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KEA 130001
Total suspended solids (TSS)
From our experiment, the value of the TSS in upstream and downstream is shows
different in reading where the upstream is 39.0 mg/l and downstream is 49.0
mg/l. From this result, we can know that upstream has lower average value of
TSS than downstream. The amount of total suspended solids in a river is
influenced by how fast the water in the river is flowing and the time of year. The
faster the water flows, the more suspended solids it picks up and carries down
the river. Discharge is a measure of how fast water is flowing, and is measured as
the volume of water that passes by a particular point over a certain amount of
time. Discharge changes depending on the time of year as rains fall and snow
melts. The downstream usually has higher discharge than upstream because the
river is more narrow. As the distance increase the water gradually become fast
thus downstream had more TSS than upstream. Total suspended solids can also
be affected by human construction on the river. For example, dams are built to
collect water in reservoirs. As river water enters the reservoir, it slows down.
There are also nonpoint sources of suspended solids, such as soil erosion from
agricultural and construction sites. As levels of TSS increase, a water body
begins to lose its ability to support a diversity of aquatic life. Suspended solids
absorb heat from sunlight, which increases water temperature and subsequently
decreases levels of dissolved oxygen (warmer water holds less oxygen than
cooler water). Some cold water species, such as trout and stoneflies, are
especially sensitive to changes in dissolved oxygen. Photosynthesis also
decreases, since less light penetrates the water. As less oxygen is produced by
plants and algae, there is a further drop in dissolved oxygen levels. TSS can also
destroy fish habitat because suspended solids settle to the bottom and can
eventually blanket the river bed. Suspended solids can smother the eggs of fish
and aquatic insects, and can suffocate newly-hatched insect larvae. Suspended
solids can also harm fish directly by clogging gills, reducing growth rates, and
lowering resistance to disease. Changes to the aquatic environment may result
in a diminished food sources, and increased difficulties in finding food. Natural
movements and migrations of aquatic populations may be disrupted.
For experiment to have accurate result, the precaution step need to be taken
during doing the experiment. First of all, the sample from the big bottle need to
be shaken so that the water mix thoroughly. The vacuum suction has to rinse it
with the water sample respectively before we carried out the test so that the
particles do not attach to the wall of the suction that may affect the weight of the
suspended solid collected.

From our experiment, it the water sample from the upstream has value of 5
Hazen while for downstream has the of 15 Hazen. The colour of the water
different depend on the clean and pollution of the water. For the clean water the
color should be clear with no noticeable color deposits. In real life the upstream
usually has more clear water than downstream. For example many of the
waterfall where had become recreation place for people has nice clear color of
water. But as the water go to downstream the color changes significantly. The
color of water is affected may be due to the Presence of organic matter, metals
(iron, manganese) or highly colored industrial waste. Highly colored water has
significant effects on aquatic plants and algal growth. Light is very critical for the
growth of aquatic plants and colored water can limit the penetration of light.
Thus a highly colored body of water could not sustain aquatic life which could
lead to the long term impairment of the ecosystem. Very high algal growth that
stays suspended in a water body can almost totally block light penetration as
well as use up the dissolved oxygen in the water body, causing a eutrophic
condition that can drastically reduce all life in the water body. The upstream has
more clear color because there is no activity that will pollute the river where
people are more likely to live downstream where all industrial and domestic use
will change the color of river.
When doing the experiment, we need to avoid error that will alter the result.
Make sure all the instruments are cleaned before use so that the result will be
more accurate.

From our experiment, the turbidity of the upstream water is 2 NTU while the
downstream water is 7 NTU. The higher the water of turbidity indicate higher dirt
and suspended matter in the water. Turbidity is an optical determination of water
clarity. Turbid water will appear cloudy, murky, or otherwise colored, affecting the
physical look of the water. Suspended solids and dissolved colored material
reduce water clarity by creating an opaque, hazy or muddy appearance. Turbidity
measurements are often used as an indicator of water quality based on clarity
and estimated total suspended solids in water. Turbidity is an optical
characteristic of water and is an expression of the amount of light that is
scattered by material in the water when a light is shined through the water
sample. The higher the intensity of scattered light, the higher the turbidity.
During periods of low flow (base flow), many rivers are a clear green color, and
turbidities are low, usually less than 10 NTU. During a rainstorm, particles from
the surrounding land are washed into the river making the water a muddy brown
color, indicating water that has higher turbidity values. Also, during high flows,

water velocities are faster and water volumes are higher, which can more easily
stir up and suspend material from the stream bed, causing higher turbidities.
High concentrations of particulate matter affect light penetration and
productivity, recreational values, and habitat quality, and cause lakes to fill in
faster. In downstream, increased sedimentation and siltation can occur, which
can result in harm to habitat areas for fish and other aquatic life. Particles also
provide attachment places for other pollutants, notably metals and bacteria. For
this reason, turbidity readings can be used as an indicator of potential pollution
in a water body. The downstream is usually has higher pollution than upstream.


According the result that we obtained, we can conclude that the downstream water sample
was has more pollution and more lower water quality than upstream water. Downstream
water has higher value of TSS, color and turbidity than upstream water.







Upstream Water
Downstream Water

Solid (TSS)

The water sample taken upstream will contain less pollutants compared to the
water sample taken downstream because human activity is less. Human need to
learn to appreciate nature so that we can preserved the water quality.