x-ray character-

istics of each in detail.


between the

two~

In attempts to distinguish

he used the relative intensity of the


0

basal 001 peak and those near 4.4 A, the 020 reflection.
For kaolinites, the usual situation is for the magnitude
of the 001 reflection to be twice that of the 020 reflection.
For poorly crystallized kaolinites, the reflections may be
more nearly equal; for halloysite the 020 reflection is
usually greater than that of the 001 reflection (Figure 10) .
Bramao et al (1952) compares the 002 and 020 reflections.

Where the intensity of the 002 peak is greater

than that of the 020 peak, kaolinite is indicated; where


the intensity of the 020 peak exceeds that of the 002 peak,
halloysite is predominant.

In the diffractograms of the

residual soils studied in this investigation, the 020 peak


intensity exceeds that of both the 001 and 002 basal peaks;
therefore, halloysite is indicated.

The broadness of the

basal 001 and 002 peaks is also a characteristic of halloysites (Grim, 1953).

84

Several features of the

x~rays

indicate that

halley~

site may not be the major clay constituent of the Ozark


soils.

The 001 peak for most of the samples occurs between


0

7.0 and 7.2 A.

This peak is generally located between

7.35 and 7.5 A for halloysites versus 7.15 A for kaolinites,

even poorly crystallized kaolinites.


Tests of several samples treated with potassium acetate
and ethylene glycol, as recommended by Miller and Keller
(1963), indicate no permanent expansion of the crystal

lattice from the area of the 001 peak at 7.2 A.


illustrates the results of these tests.

Figure 12

This indicates

that halloysite is not a major constituent of these


samples.
Grim (1953) discusses three factors which affect the
diffractograms of the kaolin minerals.

The first is the

effect of displacement of the unit sheets with respect


to each other, particularly in the a and

b~axis

directions.

The displacement results in broad diffraction patterns


rather than sharp peaks.

Secondly, a particular kaolin

mineral may be interlayered with another kaolin mineral or


a number of other clay minerals.
peaks result.

Weakened and displaced

Finally he notes that the shape and size

of particles affect the diffractograms.


Brindley (1961) discusses the affects of b~axis
disordered kaolinites (similar to the kaolinite pM of
Mackenzie, 1957) on x~ray patterns.

He states that the

85

Treated with Potassium Acetate

Untreated

002
30

26

24

22

20

18

16

14

12

10

2 8 in Degrees

FIGURE 10. X-Ray Diffractograms of the Sayers Soil

86

Masters Ill

Timberline

Terre Du Lac

28

24

14

22

2 8 in Degrees

FIGURE 11. X-Ray Diffractograms of the Masters #1,


Timberline, and Terre Du Lac

87

Shift in

Kaolinite Treated with


Potassium Acetate

Untreated Georgia Kaolinite

26

24

22

20

18

l6

14

12

10

2 6 in Degrees

FIGURE 12.

Shift in 001 Peak of Georgia Kaolinite

When Treated With Potassium Acetate

88

only visible effect of this disordering is the strengthening


of the 020 diffraction band and a sharp low-angle termination of that peak.

These features are evident in the

diffractograms of most of the soils tested in this study,


including the Sayers soil, Figure 10.
Brindley and Robinson (1947) illustrate broadening
and lowering of intensity of peaks with a decrease in crystallinity.

Murray and Lyons (1956) present data to sub-

stantiate this effect of degree of crystallinity.

They

also demonstrate that particle size varies directly with


the degree of crystallinity, larger particles being better
crystallized.
Conflicting data for the special case of a b-axis
disordered kaolinite are presented in Robertson et al
(1954).

This kaolinite exhibits very good crystallinity

even with very fine particle size, on the order of 0.2


microns.

The low intensity and broad peaks of the

diffractograms are the result of fine particle size, not


of poor crystallinity.

It would appear that in most

soils, both decreasing clay mineral particle size and


degree of crystallinity act to broaden and weaken the
reflections of x-ray peaks.
The residual soil x-rayed in this study shows a
marked degree of asymmetry of the 001 peak sloped to the
low-angle side.

Keller (1968), in a study of flint clays

which shows similar patterns, attributes this feature to

89

mixed layering of the kaolinite, probably with water but


possibly with illite.

Mixed layering of kaolinite and

chlorite (Brindley and Hillery, 1953) also produces


0

similar asymmetry.

The reflection around 10 A and

13-15 A noted in several of the sample diffractograms may


be an indicator of mixed layering.
Grim (1953) states that chlorite may be confused with
kaolinite, especially if the clay is iron rich.

The iron

can result in weak first order (14 A) and third order


0

(4.7 A) basal peaks.

This leaves the second order


0

chlorite peak at 7.2 A to be confused with the 001 basal


peak of kaolinite.

A sample of Sayers soil was leached

with HCl and showed no reduction of the intensity of the


0

7.2 A peak.

This indicates that chlorite which is more

soluble in HCl than kaolinite is probably not a major


soil constituent.
The possibility that iron oxide might "coat" the clay
particles in some manner scattering the x-rays and contributing to the broadness and lack of intensity of the 001
peak was considered.

The Sayers sample which was leached

with HCl to remove the acid soluble oxides, including


iron, when x-rayed showed no sharpening of the 001 peak.
This indicates that the iron oxide is not the factor
responsible for the shape of the peaks (Figure 10).
In summary, the diffractograms show some characteristics of halloysite, kaolinite, some mixed layering, and

90

minor amounts of chlorite, illite, and montmorillonite.


First appearances suggest halloysite to be the major clay
mineral in the soils.

Further study shows that these fea-

tures which suggest halloysite may also be the product of


a fine-grained and/or poorly crystallized kaolinite which
possibly exhibits some b-axis disordering.
Some mixed layering, probably with water, is indicated
and adds to the confusion.

Results of tests on the samples

treated and x-rayed as outlined by Miller and Keller (1963)


are a solid indicator that halloysite is not the major
clay mineral.

Several authors note the risks of clay

mineral identification based on x-ray data alone since


so many factors may combine to affect the final diffractograms.
2.

Differential thermal analysis.

Differential ther-

mal curves for the clay minerals vary with several factors
related to both test procedures and the nature of the
minerals tested.

Careful and consistent sample preparation

and testing should eliminate variations between curves due


to these factors.
The curves obtained in the current study all show
to varying degrees the following characteristics:

(1)

low temperature endothermic peak which generally occurs


between 100-135C, (2) a major endothermic peak which
occurs in the area of 535-560C, and (3) an exothermic
peak generally developed between 910-930C.

A number of

91

these curves are presented as Figures 13 thru 17.

summary of the temperatures at which the endothermic and


exothermic peaks occur are reported in Table X.

Two samples

of several soils (Timberline, Elsey, Georgia kaolinite) were


tested and the peak temperatures of the two samples agree
very well.
According to Mackenzie (1957)

the low temperature

(100-135C) peak is due to the removal of:

(1) water

adsorbed on the surface of clay particles, (2) interlayer


water, or (3) water associated with amorphous silica or
alumina gels.

The major endothermic peak at 535-560C is

related to the expulsion of water from the crystal lattice.


There is disagreement as to the cause of the exothermic
peak, but researchers believe it is due to the formation
of a-Al 2 o 3 and/or mullite.

This reaction begins at a

temperature of about 900C and extends well past 1000C.


Bradley and Grim (1951) present a more detailed investigation of the nature of the high temperature reaction
which goes beyond the scope of this investigation.
Kaolinite pM (Mackenzie, 1957), which has disordered
shifts in the stacking of the unit sheets, and halloysite
produce differential thermal curves which appear much like
those obtained in this study.

The curves also have many

of the features of a mixture of illite and kaolinite as


studied by Grim (1947).

Mixtures of kaolinite with other

triple-layer minerals might also produce these features.

92

Two features of the curves tend to indicate that the


soils are not predominantly halloysite.

A sample of the

reference halloysite, Indiana Halloysite, was dried in an


oven for 12 hours at 70C and then subjected to DTA.

This

sample shows a pronounced low temperature water loss even


after oven drying.

A sample of Floyd soil was oven dried

for only 3 hours at 70C, but all trace of the low


temperature water loss disappeared.

If a significant

amount of halloysite was contained in the Floyd sample,


some low temperature water loss should have been indicated.
These comparisons are illustrated in Figure 16.

A sample

of Masters #2 which was oven dried for 12 hours at 70C


still showed a significant low temperature peak.
Bramao (1952) studied the shape of the major endothermic curve, particularly the degree of asymmetry developed when halloysite soils were analyzed.
the asymmetry as the Slope Ratio (S.R.

He expresses
tana/tanS), and

found values for kaolinites varied from 1.78 to 2.39 with


a mean of 1.55 while values for halloysite varied from
2.50 to 3.80 with a mean of 3.11.

Correlation with test

results of other published DTA curves for the two minerals


confirmed his observations.

The maximum slope ratio for

soils tested in this study is in the order of 2.10, indicating that halloysite is not a major constituent of the
soil, but other factors as particle size and degree of
crystallinity probably affect values of slope ratio.

;0

...0.

GEORGIA
KAOLINITE

INDIANA
HALLOYSITE

FIGURE 13. Differential Thermal Analysis of


Georgia Kaolinite and Indiana Halloysite

1.0
VI

MAST ERS no. 2

MASTERS no. 1

BLACKWELL

ELSEY

FIGURE 14. Differential Thermal Analysis of Ozark Soils

\.0
~

..,

0.

TIMBERLINE no.l
.Ill

TI MBERLl NE no. 2

He ated for 12
Hour s at 7o c

Leached in HCI

FIGURE 15. Differential Thermal Analysis of


Ozark Soils

Ill

1.0
(/1

Ill

o-

HORNSfY

HORNSfY-Ieached

fL 0 YD

FLOYD- dried for


3 h our s at 7o' c

FIGURE 16.

Differential Thermal Analysis


of Ozark Soils
\D
0\

"o

"0.
SUNRISE

SOUTH

TERRE DULAC

SAYERS

FIGURE 17.

Differential Thermal Analysis


of Ozark Soils

.....

.,
~

"'-l

98

Some features of these curves do not correlate with


curves of kaolinite, even the disordered kaolinite pH.
They show the major endothermic peak reaction around

535~

560C versus 550-580C for kaolinite pM and about 580C


for halloysite.

The depressed exothermic peak for the

soils tested in this study occur at 910-930C versus


960-980C for kaolinites and 970~980C for halloysite.
Several factors might act singularly or together to
lower these peak temperatures.

Speil (1944) reports sev-

eral effects of a decrease in particle size induced by dry


grinding including:

(1) a gradual increase in the size of

the low temperature endothermic peak, (2) a decrease in


the size and reduction of the temperature of the major
endothermic peak, and (3) a reduction in the size of the
exothermic peak.

The curves of the Ozark soils, when compared

with the standard kaolinite and halloysite, exhibit these


effects.

Carthew (1955) substantiates Speilts findings but

found the effect of particle size only related to the minus


2 micron fraction.
In reporting their study of refractory clays,
Grimshaw et al (1945) produce data which conflicts with
Speil's and Carthewts finding in that they noted a lowering
of the peak temperatures due to a decrease in crystallinity,
but not due to a decrease in particle size alone,

This

conclusion has been substantiated in a study by Volostnykl

99

(1966) in which he points to the regularity, or lack of


regularity, of the stacking of kaolinite plates as the
dominant factor controlling the temperature of the major
endothermic peak.

Obviously, there remains a question as

to the effect of the decreasing particle size on the


temperature at which the major endothermic reaction occurs.
The effect of iron oxides on the thermal activity of
kaolinites was studied by Saunders and Giedroyc (1950).
They report that iron oxides lower the temperature of the
exothermic peak (but not to a temperature as low as that
of the Ozark soils).

As shown in Figure 15, leaching the

acid soluble oxides, including iron, from the Timberline


soil resulted in an increase in temperature of the exothermic peak from 915C to 945C.

Caillere et al (1946), as

reported in Mackenzie (1957), found the presence of alkali


ions decreases the size of the exothermic peak.
Kerr et al (1949) discuss several factors which affect
the temperature at which the exothermic reactions occurs.
They note that fine-grained, poorly crystallized, or
interlayered kaolinites present exothermic peaks at much
lower temperatures, peaks which are more rounded.

Reactions

for interlayered or disordered kaolinites have been


observed which barely show an exothermic peak, presumably
because of the small particle size and/or the broad
temperature range over which the reaction occurs.
In summary of the results of differential thermal

100

analysis, the similarity of curves for most of the soils


studied indicates similar mineralogy.

Analysis of the

DTA curves and the factors which might have affected them
indicate the probability that the major constituent of the
soils is a kaolinite with perhaps a minimum amount of halloysite with the possibility of triple-layer clay minerals.
The size and generally low temperature at which the various
endothermic and exothermic reactions occur is probably the
result of poor crystallinity and small particle size of
the clay minerals.

The iron content, the presence of

alumino-silicate gels, possibly allophane, and the nature


and concentration of adsorbed cations each probably have
an effect to an undetermined degree on the curves.
3.

Thermogravimetric analysis.

Ross and Kerr (1931,

1934), Nutting (1943), and Mielinz et al (1953) present a


number of dehydration curves of kaolin group minerals.
Dehydration curves of several of the Ozark soils are presented in Figure 18 along with the curves of the reference
halloysite and kaolinite.

Except for the curve obtained

from the test on Georgia Kaolinite, the curves display


some low temperature water loss, major water loss between
500-600C (related to the major DTA endothermic peak) and
very little water loss above 600C.
Grim (1953) notes, "Variations in the specific characteristics of the minerals being studied, such as grain
size, crystallinity, nature of adsorbed ions, etc., affect

]01

16~-4------~------~~~~======!

10
,......_
~
..._,

UJ
UJ
0

,...l

1-<

(!)

4-J

Sayers

Terre Du Lac

:f\fasters

Georgia Kaolinite

Indiana Ha1loysite

0 _____.________~--------~~--------~------~
1000
800
600
400
200
Temperature

FIGURE 18.

Thermogravimetric Analysis

102

dehydration results."

The Ozark soils do exhibit rather

high initial water loss which even exceeds that of the


reference halloysite.

The factors of fine particle size,

poor crystallinity, and/or presence of alumino-silicate


gels probably produce this unusual water loss.

It is not

possible to isolate the exact clay mineralogy from these


curves.
4.

Electron microscopy.

Clay particle size and shape

parameters are best determined from transmission electron


micrographs.

The moderately well-developed hexagonal

clay plate and the elongated plate shown in Figures 19


and 20 illustrate the highest degree of crystal development
of any particles observed during this investigation.

This

hexagonal plate was the only one observed in a study of


two soils (Hornsey and Terre DuLac); the elongated plates
were fairly common.

The several particles in the aggregates

shown in Figures 21 and 22 are somewhat less well developed


and illustrate the most common degree of crystallinity
observed in the micrographs.
These micrographs also illustrate the predominant
particle size range determined from the transmission
microscopy portion of the study.

This size is in the

order of 0.4 to 1.0 microns.


The scanning electron micrographs of the powdered
samples also indicate that the clay minerals are poorly
crystallized.

Most of the particles appear to exist in

FIGURE 19.

TEM

Terre Du Lac

Suspended Sample
(57000X)

IGURE 20.

TEM Terre DuLac


Suspended Sample
( SZOOOX)

I-'
0
VI

FIGURE 21.

TEM Terre Du Lac


Suspended Sample

FIGURE 22 .

TEM Terre Du Lac


Suspended Samp le
(20000X)

(28000X)

t-'
0

-+:>

FIGURE 23.

SEM

Terre Du Lac

Powdered Sample
(lOOOX)

FIGURE 24.

SEM Hornsey
Powdered Sample
( 3000X)

f-'

0
(Jl

FIGURE 25.

SEM Hornsey
Ped Sample
(3000X)

FIGURE 26.

SEM Hornsey
Ped Sample

(lOOOOX)
t-'
0
0\

107

aggregates of several particles which are difficult to


analyze.

A number of the particles or aggregates display

curved surfaces.

These aggregates average 1 to 10 microns

in length (Figure 23 and 24).


The scanning micrographs of the broken chips of the
air-dried peds show several features of interest.

They

substantiate the general low degree of crystallinity of


clay particles shown in the earlier micrographs except for
the Terre Du Lac sample where a fair degree of platy
hexagonal or elongate crystallinity has been developed,
Figure 28.
The crumpled, swirl-like laminated structure exhibited
by the micrographs of the Hornsey sample, Figures 25 and
26, and to a degree by the Terre Du Lac micrographs is
almost identical to that developed in the kaolinitic ball
clays described and photographed by Borst and Keller
(1960).

They attribute the probable cause of the deforma-

tion in structure to post-depositional stresses.

Forces,

possibly due to dessication, which were responsible for the


pedular nature of the Ozark soils may also be responsible
for the distorted structure.
It had been hypothesized by this investigator that as
the dessication process removed moisture from the soil-water
system and the interparticle bonding became stronger, the
clay particles would be drawn into a low density
flocculated position.

This does not appear to be the

FIGURE 27 .

SEM Hornsey
Ped Sample
(lOOOOX)

FIGURE 28.

SEM Terre Du Lac


Ped Sample
(lOOOOX)

!-"

0
00

(])

!=:
1'"-i

(])

r-1
~
(])

1'"-i

10 9

,--.,.

p.. :><
IS
C1l

rJ)

IS
r-1

(])

'"d
p..

0
0
0
0
1'"-i
'--'

..0

E-<
~

~
rJ)

Gl
N

p::

:::::>
(.9
H

110

case as a strong degree of parallel particle orientation


is observed in the scanning micrographs.

Michaels (1959),

Trollope and Chan (1960) and other authors have postulated


this parallel orientation of particles in packets.
Microscopy studies by Sloan and Kell (1966) and others
have shown this structure to exist.

The peds exhibit a

noticeable volume of voids which is probably responsible


in part for the low density of the clay soils in their
natural state.
The microscopy study shows that halloysite, if
present at all, is a minor soil constituent.

No transmis-

sion micrographs and only one scanning micrograph, Figure 29,


shows a tabular or tubular form which may be halloysite,
but could also be chrysotile or a number of other clay
minerals.
5.

Chemical analysis.

The results of chemical anal-

yses performed at the Missouri Geological Survey on a


number of the soils investigated in the study are presented
as Table XI.

A summary of pH, cation-exchange capacity,

and silica-alumina ratio is presented in Table XII.

The

content of Na, K Mg, and Ca in meq/100 gr. as determined


at the University of Missouri - Columbia is presented
in Table XIII.
Grim (1953) presents typical values of the chemical
composition of a number of clay minerals; Ross and Kerr

111

(1934) give values for allophane.

A common value used to

compare clays is the silica-alumina ratio, Si0 2 /Al 2o 3 .


Average values of the silica-alumina ratio as reported by
the above authors for kaolinite (theoretically 2:1) are
2.00:1 to 2.12:1; for halloysite, 2.00:1 to 2.10:1; for
allophane, 1.20:1 to 1.80:1; for illite, 3.20:1 to 4.00:1;
and for montmorillonite, 5.10:1 to 5.95:1.

As Table XII

indicates, the typical values for the Ozark clay residual


soils are 2.45:1 to 2.55:1.

Higher values are noted in

the alluvial-colluvial soils where silica has been


concentrated.

Higher values are also noted in the soils

which have a high chert (silica) content as Floyd and


Blackwell.
The silica-alumina ratio for the residuals of 2.45:1
to 2.55:1 may be caused by a mixing of some illite and
montmorillonite in with kaolinite.

Another cause may be

that some octahedral layers may have iron replacing


alumina which would result in a higher ratio.

Still

another cause could be the presence of silica-rich gels in


the clay.
The Ozark soils exhibit a relatively high (6-12%)
iron content.

A number of possible effects of this

occurrence have been discussed in earlier sections.


Table

XI

shows that for three soils tested (Sayers,

Terre Du Lac, Hornsey) approximately 90 percent of the


Al 2 o3 is soluble in 12.1 normal HCl.

This indicates that

112

a majority of the alumina in the soil is not crystallized


or is poorly crystallized.

When results of other tests

are considered along with this evidence, the latter,


poorly-developed crystalline state is indicated.

Keller

(1970) notes that soil acids can cause the breakdown of


even well-crystallized kaolinites.

This effect is thought

to be much more severe for poorly-crystallized or


disordered kaolinites.
6.

Summary.

The x-ray diffraction, differential

thermal analysis and the thermogravimetric analysis combined with a study of the electron micrographs indicates
that the major clay minerals of all of the residual Ozark
soils investigated in this study are poorly crystallized
kaolin minerals.

If placed in Bates'

(1959) morphological

series, these minerals would be classified as elongate


kaolinite crystals with possibly some particles as a
transitional phase between the elongate crystals and
halloysite.
Two or more phases of clay morphology may be represented in the Ozark soils.

One may be the better

crystallized, elongate platy crystals.

Another phase

represented by less well-developed crystallinity may be a


precurser (Keller et al, 1970) of kaolinite or halloysite.
This phase or other phases may be the result of postformational crystal destruction enhanced by soil acids.
Bramao's discussion of the probable mode of formation

113

of these soil clay kaolins aptly describes the Ozark setting


in which the clays were formed.

It is to be expected that

the result of changing soil conditions and interrupted


formational cycles would be poorly developed and varying
clay morphology.
Minor amounts of chlorite, illite, and montmorillonite
are indicated.

The presence of an undetermined amount of

allophane or an alumino-silicate gel of some nature is


also indicated.
B.

SOIL CLASSIFICATION AND CATION-EXCHANGE CAPACITY


The results of Atterberg Limits tests are presented in

Table VII with results plotted on the plasticity chart,


Figure 29.

Results of gradation tests are presented as

Figures 3 thru 8.

Table IV summarizes the results of the

gradation tests.
Before sieve analysis, all materials retained on the
No. 4 sieve was discarded.
chert.

This material was predominantly

Earlier sections of this discussion noted that the

proportion of chert throughout the soil varies widely and


that the percentage in any one sample is not a diagnostic
value.
No.

The fines is defined as that material passing the

200 sieve.

Clay is defined as that material (colloids)

finer than 2 microns (0.002 mm).


Except for the sandy residual soils, the soils investigated have 85 percent or more fines and 60 percent or more
clay.

Several of the clay residuals have greater than 90

114

percent clay.

ThB sandy residual soils have 60 to 80

percent fines but only 20 to 40 percent clay.

These soils

are composed primarily of fine sand and silt size particles.


All but three of the soils plot as CH or CL on the
plasticity chart.

The Hornsey soil plots just below the

A-line as a MH soil.

The Rice and Fabick sandy residuals

are CL-ML soils.


Definite relationships are noted between the Atterberg
Limits and the percent clay.

Davidson and Sheeler (1952)

note a general relationship between the clay fraction and


the liquid limit and plastic limit.
The clay content of the clayey residual soils was
correlated with the liquid limit and the plastic limit,
Figures 30 and 31.

A linear curve fits both sets of data

fairly well, but a concave upward second or third degree


curve fits both sets of data more closely.

It is suggested

that at higher clay contents, notably above 90 percent,


that the soil is more "sensitive" to other factors than to
increases in percent clay.

For high clay content soils,

as water is added up to the liquid limit the electro-chemical


nature of the soil-water system has a noticeable effect on
the Atterberg Limit values.

The cation-exchange capacity is

a measure of this electro-chemical potential of the clay


soils.

Values of the cation-exchange capacity determined

for the Ozark soils are presented in Table XII


soil pH and silica-alumino ratio.

along with

100

"""'
IN!
'-./

Linear

Best Fit

= -3.81 + 1.05 X
2
= 49.47 - 0.61 X+ 0.012 x

rr = 61.1
tr

= 0.95

= 50.2

80

.u
r-1

r-1

"0
r-1
;:1
0"
r-1

~~

....:l

60

....:l

40

20_~------~--------~--------L-------~--------~--------L-------~--------jL
55
-~
6u

65

70

Clay Content

FIGURE 30.

80

75

85

90

95

(%)

Clay Content Versus Liquid Limit

(Clay Residual Soils)

f---0
f---0
Ul

Linear

Best Fit

40

= 2.52 + 0.36 x
cr = 13.4
= 32.70- 0.56 X+ 0.007 X2

= 0.87
cr = 9.6
r

+J

-M

a
-M

0?
'/

+J
{/)

;;-e
""
35
"-'

0
rl

30

.....til

/0

fl.!

//

//

25
/

0//

/,

0--:------

20 '
30

40

I
50

60

70

80

90

100

Clay Content

(%)
f-'
f-'

FIGURE 31.

Clay Content Versus Plastic Limit

(Clay Residual Soils)

0\

117

The Sayers and the Hornsey soils both contain 93


percent clay but the liquid limit of the Sayers is 105
compared to 90 for the Hornsey.

The cation-exchange

capacity of the Sayers is 44.9 whereas that of the Hornsey


is 42.1.

Masters #2 has 95 percent clay and a cation-

exchange capacity of only 35.8.

The result is that Masters

#2 has a lower liquid limit and plastic limit than does


Sayers.
This does not mean that the cation-exchange capacity
is by itself the factor controlling the limit indices.

The

cation-exchange capacity was correlated with the liquid


and plastic limit, Figure 32 and 33.

The degree of

correlation is similar to that of the correlation of the


clay content versus the limit indices.

This similarity

suggests that a combination of influence of clay content


and cation-exchange capacity on the limit indices exist.
Data presented above indicates that at higher clay contents,
the cation-exchange capacity of the soil has the dominating
effect on Atterberg Limits.
Cation-exchange capacity is a property of the clay
fraction of the soil.

The degree of correlation between

these two factors, cation-exchange capacity and clay content,


was determined and presented in Figure 34.

A fairly linear

relationship appears to exist between these factors up to


a clay content of about 90 percent.

Above that point the

curve flattens and it is postulated that again the cationexchange capacity becomes more important.

The soils which

40

20L_--~L---~----~----~----~----~----~----~
35
40
10
30
5
15
45
20
25
Cation-Exchange Capacity

FIGURE 32.

(meq/100 gr.)

Cation-Exchange Capacity Versus Liquid Limit

(Clay Residual Soils)

I-"
I-"
00

40

......._
N
.......,

35

.j.J

rl

y = 12.04

Linear and
Best Fit

+ 0.66

cr = 9.3

r =

0.91

rl

...:1

t)

rl
.j.J
(I)

30

t\1
...-t
~

25
0

20

20

25

Cation-Exchange Capacity

30

35

40

45

(meq/100 gr.)
f-1
f-1

\.0

FIGURE 33.

Cation-Exchange Capacity Versus Plastic Limit

(Clay Residual Soils)

100
0
0
_....~

A"',.....
/

80

,o/

//

/./'0

"'IN!""
.._,

// ~o/
60 I

//

.j.J

Q)

.j.J

u
:>.
~

r-i

40

20

Linear

Best Fit

= 15.81 + 2.02 X
= -17.74 + 5.21 X-

0.06

a = 155.1
a = 89.2

r = 0.88

oL---~----~L------L------L------J------~------~----~-45
40
35
30
15
10
20
25

Cation-Exchange Capacity

FIGURE 34.

(meq/100 gr.)

Cation-Exchange Capacity Versus Clay Content

1-'

(All Soils)

121

appear to control the deviation from linearity of the curve


(Terre Du Lac, Sayers, Masters 2) are the same soils which
have high cation-exchange capacities.

The concentrations of

the more common exchangeable cations which compose the


cation-exchange capacity are presented in Table XIII.
These observations are consistent with discussions by
Grim and others covered in the literature review with regard
to the clay-water system and the effect of cation concentration on the system.

Increased cation concentration

results in an increase in the attraction between the


particles.

More water is required to dilute the concentra-

tion to reduce particle attraction, and to reduce


flocculation, which allows the liquid limit shear failure
to develop.
With regard to the plastic limit, the higher cation
concentration produces a flocculated microstructure which
resists deformation at a fairly high moisture content.
Conversely, soils with lower cation concentrations have a more
dispersed structure which allows manipulation and water
expulsion until a lower moisture content is reached.
The effect on Atterberg Limits of dispersing the clay
soil with sodium is illustrated in Table VI.

It is

thought that the sodium acts to lessen the attraction


between clay particles and allows more water between
particles.

The result is a lowering of the limit values

as the degree of flocculation and particle attraction


decreases.

122

Table IV

illustrates the difference in the liquid

limit values of soils which have never been air dried and
those which have.

Though the cation-exchange capacity

of wet samples was not determined, it is thought that the


exchange capacity for soils which have never been dried
would be higher than that of soils which have.

This

reduction in capacity would occur if upon drying the


concentration of cations in the clay soil increases as water
evaporated and micropackets of clay particles are formed.
These packets would tend to trap cations, thereby reducing
the cation-exchange potential.

Upon rewetting with

distilled water for the limit tests, the packets are not
completely destroyed and all cations would not be available
in the clay-water system, some still being bound up between
plates in the packets.

This decrease in cation-exchange

capacity would result in lower particulate attraction and


lower Atterberg Limit values.
Another aspect is that the micropackets which are
formed upon air drying and which do not disperse when
mixed with distilled water effectively reduce the percent
clay-size fraction of the soil.

Though the packets them-

selves probably have a water film as would the individual


clay particles, the attraction between packets is less;
therefore, less water is required to reach the liquid limit.
The liquid limit of samples which have never been dried and
have the higher cationic concentration and greater particle
attraction would require more water to disperse the structure

123

to a point of failure in the liquid limit device.


C.

COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS
Three factors; soil gradation and Atterberg Limits,

cation-exchange capacity, and clay structure, were studied


with relation to their effect on laboratory compaction of
the Ozark soils.

No gross difference was noted in the

clay mineralogy of the soils investigated in this study


so this was eliminated as a prime cause of compaction
differences.
The results of soil compaction tests are presented in
TableVIII. Figures 35 thru 45 illustrate the relationships between the factors listed above and the optimum
moisture content and maximum dry density of the soils
tested.

Table XV

illustrates the correlation coefficient

and sigma value for each relationship tested.


1.

Atterberg Limits.

As discussed previously, Harris

(1969) showed the best correlation tested was between the


liquid limit values and the maximum dry density and optimum
moisture content.

The correlation coefficient for this

relationship for residual soils was on the order of 0.90.


This same range of values (0.88 for maximum dry density
and 0.90 for optimum moisture content) was noted for the
Ozark clayey residuals.

The plastic limit was found to

exhibit even a slightly better degree of correlation than


the liquid limit.

A correlation coefficient in the order

of 0.90 signifies a high degree of relationship (Harris,

90

........
4-4

tJ

~
.....,

85

:>.
....,

.....
til

Q)
~

:>.

80
~-... ,.... ........ ~

.................

~
75

Linear

Best Fit

= 125.09 - 0.51 X
= 138.85 - 0.93x + 0.003 x 2

a= 5.9

= -0.96

a = 5.4
0

70

55

60

I
65

70

75

80

85

90

95

Clay Content

(%)
~

.s;:.

FIGURE 35.

Clay Content Versus Maximum Dry Density

(Clay Residual Soils)

40

Linear and

= 2.73 + 0.37

(j

= 9.7

= 0.90

Best Fit

,-...
~
'>.,/

+.1

35

!:::

Q)

+.1

!:::
0

Q)

I-I

::l

+.1
fJl
rl

30

jl

rl
+.1
p..

25

20
~~

60

65

70

75
Clay Content

80

85

90

95

(%)
I-'
N

tn

FIGURE 36.

Clay Content Versus Optimum Moisture Content

(Clay Residual Soils)

120

Linear
110

Best Fit

= 108.40

- 0.80

y = 158.16 - 6.66

X
X+

0.21 X2

0.002 X3

= 18.8

23.0

= -0.87

/""'>

4-1
()

0.

'-../

:>.

-IJ

ri

100

11.)

Q
(I)

:>.

"

'\

~
><
:2

90

ri

80

70 10

15

20

25

Cation-Exchange Capacity

30

35

40

45
f-'

(meq/100 gr.)

0\

FIGURE 37.

Cation-Exchange Capacity Versus Haximum Dry Density

(Clay Residual Soils)

40

/.

35

""'
~
'-'
.j..J

Q
Q)

.j..J

30

Q)
~

::l

.j..J

.....rn

:S

25

0
0

.....

0
0

.j..J

0.

20-

Linear and
Best Fit

= 13.83 + 0.62

cr

= 14.3

==

0.86

15
10

15

20

25

30

Cation-Exchange Capacity

FIGURE 38.

35

40

(meq/100 gr.)

Cation-Exchange Capacity Versus Optimum Moisture Content


(Clay Residual Soils)

45
f-'
N
"-J

110 t-

""
""

"'11-1""
()

llo

'-'

Linear

'\.o

100

Best Fit

y
y

= 117.80- 0.41
= 154.50 - 1.44

cr = 19.2

X
X+

0.007

r = -0.88

cr = 13.8

"

rl
Ill

s::Q)

Q
~

'"'

90

or!

:<

~
80

'

7030~------~------~------~-------L------~------~------~~------40
so
60
70
80
90
100
Liquid Limit

(%)

.....
N

00

FIGURE 39.

Liquid Limit Versus Maximum Dry Density

(Clay Residual Soils)

50

+ 0.30 x

Linear

y = 8.93

Best Fit

y = -17.90 + 1.06 x- 0.005 x 2

a= 10.6

r = 0.90

a= 7.6

""""
N
"-../

+J

!:I

40

Ill

+J

!:I
0

Ill

+J

.~

30

+J

0..

20

10

30

40

50

60
Liquid Limit

80

70

90

100

(%)

1-'
N

\D

FIGURE 40.

Liquid Limit Versus Optimum Moisture Content

(Clay Residual Soils)

Linear and
Best Fit

110

= 109.1

- 0.80 x

a = 8.1

-0.89

,.......
~

0..
'-./

100

:>.

.j..l

r-i
(I)

I::

:>.

1-1

--............_

Q)

t:l

90

t-

0
~0

............ 0

13

r-i

:ill

80

~------~--------~--------L-------~--------~------~~------~~----15
20
25
30
35
40
45

7010

Plastic Limit

(%)

.......
tN
0

FIGURE 41.

Plastic Limit Versus Maximum Dry Density

(Clay Residual Soils)

50

Linear

= 3.79 + 0.90

Best Fit

= -29.72 +

3.12 x -0.04 x 2

a= 7.9

= 0.92

a = 5.6

;-..

'-"
.j.J

.j.J

40

1=1
0

c.>
<1.1

.j.J

Ul

r-1

30

~.j.J

p..
0

20

'

~g

1010~------~--------~-------L--------~------~------~~------~------15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Plastic Limit

(%)

f-'
VI

f-'

FIGURE 42.

Plastic Limit Versus Optimum Moisture Content

(Clay Residual Soils)

120

= 128.30

Best Fit

= 149.52- 1.79

"',

110
"'"'
Il-l
()

Q.
......,

t'

Linear

X
X+

0.019

0.0004

= 10.9

= 7.6

= -0.97

', '-...,
'

100
0

'rl
!ll

1:::

Q)
~

>.

'"'

- 0.55

',

'

',o
""-,

90

.........

' , -.........:-o

m
'rl
X

)!
0

~........

~._,

80

. ::--.o,
0~
0

20

30

40

so

70

60

Clay Content

80

(%)

90
......
Vl
N

FIGURE 43.

Clay Content Versus Maximum Dry Density

(All Soils)

Linear and
Best Fit

50

y =

6.30 + 0.33

a= 8.8

= 0.95

,....._
N
'-"

+J

l=l
Q)

40

+J

l=l
0

Q)

1-4
;:I
+J

til
rl

30

rl
+J

p.
0

20

10

20

30

40

50

Clay Content

FIGURE 44.

70

60

80

90

(%)

Clay Content Versus Optimum Moisture Content

.......
(.N
(.N

(All Soils)

120

Linear

""'
4-l
t)

p.

'-"

:>-.

-1-1

"T"4

1001

Cll

!:l

(!)

y = 296.70- 19.01 X+ 0.58 X

- 1.14

Best Fit

110L

= 121.19

0.006

(J

15.1

(J

7.3

= -0.90

:>-.
~

90

m
.-1
X
til

80

'

70
10

15

20

25

30

Optimum Miosture Content

'

35

40

(%)

45
1-'
V-1

+:>.

FIGURE 45

Optimum Moisture Content Versus Maximum Dry Density


(Clay Residual Soils)

135

1969).
2.

Gradation and cation-exchange capacity.

The

percent fines was not found to have a significant relationship with either the maximum dry density or optimum moisture
content.

The correlation between the percent clay of all

the soils and the compaction characteristics was very


high, -0.97 for the maximum dry density and 0.95 for the
optimum moisture content.

The cation-exchange capacity

also has a high degree of correlation with the optimum


moisture content (0.86) and the maximum dry density (-0.87).
The high degree of correlation between the Atterberg
Limits and the compaction characteristics indicate that the
factors which influence the values of the limit indices also
influence the compaction characteristics.

The clay content

and the cation-exchange capacity were determined to strongly


affect the limit values; similarly, they have been shown
to be strongly related to the optimum moisture content and
the maximum dry density.
Lambe (1958) has postulated that the compacted nature
of clayey soils is a result of clay particle structure.
Clay content, cation concentration, and other factors not
studied in this investigation have a strong influence on
the compaction process which is manifested in their affect
on the clay structure.
3.

Soil clay structure.

The Atterberg Limits and the

cation-exchange capacity are considered indirect measures

136

of clay structure.

No direct quantitative measures of

differences in clay structure in compacted samples were


determined, but a qualitative low-power and scanning microscopy investigation of the clay structure was conducted.
Particular attention was made in comparing the apparent
validity of the particle-to-particle concept of the structure
of compacted samples and changes in this structure with
different compacting moisture contents as postulated by
Lambe (1958) to the packet-to-packet compacted structure
as postulated by Sloan and Kell (1966) and Barden and
Sides (1970).
Low-power micrographs of the Terre Du Lac soil are
presented in Figures 46 and 47 for two samples; one compacted 3% dry of optimum, the other compacted 5% wet of
optimum.

Samples compacted at all moisture contents contain

a large number of particles which exhibit residual pedular


structure which apparently has not been destroyed or altered
significantly by the compaction process.
Some differences are observed between the samples
compacted dry and wet of optimum.

The dry sample has a

much "rougher" texture, the wet sample an apparent uniform


texture.

A large volume of voids, or macrospaces, are also

obvious in the dry sample and which do not appear in the


wet sample.

The size of the packets, or macropeds, in

the dry sample is highly variable whereas less variation


is exhibited in the wet sample.

a.)

Compacted 3% Dry of Optimum


FIGURE 46.

LPM

b.)

Terre Du Lac

Compacted 5% Wet of Optimum

(Black and White)

t-'
lN
-....}

'A..

aJP!l

liiC

.; .
.

r
. I'.

R I

FIGURE

~7.

LPM

Terre DuLac

"

..

1~

''
. K
. .
.
~
~,
: ~. ,,. .
..t. -~~
,~ .

~ ~~.~t
". ~
:li ji
'

_.

[J!l

)'

'I

,. ... '

~ r" , -~
~' 'f....
. ~~ . ;;r

.,

b,)

io

~~

f ..' ..,

.! '

.a;j

,.

Compacted 3% Dry of Optimum

'i .

,":f ~ fv '9. "

IE1

a.)

.f

~ij,:r . ~ ~k.~

.
\.

~.4--....... :,.,

:.,)-,
~
.~-... f~.. ).'

~-

I'

'-4. . .

-... ....
~

Compacted 5% Wet of Optimum


(Color)

f->
(A

co

139

It is suggested that the sample compacted wet of


optimum has been more altered by wetting and compaction
than that compacted dry of optimum.

Part of this alteration

is probably manifested in the breakdown upon wetting of the


peds due to differential swelling pressure and differential
air pressure as suggested by Baver (1956).
A study of the microstructure was initiated to further
investigate the macropeds and to investigate the particleto-particle structure of compacted samples with variations
in the compaction moisture content.
Figures 48, 49, and 50 compare the structure of Standard
Proctor samples compacted dry and wet of optimum at magnifications of lOOX, 300X, and 3000X.

All micrographs are

of sample surfaces oriented parallel to the direction of


applied compactive force.

At a magnification of lOOX,

the outline of the macropeds are still apparent with similar


patterns of texture, macrospaces, and ped sizes as was
evident in the low-power micrographs.

The scanning micro-

graphs (lOOX) enhance the significant textural differences


between the samples compacted wet and dry of optimum; the
dry sample with a very random pattern of macropeds, the
wet sample with a uniform pattern.

These patterns are still

evident in the 300X micrographs.


Quite a different pattern is observed in Figure 50
for those micrographs taken at 3000X.

The microstructure,

or "intra-pedular" structure, is very similar for both wet

'--

---..a._

t;,.,

a.)

Compacted 3% Dry of Optimum


FIGURE 49.

b.)
SEM

Terre Du Lac

Compacted 5% Wet of Optimum


(300X)
I-'
~

I-'

""

a.)

Compacted 3% Dry of Optimum

FIGURE SO.

b.)

SEM

Terre Du Lac

Compacted 5% Wet of Optimum


(3000X)
,__.
-+>o
N

143

and dry samples, apparently independent of compaction


moisture content.
The theory of the compactive process which emerges from
this study is considerably different from that postulated
by Lambe (1958).

There is little indication in the micro-

graphs of single particle activity being prominant in the


compaction process.

This is particularly true for samples

compacted dry of optimum.

On the wet side of optimum where

samples appeared uniform under relatively low magnification,


clay particles seem to form a cement between macropeds.
The following theory, similar to that postulated by
Barden and Sides (1970), of laboratory compaction density
is primarily a function of the degree of fit between
macropeds of clay.

Dry peds at low moisture content are

resistant to deformation and a relatively loose compacted


structure is obtained.

With the addition of moisture, two

factors are thought to influence the compacted density.


First, upon adsorption of moisture, the macropeds tend to
break down forming a better gradation of particles which
can result in a more dense arrangement without major ped
deformation.

Also, as Barden and Sides postulate, with

additional moisture the macropeds become "softer" and can


be forced by outside forces into a more compact arrangement.
At the optimum moisture content, the effects of ped
breakdown and deformation are maximized.
minimized.

Macrospaces are

144

Wet of optimum the influence of individual particles


and the smaller peds are predominant.

With increased

moisture and further deterioration, more particle-toparticle reaction may occur.

As water layers are adsorbed

by particles and small peds, they are pushed apart and


density decreases.

A decrease in cation concentration may

play an important role as the water film expands.

Even wet

of optimum, a large portion of the peds remain relatively


unaffected by the increased moisture and their internal
structure is essentially unaltered.
The micrographs of the natural air-dried soil has
indicated a natural essentially parallel particle orientation.

When this structure is affected by moisture, no

major reorientation of particles may be required, as from


flocculated to parallel structure; just a separation of
parallel plates.
Assuming the natural ped structure is the result of
dessication, the forces responsible for the particle
orientation were very large.

Once the ped structure has

been destroyed by moisture, the effort expended in a


compaction test in an attempt to force the particles back
into a dense state is considerably less than were the
dessication forces.

The water film surrounding the

particles and peds resists the compactive effort.


The natural low density of the peds (Scrivner, 1960)
which is not destroyed by the compaction process is one

145

factor responsible for the low compacted densities of the


Ozark clayey residual soils.

As would be anticipated, the

soils tested with higher non-clay contents (primarily


quartz, S.G. - 2.66) have higher compacted densities.

Soils

with high cation-exchange capacities, particularly those


high in the sodium ion, appear to adsorb moisture more
readily with an accompanying breakdown in ped structure.
The greater the degree of particle reorientation, the lower
the compacted dry density and the higher the optimum moisture
content.
Figure 51 demonstrates the results of the Standard
Proctor tests on the soils dispersed with sodium metahexaphosphate.

The dispersed soils demonstrate a higher maximum

dry density and lower optimum moisture which agrees with


Lambe's (1962) discussion of the effects of aggregants and
dispersants.
It is postulated that the sodium treatment acts to
breakdown the peds more than the normal addition of water
reducing the macrospaces and allowing a more dense particle
arrangement at a lower optimum moisture content.

As more

water is added, particularly past the optimum, the particles


adsorb water layers reducing the particle-to-particle
attraction and the dry density.

90
Floyd - natural

0~

85
4-1
0

s:l.

Terre Du Lac - natural

""

.......

Floyd - dispersed

'-J

Terre Du Lac - dispersed


Sayers - natural
Sayers - dispersed

.j,J

......

!I)

!:1
Q)

80

Q
~
~

......

75

70

25

20

30

Moisture Content

FIGURE 51.

40

35

45

(%)

The Effect of Dispersion of the Standard Proctor Compaction


of Clayey Residual Soils

50
I-'
.f::o

0\

147

VII.
A.

CONCLUSIONS

GENERAL
This study of residual soils used in earth dam

construction in the Ozark Province of Missouri centered


investigation in four general areas.

First was a determina-

tion of the clay morphology of the soils and the extent of


any changes in this morphology from one site to another.
Second was a study of the soil gradation, Atterberg Limits
and cation-exchange capacity.

This was followed by a study

of the correlation between these soil properties and the


compaction maximum dry density and optimum moisture content.
Finally, the effect of the pedular nature of the clay soils
on the Standard Proctor compaction characteristics was
investigated.
B.

CLAY MORPHOLOGY
Regardless of differences in the parent material or the

geographical location of the dam sites within the portion of


the Ozark Province investigated, the morphology of the
clayey residual soils is similar.

The relative location of

the samples within the vertical soil profile appears to


determine to a great extent the clay content in percent.
It is shown that the climatic conditions which existed
in the Ozarks during the Tertiary Period were probably
zation process which
conducive to the development o f a laterl
has resulted in the formation of halloysite-rich soils in
other areas under similar conditions.

The numerous tests

148

which have been performed to determine the mineralogy of


the clays have shown that the residuals do not contain
halloysite in any significant amounts.

It is suggested that

the continuous, extensive leaching process associated with


halloysite formation was never completely developed within
the Ozark area.

Instead of halloysite, clays with a

morphology more closely resembling kaolinite were formed.


The major clay morphology is expressed in poorly
developed elongate platy kaolinite crystallinity.

Other

kaolin morphologies even less well developed, including


possibly some alumino-silicate gels, are indicated by some
of the tests.

A minor amount of illite, chlorite, and

possibly some montmorillonite is also present.


The soils are characterized by the presence of an
aggregated structure which separates the soils into units
called peds.

This ped structure is probably the result of

soil collapse as the bedrock is chemically leached and of


dessication of the soil mass.

These peds are thought to

affect the results of all tests performed on the soils to


determine their engineering properties.
C.

SOIL CLASSIFICATION AND CATION-EXCHANGE CAPACITY


When the Atterberg Limits test results are plotted on

the plasticity chart, the clayey residuals and the alluvialcolluvial soils are classified as CL and CH.

The liquid

limits of the clayey res1d ua 1 so11 s were as high as 105 with


a corresponding plasticity index of 69.

The stone-free

149

residuals contain up to 95% clay.


The cation~exchange capacity of the residual soils was
as high as 45 meq/100 gr. for those soils with greater than
90% clay.

This is very high for kaolinitic soils.

The fine

clay particle size and poor crystallinity have been shown


to act to increase the
soils.

cation~exchange

capacity of kaolinitic

These high values may also reflect the presence of

some illite and/or montmorillonite.


The value of the liquid limit of samples never allowed
to

air~dry

in considerably

(30~40%)

samples which were tested after

higher than that of

air~drying.

It is thought

that the process of air-drying enforces and strengthens the


natural ped structure to a point that it fails to break down
completely when wetted for the liquid limit test.

The

result is that only moderate particle-to-particle (ped-toped) attraction develops and less water is required to
facilitate shear failure in the liquid limit device.
The liquid limit of the sodium dispersed samples was
found to be less than the natural air-dried liquid limit for
several of the soils.

This agrees with results presented by

White (1958) in his discussion of the effects of the


exchangeable cation on the liquid and plastic limit of clay
minerals.

An explanation fitted to the pedular nature of

the soils is that the samples treated with a sodium dispersant


reacts in one of two ways or in a combination of the two:
(1) the dispersant completely breaks down the ped structure
allowing the sample to behave as described by White, and/or

150

(2) the ped structure is partially retained but the sodium


attracts to the peds a film of water which acts to separate
the clay peds and reduce ped~to~ped attraction.

In either

case, the liquid limit value is lowered,


D.

CORRELATIONS WITH COMPACTION RESULTS


Several factors were studied to determine their

correlation with the Standard Proctor laboratory compaction


parameters of the clayey residual Ozark soils:

(1) soil

gradation,

(2) Atterberg Limits, and (3) cation-exchange

capacity.

The percent clay had the best correlation tested

with both optimum moisture content (r

= -0.97).

maximum dry density (r

= 0.95) and the

The plastic limit also

correlated well with both factors, particularly the optimum


moisture content; the liquid limit exhibited only fair
correlation.

The cation-exchange capacity also had only

fair correlation with the compaction characteristics.

This

might be anticipated since the cation-exchange effect is more


pronounced in a more fluid environment than that of the
normal compaction test.
There appeared to be no significant relationship between
the percent fines and the optimum moisture content and the
maximum dry density.

The relationship between the optimum

moisture content and the maximum dry density is good


(r = 0.90).

E.

THEORY OF RESIDUAL SOIL COMPACTION


The Standard Proctor compaction tests yielded low values

151

of the maximum dry density with corresponding high values of


the optimum moisture content for the clayey residual soils.
The electron microscopy investigation has shown that the
pedular structure of the clayey residual soils is not
destroyed during laboratory compaction.

This is thought to

be the key factor controlling the low density of the


compacted samples.
The low-power micrographs illustrate that dry of
optimum most of the clay remains bound in macropeds with a
large volume of macrospaces between them.

As more water 1s

added and optimum is approached, the moisture breaks down


some of the larger peds to form smaller peds and other peds
are probably completely destroyed.

A better ped-particle

gradation and perhaps a softening of some peds with


increased moisture allows the soil to be forced into a more
dense arrangement with a minimum of macrospaces.
Wet of optimum, even more peds are reduced in size
and/or destroyed with clay particles and small peds
develop water layers which force them apart, reducing
the compacted density.

These particles appear to form a

cementing bond between the remaining peds, which still


comprise the majority of the compacted sample.
High magnification micrographs show that the microstructure of the clay peds is not destroyed during the
compaction process.

Indeed, it does not appear to be changed

significantly from that of the natural soil peds.

152

F.

APPLICATION OF TEST RESULTS


1.

Correlations.

Several correlations have been

presented which may be useful in estimating the optimum


moisture content and maximum dry density from more commonly
available data.

The clay content and plastic limit were

noted to be closely correlated to the optimum moisture


content and maximum dry density.

Curves relating these

factors have been plotted and presented as Figures 52 and


53.

Similar curves are presented, Figures 54 and 55,

relating the plasticity chart values, liquid limit and


plasticity index, to the optimum moisture content and maximum
dry density.

At best these curves yield approximate values,

show trends.

Better estimates can be obtained using the

equations presented along with the illustrations which show


the correlations.

2.

::.D..:::a=m~d.:;_:_e..:::s_i~g"n=---c.:...:..o_n_s_t_r_u_c_t_i_o_n_.

The ma j or pro b 1 em

observed in the earth dams investigated was seepage through


and around the dams.

The seepage is often noted high up on

the downstream slope of dams, even on those dams with moderate


slopes.

The seepages are often associated with surface slips

on the steeper dam slopes.

The additional driving force

exerted by the saturated areas overcomes the resisting forces.


It is probable that the resisting forces are reduced significantly as the nature of the ped structure of the embankment
clays is altered upon saturation.

A large portion of the peds

are believed to swell and deteriorate, destroying much of the


intergranular frictional resistance which is thought to provide

75

a~'

401-

~~~

"-s~

........
~

'--"

3l

\0

30

r-1

\
\

+J

1:1)

til

...-!

ll-o

\95
25L

\
\
e108

201

30

40

50

80

82 \

\
\

94

75

81

85

.\

88

t)

~\,~

e83 \ . 79

~~

"'-~

+J

74 \

~4,.

'r'l

\
f5

~s'\-

77\

v\,

80

\ . 89

84

\ 85

e92

\90

\
60
Clay Content

70

80

90

(%)

FIGURE 52. Graphical Relationship of the Maximum Dry Density to the


Plastic Limit and the Clay Content of the Clayey Residual Soils

100
.......
U1

40

I
\

~~~

~~~

40
.s~~

30

~~~

35

va~<'\-

,-...
~

~~

'-"

13

~Ay#

r-1

....:l

25

30

\
\

\)~

(.)

'1"'1
.1-J
Cll

t1l
p..

.-1

25

27

24

18

40

50

60
Clay Content

26

"

'

70

37
"

"

36

........... 35

~~

'
'

"40

33

e31

42

34 "

s<'\;,

~~-<..;

.1-J
r-1

35

'-.:

6\o

38

,30

25

.........

25
80

90

100

(%)

FIGURE 53. Graphical Relationship of the Optimum Moisture Content to the


Plastic Limit and the Clay Content of the Clayey Residual Soils

1-'
V1
+;>.

"'-o-v'~

80

--#~""

\....S~"V
~(j\.

-v-s'\-~

60

"'"'
~

84,

"V'Q;-4,.

'-"

~~~

~
QJ

40

100

.j.J

-M
0
-M

.j.J
{/J

!11
.-I

20

\
\ 113.

70

9Z.
94.

/ .az

ba
1 /as

\-100

108

0I

1 79

120

p..

fO

90

"'s::
:>.

""

81

113

\100

\ V

20

40

60

80
{%)

Liquid Limit

100

FIGURE 54. Graphical Relationship of the Maximum Dry Density to the


Plasticity Index and the Liquid Limit of all Soils

._.
tn
tn

C)))l

~<'\,~
ls<'\-"

80

40

"\o

~~<'\,

36.

d:;)~~
~

s<'\-~

60 1,..-.,.
N

'-'

~()'\.

30

II

()~<'\,~

25

:P .
'\>~~

><

G)

"'.e

40

:>.

.j.J

.....
t)
.....
.j.J

en

.......

I
I
I

p.,

20

10

20
24

27

40

/1

,.18

13.

20

40

80

60
Liquid Limit

100

(%)

FIGURE 55. Graphical Relationship of the Optimum Moisture Content to


the Plasticity Index and the Liquid Limit of all Soils

1-'
V1

0\

157

the mechanism of slope stability (Terzaghi,

(1958).

Where these clayey soils are utilized in dam construction, compaction on the wet side of optimum would significantly reduce the susceptibility of the embankment to
seepage.

The macrospaces which exist in the samples

compacted dry of optimum offer ideal channels for water flow.


Samples compacted wet of optimum contain less macrospaces
and should be more resistant to water flow.

Post-construc-

tion loss of shear strength due to ped deterioration upon


saturation would also be reduced.

The possibility of piping

would also be reduced.


It is also recommended that the dam embankments be
designed based on the results of Modified Proctor compaction
results rather than Standard Proctor.

This would result in

higher densities with higher shear strength and less


macrospaces with a corresponding decrease in seepage.

G.

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY


The discussion presented above relating dam design and

construction to the nature of compacted soils assumes that


the soils compacted in dam embankments behave as those
compacted in the laboratory.

It is believed that the theory

of compaction as outlined previously does apply to embankment


soils, but that the degree of soil structure evident in the
laboratory soils is not developed in the field.
The major recommendation based on this study is that a
darn constructed of the residual clay soils be thoroughly

158

investigated.

This investigation should be centered around

the gathering and testing of undisturbed samples from the


dam itself.

This investigation would be facilitated by

selection of a dam constructed of relatively stone-free clay.


Where ped structure is exhibited by the in place soil, even
slight sample disturbance could alter the apparent density.
Both a low-power and a scanning electron microscopic
investigation of the sample taken from the embankment would
aid in determining the validity of the ped or packet theory
of clay soils compacted in the field.

159

VIII.

APPENDIX A

Dam Reports

DAM:

Fa

LOCATION:
Sec. 4

RESERVOIR SIZE:
Dent County
T.35 N.

R.7 W.

23--Acres

!BEDROCK FORMATION: _ _ _--t


Roubidoux

EMBANKMENT: HEIGHT
3 3 ft
LENGTH 530 ft.

TYPICAL DAM SECTION

lsoiL SERIES: Hanceville


Loam

SOIL CLASSIFICATION:
LL

25

PL

GRADATION:
#Ul
#40
#60
#100

+
zo '

100
94
78
64

16

PI

% FINER
#200
10t.L

2J1.

tp_

61
38
19
16

COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS
ASTM D 1557-,.66
MAX. DENJ21 lb/cu foPT. MOIST. --=.1~3.JL.
% __
!PREDOMINANT CLAY MINERALS:
Kaolinite

COMMENTS: CEC-7.6 pH-5.6 Gs-2.68


water level 20 ft. below crest
water not passing through dam_
drop inlet W/ 3 ft. concrete pipe
cutoff trench

I-'
0\

DAM:

Horns ey

LOCATION:

Sec. 6

RESERVOIR SIZE:

Washington County
T.37

N.

R.Z E.

40

EMBANKMENT: HEIGHT
LENGTH

TYPICAL DAM SECTION

Acres
50

BEDROCK FORMATION: _ _ _- t

Eminence
ft

875 ft.

Clarksville
Stony Loam

SOIL SERIES:

SOIL CLASSIFICATION:
LL

90

PL

GRADATION:

#Ul
#40
#60
#100

43

PI

47

% FINER

99
99
98
98

#200

97

10/,L

95

2J.L

93

1~

91

COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS

ASTM D 1557 " 66


MAX. DEN. 77

lb/cu foPT. MOIST.

38 %

PREDOMINANT CLAY MINERALS:

Kaolinite
COMMENTS: CEC- 42.1

pH- 4. 8

Gs-2.84

7 ft. freeboard
steep slopes w/ minor slides near
toe--tilted fence line along toe
of downstream slope
cutoff trench

I-'
0'\
I-'

DAM:

Blackwell

LOCATION:

Sec. 26

RESERVOIR SIZE:

Dent County
T.35 N.

l ~

Acres

EMBANKMENT: HEIGHT
LENGTH

R.4 W.

TYPICAL DAM SECTION

jBEDROCK FORMATION : _ _ _- - f

Gasconade

2 2 ft.
"530 ft.

Clarksville
Stony Loam

!soiL SERIES:

SOIL CLASSIFICATION:

60

LL

PL

GRADATION:

PI

37

% FINER

99
95
93
89

#l.Q.
#40
#60
#100

23

#200
10t,t.

85

2JL
1/L

64
56

77

l
COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS

ASTM D 1557-66
MAX. DEN.

,------~ I

92 lb/cu ftoPT. MOIST.

24 %

'PREDOMINANT CLAY MINERALS:

ao 1n1te

CEC-24.1 pH- 7 .5 G -2.8 0


s
6 ft. freeboard
concrete spillway
drop inlet w/ 24 in. CMP
previous embankment f ailure ( ? )

COMMENTS:

!---"

0\
N

DAM:

Masters #2

LOCATION:
Sec.

16

RESERVOIR SIZE:

Dent County
T. 35 N.

R. 5

W.

24 Acres

EMBANKMENT: HEIGHT
LE_NGTH

TYPICAL DAM SECTION

BEDROCK FORMATION:
Gasconade - Eminence

36 f t .
700 f t .

SOIL SERIES: Clarksville


Stonx: Loam

SOIL CLASSIFICATION:
LL

103

PL

34

69

PI

#1.0
#40
#60
#tOO

SE.c

% FINER

GRADATION:
100
100
99
99

#200
10tL

2JL

1J.L

99
99
95
94

/vftJ:srsli!S # I
COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS
ASTM D 1557-66
MAX. DEN. 81 lbLcu ftoPT. MOIST.

36 %

PREDOMINANT CLAY MINERALS:

COMMENTS:

CEC-35.8

pH-7.5

Gs-2.84

see Masters #1
1--'
0\
tN

DAM: Sunnen

RESERVOIR SIZE:

LOCATION: Washington County

EMBANKMENT: HEIGHT
LENGTH

Sec. 4

T.37 N.

R.l W~

TYPICAL DAM SECTION

BEDROCK FORMATION: _ _ _- '


Colluvial on Gasconade

40+ Acres
50 ft .
1300 ft.

SOIL SERIES: Clarksville


S tony Loam

SOIL CLASSIFICATION:
LL

42

PL

GRADATION:
#Ul
WAS H&O

#40
#60
#100

21

PI

21

% FINER

100
97
92

88

#200

10J.L

2JJ1JL

87
57
38
37

COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS
ASTM D 1557-66
MAX. DEN.l08 lb/cu fbPT. MOIST. ~1..;;.8...::.%_ _
PREDOMINANT CLAY MINERALS:
Kaolinite
COMMENTS:CEC-11.5 pH-4.9 G -2.72
s
13 ft. freeboard
150 ft. paved spillway
drop inlet w/ two 4 ft. concrete
pipes
tilted slope indicators

1--'

0\

+>-

DAM:

Masters-~# 1

RESERVOIR SIZE:

LOCATION: Dent County


Sec. 16 T.35 N.

R.S

w:

EMBANKMENT: HEIGHT
LENGTH

TYPICAL DAM SECTION

BEDROCK FORMATION: _ _ _- !
Gasconade - Eminence

24 Acres
36 ft.
700 ft

!soiL SERIES: Clarksville


Stony Loam

SOIL CLASSIFICATION:
LL

84 .

PL

GRADATION:

#Ul
#40
#60

PI

59

% FINER

100
100
99

#100

25

98

#200
1011.

2JL
1/.L

96

83
76
71

COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS .
ASTM D 1557-66
MAX. DEN. 84 lb/cu ftoPT. MOIST. --.::2:.;;;:;5....::%_ _
"PREDOMINANT CLAY MINERALS:
Kaolinite
COMMENTS:

CEC- 21. 9

pH-5.4

5 ft. freeboard
36 in. CMP w/ hooded inlet
cutoff trench
spring below toe of dam

G -2.83

I-'
0\
V1

DAM:

Sunrise South

RESERVOIR SIZE:

LOCATION: Jefferson County


Sec. 36

T.39 N.

.i:::>

ACres

EMBANKMENT: HEIGHT
LENGTH

JBEDROCK FORMATION: _ _ __,


Potosi

35 ft
550 ft.

lsoiL SERIES: Clarksville

R.4 E.

Grvl. Loam

TYPICAL DAM SECTION

SOIL CLASSIFICATION:

68

LL

PL

GRADATION:

-413'~

#Ul
#40
#60
#100

30

38

PI

Ofo FINER

99
93
91
90

89
80
72
70

#200
10J,L

2JL

1J.L

COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS
ASTM D 155 7 -66
MAX. DEN. 88 lb/cu ftoPT. MOIST. __;;.3..;;;1~%_ _
PREDOMINANT CLAY MINERALS:

(rJ

Kaolinite
COMMENTS:CEC-24 . 6

pH-6 .5

G -2.82
s

6 ft . freeboard
60 ft. wide unpaved spillway
seepage--marshy at toe of dam

.......
0\
0\

DAM:

Sunrise Central

RESERVOIR SIZE:

LOCATION: J efferson County


Sec. 36

T .39 N.

R.4

E:

EMBANKMENT: HEIGHT
LENGTH

TYPICAL DAM SECTION

BEDROCK FORMATION: _ _ __,


Potosi

2 S Acres

35 ft
525 ft.

lsoiL SERIES: Clarksv ille


Grvl. Loam

SOIL CLASSIFICATION:
LL

70

PL

GRADATION:
#l.Q
#40
#60
#100

33

37

PI

FINER

99
95

#200

92

10J,L

87

93
93

2P1J..L.

83
82

COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS
ASTM D 1557-66
MAX. DEN. 85 l b / c u fbPT. MOIST.

33 %

PREDOMINANT CLAY MINERALS:


Kaolinite
COMMENTS: CEC- 30.6
E~tooi!D

pH-4.9

G -2 . 82

5 ft . freeboard
90 ft. wide paved spillway
seepage through east abutment
eroded toe
lake 20 ft. from toe of dam

.......
0\
-.....)

DAM:

Ft. Westside

RESERVOIR SIZE:

!BEDROCK FORMATION:------4

Roubidoux (?)
LOCATION:
Sec.

Crawford County
T.39 N.

R.4 W~

EMBANKMENT: HEIGHT
LENGTH

TYPICAL DAM SECTION

23 ft
9 00 ft

lsoiL SERIES: Lebanon


Silt Loam

SOIL CLASSIFICATION:
LL

48 .

GRADATION:

#1.0
#40
#60
#100

PL

21

PI

27

% FINER

100
99
94
89

#200
10J,L
2JL

1J.L

83
56
38
37

COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS
ASTM D 15 57 , .66
MAX. DEN}-00 lb/cu ftoPT. MOIST.

22 %

PREDOMINANT CLAY MINERALS:


Kaolinite
COMMENTS: CEC-19.1 pH-4.6 G -2. 7 2
s
3 ft. freeboard
earth spillways
steep slopes--but no apparent
seepage
cutoff trench

1--'

0'\
00

DAM:

Rice

RESERVOJR SIZE:

15 Acres

jBEDROCK FORMATION: _ _ _---t

Roubidoux
LOCATION:

Sec. 17

Crawford County
T.39 N.

R.3

W.

EMBANKMENT: HEIGHT
4 2 ft.
LENGTH 960 ft.

TYPICAL DAM SECTION

_, 1s'\-

Lebanon

!soiL SERIES:

Silt Loam
SOIL CLASSIFICATION:
LL

27

PL

GRADATION:
#Ul
#40
#60
#tOO

15

PI

12

% FINER

100
88
71

#200
10J,L

58
35
21
18

2JJ..
1J.L

60

COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS
ASTM D 1557-66
MAX. DEN.121 lb/cu ftoPT. MOIST.

l 3%

.PREDOMINANT CLAY MINERALS:

Kaolinite
COMMENTS:

CEC- 8. 7

pH-5.2

Gs -2.72

3 ft. freeboard
seepage below toe into marsh
varment dens in backslope at water
line
no cutoff trench ?

......
0\
1.0

DAM:

Say ers

RESERVOIR SIZE:

43 Acres

BEDROCK FORMATION: _ _ _- !

Potosi
LOCATION: Washing ton County

Sec. 2 8

T .38 N.

EMBANKMENT: HEIGHT
LENGTH

R.l E.

TYPICAL DAM SECTION

60 ft
900 ft

!soiL SERIES: Clar k s v ille

Stony Loam
SOIL CLASSIFICATION:
105

LL

PL

GRADATION:

#Ul
#40
#60
#100

41

64

PI

% FINER

10 0

99
99
98

#200
10t,t.
2t,i.

98
96
93

1J.L

90

COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS

ASTM D 155 7-6.6


2..;;.
4 .;;;.
MAX. DEN. 7 4 l b / cu f t OPT. MOIST. __;,
%__
PREDOMINANT CLAY MINERALS:

Ka o lini,te
COMMENTS: CEC-44 . 9

pH-7 . 5

G -2 . 84
s

3 f t. f r eeboar d
s l ides and seepage through steep
crest section
40ft . wide - spillway- eroded
cutoff trench (?)

......
-....]

DAM:

Litt-le Prar1e

RESERVOIR SIZE:

LOCATION: Phelps County


Sec.

21

T.38 N.

R.7 W.

l.UU

EMBANKMENT: HEIGHT
LENGTH

TYPICAL DAM SECTION

Acres

jBEDROCK FORMATION: _ _ _- - t
Jefferson City

40 ft
1300 ft

lsoiL SERIES: Lebanon


Silt Loam

SOIL CLASSIFICATION:

57

LL

PL

GRADATION:
#Ul

23

34

% FINER

99
98
98
97

#40
#60
#100

PI

#200
10/.L
2JL

1/L

95

80
58
44

COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS
ASTM D 1557-66
MAX. DEN. 94 lb/cu ftoPT. MOIST.

27%

PREDOMINANT CLAY MINERALS:


Kaolinite
COMMENTS:
8 ft.

CEC-13.7

pH-7.8

G -2.72
s

freeboard

granular toe drain


drop inlet
cutoff trench

.....
--..J
.....

DAM:

-~

LOCATION:
Sec.

20

RESERVOIR SIZE:
Dent County

T.35 N.

R.S W.

6 0 Acres

EMBANKMENT: HEIGHT
LENGTH

TYPICAL DAM SECTION

fBEDROCK FORMATION: _ _ _- - t
Gasconade

9 .~~ ~~

ISOIL

E Clarksville St.
SERI S;_:.__ _ _ _ _ __

SOIL CLASSIFICATION:
LL

85

PL

GRADATION:

#1.0
#40

#60
#100

35

50

PI

% FINER

99
98
98
98

#200
2JL

98
97
87

1JJ-

83

10tL

COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS
ASTM D 1557-66
MAX. DEN. 8 3 lb/cu ftoPT. MOIST. ~3....:.4....::;%_ _
PREDOMINANT CLAY MINERALS:
. Kaolinite
COMMENTS:

Gs-2.80

6 ft. freeboard
unlined spillway--eroded
very wet to~--marsh
several zones of seepage through
dam and abutments

f-'
-....]

DAM:

Elsey

RESERVOIR SIZE:

j_

ACres

!BEDROCK FORMATION: _ _ _- !

Gasconade
LOCATION:

Sec. 30

Washington County
T.37 N.

R.2

E.

EMBANKMENT: HEIGHT
LENGTH

TYPICAL DAM SECTION

18 f t .
770 ft.

-- lsoiL SERIES: Clarksville


Stony Loam

SOIL CLASSIFICATION:
LL

84

PL

GRADATION:

25

PI

59

% FINER

#Ul

99

#40
#60
#100

98

#200
10tL

96

2JL

95

1J..L.

94
86
71
69

COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS

ASTM D 1557-66
MAX. DEN.89 lb /cu ft .OPT. MOIST.

26 . 5%

PREDOMINANT CLAY MINERALS:

Kaolinite
COMMENTS: CEC- 26. 9

pH-7.7

G -2.79
s

4 ft. freeboard
cutoff trench
two 50 ft. wide shallow spillways

1-'
-.....!

VI

DAM: I~II~

D:u I.a!;

LOCATION: St. Francois County

BEDROCK FORMATION:
Potosi

RESERVOIR SIZE:
EMBANKMENT: HEIGHT
LENGTH

TYPICAL DAM SECTION

SOIL SERIES:Clarksville
Grvl. Loam
SOIL CLASSIFICATION:
96
PL
LL
GRADATION:

#Ul
#40
#60
#100

100
100
99
98

35

61

PI

FINER
#200
10tL

2P.
tJj.

98
94
92
90

COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS
MAX. DEN. 79 lb/cu ft OPT. MOIST.

37%

PREDOMINANT CLAY MINERALS:


Kaolinite
COMMENTS: CEC- 2 7 9 pH-7.1 Gs-2.82
10 ft. freeboard
rock spillway
massive rock downstream bench
marshy valley floor
-~

......
"'-1
~

DAM:

Timberl1ne

LOCATION:

RESERVOIR SIZE:

St. Francois County

~~ Acr~~

BEDROCK FORMATION:

Potosi

75 ft.
67Sft.

EMBANKMENT: HEIGHT
LENGTH

Clarksville

SOIL SERIES:

Grvl. Loam

TYPICAL DAM SECTION

SOIL CLASSIFICATION:

69

LL

PL

GRADATION:

#Ul
#40
#60
#100

99
95
91
88

30

39

PI

% FINER

#200
10tL
2JL

1J.L.

85
80
79
78

COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS
MAX. DEN.

82 lbLcu fbPT.

MOIST.

36%

PREDOMINANT CLAY MINERALS:

Kaolinite
CEC- 2 7. 8 pH-5.1 Gs-2.83
4 ft. freeboard
rock spillway eroded
seepage through dam at several
locations
bench added to stabilize slope

COMMENTS:

----------

----

---------

---

------------

--

----

-----

- - - -

f-'
-....J

V1

176

IX.

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'
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d FRAULINI F. (1940). Properties of Kaolinite
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179

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'
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184

X.

VITA

Arthur David Alcott was born on 28 April, 1941 in


Asheville, North Carolina.

He received his primary and

secondary education in Sumter, South Carolina.

After high

school graduation, he attended Colorado School of Mines,


Golden, Colorado where he received a Geological Engineering
Degree in June, 1964.
He worked as a highway engineer for the Colorado
Department of Highways until January, 1966, and as a soils
and foundations engineer for Sverdrup
Assoc., Inc., St.

Louis~

& Parcel

and

Missouri until August, 1968.

He

has attended the University of Missouri - Rolla since that


time and was a graduate assistant during the 1969-1970
school year.
The author is a registered "Engineering-in-Training"
with the Colorado Board of Professional Registration.
is married to the former Molly Ann Orr of Lancaster,
Pennsylvania and has two daughters, Laura Ann and
Jennifer Ashley.

He