PROBLEM FORMULATION
1. How to use basic measurement tools?
2. How to determine the uncertainty in a single and repetitive measurement?
3. How to understand the important scientific number?
PURPOSE
1. Capable to use basic measurement tools.
2. Capable to determine the uncertainty in a single and repetitive measurement.
3. Understand the important scientific number.
BRIEF THEORY
Measurement is part of the Science Process Skills which is an information collecting
both quantitatively and qualitatively. By performing measurements. can be obtained
magnitude or value of a quantity or qualitative evidence. In science learning Physics. an
educator not only convey a collection of facts alone but should teach science as a process
(using a process approach). Therefore. conducting experiments in laborratorium. means
deliberately evoke natural phenomena and then perform the measurement.
1. Precision and Accuracy Measurement
a. Accuracy
If a quantity is measured several times (multiple measurements) and produce prices
that spread around the actual price then the measurement is said to be "accurate". On this
measure. the average price closer to the actual price.
b. Carefulness (Precision)
By using better quality measuring devices. it is expected that the results obtained are
also more appropriate. therefore. the absolute uncertainty stated accuracy of the
measurement results. The smaller the absolute uncertainty. the more precise the
measurement results.
Comparison between the absolute uncertainty of the measurement results (x / x) is
called the relative uncertainty on the value of {x}. often expressed in% (of course. must
be multiplied by 100%). Expressed relative uncertainty level of precision of the
measurement. The smaller the relative uncertainty. the higher the accuracy achieved in the
measurement. Repeated Measurements (Multiple)
With repetition hold. our knowledge of the true value of getting better. Repetition
should do often as possible. the more the better. but it is necessary to distinguish between
repetitions several times (2 times or 3 times only) and repetition quite frequently (10
times or more). In this module. we will only discuss the measurement berualng 2 or 3
times only. If the measurement is made by 3 kai. premises results x1. x2. and x3 or 2
times only example at the beginning of the experiment and at the end of the experiment.
then {x} and x can be determined as follows. The measurement values are reported as
{x } while deviation (deviation). the largest or average deviation reported as x.
Deviation is the difference between the measurement results of each average value. so:
x . average measurement
{x} =
=
maximum
average
with :
x =
deviation
2.
x 1 + x 2+ x3
3
1=x x.
1
dan.
1.
3 .
1+ 2+ 3
3
It is recommended that _max x therefore taken as a third value of x1. x2. x3 will be
included in the interval (xx) and (x + x).
4. Creeping Error in Single Measurement
Suppose a function y = f (a. b. c. .......). Y is the result of the calculation of measured
quantities a. b. and .c. (single measurement). If a change of da. b by db. and c unchanged
at dc. then:
5. Measurement of Length
a. Ruler
In each of the gauge there is a value scale that can no longer be divided. is called the
Smallest Scale Value (SSV). The accuracy of measuring devices rely on this SSV. Ruler
has SSV 0.1 cm or 1 mm.
b. Vernier Caliper
Each vernier caliper has a main scale (SU) and the auxiliary scale or Nonius scale
(SN). In general. the value of the main scale = 1mm. and many Nonius scale is not always
the same between the calliper calliper with others. Anyone have a 10 scale. 20 scale. and
some even have Nonius scale 50 scale. Vernier caliper is one of the gauge length scale
that can be specifically used to measure the inside diameter. outside diameter and depth.
To use the vernier caliper must first know the smallest scale value or SSV. The following
will be given how to determine SSV calipers.
Nonius scale 20 = 39 main scale
Because the value of the major scale is 1 mm. then
Nonius scale 20 = 39 mm
Thus. one Nonius scale = 1.95 mm Because one Nonius scale 1.95mm worth the value of
the scale on the main scale closest to 1.95 mm is 2 mm. difference between the two
values is the SSV scale of calipers.
SSV Term shoves = 2 mm  1.95 mm = 0.05 mm
To determine the results of measurements (HP) using micrometer screws are used the
equation:
Measurement results (HP)
= (PSM x Value Scale Horizontal) + (PSP x SSV Micrometer Screw)
c. Micrometer Screws
Micrometer screws have two bagin horizontal scale (SM) as the major scale and
the scale of the play (SP) as the Nonius scale. SSV micrometer screw can be determined
using the equation.
SSV =
In general. a micrometer screw has a Value Scale Horizontal (major scale) of 0.5
mm and the number of rotary scale 50 scale. and thus SSV SSV micrometer screw as
having amounted.
0.5 mm
= 0.01 mm
50
6. Mass measurement
a. Ohauss Balance 2610 grams
On balance. there are three arms to the limit measure Depending different. At the
end of the two pieces of sesame can be towed load values of each 500 grams and 1000
grams. So the ability or limit measure tool is to be 2610 grams. For measurements below
610 grams. enough balance and the make use of all arms above 610 grams to 2610 grams
plus the hanging load. The measurement results can be determined by appointment adds a
load hanging with all the appointments of arms balance.
b. Ohauss Balance 311 grams
This balance sheet has four arms with the value of the scale is different. each arm
has a limit measure and value different scale. To use this balance to first determine the
scale value of each arm of the Ohauss Balance SSV 311 grams. taken from the value of
the smallest scales of the four arms. Measurement results are determined by summing the
appointment of all the arm balance used.
c. Ohauss Balance 310 grams
The balance sheet has two arms with a value different scale and is equipped with a
rotary scale (major scale) and Nonius scale. SSV Ohauss Balance 310 can be determined
in the same manner with the calipers. The measurement results are determined by
summing the appointment of all the arm balance is added to the value of a measurement
scale and noniusnya swivel.
7. Measurement of Temperature and Time
Thermometer is an instrument used to measure the temperature of a substance.
Smallest scale value for both types of thermometers can be determined as well as
determining the value of the smallest scale an ordinary ruler. namely by taking a certain
limit measure and dividing by the number on a scale of zero to the measure taken.
Stopwatch is a time measuring tool most commonly used in the laboratory. This
instrument is equipped with a button to run. turn off and reverse the needle to zero. There
are several forms of a stopwatch with different SSV. How to determine the same
stopwatch to determine the SSV. SSV measuring devices without Nonius.
EXPERIMENT METHODOLOGYCAL
1. Tools and Materials
a. Ruler
b.Vernier Caliper
c. Micrometer Screw
d.Stopwatch
e. Thermometer
f. Cube
g.Ball
h.Ohauss Balance
i. Measuring Cup
j. Leg Three and Gauze
k.Bunsen Burner
l. Enough Water
2. Variables Identification
a. Length Measurement
1) Controlled Variable
2) Manipulated Variable
3) Response Variable
b. Mass Measurement
1) Controlled Variable
2) Manipulated Variable
: temperature
: time
: the change of temperature
3) Response Variable
b. Mass Measurement
1) Controlled Variable
: cube and ball are the measured objects that used in this
activity.
: length is a dimension which expressed the distance
between two points. measured in horizontal side of the
object. Width is the distance of one side to another side.
measured on upright straight of the length of the object.
While. height is a distance of one side to another side.
measured on vertical side of the object. And diameter is
line segment that connect two points of the circle across
the central point.
: volume is a quantity that express the capacity of the
object.
: cube and ball are the measured objects that used in this
activity.
2) Manipulated Variable
3) Response Variable
4. Prosedure
Firstly. prepare all the tools and materials needed in the experiment. The first
measurement done is the length measurement. Therefore. take a ruler. caliper and
micrometer screw. then the value of the smallest scale is determined. Measurement for
length. width. and height of the cubeshaped beam is provided each performed three
times for each tool. The measurement results are written on the table is accompanied by
uncertainty. Once it is done anyway to three times the diameter of the ball as well as to
each instrument and the results are written also on the table with the result of uncertainty.
A second measurement is a measurement of the mass. Therefore. take the balance of
ohauss 2610 grams. 311 grams ohauss balance. and Ohauss Balance 310 grams. Then. on
the beam cubes and balls made each three measurements for each appliance. After that.
the measurement results are written in tael accompanied by uncertainty.
A third measurement is a measurement of temperature and time. Therefore. take a
thermometer. stopwatch. Bunsen burners. the stand. and a measuring cup. At first. the
water is heated to ensure that all particles have been heat evenly. Then. when the particles
are evenly heat the temperature rise measurements were taken every minute. After that.
the results obtained are written in the table along with uncertainty.
EXPERIMENT RESULTS AND DATA ANALYSIS
1. Observation Result
a. Length Measurement
SSV ruler
= 0.1 cm = 1 mm
The difference is
SSV caliper = 2 mm  1.95 mm = 0.05 mm
SSV micrometer screw
Measured
Object
Measured
Quantity
Cube
Length
Width
Height
Ball
Diameter
Ruler
20.0 0.5
20.0 0.5
20.0 0.5
20.0 0.5
20.0 0.5
20.0 0.5
20.0 0.5
20.0 0.5
20.0 0.5
15.5 0.5
17.5 0.5
17.0 0.5
b. Mass Measurement
1) Ohauss Balance 2610 gram
Value of 1st arm
= limit measuring / total scale = 500 / 5 = 100 gram
Value of 2nd arm
= 100 / 10 = 10 gram
Value of 3rd arm
= 10 / 100 = 0.1 gram
Mass of hanging object = 0 gram
Table 2. Mass measurement result using Ohauss Balance 2610 gram
Hanging
Object
Arm 1
Arm 2
Arm 3
Object Mass (g)
Object
1.
1.
1.
1.
0
60
74.5
0
67.45 0.05
2.
2.
2.
2.
Cube
0
60
75
0
67.50 0.05
3.
3.
3.
3.
0
60
75.5
0
67.55 0.05
1.
1.
1.
1.
0
0
56.5
0
5.65 0.05
2.
2.
2.
2.
Ball
0
0
57.5
0
5.75 0.05
3.
3.
3.
3.
0
0
57.5
0
5.75 0.05
2) Ohaus Balance 311 gram
Value of 1st arm
= 100
Value of 2nd arm
= 10
rd
Value of 3 arm
=1
Value of 4th arm
= 0.01
gram
gram
gram
gram
Arm 1
Arm 2
Ball
Arm 3
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
0
0
3.
0
1.
0
2.
0
3.
0
Cube
Arm 3
60
60
3.
60
1.
0
2.
0
3.
0
7
7
3.
7
1.
5
2.
5
3.
5
49
49.5
3.
49.5
4.
69.5
5.
69.5
6.
69.5
= 2 (0.1) 0.19
= 0.2 0.19
= 0.01 gram
Table 4. Mass measurement result with Ohauss Balance 310 gram
Object
Cube
Ball
Arm 1
Arm 2
1.
1.
2.
2.
0
0
3.
0
1.
0
2.
0
3.
0
60
60
3.
60
1.
0
2.
0
3.
0
SSV
Appointmen
t of Rotary
Scale
1.
79
2.
77
3.
86
1.
73
2.
75
3.
64
Appointmen
t of Nonius
Scale
1.
3
2.
2
3.
7
1.
9
2.
10
3.
4
Time (s)
Temperature (0C)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
60.0 0.1
120.0 0.1
180.0 0.1
240.0 0.1
300.0 0.1
360.0 0.1
41.5 0.5
43.5 0.5
45.5 0.5
47.0 0.5
48.5 0.5
50.5 0.5
2. Data Analysis
The change of
Temperature (0C)
1.5 0.5
2.0 0.5
2.0 0.5
1.5 0.5
1.5 0.5
1.5 0.5
a. Length Mesurement
1) Cube length
Ruler
x =
x 1 + x 2+ x3 20.0+20.5+20.5
=
=20.3 mm
3
3
1=x x=20.020.3
mm
0.3 mm
2=x x=20.520.3
mm
0.2 mm
3=x x=20.520.3
mm
0.2 mm
max=0.3 mm x=0.3 mm
x
x
KR =
0.3
20.3
x 100% =
x 100% = 1.4%
3 AP
0.3mm
Vernier Caliper
x =
x 1 + x 2+ x3 20.50+20.20+20.10
=
=20.27 mm
3
3
maks=0.23 mm x=0.23 mm
KR =
x
x
x 100% =
0.23
20.27
x 100% = 1.1%
3 AP
0.23mm
Micrometer Screw
x =
x 1 + x 2+ x3 20.470+20.450+20.010
=
=20.310 mm
3
3
KR =
x 100% =
0.300
20.310
x 100% = 1.5%
3 AP
0.300mm
2) Cube Width
Ruler
x =
x 1 + x 2+ x3 20.0+20.0+20.0
=
=20.0mm
3
3
1=x x=20.020.0
mm
0 mm
2=x x=20.020.0
mm
0 mm
3=x x=20.020.0
mm
0 mm
KR =
x 100% =
1
20.0
x 100% = 5%
3 AP
DK = 100%  5% = 95%
HP =  x xmm
HP = 20.0
1.0mm
Vernier Caliper
x =
x 1 + x 2+ x3 20.15+20.30+20.20
=
=20.22 mm
3
3
3=x x=20.2020.22=0.02mm
3
maks=0.08 mm x=0.08 mm
x
x
KR =
x 100% =
0.08
20.22
x 100% = 0.4 %
4 AP
0.08mm
Micrometer Screw
x =
x 1 + x 2+ x3 20.470+20.480+20.470
=
=20.473 mm
3
3
1=x x=20.47020.473=0.003 mm
1
2=x x=20.48020.473=0.007 mm
2
3=x x=20.47020.473=0.003 mm
3
maks=0.01 mm x=0.007 mm
x
x
KR =
x 100% =
0.007
20.473
x 100% = 0.03 %
0.007mm
3) Cube Height
Ruler
x =
x 1 + x 2+ x3 20.0+20.0+20.0
=
=20.0mm
3
3
1=x x=20.020.0
mm
0 mm
2=x x=20.020.0
mm
0 mm
3=x x=20.020.0
mm
0 mm
4 AP
KR =
1
20.0
x 100% =
x 100% = 5%
3 AP
DK = 100%  5% = 95%
HP =  x xmm
HP = 20.0
1.0mm
Vernier Caliper
x =
x 1 + x 2+ x3 20.85+20.01+20.90
=
=20.59 mm
3
3
maks=0.23 mm x=0.58 mm
x
x
KR =
x 100% =
0.58
20.59
x 100% = 2.8%
3 AP
0.58mm
Micrometer Screw
x =
x 1 + x 2+ x3 20.420+20.410+20.410
=
=20.413 mm
3
3
1=x x=20.42020.413=0.007 mm
1
2=x x=20.41020.413=0.003 mm
2
3=x x=20.41020.413=0.003 mm
3
maks=0.01 mm x=0.007 mm
KR =
x
x
x 100% =
0.007
20.413
x 100% = 0.03 %
4 AP
HP =  x xmm
HP = 20.413
0.007mm
b. Diameter Measurement
1) Ball Diameter
Ruler
x =
x 1 + x 2+ x3 15.5+17.5+17.0
=
=16.7 mm
3
3
1=x x=15.516.7
mm
1.2mm
2=x x=17.516.7
mm
0.8 mm
3=x x=17.016.7
mm
0.3 mm
maks=1.2 mm x=1.2mm
x
x
KR =
x 100% =
1.2
16.47
x 100% = 7.3%
3 AP
1.2mm
Vernier Caliper
x =
x 1 + x 2+ x3 16.05+16.95+16.05
=
=16.35 mm
3
3
1=x x= 16.0516.35 0.30 mm
1
2=x x=16.9516.35=0.60mm
2
maks=0.60 mm x=0.60 mm
KR =
x
x
x 100% =
0.60
16.35
x 100% = 3.7%
3 AP
HP =  x xmm
HP = 16.35
0.60mm
Micrometer Screw
x =
x 1 + x 2+ x3 15.690+15.700+15.690
=
=15.693 mm
3
3
2=x x=15.70015.693=0.007 mm
2
3=x x=15.69015.693=0.003 mm
3
maks=0.01 mm x=0.007 mm
KR = =
x
x
0.007
15.693
x 100% =
x 100% = 0.04%
4 AP
0.007mm
c. Mass Measurement
1) Cube Mass
Ohauss Balance 2610 gram
x =
x 1 + x 2+ x3 67.45+67.50+67.55
=
=67.50 g
3
3
2=x x=67.5067.50=0 g
2
maks=0.15 g x=0.15 g
KR =
x
x
x 100% =
0.15
67.50
x 100% = 0.22%
4 AP
HP = 67.50 0.15g
Ohauss Balance 311 gram
x =
x 1 + x 2+ x3 67.490+67.495+67.495
=
=67.493 g
3
3
2=x x=67.49567.493=0.002 g
2
maks=0.003 g x=0.003 g
x
x
KR =
x 100% =
0.003
67.493
x 100% = 0.004%
4 AP
HP = 67.49 3 0.003g
Ohauss Balance 310 gram
x =
x 1 + x 2+ x3 67.93+67.72+68.67
=
=68.11 g
3
3
2=x x=67.7268.11=0.39 g
2
maks=0.56 g x=0.56 g
KR = =
x
x
x 100% =
0.56
68.11
2) Ball Mass
0.56g
x 100% = 0.82%
4 AP
x =
x 1 + x 2+ x3 5.65+5.75+5.75
=
=5.72 g
3
3
2=x x=5.755.72=0.03 g
2
maks=0.70 g x=0.70 g
KR = =
x
x
x 100% =
0.70
5.72
x 100% = 12.23%
2 AP
0.70g
x =
x 1 + x 2+ x3 5.695+5.695+5.695
=
=5.695 g
3
3
2=x x=5.6955.695=0 g
2
1
1
maks=0 g x= . NST = .0.01 g=0.005 g
2
2
KR = =
x
x
x 100% =
0.005
5.695
0.005g
x 100% = 0.088%
4 AP
x =
x 1 + x 2+ x3 7.39+7.51+6.44
=
=7.11 g
3
3
2=x x=7.517.11=0.40 g
2
maks=0.67 g x=0.67 g
x
x
KR = =
x 100% =
0.67
7.11
x 100% = 9.42%
0.40g
ERROR CREEPING
1. From length Measurement
a. Cube Volume
Ruler
V
p l t
V = 20.3
20.0
20.0
= 8,120 mm3
dV
dV
V
dV
=
V
dp dl dt
+ +
p l t
pp + l l + t t V
0.3
1
1
+
+
20.3
20.0 20.0 
8120 mm3
3 AP
8,120 mm3
= 0.11
= 893.2 mm3
KR=
V
V
100
10.9
V = V V mm3
DK = 100
893.2
8,120
100
= 10.9
2 AP
= 89.1
Vernier Caliper
V
p l t
20.27
V =
20.22 20.59
= 8,439.01 mm3
dV
dV
V
dV
=
V
V
dp dl dt
+ +
p l t
pp + l l + t t V
8,439.01 mm3
= 0.0433
= 365.409133 mm3
KR=
V
V
DK = 100
V =
=
=
100
4.3
365.409133
8439.01
= 95.7

V V mm3
Micrometer Screw
V
8439.01 mm3
p l t
100
= 4.3
3 AP
20.310
V =
20.470
20.410
= 8,485.37 mm3
dV
dV
V
dV
=
V
V
dp dl dt
+ +
p l t
pp + l l + t t V
= 0.0157
= 133.220309 mm3
KR=
V
V
100
1.57
V = V V mm3
DK = 100
133.22
8,485.37
V=
1 3
d
6
V=
1
6
3.14
 vddd
dV =
 
( 16 d ) dd
3
100
V = 2437.41 mm3
dV =
= 98.43
b. Ball Volume
Ruler
8,485.37 mm3
16.73
= 1.57
3 AP
1
dV = 3
d 2 dd
6
dV
V
1
3
d2
6
1 3
d
6
dd
3ddd V
3 d
V =
V
d 
3 1.2
V =
16.7 
dV
2,437.41
V =0.22 2,437.41
V =525.43 mm3
KR=
V
V
100
525.43
2,437.41
100
21.5
= 78.5
V = V V mm3
DK = 100
Vernier Caliper
V=
1 3
d
6
V=
1
6
3.14
V = 2,287.35 mm3
 vddd
dV =
 
dV =
( 16 d ) dd
3
1
dV = 3
d 2 dd
6
16.35
= 21.5
2 AP
dV
V
1
3
d2
6
1 3
d
6
dd
3ddd V
3 d
V = 
V
d
3 0.60
V =
16.35 
dV
2,287.35
V =0.11 2,287.35
V =246.54 mm3
KR=
V
V
100
246.54
2,287.35
100
10.8
= 89.2
V = V V mm3
DK = 100
Micrometer Screw
V=
1 3
d
6
V=
1
6
3.14
V = 2,021.38 mm3
 vddd
dV =
 
dV =
( 16 d ) dd
3
1
2
dV = 3
d dd
6
15.690
= 10.8
2 AP
dV
V
1
3
d2
6
1 3
d
6
dd
3ddd V
3 d
V = 
V
d
3 0.01
V =
15.69 
dV
2,021.38
V =0.0019 2,021.38
V =3.840622 mm3
KR=
V
V
100
3.84
2,021.38
100
0.19
= 99.81
V = V V mm3
DK = 100
m= 67.50 0.15g
m
v
67.50
8,120.00
= mv1
= 0.008
 m dm +vdv
d=
d=v1 dm+m v 2 dv
d
v1
mv2
= 1 dm + 1 dv
mv
mv
m/v 3
= 0.19
4 AP
 dmm + dvv
m v
=
+ 
m
v
0.15
893.2
=
+
0.008 m/v
67.50 8,120.0 
d=
=0.0022+0.1100 0.008 m/ v 3
=( 0.0022+ 0.1100 ) 0.008 m/v 3
=0.1122 0.008 m/v
=0.0009
KR=
g/mm
100
11.25

= 
DK = 100
0.0009
0.0080
100
= 88.75
g/mm3
0.0080 0.0009g/mm3
102 g /mm3
=0.80 0.09
m= 67.50 0.15g
m
v
67.50
8439.01
= mv1
= 0.008
 m dm +vdv
d=
d =v dm+m v dv
1
d
v
mv
= 1 dm + 1 dv
mv
mv
m/v 3
= 11.25
2 AP
 dmm + dvv
m v
=
+ 
m
v
0.15 365.41
=
+
0.008 m/ v
67.50 8439.01
d=
=0.0022+0.04330.008 m/v 3
=( 0.0022+ 0.0433 ) 0.008 m/v 3
=0.0455 0.008 m/v
=0.0004
KR=
g/mm
100
0.0004
0.0080
5
= 95

g/mm3
= 
DK = 100
100
=0.80 0.04
102 g /mm3
m= 67.50 0.15g
m
v
67.50
8485.37
= mv1
= 0.008
m/v 3
 m dm +vdv
d=
d=v1 dm+m v 2 dv
d
v 1
mv2
= 1 dm+ 1 dv
mv
mv
= 5%
3 AP
 dmm + dvv
m v
=
+ 
m
v
0.15 133.22
=
+
0.008 m/v
67.50 8485.37 
d=
=0.0022+0.01570.008 m/v 3
=( 0.0022+ 0.0157 ) 0.008 m/v 3
=0.0179 0.008 m/v
=0.0001
KR=
g/mm
100
0.0001
0.0080
1.25
= 98.75

g/mm3
= 
DK = 100
102 g /mm3
b. Ball density
Ruler and Ohauss Balance 2610 gram
m= 5.72 0.70g
v = 2,437.41 525.43 mm3
m
v
5.72
2437.41
= mv1
= 0.003
 m dm +vdv
d=
100
=0.80 0.04
d=v dm+m v dv
d
v1
mv2
= 1 dm + 1 dv
mv
mv
m/v 3
= 1.25%
3 AP
 dmm + dvv
m v
=
+ 
m
v
0.70 525.43
=
+
0.003 m/v
5.72 2,437.41
d=
=0.1223+0.21560.003 m/ v3
=( 0.1223+0.2156 ) 0.003 m/v 3
=0.3379 0.003 m/v
3
=0.001
KR=
DK = 100
g/mm
.
100
0.001
0.003
33.3
100
= 66.7
3
 
=0.3 0.1
= 33.3
g/mm
10 g /mm
m= 5.72 0.70g
v = 2287.35 246.54 mm3
m
v
5.72
2287.35
= mv1
= 0.0030
 m dm +vdv
d=
d=v dm+m v dv
d
v1
mv2
= 1 dm + 1 dv
mv
mv
m/v 3
2 AP
 dmm + dvv
m v
=
+ 
m
v
0.70 246.54
=
+
0.0030 m/ v
5.72 2287.35 
d=
=0.1223+0.10780.0030 m/v 3
=( 0.1223+0.1078 ) 0.0030 m/ v 3
=0.2301 0.0030 m/v
=0.0007
KR=
g/mm
100
0.0007
0.0030
23.3
DK = 100
100
= 23.3
= 76.7
3
 
0.0030 0.0007g/mm
g/mm
=0.30 0.07
10 g /mm
m= 5.72 0.70g
m
v
5.72
2,021.38
= mv1
= 0.0028
 m dm +vdv
d=
d=v dm+m v dv
1
d
v
mv
= 1 dm + 1 dv
mv
mv
m/v 3
2 AP
 dmm + dvv
m v
=
+ 
m
v
0.70
3.84
=
+
0.0028 m/ v
5.72 2021.38 
d=
=0.1223+0.00190.0028 m/v 3
=( 0.1223+0.0019 ) 0.0028 m/v 3
=0.1242 0.0028 m/v 3
g/mm3
=0.0003
KR=
DK = 100
100
10.7
0.0003
0.0028
100
2 AP
= 89.3
g/mm3
 
0.0028 0.0003g/mm3
=0.28 0.03
= 10.7
102 g /mm3
DISCUSSION
In this experiment, we have done three types of measurements, such as
measurements of length, mass measurement, and time and temperature measurement. In
the length measurements, where the measured object is cube and ball using measuring
instruments, such as ruler, vernier caliper and micrometer screw for each object.
Meanwhile, the mass measurements are also used cubes and balls as the measured. In this
measurement, we used three kinds of ohauss balance, such as ohauss balance 2610 gram,
ohauss balance 311 gram, and ohauss balance 310 gram. On the measurement of time and
temperature, the measured object is a change of water temperature at each interval of one
minute. The tools that used are thermometer and stopwatch, each for measuring the
temperature and time.
The example of length measurements of the cube and ball, the result of length
measurement using ruler is20.0 0.5mm, then the results of the length measurement
using vernier caliper are 20.50 0.05mm, and the result of length measurement using
micrometer screw is 20.470 0.005 mm. As we know before that, the SSV of every
measuring tools is different so the accuracy of every measuring tool is also different,
where the SSV is smaller so the relative uncertainty is also smaller. Based on the above
measurement, we know that the difference of measurement result of the first object in
every measuring tool. This is caused by the SSV of every measuring tool. From these
data, we can determine that the most rigorous measurement tool among the three
measuring devices are as micrometer screw micrometer screw has the smallest NST
compared with a ruler and calipers. So, the conclusion is NST a measuring instrument
will affect the measurement results of the measuring instrument itself and the smaller the
NST a measuring instrument, the more thorough the instruments anyway.
From the results of measurements of the mass of the cube using ohauss balance
of 2610 grams of a row of beams of the cube and the ball is 67.45 0.05gram
dan5.65 0.05gram, ohauss balance 311 grams in a row of cubes and blocks the ball
adalah67.490 0.005 gram dan5.695 0.005gram, balance ohauss 310 grams of
consecutive blocks cubes and balls are 0.01gram dan7.39 67.93 0.01gram. So,
if seen from the above data it can be concluded that the balance sheet is the most
thorough ohauss ohauss balance of 311 grams.
At a temperature measurement of the time it is known that every 1 minute
calculated temperature rise, it can be seen from our results in a row from the first 60
seconds to 360 seconds with a starting temperature to 40 0C. The result is 41,50C, 43,50C,
45,50C, 47,00C, 48,50C, and 50,50C. From these data it can be seen that changes in the
temperature range from 20C and 1,50C. It can be concluded that changes every minute
temperature does not very much.
CONCLUSION
Based on practical work that has been done, it can be concluded that the accuracy
of measuring instruments depends on NST tools, precision praktikan when making
measurements, and good data is the data obtained by measurement with accuracy
praktikan when retrieving data. Where the higher precision measuring instrument, the
smaller the uncertainty obtained. The smaller the absolute uncertainty, the better the
results of measurements that have been done, and the smaller the relative uncertainty
means that the higher the accuracy achieved in the measurements. As for some
differences in measurement results that have been done repeatedly by 3 person, may of
which there are errors in measuring and mebaca errors in measurement results. Therefore,
it is necessary rigor in the use of measuring tools especially how to read the measurement
results that are perpendicular in order to obtain more accurate results. On the
measurement of temperature versus time, it can be concluded that the increase in the
temperature of the water that is heated in the first interval of 60 seconds and 60 seconds
of the second and so on, change the temperature is not very much.
REFERENCES
Saripudin. A.. dkk. 2011. Advanced Learning Physics 1A. Bandung : Facil.
Serway and Jewett. 2009. Fisika untuk Sains dan Teknik. Jakarta Selatan : Salemba
Teknika.
Subaer. dkk. 2013. Penuntun Praktikum Eksperimen Fisika I Unit Laboratorium Fisika
Modern JurusanFisika FMIPA UNM
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