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11/3/2016

HashemitesWikipedia

Hashemites
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

TheHouseofHashim,betterknownastheHashemitesHashmi(Arabic:,al
Hshimynalso"Hashimites"or"Hashimids"),aretheroyalfamilyoftheHejaz(1916
1925),Iraq(19211958),andJordan(1921present).ThefamilybelongstotheDhawu
Awn,oneofthebranchesoftheHasanidSharifsofMeccaalsoreferredtoasHashemites
whoruledMeccacontinuouslyfromthe10thcenturyuntilitsconquestbytheHouseof
Saudin1924.TheireponymousancestorisHashimibnAbdManaf,greatgrandfatherof
theIslamicprophet,Muhammad.

HouseofHashim/Hashmi's

ThecurrentdynastywasfoundedbySharifHusseinibnAli,whowasappointedasSharif
andEmirofMeccabySultanAbdulHamidIIin1908,thenin1916wasproclaimedKing
oftheArabLands(butonlyrecognizedasKingoftheHejaz)afterinitiatingtheArab
RevoltagainsttheOttomanEmpire.HissonsAbdullahandFaisalassumedthethronesof
JordanandIraqin1921.ThedynastyistheoldestrulingdynastyintheIslamicWorld,and
thesecondoldestintheworld.[1]

Contents
CoatsofarmsofJordan,Iraq,andHejaz

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3
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History
DuringandafterWorldWarI
Familytree
Seealso
References
Externallinks

Country

Syria,Iraq,Jordan
Parent
house
Titles

History
TheHashemites[2]claimtotracetheirancestryfromHashimibn'AbdManaf(diedc.497
AD),thegreatgrandfatheroftheIslamicprophetMuhammad,althoughthedefinition
todaymainlyreferstothedescendantsofMuhammad'sdaughterFatimah.[3]Theearly
historyoftheHashemitessawtheminacontinuousstruggleagainsttheUmayyadsfor
controloverwhowouldbethecaliphorsuccessortoMuhammad.TheUmayyadswereof
thesametribeastheHashemites,butadifferentclan.Aftertheoverthrowofthe
Umayyads,theAbbasidswouldpresentthemselvesasrepresentativesoftheHashemites,
astheyclaimeddescentfromAbbasibnAbdalMuttalib,anuncleofMuhammad.
Muhammad'sfatherhaddiedbeforehewasborn,andhismotherdiedwhilehewasachild,
soMuhammadwasraisedbyhisuncleAbuTalibibnAbdalMuttalib,chiefofthe
Hashemites.[4]
Fromthe10thcenturyonwards,thesharif(religiousleader)ofMeccaanditsEmirwas,by
traditionalagreement,aHashemite.BeforeWorldWarI,HusseinbinAlioftheHashemite
Dhawu'AwnclanruledtheHejazonbehalfoftheOttomansultan.Forsometimeithad
beenthepracticeoftheSublimePortetoappointtheEmirofMeccafromamongaselect
groupofcandidates.In1908,HusseinbinAliwasappointedtotheEmirateofMecca.He
foundhimselfincreasinglyatoddswiththeYoungTurksincontrolatIstanbul,whilehe
strovetosecurehisfamily'spositionashereditaryEmirs.

DuringandafterWorldWarI

DhawuAwn,abranchofBanu
Qatadah,ofBanuHasan,ofBanu
Hashim,ofQuraysh
KingofJordan
EmirofTransjordan
KingofIraq
KingofSyria
Caliph
KingoftheHejaz
KingoftheArabLands
SharifandEmirofMecca

Founded

1916inHejaz
1920inSyria
1921inIraqandJordan

Founder

HusseinibnAli

Final
ruler

AliinHejaz
FaisalIinSyria
FaisalIIinIraq

Current
head

Jordan: AbdullahII
Iraq: Ra'adbinZeid

Deposition 1925inHejaz(Saudiconquest)
1920inSyria(FrancoSyrianWar)
1958inIraq(14JulyRevolution)

SharifHusseinbinAlirebelledagainsttheruleoftheOttomansduringtheArabRevoltof1916.[5]
Between1917and1924,afterthecollapseofOttomanpower,HusseinbinAliruledanindependent
Hejaz,ofwhichheproclaimedhimselfking,withthetacitsupportoftheBritishForeignOffice.His
supportersaresometimesreferredtoas"Sharifians"orthe"Sharifianparty".HusseinbinAli'schief
rivalintheArabianPeninsula,thekingoftheNajd(highlands),IbnSaud,annexedtheHejazin1925
andestablishedhisownson,FaysalbinAbdulazizAlSaud,asgovernor.Theregionwaslater
incorporatedintoSaudiArabia.
HusseinbinAlihadfivesons:

Hejaz (inpresentdaySaudiArabia),

TheceremonialHashemitebannerof
theKingdomOfJordan

Ali,whobrieflysucceededtothethroneofHejazbeforeitslosstotheSaudfamilyin1925.
Abdullah,becametheamirofTransjordanin1921andkingofJordanin1946,andwhosedescendantscontinuetorulethekingdom
knowneversinceastheHashemiteKingdomofJordan.
Faisal,brieflyproclaimedKingoftheArabKingdomofSyriain1920,becameKingofIraqin1921.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hashemites

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