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RECTILINEAR MOTION

Mutmainnah S, Rezky Nur Ariatami, Sulbiana, Yola Ivonny Harianto*)


Laboratory of Fundamental Physics Departement of Physics FMIPA
Universitas Negeri Makassar 2015
Abstract. We have conducted an experiment about "Rectilinear Motion". This experiment aims to
train students, especially for Physics university students in order to determine the distance,
displacement, average of speed and velocity. Students are also required in order to analyze the
graph of relation between position and time (t) on a moving straight object, and can understand the
characteristics of the moving straight object. Before conducting the experiment, first we must
know the equipments needed, such as the gauge that will be used to measure the length of the
track, stopwatch which will be used to measure the travel time of an object, GLB tube in which
there are bubble that will serve as the object of observation, and the stative which will be used to
hang the GLB tube, and stationery. After that, we also need to know the procedure that we would
do. In this experiment, we conducted two activities in which the first activity we made 4 points,
such as points A, B, C, and D, while the second activity we created 5 points, which is the starting
point (0 cm), points A, B , C, and D. The observation object on the first activity is the travel time
by three persons who walking with different speeds in taking the points which have been
determined, while the observation object on the second activity is the travel time of the bubble in
the GLB tube.
Keywords : displacement, distance, speed, time, and velocity.

PROBLEM FORMULATION
1. How to determine distance and displacement?
2. How to determine average of speed and velocity?
3. How to analyze the charts of relation between position and time (t) on a moving
straight object?
4. How the students understand the characteristics of a moving straight object?
OBJECTIVES
1. Students capable to determine distance and displacement.
2. Students capable to determine average of speed and velocity.
3. Students capable to analyze the charts of relation between position and time (t)
on a moving straight object.
4. Students capable to understand the characteristics of a moving straight object.
THEORY
Objects are moving when it change its position toward its hint point. Moving object
will pass a track with current length on current time. Total length of the track called
distance, and amount of the change of the position from initial position to its final
position called displacement. Distance is scalar quantity, and displacement is vector
quantity. (Penuntun Praktikum Fisika Dasar 1)

Object said in rectilinear motion (GLB) when the object move on straight track on
constant speed or there is no change of speed to its time, so the acceleration is zero.
Speed is defined as the change of position everytime, mathematically write as

v =

x
t

(1.1)

Velocity is amount of the distance passed by the object per time, mathematically write as:

v=
note:

(1.2)

: distance (m)

x
v

x
t

: displacement (m)

:velocity (m/s)
: speed (m/s)
: time (s)

EXPERIMENT METHODS
1. Equipments List
a. Gauge (1 unit)
b. Stopwatch (1 unit)
c. GLB tube (1 unit)
d. Stative (1 unit)
e. Stationery
2. Variable Identification
Activity 1
a. Controlled variable
: speed
b. Manipulation variable
: distance
c. Response variable
: time
Activity 2
a. Controlled variable
: height
b. Manipulation variable
: distance
c. Response variable
: time
3. Variable Operational Definition
Activity 1
a. Controlled variables
: speed is the position change/displacement per time unit.
In this activity, speed is the variable which is its value
kept constant by every person that travel in distance
which the value is manipulated.
b. Manipulation variables : distance is the length of the path traversed by every
person from one point to another.

c. Response variables

Activity 2
a. Controlled variables
b. Manipulation variables
c. Response variables

: travel time is the time needed by every person to move


from one point to another point.

: height is the distance from one point to another that


measured in vertical axis.
: distance is the length of the path traversed by the
bubble in GLB tube.
: travel time is the time needed by the bubble to move
from one point to another.

4. Prosedure
In this experiment, there are two activities. In the first activity, made four points, such
as points A, B, C, and D so as to form a rectangle. After that, the path length is measured
each between the two points by using a gauge that is already available, the distance
obtained between points A-B, C-D is 2 meters, while the distance between points B-C, DA is 3 meters. After that, the three of us was prepared as an object to be moved with the
different speed. The first person moved with a slow speed, stood at point A while holding
a stopwatch that has been calibrated and walked towards point B, that's when he
measured his travel time. Do the same for the track A to B to C, and A to B to C to D, and
A to B to C to D to A. After that, proceed to the second and third person at medium and
fast speed. Then record the result in observation table.
In the second activity, prepared GLB tube and stative for hanging one tip of the tube.
Marked at least 4 points A, B, C, and D on the tube. The path length from the bottom of
the tube (0 cm) to point A, to point B, to point C and point D to be measured. One tip of
the tube is hung on the stative at a certain height, starting from 5 cm from the base (table).
The other tip of the tube is removed, so that the bubble in the tip of the tube is lifted.
Then, the tip was lowered to the base so that the bubble moves upward, the time taken by
bubble to reach point A is measured (stopwatch is started when the bubble right traverse
position 0 cm on the tube), conducted three times for each distance measurement. The
previous steps are repeated with different distances (from O to point B, to C, and to point
D). The observation results was written in the observation table.
EXPERIMENT RESULTS AND DATA ANALYSIS
1. Observation Results
Activity 1
SSV of gauge
= 0.1 cm = 0.001 m
SS of stopwatch
= 0.1 s
Tabel 1. Distance, displacement, and travel time measurement results
Distance
Displacement
No.
Track
(m)
(m)
2.0000 0.0005 2.0000 0.0005
1
A to B
2.0000 0.0005 2.0000 0.0005
2.0000 0.0005 2.0000 0.0005
2
A to B to C
5.0000 0.0005 3.6100 0.0005

Travel time
(s)
3.5 0.1
2.6 0.1
1.8 0.1
6.6 0.1

A to B to C to D

A to B to C to D
to A

5.0000 0.0005
5.0000 0.0005
7.0000 0.0005
7.0000 0.0005
7.0000 0.0005
10.0000 0.0005
10.0000 0.0005
10.0000 0.0005

3.6100 0.0005
3.6100 0.0005
3.0000 0.0005
3.0000 0.0005
3.0000 0.0005
0.0000 0.0005
0.0000 0.0005
0.0000 0.0005

6.0 0.1
4.2 0.1
9.1 0.1
8.0 0.1
6.4 0.1
14.7 0.1
11.6 0.1
8.8 0.1

Kegiatan 2
SSV of ruler
= 0.1 cm
SSV of stopwatch
= 0.1 s
Tabel 2. Distance and travel time measurement results in rectilinear motion
Height
Distance
Travel time
No.
(cm)
(cm)
(s)
2.1 0.1
11.80 0.05
2.1 0.1
2.1 0.1
4.3 0.1
23.50 0.05
4.3 0.1
4.3 0.1
1.
5.00 0.05
6.5 0.1
35.20 0.05
6.5 0.1
6.6 0.1
9.4 0.1
46.90 0.05
9.2 0.1
9.3 0.1
1.5 0.1
11.80 0.05
1.5 0.1
1.6 0.1
3.0 0.1
23.50 0.05
2.9 0.1
3.0 0.1
2.
10.00 0.05
4.5 0.1
35.20 0.05
4.5 0.1
4.5 0.1
6.1 0.1
46.90 0.05
6.1 0.1
6.0 0.1
2. Data Analysis
Activity 1
A Speed

v =

x
= x . t 1
t

|vx|d x +|tv |dt

d v =

x.t

dt

( x .t 1)
d v =
d x+
x

d v =|t 1|d x+|x . t 2|dt

| |

d v
t 1
x .t 2
=
d

x
+
dt
v
x . t 1
x .t 1

| || |

d v d x dt
=
+
v
x
t

| || |

v x t
=
+
v
x
t

| x x|+|t t |v

v =

Track A to B
First person
v=

x
t

v = |

2.0000 m
3.5 s

0.0005
2.0000

0.1
3.5

= 0.57 m/s

| 0.57 m/s

= | 0.0003+0.0286 | 0.57 m/s


= 0.02 m/s

0.02
KR = 0.57

100%

= 3.5 % ( 3 AB )
DK = 100% - KR = 100% - 3.5 % = 98.5 %
PF

= |0.57 0.02 | m/s

Second Person
v=

x
t

2.0000 m
2.6 s

0.0005
2.0000

v =|

= 0.77 m/s

0.1
2.6

| 0.77 m/s

= | 0.0003 + 0.0385 | 0.77 m/s


= 0.03 m/s

0.03
KR = 0.77

100%

= 3.9 % ( 3 AB )
DK = 100% - KR = 100% - 3.9 % = 96.1 %
PE = | 0.77 0.03 | m/s

Third Person
v=

x
t

v=|

2.0000
1.8

0.0005
2.0000

= 1.11 m/s

0.1
1.8

| 1.11 m/s

= |0.0003 + 0.0556 | 1.11 m/s


= 0.06 m/s

0.06
KR = 1.11

100%

= 5.4 % ( 3 AB )
DK = 100% - KR = 100% - 5.4 % = 94.6 %
PE = |

1.11 0.06 | m/s

Track A to B to C
First person
v=

x
t

v =|

3.6100 m
6.6 s

0.0005
3.6100

0.1
6.6

= 0.55 m/s

| 0.55 m/s

= | 0.0001 + 0.0152 | 0.55 m/s


= 0.01 m/s

0.01
KR = 0.55

100%

= 1.8 % ( 3 AB )
DK = 100% - KR = 100% - 1.8 % = 98.2 %

0.55 0.01 | m/s

PE = |

Second person
v=

x
t

3.6100 m
6.0 s

0.0005
3.6100

v =|

= 0.60 m/s

0.1
6.0

| 0.60 m/s

= | 0.0001 + 0.0167 | 0.60 m/s


= 0.01 m/s

0.01
KR = 0.60

100%

= 1.7 % ( 3 AB )
DK = 100% - KR = 100% - 1.7 % = 98.3 %
PE = | 0.60 0.01 | m/s
Third person
v=

x
t

v = |

3.6100
4.2

0.0005
3.6100

= 0.86 m/s

0.1
4.2

| 0.86 m/s

= | 0.0001 + 0.0238 | 0.86 m/s


= 0.02 m/s

0.02
KR = 0.86

100%

= 2.3 % ( 3 AB )
DK = 100% - KR = 100% - 2.3 % = 97.7 %
PE = | 0.86

0.02 | m/s

Track A to B to C to D
First person

x
t

v=

3.0000 m
9.1 s

0.0005
3.0000

v = |

= 0.33 m/s

0.1
9.1

| 0.33 m/s

= | 0.0002 + 0.0109 | 0.33 m/s


= 0.004 m/s

0.004
0.33

KR =

100%

= 1.2 % (3 AB)
DK = 100% - KR = 100% - 1.2 % = 98.8 %

0.33 0.004 | m/s

PE = |

Second person
v=

x
t

v = |

3.0000 m
8.0 s

0.0005
3.0000

= 0.38 m/s

0.1
8.0

| 0.38 m/s

= | 0.0001 + 0.0125 | 0.38 m/s


= 0.005 m/s
KR =

0.005
0.38

100%

= 1.3 % ( 3 AB )
DK = 100% - KR = 100% - 1.3 % = 98.7 %
PE = | 0.38 0.005 | m/s
Third person
v=

x
t

v = |

3.0000
6.4

0.0005
3.0000

= 0.47 m/s

0.1
6.4

| 0.47 m/s

= | 0.0002 + 0.0156 | 0.47 m/s


= 0.01 m/s

0.01
KR = 0.47

100%

= 2.1 % ( 3 AB )
DK = 100% - KR = 100% - 2.1 % = 97.9 %

PE = |0.47 0.01| m/s


Track A to B to C to D to A
First person

v =

x
0m
=
=0 m/s
t
14.7 s

|xx + t t |v

v =

0.1
+
0 m/s
|0.0005
0
14.7 |

v =

v =0 m/s

KR

v
0 m/s
100 =
100 =0
v
0 m/s

|v v|=|0 0|m/s

PF =

Second person

v =

x
t

0m
=0 m/ s
16.0 s

|xx + t t |v

v =

0.1
+
0 m/ s
|0.0005
0
11.6 |

v =

v =0 m/s

KR

PF =

v
0 m/s
100 =
100 =0
v
0 m/s

|v v|=|0 0|m/s

Third person

v =

x 0m
=
=0 m/s
t
8.6 s

|xx + t t |v

v =

0.1
+ |0 m/ s
|0.0005
0
8.8

v =

v =0 m/s

KR

PF =

v
0 m/s
100 =
100 =0
v
0 m/s

|v v|=|0 0|m/s

B Velocity

x
v = =x . t 1
t

|vx|dx +|vt |dt

dv=

x .t 1

dt

( x . t 1)
dv=
dx+
x

dv=|t 1|dx +|x . t 2| dt

| | | |
1

dv
t
x.t
=
dx +
dt
1
1
v
x .t
x .t

| || |

dv dx dt
=
+
v
x
t

| || |

v x t
=
+
v
x
t

|xx|+|t t |v

v=

Track A to B
First person
v=

x
t

v =|

2.0000
3.5

0.0005
2.0000

= 0.57 m/s

0.1
3.5

| 0.57 m/s

= | 0.0003 + 0.0286 | 0.57 m/s


= 0.02 m/s

0.02
KR = 0.57

100%

= 3.5 % ( 3 AB )
DK = 100% - KR = 100% - 3.5 % = 96.5 %
PE = |

0.57 0.02 | m/s

Second person
v=

x
t

v =|

2.0000
2.6

0.0005
2.0000

= 0.77 m/s

0.1
2.6

| 0.77 m/s

= | 0.0003 + 0.0385 | 0.77 m/s


= 0.03 m/s

0.03
KR = 0.77

100%

= 3.9 % ( 3 AB )
DK = 100 % - KR = 100% - 3.9% = 96.1%
PE = |

0.77 0.03 | m/s

Third person
v=

x
t

2.0000
1.8

= 1.11 m/s

0.0005
2.0000

v = |

0.1
1.8

| 1.11 m/s

= | 0.0003 + 0.0556 | 1.11 m/s


= 0.06 m/s

0.06
KR = 1.11

100%

= 5.4 % ( 3 AB )
DK = 100% - KR = 100% - 5.4 % = 94.6 %

0.06 | m/s

PE = | 1.11
Track A to B to C
First person
v=

x
t

5.0000
6.6

0.0005
5.0000

v = |

= 0.76 m/s

0.1
6.6

| 0.76 m/s

= | 0.0001 + 0.0152 | 0.76 m/s


= 0.01 m/s

0.01
KR = 0.76

100%

= 1.3 % ( 3 AB )
DK = 100% - KR = 100% - 1.3 % = 98.7 %
PE = | 0.76

0.01 | m/s

Second person

x
t

v=

v = |

5.0000
6.0

0.0005
5.0000

= 0.83 m/s

0.1
6.0

| 0.83 m/s

= | 0.0001 + 0.0167 | 0.83 m/s


= 0.01 m/s

0.01
KR = 0.83

100%

= 1.2 % ( 3 AP )
DK = 100 % - KR = 100% - 1.2% = 98.8%

PE = |

0.83 0.01 | m/s

Third person
v=

x
t

v =|

5.0000
4.2

0.0005
5.0000

= 1.19 m/s

0.1
4.2

| 1.19 m/s

= | 0.0001 + 0.0238 | 1.19 m/s


= 0.03 m/s

0.03
KR = 1.19

100%

= 2.5 % ( 3 AB )
DK = 100% - KR = 100% - 2.5 % = 97.5 %

0.03 | m/s

PE = |1.19

Track A to B to C to D
First person
v=

x
t

v = |

7.0000
9.1

0.0005
7.0000

= 0.77 m/s

0.1
9.1

| 0.77 m/s

= | 0.0001 + 0.0109 | 0.77 m/s


= 0.01 m/s

0.01
KR = 0.77

100%

= 1.3 % ( 3 AP )
DK = 100% - KR = 100% - 1.3 % = 98.7 %
PE = | 0.77

0.01 | m/s

Second person
v=

x
t

v = |

7.0000
8.0

0.0005
7.0000

= 0.88 m/s

0.1
8.0

| 0.88 m/s

= | 0.0001 + 0.0125 | 0.88 m/s

= 0.01 m/s

0.01
KR = 0.88

100%

= 1.1 % ( 3 AB )
DK = 100% - KR = 100% - 1.1 % = 98.9 %
PE = | 0.88 0.01 | m/s
Third person

x
t

v=

v = |

7.0000
6 .4

0.0005
7.0000

= 1.09 m/s

0.1
6.4

| 1.09 m/s

= | 0.0001 + 0.0100 | 1.09 m/s


= 0.02 m/s

0.02
KR = 1.09

100%

= 1.8 % ( 3 AB )
DK = 100% - KR = 100% - 1.8 % = 98.2 %
PE = | 1.09 0.02| m/s
Track A to B to C to D to A
First person

x
t

v=

v =|

10.0000
14.7

0.0005
10.0000

= 0.68 m/s

0.1
14.7

| 0.68 m/s

= | 0.0001 + 0.0068 | 0.68 m/s


= 0.005 m/s
KR =

0.005
0.68

100%

= 0.7 % ( 3 AB )
DK = 100% - KR = 100% - 0.7 % = 99.3 %
PE = |

0.68 0.005 | m/s

Second person

x
t

v =

v =|

10.0000
11.6

0.0005
10.0000

= 0.86 m/s

0.1
11.6

| 0.86 m/s

= | 0.0001 + 0.0086 | 0.86 m/s


= 0.01 m/s

0.01
KR = 0.86

100%

= 1.2 % ( 3 AB )
DK = 100% - KR = 100% - 1.2 % = 98.2 %
PE = | 0.86 0.01 | m/s
Third person
v=

x
t

v = |

10.0000
8.8

0.0005
10.0000

= 1.14 m/s

0.1
8.8

| 1.14 m/s

= | 0.0001 + 0.0114 | 1.14 m/s


= 0.01 m/s

0.01
KR = 1.14

100%

= 0.9 % ( 3 AB )
DK = 100% - KR = 100% - 0.9 % = 99.1 %
PE = |1.14 0.01 | m/s
Average speed of the first person

v =

0.57

m
m
m
m
+0.55 + 0.33 + 0
s
s
s
s
4

1 = |0.570.363|m/s = 0.207 m/s


2 = |0.550.363|m/s

= 0.187 m/s

3 = |0.330.363|m/s = 0.033 m/s


4 = |0.000.363|m/s

= 0.363 m/s

v = = 0.363 m/s
max

= 0.363 m/s

RE =

v
v

RE =

0.363
0.363

100%

100% = 100 %

PR |v v|m/ s

|0.363 0.363| m/s


Average speed of the second person

v =

m
m
m
m
+ 0.60 + 0.38 + 0
s
s
s
s
4

0.77

1 =

|0.770.438|m/s = 0.332 m/s

2 =

|0.600.438|m/s = 0.162 m/s

3 =

|0.380.438|m/s = 0.058 m/s

4 =

|0.000.438|m/s = 0.438 m/s

= 0.438 m/s

v = max = 0.438 m/s


RE =

v
v

RE =

0.438
0.438

100%

100% = 100 %

PR |v v|m/ s

|0.438 0.438| m/s


Average speed of the second person

v =

1.11

m
m
m
m
+ 0.86 + 0.47 + 0
s
s
s
s
4

1 = |0.770.61|m/s = 0.16 m/s


2 = |0.600.61|m/s

= 0.01 m/s

= 0.61 m/s

3 =

|0.380.61|m/s = 0.23 m/s

4 =

|0.000.61|m/s = 0.61 m/s

v = max = 0.61 m/s


RE =

v
v

RE =

0.61
0.61

100%

100% = 100 %

PR |v v|m/ s

| 0.61 0.61 | m/s


Average velocity of the first person

v =

0.57

m
m
m
m
+ 0.76 + 0.77 +0.68
s
s
s
s
4

1 =

|0.570.695|m/s = 0.125 m/s

2 =

|0.760.695|m/s = 0.065 m/s

3 =

|0.770.695|m/s = 0.075 m/s

4 =

|0.680.695|m/s = 0.015 m/s

v = max = 0.125 m/s


RE =

v
v

RE =

0.125
0.695

100%

100% = 17.9 %

PR |v v|m/ s

|0.695 0.125| m/s

Average velocity of the second person

= 0.695 m/s

v =

m
m
m
m
+ 0.83 + 0.88 + 0.86
s
s
s
s
4

0.77

1 = |0.770.835|m/s

= 0.065 m/s

2 = |0.830.835|m/s

= 0.005 m/s

3 = |0.880.835|m/s

= 0.045 m/s

4 = |0.860.835|m/s

= 0.025 m/s

= 0.835 m/s

v = = 0.065 m/s
max
RE =

v
v

RE =

0.065
0.835

100%

100% = 7.78 %

PR=|v v| m/s
|0.835 0.065| m/s
Average velocity of the third person

v =

1.11

m
m
m
m
+1.19 +1.09 +1.14
s
s
s
s
4

1 =

|1.111.1325|m/s = 0.0225 m/s

2 =

|1.191.1325| m/ s = 0.0575 m/s

3 =

|1.091.1325| m/ s = 0.0425 m/s

4 =

|1.141.1325|m/s = 0.0075m/s

v = max = 0.0575 m/s

= 1.1325 m/s

RE =

v
v

RE =

0.0575
1.1325

100%

100% = 5.08 %

PR=|v v|=|1.1325 0.0575| m/s


Vector position for each point A, B, C and D
B

A = ( 0 i^ +0 ^j ) m

B =( 0 i^ +2 ^j ) m

C =( 3 i^ + 2 ^j ) m

D=( 3 i^ +0 ^j ) m
a. A to B

AB=
B
A=( 0 i^ + 2 ^j ) m( 0 i^ + 0 ^j ) m

AB=( 0 i^ + 2 ^j ) m
b. A to B to C


AC =C
A =( 3 i^ + 2 ^j ) m ( 0 i^ + 0 ^j ) m

AC =( 3 i^ +2 ^j ) m
c. A to B to C to D

AD =
D
A =( 3 i^ + 0 ^j ) m( 0 i^ + 0 ^j ) m

AD =( 24+ 0 ^j ) m
d. A to B to C to D to A


AA=
A
A= ( 0 i^ + 0 ^j ) m( 0 i^ + 0 ^j ) m

AA=( 0 i^ +0 ^j ) m
Activity 2

|5.00 0.05| cm

1. Height
Distance

t =

|11.80 0.05|cm

t 1 +t 2+ t 3
3

2.1 s+2.1 s +2.1 s


=2.1 s
3

1 = |2 .1 - 2 . 1|s = 0 s
2 = |2 .1 - 2 . 1|s = 0 s

3 = |2 .1 - 2 . 1| s = 0 s
max = 0.1 s
t=|2.1 0.1| s

v =

x
t

0.118 m
=0.06 m/s
2.1 s

|xx + t t |v
0.0005 0.1
v =|
+
0.06 m/s
0.118 2.1 |
v =

v =0.003 m/s
KR

v
0.003
100 =
100 =5 3 AB
v
0.06

DK = 100% - KR = 100% PF =

= 95 %

|v v|=|0.060 0.003|m/s

Distance

|23.50 0.05|cm

t =

t 1 +t 2+ t 3
3

4.3 s+ 4.3 s +4.3 s


=4.3 s
3

1 = |4.3 - 4.3|s = 0 s
2 = |4.3 - 4.3|s = 0 s

3 = |4.3 - 4.3|s = 0 s
max = 0 . 1 s
t=|4.3 0.1|s

v =

x
t

0.225m
=0.05 m/s
4.3 s

|xx + t t |v
0.0005 0.1
v =|
+
0.05 m/s
0.225 4.3|
v =

v =0.001 m/s

KR

v
0.001
100 =
100 =2 3 AB
v
0.05

DK = 100% - KR = 100% PF =

= 98 %

|v v|=|0.050 0.001|m/ s

Distance

t =

|35.50 0.05| cm

t 1 +t 2+ t 3
3

6.5 s+6.5 s+6.6 s


=6.53 s
3

1 = |6 .56 . 53|s = 0 . 03 s

2 = |6 . 56 . 53|s = 0 . 03 s

3 = |6 . 66. 53|s = 0 . 07 s
max = 0 . 07 s
t=|6.53 0.07|s

v =

x
t

0.355m
=0.05 m/s
6.53 s

|xx + t t |v
0.0005 0.1
v =|
+
0.05 m/ s
0.355 6.53 |
v =

v =0.001 m/s

KR

v
0.001
100 =
100 =2 3 AB
v
0.05

DK = 100% - KR = 100% -

Distance

= 98 %

|v v|=|0.05 0.001|m/s

PF =

t =

|46.90 0.05|cm

t 1 +t 2+ t 3
3

9.4 s +9.2 s +9.3 s


=9.3 s
3

1 = |9 . 49 . 3|s = 0 .1 s

2 = |9 . 29 . 3|s = 0 .1 s
3 = |9 . 39 . 3|s = 0 s

max = 0 . 1 s
t=|9.3 0.1|s
v =

x
t

0.469m
=0.05 m/s
9.3 s

|xx + t t |v
0.0005 0.1
v =|
+
0.05 m/s
0.469 9.3 |
v =

v =0.001 m/s

KR

v
0.001
100 =
100 =2 3 AB
v
0.05
2

DK = 100% - KR = 100% -

|v v|=|0.05 0.001|m/s

PF =
2. Height

Distance

t =

= 98 %

|10.00 0.05| cm
|11.80 0.05|cm

t 1 +t 2+ t 3
3

1.5 s+1.5 s +1.6 s


=1.53 s
3

1 = |1. 5 1 .53|s = 0.03 s


2 = |1. 5 1 .53|s = 0.03 s

3 = |1 .6 1 .53|s = 0.07 s
max = 0.07 s
t=|1.53 0.07|s

v =

x
t

0.118 m
=0.08 m/s
1.53 s

|xx + t t |v
0.0005 0.1
v =|
+
0.08 m/ s
0.118 1.53 |
v =

v =0.006 m/s

v
0.006

100
=
100 =7.5 2 AB
KR
v
0.08
DK = 100% - KR = 100% -

Distance

= 92.5 %

|v v|=|0.08 0.006|m/s

PF =

t =

7.5

|23.50 0.05|cm

t 1 +t 2+ t 3
3

3.0 s+2.9 s+3.0 s


=2.97 s
3

1 = |3.0 2.97|s = 0 . 03 s

2 = |2.9 2.97|s = 0 . 07 s
3 = |3.0 2.97| s = 0 .03 s

max = 0 . 07 s
t=|2.97 0.07| s
v =

x
t

0.235m
=0.08 m/s
2.97 s

|xx + t t |v
0.0005 0.1
v =|
+
0.08 m/s
0.235 2.97 |
v =

v =0.003 m/s
KR

v
0.003
100 =
100 =3.75 3 AB
v
0.08

DK = 100% - KR = 100% PF =

3.75

|v v|=|0.08 0.003|m/s

Distance

|35.50 0.05| cm

= 96.25 %

t =

t 1 +t 2+ t 3
3

4.5 s+ 4.5 s +4.5 s


=4.5 s
3

1 = |4 .54 . 5|s = 0 s
2 = |4 .54 . 5|s = 0 s

3 = |4 .54 . 5|s = 0 s
max = 0 . 1 s
t=|4.5 0.1|s

v =

x
t

0.355m
=0.08 m/s
4.5 s

|xx + t t |v
0.0005 0.1
v =|
+
0.08 m/s
0.355 4.5|
v =

v =0.002 m/s

KR

v
0.002
100 =
100 =2.5 3 AB
v
0.08

DK = 100% - KR = 100% PF =

= 97.5 %

|v v|=|0.08 0.002|m/s

Distance

t =

2.5

|46.90 0.05|cm

t 1 +t 2+ t 3
3

6.1 s+6.1 s +6.0 s


=6.07 s
3

1 = |6 .16 . 07|s = 0 . 03 s

2 = |6 . 16 . 07|s = 0 . 03 s

3 = |6 . 06 . 07|s = 0 . 07 s
max = 0 . 07 s
t=|6.07 0.07| s

v =

x
t

0.469m
=0.08 m/s
6.07 s

|xx + t t |v
0.0005 0.1
v =|
+
0.08 m/s
0.469 6.07 |
v =

v =0.001 m/s
KR

v
0.001
100 =
100 =1.25 3 AB
v
0.08

DK = 100% - KR = 100% PF =

1.25

= 98.75 %

|v v|=|0.08 0.001|m/s
50
f(x) = 4.9x + 2.17
R = 1

40
30
Distance (cm) 20
10
0
1

10

Time (s)

Graph 1.Graph of the relationship between distance and time with 5 cm height

50
f(x) = 7.65x + 0.49
R = 1

40
30
Distance (cm)

20
10
0
1

Time (s)

Graph 2.Graph of the relationship between distance and time with 10 cm height

DISCUSSION
In this experiment, we conducted two activities which is the first activity we made 4
points, such as points A, B, C, and D. The distance between A-B, C-D is 2 meters, while
the distance between B-C, D-A is 3 meters. In the first activity, a variable that the value is
kept is the speed of each person to take any specified point, while the manipulation
variable is the distance. And the response variable is the travel time of every person.
From track A to B with the distance of 2 meters and a displacement of 2 meters, the travel
time from the first, second, and third person are 3.5 0.1s,2.6 0.1 s, 1.8
0,1s. From track A to B to C with a distance of 5 meters and a displacement of 3.61
meters, the travel time from the first, second, and third person each 6.6 0.1s, 6.0
0 . 1s, 4.2 0.1s. From track A to B to C to D with a distance of 7 meters and a
displacement of 3 meters, the travel time from the first, second, and third person each
9.1 0.1s, 8.0 0 . 1s, 6.4 0.1s. From track A to B to C to D to A with a
distance of 10 meters and a displacement of 0 meters, the travel time from the first,
second, and third person each 14.7 0.1s, 11.6 0.1s, 8.8 0.1s. From the
above data, we can conclude that the farther the distance traveled by each person, the
more time it takes to travel that distance. And time is also determined by the speed of
each person.
In the second activity, we made 5 points, the start point (0 cm), points A, B, C, and D
and change the height of the tube twice, with a height of 5 cm and 10 cm from the table.
At the height of 5 cm, at the distance of 11.8 cm, the average travel time of the bubble is
2.1 s, at a distance of 23.5, the average travel time is 4.3 s, at a distance of 35.2 cm , the
average travel time is 6.53, and at a distance of 46.9 cm, the average travel time is 9.3 s.
While at a height of 10 cm, at the distance of 11.8 cm, the average travel time of the
bubble is 1.53 s, at a distance of 23.5, the average travel time is 2.97 s, at a distance of

35.2 cm, the average time is 4.5 s, and at a distance of 46.9 cm, the average travel time is
6.07 s. From these data, it can also be concluded that the farther the distance of the
bubble, the greater the travel time needed.. If we compare between the altitude, the higher
the height of the tube then the less travel time required.
CONCLUSION
From this experiment, we can conclude several things, such as :
1. Distance is determined by measuring the total length of the path traversed by the
object. Meanwhile, the displacement is determined by calculating the position change
from the initial position to final position with the equation

2. The average speed is determined by using the equation

x=x f
v =

x
t

xi .

where x is the

position change and the average velocity is determined by using the equation

v=

x
t

where x is the distance.


3. From the relationship graph between the position and time on a moving straight object,
it can be concluded that the greater the distance to an object, the greater the travel time
required.
4. The characteristics of a moving straight object are the speed is constant and
acceleration is zero and moving on a straight track.