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January 30, 1933: Hitler becomes chancellor

o Reasons; popular legitimacy

o Rightwing sympathies
o Comintern policy: communist parties should distance
themselves from the socialists
Capitalism would dismantle itselfwhile communist
required a revolution
1936 popular front government in France:
communist, socialist, and the radicalspolicy
no longer applicable
rapid centralization of power: Mussolini takes three years, Hitler
5.5 months
o achieved through political violence (learned from Mussolini,
and Stalin)
nullification of political dissent
o prime minister is pressured to give Geuring top
positionGeuring proceed to create a police force
this force is unleashed on political dissedents (mainly
socialists and communists)
February 28th, 1933: Reichstag Fire and aftermath
o Hitler blames the fire on the communists and convinces the
cabinet to ban the KPD communist party
The first concentration camps are built within a
month for communistsmassive deaths
Night of the fire Hindenburg gives emergency
power to the cabinet
March 23, 1933 elections: Nazis gain 44% of the vote
o But the KPD, SPD etc still held 41% of the vote,
But many of the KPD were not allowed to run, the
majority of those that wanted to run were prohibited
from doing so
o Nazis still needed 2/3 majority to alter the Weimar
Hitler doesnt want to dismantle Weimar through
extra parliamentary tactics (at least on the surface)
o Enabling act: Nazis get a 2/3 majority after the promise
the catholic party that Hitler would protect Catholics
Echoes of Mussolini
o Mass arrests of union officials, and other party becomes
targets (small Weimar parties)
The dnvp: nationalist party that shared Nazi ideology
were dissolved
Last party to be threatened were the Catholics

Gleichschaltung (coordination) every government bureau would

have a Nazi party shadowdual state
o Normative (bound my law) vs pro..(the unlimited power of
Every single thing had to be nazi-fied
June 30 , 1934: Rohm and the night of the long knives
o The association itself had grown from of million to two
Essentially two million men trained in street fighting

Hitler reverse the night of the long knives

august 2 : Hitler gets his titles (high chancellor etc)
o military is still not formally nazi-fied: but the oath they had
to take pledged total allegiance to Hitler
ss: originates in 19231933 has 50,00 members, starts has
Hitlers body guards1935 new view of the SS, populated by
racial elites
o SS members had to prove Aryan ancestry for generations
Marriages had to be approved by the SS and had to
be to Aryan women
Gestapo: only had 20,00 members, 3,00 were SS members but
they were seen as ominous and all knowing
o Gestapo were generally made up of career police that were
originally Weimar policemen
Law on Malicious Gossip: self surveillance
o No jokes/critiques of the governmentwere reported to the
2/3 of their tips came from ordinary citizens
denouncing their neighbors, they also were paid
Revolution der gesinnugrevolution of feeling:
o Not just a political program, rather beyond politics
Revolution will produce a new type of personeven
For this to happen a number of institutions
have to be dismantled
o Birth and wealth have to be set aside as
metrics for the definition of goodones
high borness according to family name or
bank account doesnt matter
Rather what matters is the
biological origins of that family

o Volksgemeincheft (peoples community: a way to realize

the racial ideology of the Mein Kampf
First attempt by the government ot figure out what
makes a jewie and what makes a german
Nuremburg lawssept 15th 1935
Christal Nacht: Jewish communist tries to assinate an
o Gobles gets on the radio and says that the party and the
government suggest protest against the jews tonight
91 jews are killed hunfreds of stores are looted
26,000 jewish resistors are sent to
concentration camps, and jews and charged
one billion marks for the cleanup
o lot of international blow back from this,
NY times reports on this
international community no longer
so understading of german post
war anger
o german people now understand attacks
on jews can essentially go unpunished
test of whats permissible
creation of the T4 plan: who is unworthy of life
o mentally ill, drug addicts, homosexualsall asocials
70,00 killed including 5,00 children
all within a year of christal nacht
greater germany: notion of racial grooming along with spatial
expansionpan german movement
o coicidences of race and spacerewuirs either mass
migrations or massive territorial expansion
piecemeal annexations: ,march 1938 Austria and
September/October 1938 Czechoslovakia
o did Hitler just miscalculate with Poland