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BASIC MEASUREMENT AND UNCERTAINTIES

Mutmainnah S. Rezky Nur Ariatami. Sulbiana. Yola Ivonny Harianto *)

Laboratory of Fundamental Physics Departement of Physics FMIPA


Universitas Negeri Makassar 2015
Abstract. We have done an experiments about "Basic Measurement and Uncertainties" by our
groups. This experiment has a purpose to make the university students especially for Physics
university students capable to use basic measuring tools and determine the uncertainty in a single
and repetitive measurement. as well as to understand or comprehend the use of important scientific
number. Before doing the experiment. firstly we must know the tools that we will use both
function and working principles. as well as how to determine the Smallest Scale Value (SSV) from
the tools and absolute error (x) which would then be used in the physics reporting. The
measuring tools that we used in this experiment. such as ruler. vernier caliper. micrometer screw.
ohauss balance 2610 grams. ohauss balance 311 grams. ohauss balance 310 grams. thermometer.
and stopwatch. By using the eight tools. we have done three kinds of measurement. such as length.
width. and height of the cube and diameter of the ball. while in mass measurement we use ohauss
balance 2610 grams. ohauss balance 311 grams. ohauss balance 310 grams. and in temperature
measurement we use thermometer and in time measurement we use stopwatch.
Keywords : measurement, measuring tools, important significant number, uncertainty, SSV.

PROBLEM FORMULATION
1. How to use basic measurement tools?
2. How to determine the uncertainty in a single and repetitive measurement?
3. How to understand the important scientific number?
PURPOSE
1. Capable to use basic measurement tools.
2. Capable to determine the uncertainty in a single and repetitive measurement.
3. Understand the important scientific number.
BRIEF THEORY
Measurement is part of the Science Process Skills which is an information collecting
both quantitatively and qualitatively. By performing measurements. can be obtained
magnitude or value of a quantity or qualitative evidence. In science learning Physics. an
educator not only convey a collection of facts alone but should teach science as a process
(using a process approach). Therefore. conducting experiments in laborratorium. means
deliberately evoke natural phenomena and then perform the measurement.
1. Precision and Accuracy Measurement
a. Accuracy
If a quantity is measured several times (multiple measurements) and produce prices
that spread around the actual price then the measurement is said to be "accurate". On this
measure. the average price closer to the actual price.
b. Carefulness (Precision)

If the measurement results is concentrated in a particular area then called precision


measurements (each measurement price is not much different).
2. Important Scientific Number
As for the rules of significant figures or significant digits. namely:
1. All of the numbers are not zero are significant figures
2. The zero that is located between the numbers is not zero. including important
figures example: 25.04 A contains four significant figures
3. The zero on the right number is not zero. including significant figures. unless there
are other explanations. such as a line under the last digit is still considered
important. Examples of 22.30 m containing four significant figures and 22.30
contains three significant figures.
4. Zeros are located on the left digit is not zero. either on the right or the left of the
decimal point excluding significant figures. Example: 0.47 cm contains 2
significant figures.
3. Measurement Uncertainty Analysis
A measurement is always accompanied by uncertainty. Some of the causes of these
uncertainties include Smallest Scale Value (SSV). error calibration. zero point errors.
errors of parallax. friction. fluctuations in measurement parameters and influence a
difficult environment as well as the skill of the observer. Thus it is difficult to get the true
value of a quantity by measurement. Some guides will be presented in this module.
namely how to report accompanying uncertainty.
Single Measurement Uncertainty
Single measurement is a measurement performed only once. Limitations of the gauge
scale and limited ability to observe as well as many other sources of error. resulting in.
Results Measurement Uncertainty Always infestation. The value of x until the last stroke
can be known with certainty. but reading the rest is mere conjecture or supposition that is
dubious. This uncertainty is defined and denoted by x. Coat x is the absolute
uncertainty. For a single measurement taken of wisdom:
x = SSV Tool
Where x is the uncertainty of a single measurement. Number 2 has the meaning of the
scale (value between two nearest scratches) can still be clearly divided into 2 parts by
eye. Value x merHasil dilaporka measurements in a way that has been standardized as
follows.
X = | x x | unit
Where do:
X = symbol magnitudes measured
x = measurement result and its uncertainty.
x or absolute uncertainty on the value of {x} and give an idea of the quality of
measuring iSSVruments used. The better the quality of the gauge. the smaller x
obtained.
Repeated Measurement Uncertainty (Multiple)

By using better quality measuring devices. it is expected that the results obtained are
also more appropriate. therefore. the absolute uncertainty stated accuracy of the
measurement results. The smaller the absolute uncertainty. the more precise the
measurement results.
Comparison between the absolute uncertainty of the measurement results (x / x) is
called the relative uncertainty on the value of {x}. often expressed in% (of course. must
be multiplied by 100%). Expressed relative uncertainty level of precision of the
measurement. The smaller the relative uncertainty. the higher the accuracy achieved in the
measurement. Repeated Measurements (Multiple)
With repetition hold. our knowledge of the true value of getting better. Repetition
should do often as possible. the more the better. but it is necessary to distinguish between
repetitions several times (2 times or 3 times only) and repetition quite frequently (10
times or more). In this module. we will only discuss the measurement berualng 2 or 3
times only. If the measurement is made by 3 kai. premises results x1. x2. and x3 or 2
times only example at the beginning of the experiment and at the end of the experiment.
then {x} and x can be determined as follows. The measurement values are reported as
{x } while deviation (deviation). the largest or average deviation reported as x.
Deviation is the difference between the measurement results of each average value. so:

x . average measurement

{x} =
=

maximum

average

with :

x =
deviation

2.

x 1 + x 2+ x3
3

1=|x x|.
1

dan.

2=|x x|. 3=|x x|


2

is the highest value of

1.

3 .

Or we can take from :


x =

1+ 2+ 3
3

It is recommended that _max x therefore taken as a third value of x1. x2. x3 will be
included in the interval (x-x) and (x + x).
4. Creeping Error in Single Measurement
Suppose a function y = f (a. b. c. .......). Y is the result of the calculation of measured
quantities a. b. and .c. (single measurement). If a change of da. b by db. and c unchanged
at dc. then:

dy = | y / a | da + | y / b | db + | y / c | dc analogue of the above. can be written


as:
y = | y / a | a + | y / b | b + | y / c | c
a. b. c ... ..diperoleh of SSV measuring iSSVrument or by the rules that have
been described previously.

5. Measurement of Length
a. Ruler
In each of the gauge there is a value scale that can no longer be divided. is called the
Smallest Scale Value (SSV). The accuracy of measuring devices rely on this SSV. Ruler
has SSV 0.1 cm or 1 mm.
b. Vernier Caliper
Each vernier caliper has a main scale (SU) and the auxiliary scale or Nonius scale
(SN). In general. the value of the main scale = 1mm. and many Nonius scale is not always
the same between the calliper calliper with others. Anyone have a 10 scale. 20 scale. and
some even have Nonius scale 50 scale. Vernier caliper is one of the gauge length scale
that can be specifically used to measure the inside diameter. outside diameter and depth.
To use the vernier caliper must first know the smallest scale value or SSV. The following
will be given how to determine SSV calipers.
Nonius scale 20 = 39 main scale
Because the value of the major scale is 1 mm. then
Nonius scale 20 = 39 mm
Thus. one Nonius scale = 1.95 mm Because one Nonius scale 1.95mm worth the value of
the scale on the main scale closest to 1.95 mm is 2 mm. difference between the two
values is the SSV scale of calipers.
SSV Term shoves = 2 mm - 1.95 mm = 0.05 mm
To determine the results of measurements (HP) using micrometer screws are used the
equation:
Measurement results (HP)
= (PSM x Value Scale Horizontal) + (PSP x SSV Micrometer Screw)
c. Micrometer Screws
Micrometer screws have two bagin horizontal scale (SM) as the major scale and
the scale of the play (SP) as the Nonius scale. SSV micrometer screw can be determined
using the equation.

SSV =

Value of Horizontal Scale


N

In general. a micrometer screw has a Value Scale Horizontal (major scale) of 0.5
mm and the number of rotary scale 50 scale. and thus SSV SSV micrometer screw as
having amounted.

SSV of Micrometer Screw=

0.5 mm
= 0.01 mm
50

The measurement results of a micrometer screw can be determined by reading the


appointment of the tip of the rotary scale major scale and the horizontal line (which
divides the two main scale to the scale of the top and bottom) to turn the scale. To
determine the results of measurements (HP) using a micrometer screw used the equation:
Measurement Result (HP)
= (PSM X Value Scale Horizontal) + (X SSV appointment Play Scale Micrometer
Screw)

6. Mass measurement
a. Ohauss Balance 2610 grams
On balance. there are three arms to the limit measure Depending different. At the
end of the two pieces of sesame can be towed load values of each 500 grams and 1000
grams. So the ability or limit measure tool is to be 2610 grams. For measurements below
610 grams. enough balance and the make use of all arms above 610 grams to 2610 grams
plus the hanging load. The measurement results can be determined by appointment adds a
load hanging with all the appointments of arms balance.
b. Ohauss Balance 311 grams
This balance sheet has four arms with the value of the scale is different. each arm
has a limit measure and value different scale. To use this balance to first determine the
scale value of each arm of the Ohauss Balance SSV 311 grams. taken from the value of
the smallest scales of the four arms. Measurement results are determined by summing the
appointment of all the arm balance used.
c. Ohauss Balance 310 grams
The balance sheet has two arms with a value different scale and is equipped with a
rotary scale (major scale) and Nonius scale. SSV Ohauss Balance 310 can be determined
in the same manner with the calipers. The measurement results are determined by
summing the appointment of all the arm balance is added to the value of a measurement
scale and noniusnya swivel.
7. Measurement of Temperature and Time
Thermometer is an instrument used to measure the temperature of a substance.
Smallest scale value for both types of thermometers can be determined as well as
determining the value of the smallest scale an ordinary ruler. namely by taking a certain
limit measure and dividing by the number on a scale of zero to the measure taken.
Stopwatch is a time measuring tool most commonly used in the laboratory. This
instrument is equipped with a button to run. turn off and reverse the needle to zero. There
are several forms of a stopwatch with different SSV. How to determine the same
stopwatch to determine the SSV. SSV measuring devices without Nonius.
EXPERIMENT METHODOLOGYCAL
1. Tools and Materials
a. Ruler

b.Vernier Caliper
c. Micrometer Screw
d.Stopwatch
e. Thermometer
f. Cube
g.Ball
h.Ohauss Balance
i. Measuring Cup
j. Leg Three and Gauze
k.Bunsen Burner
l. Enough Water
2. Variables Identification
a. Length Measurement
1) Controlled Variable
2) Manipulated Variable
3) Response Variable
b. Mass Measurement
1) Controlled Variable
2) Manipulated Variable

: cube and ball


: length. width. height. dan diameter
: volume

: cube and ball


: ohauss balance 2610 gram. ohauss balance 311 gram.
and ohauss balance 310 gram
3) Response Variable
: density
c. Time and Temperature Measurement
1) Controlled Variable
2) Manipulated Variable
3) Response Variable

: temperature
: time
: the change of temperature

3. Operational Variable Definition


a. Length Measurement
1) Controlled Variable
2) Manipulated Variable

3) Response Variable
b. Mass Measurement
1) Controlled Variable

: cube and ball are the measured objects that used in this
activity.
: length is a dimension which expressed the distance
between two points. measured in horizontal side of the
object. Width is the distance of one side to another side.
measured on upright straight of the length of the object.
While. height is a distance of one side to another side.
measured on vertical side of the object. And diameter is
line segment that connect two points of the circle across
the central point.
: volume is a quantity that express the capacity of the
object.
: cube and ball are the measured objects that used in this
activity.

2) Manipulated Variable

3) Response Variable

: ohauss balance 2610 gram. ohauss balance 311 gram.


and ohauss balance 310 gram are the measuring tools that
used to measure the mass of the objects.
: density is mass measurement in every volume of the
object. Higher density ot he object. higher volume of the
object.

c. Time and Temperature Measurement


1) Controlled Variable
2) Manipulated Variable
3) Response Variable

: temperature is a quantity that express hot degree of the


water.
: time is a quantity that express the long of the activity
take places.
: the change of temperature is the temperature difference
from the temperature of one time to next time.

4. Prosedure
Firstly. prepare all the tools and materials needed in the experiment. The first
measurement done is the length measurement. Therefore. take a ruler. caliper and
micrometer screw. then the value of the smallest scale is determined. Measurement for
length. width. and height of the cube-shaped beam is provided each performed three
times for each tool. The measurement results are written on the table is accompanied by
uncertainty. Once it is done anyway to three times the diameter of the ball as well as to
each instrument and the results are written also on the table with the result of uncertainty.
A second measurement is a measurement of the mass. Therefore. take the balance of
ohauss 2610 grams. 311 grams ohauss balance. and Ohauss Balance 310 grams. Then. on
the beam cubes and balls made each three measurements for each appliance. After that.
the measurement results are written in tael accompanied by uncertainty.
A third measurement is a measurement of temperature and time. Therefore. take a
thermometer. stopwatch. Bunsen burners. the stand. and a measuring cup. At first. the
water is heated to ensure that all particles have been heat evenly. Then. when the particles
are evenly heat the temperature rise measurements were taken every minute. After that.
the results obtained are written in the table along with uncertainty.
EXPERIMENT RESULTS AND DATA ANALYSIS
1. Observation Result
a. Length Measurement
SSV ruler

: measuring limit = 1cm


10

= 0.1 cm = 1 mm

SSV vernier caliper scale total: 20 nonius scale = 39 main scale


Because the value of main scale is 1 mm. so that
1 SN = 39/20 = 1.95 mm close to 2 mm. so

The difference is
SSV caliper = 2 mm - 1.95 mm = 0.05 mm
SSV micrometer screw

: value of horizontal scale = limit / total scale


mm = 0.5 mm
Tools SSV = N.SM = 0.5 mm = 0.01 mm
J. SP
50

Table 1. Length measuring result


No
1

Measured
Object

Measured
Quantity

Cube
Length
Width
Height

Ball
Diameter

Ruler
20.0 0.5
20.0 0.5
20.0 0.5
20.0 0.5
20.0 0.5
20.0 0.5
20.0 0.5
20.0 0.5
20.0 0.5
15.5 0.5
17.5 0.5
17.0 0.5

Measuring Result (mm)


Vernier
Micrometer
Caliper
Screw
20.500.05
20.4700.005
20.200.05
20.4500.005
20.100.05
20.0100.005
20.150.05
20.4700.005
20.300.05
20.4800.005
20.200.05
20.4700.005
20.850.05
20.4200.005
20.010.05
20.4100.005
20.900.05
20.4100.005
16.050.05
15.6900.005
16.950.05
15.7000.005
16.050.05
15.6900.005

b. Mass Measurement
1) Ohauss Balance 2610 gram
Value of 1st arm
= limit measuring / total scale = 500 / 5 = 100 gram
Value of 2nd arm
= 100 / 10 = 10 gram
Value of 3rd arm
= 10 / 100 = 0.1 gram
Mass of hanging object = 0 gram
Table 2. Mass measurement result using Ohauss Balance 2610 gram
Hanging
Object
Arm 1
Arm 2
Arm 3
Object Mass (g)
Object
1.
1.
1.
1.
0
60
74.5
0
67.45 0.05
2.
2.
2.
2.
Cube
0
60
75
0
67.50 0.05
3.
3.
3.
3.
0
60
75.5
0
67.55 0.05
1.
1.
1.
1.
0
0
56.5
0
5.65 0.05
2.
2.
2.
2.
Ball
0
0
57.5
0
5.75 0.05
3.
3.
3.
3.
0
0
57.5
0
5.75 0.05
2) Ohaus Balance 311 gram
Value of 1st arm
= 100
Value of 2nd arm
= 10
rd
Value of 3 arm
=1
Value of 4th arm
= 0.01

gram
gram
gram
gram

Table 3. Mass measurement result with Ohauss Balance 311 gram


Object

Arm 1

Arm 2

Ball

Arm 3

1.

1.

1.

1.

2.

2.

2.

2.

0
0
3.
0
1.
0
2.
0
3.
0

Cube

Arm 3

60
60
3.
60
1.
0
2.
0
3.
0

7
7
3.
7
1.
5
2.
5
3.
5

3) Ohauss Balance 310 gram


Value of 1st arm
= 100 g
Value of 1st arm
= 10 g
Value rotary scale
= 0.1 g
Total of nonius scale = 10

49
49.5
3.
49.5
4.
69.5
5.
69.5
6.
69.5

Object Mass (g)


67.490 0.005
67.495 0.005
67.495 0.005
5.695 0.005
5.695 0.005
5.695 0.005

SSV of Ohauss Balance 310 gram

= 2 (0.1) 0.19
= 0.2 0.19
= 0.01 gram
Table 4. Mass measurement result with Ohauss Balance 310 gram

Object
Cube
Ball

Arm 1

Arm 2

1.

1.

2.

2.

0
0
3.
0
1.
0
2.
0
3.
0

60
60
3.
60
1.
0
2.
0
3.
0

SSV

Appointmen
t of Rotary
Scale
1.
79
2.
77
3.
86
1.
73
2.
75
3.
64

c. Time and Temperature Measurement


SSV of thermometer
= 10C
Initial temperature
= 400C

Appointmen
t of Nonius
Scale
1.
3
2.
2
3.
7
1.
9
2.
10
3.
4

Object Mass (g)


67.93 0.01
67.72 0.01
68.67 0.01
7.39 0.01
7.51 0.01
6.44 0.01

SSV of stopwatch = 0.1 s

Table 5. Time and temperature measurement result


No.

Time (s)

Temperature (0C)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

60.0 0.1
120.0 0.1
180.0 0.1
240.0 0.1
300.0 0.1
360.0 0.1

41.5 0.5
43.5 0.5
45.5 0.5
47.0 0.5
48.5 0.5
50.5 0.5

2. Data Analysis

The change of
Temperature (0C)
1.5 0.5
2.0 0.5
2.0 0.5
1.5 0.5
1.5 0.5
1.5 0.5

a. Length Mesurement
1) Cube length
Ruler

x =

x 1 + x 2+ x3 20.0+20.5+20.5
=
=20.3 mm
3
3

1=|x x|=|20.020.3|

mm

0.3 mm

2=|x x|=|20.520.3|

mm

0.2 mm

3=|x x|=|20.520.3|

mm

0.2 mm

max=0.3 mm x=0.3 mm
x
x

KR =

0.3
20.3

x 100% =

x 100% = 1.4%

3 AP

DK = 100% - 1.4% = 98.6%


HP = | x xmm
HP = |20.3

0.3mm

Vernier Caliper

x =

x 1 + x 2+ x3 20.50+20.20+20.10
=
=20.27 mm
3
3

1=|x x|= 20.520.27 0.23 mm


1

2=|x x|= 20.2020.27 0.07 mm


2

3=|x x|= 20.1020.27 0.17 mm


3

maks=0.23 mm x=0.23 mm
KR =

x
x

x 100% =

0.23
20.27

x 100% = 1.1%

3 AP

DK = 100% - 1.1% = 98.9%


HP = | x xmm
HP = |20.27

0.23mm

Micrometer Screw

x =

x 1 + x 2+ x3 20.470+20.450+20.010
=
=20.310 mm
3
3

1=|x x|= 20.47020.310 0.160 mm


1

2=|x x|= 20.45020.310 0.140 mm


2

3=|x x|= 20.01020.310 0.300 mm


3

maks =0.30 mm x=0.300 mm


x
x

KR =

x 100% =

0.300
20.310

x 100% = 1.5%

3 AP

DK = 100% - 1.5% = 98.5%


HP = | x xmm
HP = |20.310

0.300mm

2) Cube Width
Ruler

x =

x 1 + x 2+ x3 20.0+20.0+20.0
=
=20.0mm
3
3

1=|x x|=|20.020.0|

mm

0 mm

2=|x x|=|20.020.0|

mm

0 mm

3=|x x|=|20.020.0|

mm

0 mm

max=0 mm x=1 . NST=1 .1 mm=1 mm


x
x

KR =

x 100% =

1
20.0

x 100% = 5%

3 AP

DK = 100% - 5% = 95%
HP = | x xmm
HP = |20.0

1.0mm

Vernier Caliper

x =

x 1 + x 2+ x3 20.15+20.30+20.20
=
=20.22 mm
3
3

1=|x x|= 20.1520.22 0.07 mm


1

2=|x x|= 20.3020.22 0.08 mm


2

3=|x x|=|20.2020.22|=0.02mm
3

maks=0.08 mm x=0.08 mm
x
x

KR =

x 100% =

0.08
20.22

x 100% = 0.4 %

4 AP

DK = 100% - 0.4% = 99.6%


HP = | x xmm
HP = |20.22

0.08mm

Micrometer Screw

x =

x 1 + x 2+ x3 20.470+20.480+20.470
=
=20.473 mm
3
3

1=|x x|=|20.47020.473|=0.003 mm
1

2=|x x|=|20.48020.473|=0.007 mm
2

3=|x x|=|20.47020.473|=0.003 mm
3

maks=0.01 mm x=0.007 mm
x
x

KR =

x 100% =

0.007
20.473

x 100% = 0.03 %

DK = 100% - 0.03% = 99.97%


HP = | x xmm
HP = |20.473

0.007mm

3) Cube Height
Ruler

x =

x 1 + x 2+ x3 20.0+20.0+20.0
=
=20.0mm
3
3

1=|x x|=|20.020.0|

mm

0 mm

2=|x x|=|20.020.0|

mm

0 mm

3=|x x|=|20.020.0|

mm

0 mm

4 AP

maks=0 mm x =1 NST =1 1 mm=1mm


x
x

KR =

1
20.0

x 100% =

x 100% = 5%

3 AP

DK = 100% - 5% = 95%
HP = | x xmm
HP = |20.0

1.0mm

Vernier Caliper

x =

x 1 + x 2+ x3 20.85+20.01+20.90
=
=20.59 mm
3
3

1=|x x|= 20.8520.59 0.26 mm


1

2=|x x|= 20.0120.59 0.58 mm


2

3=|x x|= 20.9020.59 0.31 mm


3

maks=0.23 mm x=0.58 mm
x
x

KR =

x 100% =

0.58
20.59

x 100% = 2.8%

3 AP

DK = 100% - 2.8% = 97.2%


HP = | x xmm
HP = |20.59

0.58mm

Micrometer Screw

x =

x 1 + x 2+ x3 20.420+20.410+20.410
=
=20.413 mm
3
3

1=|x x|=|20.42020.413|=0.007 mm
1

2=|x x|=|20.41020.413|=0.003 mm
2

3=|x x|=|20.41020.413|=0.003 mm
3

maks=0.01 mm x=0.007 mm
KR =

x
x

x 100% =

0.007
20.413

DK = 100% - 0.03% = 99.97%

x 100% = 0.03 %

4 AP

HP = | x xmm
HP = |20.413

0.007mm

b. Diameter Measurement
1) Ball Diameter
Ruler

x =

x 1 + x 2+ x3 15.5+17.5+17.0
=
=16.7 mm
3
3

1=|x x|=|15.516.7|

mm

1.2mm

2=|x x|=|17.516.7|

mm

0.8 mm

3=|x x|=|17.016.7|

mm

0.3 mm

maks=1.2 mm x=1.2mm
x
x

KR =

x 100% =

1.2
16.47

x 100% = 7.3%

3 AP

DK = 100% - 7.3% = 92.7%


HP = | x xmm
HP = |16.7

1.2mm

Vernier Caliper

x =

x 1 + x 2+ x3 16.05+16.95+16.05
=
=16.35 mm
3
3
1=|x x|= 16.0516.35 0.30 mm
1

2=|x x|=|16.9516.35|=0.60mm
2

3=|x x|= 16.0516.35 0.30 mm


3

maks=0.60 mm x=0.60 mm
KR =

x
x

x 100% =

DK = 100% - 3.7% = 96.3%

0.60
16.35

x 100% = 3.7%

3 AP

HP = | x xmm
HP = |16.35

0.60mm

Micrometer Screw

x =

x 1 + x 2+ x3 15.690+15.700+15.690
=
=15.693 mm
3
3

1=|x x|= 15.69015.693 0.003 mm


1

2=|x x|=|15.70015.693|=0.007 mm
2

3=|x x|=|15.69015.693|=0.003 mm
3

maks=0.01 mm x=0.007 mm
KR = =

x
x

0.007
15.693

x 100% =

x 100% = 0.04%

4 AP

DK = 100% - 0.04% = 99.96%


HP = | x xmm
HP = |15.693

0.007mm

c. Mass Measurement
1) Cube Mass
Ohauss Balance 2610 gram

x =

x 1 + x 2+ x3 67.45+67.50+67.55
=
=67.50 g
3
3

1=|x x|= 67.4567.50 0.15 g


1

2=|x x|=|67.5067.50|=0 g
2

3=|x x|= 67.5567.50 0.05 g


3

maks=0.15 g x=0.15 g
KR =

x
x

x 100% =

0.15
67.50

DK = 100% - 0.22% = 99.78%


HP = | x xg

x 100% = 0.22%

4 AP

HP = |67.50 0.15g
Ohauss Balance 311 gram

x =

x 1 + x 2+ x3 67.490+67.495+67.495
=
=67.493 g
3
3

1=|x x|= 67.49067.493 0.003 g


1

2=|x x|=|67.49567.493|=0.002 g
2

3=|x x|= 67.49567.493 0.002 g


3

maks=0.003 g x=0.003 g
x
x

KR =

x 100% =

0.003
67.493

x 100% = 0.004%

4 AP

DK = 100% - 4.4% = 95.6%


HP = | x xg

HP = |67.49 3 0.003g
Ohauss Balance 310 gram

x =

x 1 + x 2+ x3 67.93+67.72+68.67
=
=68.11 g
3
3

1=|x x|= 67.9368.11 0.18 g


1

2=|x x|=|67.7268.11|=0.39 g
2

3=|x x|= 68.6768.11 0.56 g


3

maks=0.56 g x=0.56 g
KR = =

x
x

x 100% =

0.56
68.11

DK = 100% - 0.82% = 99.18%


HP = | x xg
HP = |68.11

2) Ball Mass

0.56g

x 100% = 0.82%

4 AP

Ohauss Balance 2610 gram

x =

x 1 + x 2+ x3 5.65+5.75+5.75
=
=5.72 g
3
3

1=|x x|= 5.655.72 0.70 g


1

2=|x x|=|5.755.72|=0.03 g
2

3=|x x|= 5.755.72 0.03 g


3

maks=0.70 g x=0.70 g
KR = =

x
x

x 100% =

0.70
5.72

x 100% = 12.23%

2 AP

DK = 100% - 12.23% = 87.77%


HP = | x xg
HP = |5.72

0.70g

Ohauss Balance 311 gram

x =

x 1 + x 2+ x3 5.695+5.695+5.695
=
=5.695 g
3
3

1=|x x|= 5.6955.695 0 g


1

2=|x x|=|5.6955.695|=0 g
2

3=|x x|= 5.6955.695 0 g


3

1
1
maks=0 g x= . NST = .0.01 g=0.005 g
2
2
KR = =

x
x

x 100% =

0.005
5.695

DK = 100% - 0.088% = 99.912%


HP = | x xg
HP = |5.695

0.005g

Ohauss Balance 310 gram

x 100% = 0.088%

4 AP

x =

x 1 + x 2+ x3 7.39+7.51+6.44
=
=7.11 g
3
3

1=|x x|= 7.397.11 0.28 g


1

2=|x x|=|7.517.11|=0.40 g
2

3=|x x|= 6.447.11 0.67 g


3

maks=0.67 g x=0.67 g
x
x

KR = =

x 100% =

0.67
7.11

x 100% = 9.42%

DK = 100% - 9.42% = 90.58%


HP = | x xg
HP = |7.11

0.40g

ERROR CREEPING
1. From length Measurement
a. Cube Volume
Ruler
V

p l t

V = 20.3

20.0

20.0

= 8,120 mm3

dV

|Vp |dp+|Vl |dl+|Vt |dt


| plt |dp+| pltpt |dl+| pltpl |dt

dV
V

dV
=
V

dp dl dt
+ +
p l t

|pp + l l + t t |V
0.3
1
1
+
+
|20.3
20.0 20.0 |

(0.01+0.05+0.05) 8,120 mm3

8120 mm3

3 AP

8,120 mm3

= 0.11

= 893.2 mm3

KR=

V
V

100

10.9

V = |V V| mm3
DK = 100

893.2
8,120

100

= 10.9

2 AP

= 89.1

8,120.0 893.2 mm3

Vernier Caliper
V

p l t

20.27

V =

20.22 20.59

= 8,439.01 mm3

|Vp |dp+|Vl |dl+|Vt |dt


dp+ pt dl+ pl dt
| plt | | plt | | plt |

dV

dV
V

dV
=
V
V

dp dl dt
+ +
p l t

|pp + l l + t t |V

0.23 0.08 0.58


+
+
|20.27
20.22 20.59 |

(0.0113+ 0.0039+0.0281) 8439.01 mm3

8,439.01 mm3

= 0.0433

= 365.409133 mm3

KR=

V
V

DK = 100
V =

=
=

100
4.3

365.409133
8439.01

= 95.7

|
V V| mm3

Micrometer Screw
V

8439.01 mm3

8,439.01 365.41 mm3

p l t

100

= 4.3

3 AP

20.310

V =

20.470

20.410

= 8,485.37 mm3

|Vp |dp+|Vl |dl+|Vt |dt


| plt |dp+| pltpt |dl+| pltpl |dt

dV

dV
V

dV
=
V
V

dp dl dt
+ +
p l t

|pp + l l + t t |V

0.300 0.010 0.010


+
+
|20.310
20.470 20.410 |

(0.0147+0.0005+ 0.0005) 8485.37 mm3


8,485.37 mm3

= 0.0157

= 133.220309 mm3

KR=

V
V

100

1.57

V = |V V| mm3
DK = 100

133.22
8,485.37

V=

1 3
d
6

V=

1
6

3.14

| vd|dd

dV =

| |

( 16 d ) dd
3

100

8,485.37 133.22 mm3

V = 2437.41 mm3

dV =

= 98.43

b. Ball Volume
Ruler

8,485.37 mm3

16.73

= 1.57

3 AP

1
dV = 3
d 2 dd
6
dV
V

1
3
d2
6
1 3
d
6

dd

|3ddd| V
3 d
V =|
V
d |
3 1.2
V =|
16.7 |
dV

2,437.41

V =0.22 2,437.41

V =525.43 mm3
KR=

V
V

100

525.43
2,437.41

100

21.5
= 78.5

V = |V V| mm3
DK = 100

2,437.41 525.43 mm3

Vernier Caliper
V=

1 3
d
6

V=

1
6

3.14

V = 2,287.35 mm3

| vd|dd

dV =

| |

dV =

( 16 d ) dd
3

1
dV = 3
d 2 dd
6

16.35

= 21.5

2 AP

dV
V

1
3
d2
6
1 3
d
6

dd

|3ddd| V
3 d
V =| |
V
d
3 0.60
V =|
16.35 |
dV

2,287.35

V =0.11 2,287.35

V =246.54 mm3
KR=

V
V

100

246.54
2,287.35

100

10.8
= 89.2

V = |V V| mm3
DK = 100

2,287.35 246.54 mm3

Micrometer Screw
V=

1 3
d
6

V=

1
6

3.14

V = 2,021.38 mm3

| vd|dd

dV =

| |

dV =

( 16 d ) dd
3

1
2
dV = 3
d dd
6

15.690

= 10.8

2 AP

dV
V

1
3
d2
6
1 3
d
6

dd

|3ddd| V
3 d
V =| |
V
d
3 0.01
V =|
15.69 |
dV

2,021.38

V =0.0019 2,021.38

V =3.840622 mm3
KR=

V
V

100

3.84
2,021.38

100

0.19
= 99.81

V = |V V| mm3
DK = 100

2,021.38 3.84 mm3

2. From mass measurement


a. Cube density
Ruler and Ohauss Balance 2610 gram

m= 67.50 0.15g

v = 8,120.0 893.2 mm3


=

m
v

67.50
8,120.00

= mv-1
= 0.008

| m |dm +|v|dv

d=

d=v1 dm+m v 2 dv
d
v1
mv2
= 1 dm + 1 dv
mv
mv

m/v 3

= 0.19

4 AP

| dmm + dvv|
m v
=|
+ |
m
v
0.15
893.2
=|
+
0.008 m/v
67.50 8,120.0 |
d=

=|0.0022+0.1100| 0.008 m/ v 3
=( 0.0022+ 0.1100 ) 0.008 m/v 3
=0.1122 0.008 m/v
=0.0009

KR=

g/mm
100

11.25
|
= |

DK = 100

0.0009
0.0080

100

= 88.75

g/mm3

0.0080 0.0009g/mm3
102 g /mm3

=|0.80 0.09|

Vernier Caliper and Ohauss Balance 2610 gram

m= 67.50 0.15g

v = 8439.01 365.41 mm3


=

m
v

67.50
8439.01

= mv-1
= 0.008

| m |dm +|v|dv

d=

d =v dm+m v dv
1

d
v
mv
= 1 dm + 1 dv
mv
mv

m/v 3

= 11.25

2 AP

| dmm + dvv|
m v
=|
+ |
m
v
0.15 365.41
=|
+
0.008 m/ v
67.50 8439.01|
d=

=|0.0022+0.0433|0.008 m/v 3
=( 0.0022+ 0.0433 ) 0.008 m/v 3
=0.0455 0.008 m/v
=0.0004

KR=

g/mm
100

0.0004
0.0080

5
= 95
|
g/mm3
= |

DK = 100

100

0.0080 0.0004g /mm 3

=|0.80 0.04|

102 g /mm3

Micrometer Screw dan Ohauss Balance 2610 gram

m= 67.50 0.15g

v = 8,485.37 133.22 mm3


=

m
v

67.50
8485.37

= mv-1
= 0.008

m/v 3

| m |dm +|v|dv

d=

d=v1 dm+m v 2 dv
d
v 1
mv2
= 1 dm+ 1 dv
mv
mv

= 5%

3 AP

| dmm + dvv|
m v
=|
+ |
m
v
0.15 133.22
=|
+
0.008 m/v
67.50 8485.37 |
d=

=|0.0022+0.0157|0.008 m/v 3
=( 0.0022+ 0.0157 ) 0.008 m/v 3
=0.0179 0.008 m/v
=0.0001

KR=

g/mm
100

0.0001
0.0080

1.25
= 98.75
|
g/mm3
= |

DK = 100

102 g /mm3

b. Ball density
Ruler and Ohauss Balance 2610 gram

m= |5.72 0.70g
v = 2,437.41 525.43 mm3

m
v

5.72
2437.41

= mv-1
= 0.003

| m |dm +|v|dv

d=

100

0.0080 0.0001g /mm3

=|0.80 0.04|

d=v dm+m v dv
d
v1
mv2
= 1 dm + 1 dv
mv
mv

m/v 3

= 1.25%

3 AP

| dmm + dvv|
m v
=|
+ |
m
v
0.70 525.43
=|
+
0.003 m/v
5.72 2,437.41|
d=

=|0.1223+0.2156|0.003 m/ v3
=( 0.1223+0.2156 ) 0.003 m/v 3
=0.3379 0.003 m/v
3

=0.001

KR=

DK = 100

g/mm
.

100

0.001
0.003

33.3

100

= 66.7
3

| |

0.003 0.001g /mm

=|0.3 0.1|

= 33.3

g/mm

10 g /mm

Vernier Caliper and Ohauss Balance 2610 gram

m= |5.72 0.70g
v = 2287.35 246.54 mm3

m
v

5.72
2287.35

= mv-1
= 0.0030

| m |dm +|v|dv

d=

d=v dm+m v dv
d
v1
mv2
= 1 dm + 1 dv
mv
mv

m/v 3

2 AP

| dmm + dvv|
m v
=|
+ |
m
v
0.70 246.54
=|
+
0.0030 m/ v
5.72 2287.35 |
d=

=|0.1223+0.1078|0.0030 m/v 3
=( 0.1223+0.1078 ) 0.0030 m/ v 3
=0.2301 0.0030 m/v
=0.0007

KR=

g/mm
100

0.0007
0.0030

23.3

DK = 100

100

= 23.3

= 76.7
3

| |

0.0030 0.0007g/mm

g/mm

=|0.30 0.07|

10 g /mm

Micrometer Screw and Ohauss Balance 2610 gram

m= |5.72 0.70g

v = 2,021.38 3.84 mm3


=

m
v

5.72
2,021.38

= mv-1
= 0.0028

| m |dm +|v|dv

d=

d=v dm+m v dv
1

d
v
mv
= 1 dm + 1 dv
mv
mv

m/v 3

2 AP

| dmm + dvv|
m v
=|
+ |
m
v
0.70
3.84
=|
+
0.0028 m/ v
5.72 2021.38 |
d=

=|0.1223+0.0019|0.0028 m/v 3
=( 0.1223+0.0019 ) 0.0028 m/v 3
=0.1242 0.0028 m/v 3
g/mm3

=0.0003

KR=

DK = 100

100

10.7

0.0003
0.0028

100

2 AP

= 89.3

g/mm3

| |

0.0028 0.0003g/mm3

=|0.28 0.03|

= 10.7

102 g /mm3

DISCUSSION
In this experiment, we have done three types of measurements, such as
measurements of length, mass measurement, and time and temperature measurement. In
the length measurements, where the measured object is cube and ball using measuring
instruments, such as ruler, vernier caliper and micrometer screw for each object.
Meanwhile, the mass measurements are also used cubes and balls as the measured. In this
measurement, we used three kinds of ohauss balance, such as ohauss balance 2610 gram,
ohauss balance 311 gram, and ohauss balance 310 gram. On the measurement of time and
temperature, the measured object is a change of water temperature at each interval of one
minute. The tools that used are thermometer and stopwatch, each for measuring the
temperature and time.
The example of length measurements of the cube and ball, the result of length
measurement using ruler is20.0 0.5mm, then the results of the length measurement
using vernier caliper are 20.50 0.05mm, and the result of length measurement using
micrometer screw is 20.470 0.005 mm. As we know before that, the SSV of every
measuring tools is different so the accuracy of every measuring tool is also different,
where the SSV is smaller so the relative uncertainty is also smaller. Based on the above
measurement, we know that the difference of measurement result of the first object in

every measuring tool. This is caused by the SSV of every measuring tool. From these
data, we can determine that the most rigorous measurement tool among the three
measuring devices are as micrometer screw micrometer screw has the smallest NST
compared with a ruler and calipers. So, the conclusion is NST a measuring instrument
will affect the measurement results of the measuring instrument itself and the smaller the
NST a measuring instrument, the more thorough the instruments anyway.
From the results of measurements of the mass of the cube using ohauss balance
of 2610 grams of a row of beams of the cube and the ball is 67.45 0.05gram
dan5.65 0.05gram, ohauss balance 311 grams in a row of cubes and blocks the ball
adalah67.490 0.005 gram dan5.695 0.005gram, balance ohauss 310 grams of
consecutive blocks cubes and balls are 0.01gram dan7.39 67.93 0.01gram. So,
if seen from the above data it can be concluded that the balance sheet is the most
thorough ohauss ohauss balance of 311 grams.
At a temperature measurement of the time it is known that every 1 minute
calculated temperature rise, it can be seen from our results in a row from the first 60
seconds to 360 seconds with a starting temperature to 40 0C. The result is 41,50C, 43,50C,
45,50C, 47,00C, 48,50C, and 50,50C. From these data it can be seen that changes in the
temperature range from 20C and 1,50C. It can be concluded that changes every minute
temperature does not very much.
CONCLUSION
Based on practical work that has been done, it can be concluded that the accuracy
of measuring instruments depends on NST tools, precision praktikan when making
measurements, and good data is the data obtained by measurement with accuracy
praktikan when retrieving data. Where the higher precision measuring instrument, the
smaller the uncertainty obtained. The smaller the absolute uncertainty, the better the
results of measurements that have been done, and the smaller the relative uncertainty
means that the higher the accuracy achieved in the measurements. As for some
differences in measurement results that have been done repeatedly by 3 person, may of
which there are errors in measuring and mebaca errors in measurement results. Therefore,
it is necessary rigor in the use of measuring tools especially how to read the measurement
results that are perpendicular in order to obtain more accurate results. On the
measurement of temperature versus time, it can be concluded that the increase in the
temperature of the water that is heated in the first interval of 60 seconds and 60 seconds
of the second and so on, change the temperature is not very much.
REFERENCES
Saripudin. A.. dkk. 2011. Advanced Learning Physics 1A. Bandung : Facil.
Serway and Jewett. 2009. Fisika untuk Sains dan Teknik. Jakarta Selatan : Salemba
Teknika.
Subaer. dkk. 2013. Penuntun Praktikum Eksperimen Fisika I Unit Laboratorium Fisika
Modern JurusanFisika FMIPA UNM