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DWDM Fundamentals

and Advances
Rodger Nutt, Technical Solutions Architect, GSP Architectures
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Agenda

Introduction What is DWDM?

Optical Fiber

Linear/Non-linear Effects and Solutions

DWDM Components and Software

Intro to OTN

Increasing Capacity, Flexibility and Reach in DWDM

Next Generation DWDM/Optics

What is DWDM?

Wavelength Division Multiplexing

DWDM systems use optical devices to combine the output of several optical
transmitters

TX
TX
TX
TX
Optical
transmitters

RX
Transmission

RX

RX

Optical
fiber pair
DWDM devices
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RX
Optical
receivers
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ITU-T Grid
ITU wavelengths = lambdas = channels center around 1550 nm (193 THz)
0.4 nm spacing

1528.77 nm

1552.52 nm
(Center channel)
50 GHz spacing

Wavelength
(nm)
1578.23 nm

Frequency
(THz)
196.2 THz

193.1 THz
(Center channel)

190.1 THz
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Optical Fiber

Fiber Geometry and Dimensions

The core carries the light signals

The refractive index difference


between core & cladding confines
the light to the core

The coating protects the glass

Core
SMF 8 microns

Cladding
125 microns

Coating
250 microns
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Optical Spectrum
UltraViolet

Visible

InfraRed

850 nm

1310 nm

1550 nm

Communication Wavelengths in the InfraRed


850 nm Multimode
1310 nm Singlemode
C-band:1550 nm Singlemode
L-band: 1625 nm Singlemode

1625 nm

C = x l

Wavelength: l (nanometers)
Frequency:

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(terahertz)

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Applications for the Different Fiber Types


SMF
(G.652)
DSF
(G.653)
NZDSF
(G.655)
Extended Band
(G.652.C)
(suppressed attenuation in the
traditional water peak region)

Good for TDM at 1310 nm


OK for TDM at 1550
OK for DWDM (With Dispersion Mgmt.)
OK for TDM at 1310 nm
Good for TDM at 1550 nm
Bad for DWDM (C-Band)
OK for TDM at 1310 nm
Good for TDM at 1550 nm
Good for DWDM (C + L Bands)
Good for TDM at 1310 nm
OK for TDM at 1550 nm
OK for DWDM (With Dispersion Mgmt.
Good for CWDM (>8 wavelengths)

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10

Linear Effects

Transmission Impairments

S-band:14601530nm

2.0

Attenuation

Loss of Signal Strength

0.5

0.2
800

1000

Distortion of pulses

Optical Signal to Noise


Ratio (OSNR)

1100

1200

1300

1400

1500

1600

Wavelength (nm)

Time Slot

2.5Gb/s

900

Chromatic Dispersion (CD)

C-band:15301565nm
L-band:15651625nm

Loss (dB/km)

10Gb/s

Fiber

Fiber

Effect of Noise in Transmission


S+N

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12

Attenuation

With enough attenuation, a light pulse may not be detected by an optical


receiver
Attenuation (dB)

Distance (km)
Insertion loss (dB)
Optical device
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13

Fiber Attenuation (Loss) Characteristic


S-band:14601530nm

Loss(dB)/km vs. Wavelength


2.0 dB/Km

L-band:15651625nm

OH- Absorption Peaks in


Actual Fiber Attenuation Curve

0.5 dB/Km

0.2 dB/Km
800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

Wavelength in Nanometers (nm)


OH: Hydroxyl ion absorption is the absorption in optical fibers of electromagnetic waves,
due to the presence of trapped hydroxyl ions remaining from water as a contaminant.
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1500

1600

C-band:15301565nm

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14

Laser Output Power and


Receiver Sensitivity and dBm

Fiber loss expressed in dB but transmitter/receiver power is expressed in dBm

This is why both the transmitter output power and the receiver sensitivity is
expressed in dBm:
PowerdBm=10log(PmW /1mW)
dB and dBm are additive, hence the simplification

Example:
Powerdbm = 10log(2mW/1mW)=3dBm
Powerdbm = 10log(1mW/1mW)=0dBm

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Gain and Decibels (dB)


Pin

Amp

Pout

Gain expressed by ratio: Pout/Pin

Gain measured conveniently in dB: 10 log10 Pout/Pin


If the power is doubled by an amplifier, this is +3 dB

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16

Attenuation: Optical Budget


Basic Optical Budget = Tx Output Power Rx Input Sensitivity
Pout = +6 dBm

R = -30 dBm

Budget = 36 dB

Optical Budget is affected by:

Fiber attenuation
Splices
Patch Panels/Connectors
Optical components (filters, amplifiers, etc.)
Bends in fiber
Contamination (dirt/oil on connectors)
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Attenuation Solution: EDFA

Erbium doped fiber amplifies optical signals through stimulated emission using
980nm and 1480nm pump lasers
Isolator
Signal
Input

980 or 1480 nm
Pump Laser

Erbium
Doped
Fiber

Isolator
Amplified
Signal
Output

WDM Coupler for


pump and signal

Basic EDFA
configuration
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18

Chromatic Dispersion (CD)


Bit 1

Bit 2

Bit 1

Bit 2

Bit 1

Bit 2

Bit 1

Bit 2

Bit 1

Bit 2

The Optical Pulse tends to Spread as it propagates down the fiber


generating Inter-Symbol-Interference (ISI)

Total dispersion is a function of the length of fiber and its dispersion factor

Limits transmission distance for 10G and above wavelengths

Can be compensated by using negative dispersion fiber or electronically through


modulation schemes

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Solution: Dispersion Compensating Unit

DCUs use fiber with


chromatic dispersion of
opposite sign/slope and of
suitable length to bring the
average dispersion of the
link close to zero.
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20

Optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio (OSNR)

OSNR is a measure of the ratio of signal level to the level of system noise

As OSNR decreases, possible errors increase

OSNR is measured in decibels (dB)

EDFAs are the source of noise

Signal level
OSNR = ----------------Noise level

Signal level dBm)


Noise level (dBm)

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Optical Signal Detection

Across a fiber span, optical signals encounter attenuation, dispersion and


increased noise levels at amplifiers.

Each of these factors causes bit detection errors at the receiver.

Low attenuation
Low dispersion
High OSNR
Transmitting
end

High attenuation
High dispersion
Low OSNR

Distance (km)
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Receiving
end
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22

Example: Link Design with Line Amplifiers

Tx: -1dBm min

TX

DCU
-1600
ps/nm

25dB

Mux

Meets receiver minimum


OSNR and power
requirement

Tx: +3 to -1dBm, Rx min: -21dBm (0ps/nm)


CD tolerance: +1600ps/nm @ 2dB penalty
OSNR min: 16dB (0.5nm resolution)

+2dBm/ch

-23dBm/ch

OSNR= 35dB

OSNR: 18dB Rx:


-9dBm
DCU
-1600
ps/nm

25dB

+2dBm/ch

RX

Demux

10G Xenpak spec:

-23dBm/ch

OSNR= 21dB

OSNR= 18dB

Time
Domain

-1dBm
Wavelength
Domain

+2dBm
0ps/nm

Noise

Noise

Noise
-23dBm
1600ps/nm

+2dBm
0ps/nm

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-23dBm
1600ps/nm

+2dBm
0ps/nm

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23

OSNR Solution #1
Raman Amplifier

Stimulated Raman Scattering creates the Gain

Reduces the effective span loss and increases noise performance

Gain is highly dependent on quality of fiber

Gain Spectrum ~ 40nm with a single pump

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OSNR Solution #2: Forward Error Correction


FEC extends reach and design
flexibility, at silicon cost

G.709 (G.709 Annex A) standard


improves
OSNR tolerance by 6.2 dB (at 1015
BER)

Offers intrinsic performance


monitoring (error statistics)

Higher gains (8.4dB) possible by


enhanced FEC (with same G.709
overhead G.975.1 I.4)

New SD-FEC provides 2dB more


coding gain

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Raw Channel BER=1.5e-3

Log
(BER)

G.709
RS(255,239)

Uncoded
No FEC

EFEC=8.4 dB
FEC=6.2 dB

9
10
S/N (dB)

11

12

13

14

15

Benefit: FEC/EFEC Extends Reach and Offers 1015 BER


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25

Non-linear Effects

Non Linear Effects

Polarization Mode
Dispersion (PMD)

Caused by Non Linearity Of


Fiber Geometry
Effective for Higher Bit rates (10G)

Ey
nx
Ex
ny
Pulse As it Enters the Fiber

Spreaded Pulse As
it Leaves the Fiber

-5

Power (dBm)

-10

Four Wave Mixing (FWM)

Effects multi-channel systems


Effects higher bit rates

-20
-25
-30
-35
-40
1542

1543

1544

1545

1546

1547

1548

Wavelength (nm)

Self/Cross Phase Modulation


(SPM, XPM)

SPM Distortion

-15

Caused by high channel power


Caused by channel interaction
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Power

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27

Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)


Ey
nx

Ex

ny

Spreaded Pulse as It Leaves the Fiber

Pulse as It Enters the Fiber

It is Relevant at Bit Rates of 10Gb/s or


More

Leverage MLSE

Use PMD Compensation (PMDC)

Pulse broadens as it travels down fiber

Deploy PMD-optimized fibers

Advanced Modulation Schemes

Mainly a manufacturing/install issue with


concentricity of fiber
Mitigation

Increasing system robustness with FEC


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DWDM Components

Typical Components of DWDM Systems

Optical transmitters and receivers


DWDM mux/demux filters
Optical add/drop multiplexers (OADMs)
Reconfigurable OADM (ROADM)
Optical amplifiers
Transponders/Muxponders

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Optical Transmitter Block Diagram


Creates pulses of light
Power measured in
decibel-milliwatts (dBm)
Relative amplitude
measured in decibels (dB)

Detects pulses of
electrical charge
Power measured in watts (W)
Amplitude measured in
volts (V)

+ -

+
V
-

1 0 1 1

Electrical-to-optical
(E-O)
conversion

+
dB
-

1 0 1 1

E-O
Optical fiber

Electrical conductor
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31

Optical Receiver Block Diagram


Detects pulses of light
Creates pulses of electrical charge
Power measured in
Power measured in watts (W)
decibel-milliwatt (dBm)
Amplitude measured in volts (V)
Relative amplitude
measured in decibels (dB)
Optical-to-electrical (OE)
conversion
1 0 1 1
+
+ 1 0 1 1
dB
V
+ O-E
Optical fiber

Electrical conductor
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32

DWDM Mux and Demux Filters Block Diagram


N light pulses of different wavelengths
1, 2, .N
1

Composite
signal

DWDM
fiber
N

From N
transmitters

Multiplexer

Demultiplexer
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To N
receivers

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33

OADM Block Diagram


Original
composite signal

DWDM
fiber

Drop path

Pass through path

New composite
signal

OADM
one signal

Signsl 1 drop

Signal 2 add

Add path
New data stream,
same wavelength

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34

ROADM Architecture
Software Controlled Selectors 32 Ch.
(Pass-through/Add/Block)
Pass

West

Splitter

Pass-Through Wavelengths

DWDM
Signal

Add
Pass

Add

Add
Wavelengths

Transponder
Module
Network
Element

Network
Element

l3

l1

Software
Controlled
32 Ch. DeMux

DWDM
Signal

block

drop

block

drop

block

drop

Drop
Wavelengths
Network
Element

Drop
Wavelengths
drop

block

l3

Transponder
Module

Add
Wavelengths

Software
Controlled
32 Ch. DeMux

Network
Element

l1

Add

Pass

Splitter

Pass-Through Wavelengths

Add
Pass

East

Software Controlled Selectors 32 Ch.


(Pass-through/Add/Block)
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35

Optical Amplifer Block Diagram

Unidirectional operation

Extends the reach of a DWDM span


Amplified output
composite signal

Attenuated input
composite signal

OA
Powerin

Powerout

DWDM
fiber
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36

Transponder Block Diagram


ITU-T
compliant wavelength

Non-ITU-T
compliant wavelength

O-E-O
wavelength conversion
Tx

850, 1310, 1550 nm

15xx.xx nm

Transponder

Rx

Optical fiber

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G.709 Enabled

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37

Muxponder Block Diagram


Multiple Non-ITU-T
Compliant Clients

ITU-T
compliant wavelength
Multiplexing and O-E-O
wavelength conversion

850, 1310, 1550 nm

Tx

15xx.xx nm

Muxponder
Rx

G.709 Enabled

Optical fibers
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Pluggable Optics
1G/10G
SFP/SFP+

40G/100G
CFP2, CFP, CPAK and CXP

10G/40G/100G
QSFP+/QSFP-28

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39

DWDM System
Transponder interface

Tx
Rx
Client

OEO

OEO

OA

Tx
Rx

OADM
Rx

Mux and
demux

OA

Rx
Tx
Rx
Tx

Client

Tx

To client devices

Mux and
demux

Direct interface
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40

DWDM Software

Intelligent DWDM

Modern systems compensate real-time


for variations in the network
Gain Equalization
Amplifier Control
Automatic Node Setup
Automatic Power Control
WSON Restoration

Allows for less truck rolls and


maintenance windows

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42

Why Per Channel Equalization


AMP
Express Path

Optical Power Equalized Channels

Add/Drop
Path

AMP

OADM Without Power Equalization

Channels with Unequal Optical Power

Why Per-Channel Optical Power Equalization


For amplifiers to operate correctly, all channels must be equalized in power.

If channel powers are not equal, more gain will go to the higher powered channels.
Channel power is inherently unequal due to different insertion losses, different
paths (add path vs. express/pass-through), etc.

Controlling the optical power of each channel in an optical network is required.


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Constant Power Mode


Add Channels Example

Span Loss Increase Example

Total Output Power +2dBm


Per Channel
Power -15dBm

Per Channel
Power -1dBm

AMP

Initial condition 2 channels

Total Output Power +2dBm


Per Channel
Power -15dBm
AMP

Initial condition Gain 14dB


Total Output Power +2dBm

Total Output Power +2dBm

Per Channel
Power -15dBm
AMP

Per Channel
Power -1dBm

Per Channel
Power -4dBm

Adding 2 channels Amp set to Constant Power Mode

Per Channel
Power -17dBm
AMP

Per Channel
Power -1dBm

Initial condition Gain 16dB

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44

Constant Gain Mode


Add Channels Example

Span Loss Increase Example

Total Output Power +2dBm


Per Channel
Power -15dBm

Per Channel
Power -1dBm

AMP

Initial condition Gain 14dB

Total Output Power +2dBm


Per Channel
Power -15dBm
AMP

Initial condition Gain 14dB


Total Output Power -1dBm

Total Output Power +5dBm

Per Channel
Power -15dBm
AMP

Gain Stays Constant Gain 14dB

Per Channel
Power -1dBm

Per Channel
Power -1dBm

Per Channel
Power -18dBm
AMP

Per Channel
Power -4dBm

Gain stays the Same Gain 14dB

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Automatic Power Control


No Human Intervention Required

APC

Automatically corrects amplifier


power/gain for capacity change, ageing
effects, operating conditions

Keep traffic working after network


failires

Prevent BER due to


network degrade

Keep constant either power or gain on


each amplifier

No truck rolls

No troubleshooting required

No operation complexity

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Intro to OTN Switching

Aggregation Technology
OTN Drivers

Sub-Lambda
Aggregation/Switching

OTN Only

Packet
Aggregation OTN

Private Line
Private Line
Private Line
Private Line

Adapt to DWDM
Switch/Router Intfc
Mismatch to DWDM

Transparency

Timing
Protocols (i.e. OSPF vs
ISIS)

Sub-Lambda Protection

Unnecessary when client


interface = DWDM Trunk

OTN / Packet
Optimized

Private Line

Private Line

Private Line
Private Line
Private Line

Private Line
Private Line
Private Line

Source: Infonetics

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Not yet
needed
Money
saved

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2
deferred

48

OTN A Quick refresher

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How Does OTN Relate to DWDM?

DWDM

OTN

OPU

ODU
OTU

OTU

OTU

OCh
OMS
OTS

OTS

OTS

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Three AArchitectural Options


for
OTN
B
Switched
G.709
(Digital OTN)

Static WDM
(Analog OTN)

G.709 provides all


dynamic capabilities
WDM for capacity only

C
Framed G.709
(Digital OTN)

Switched
G.709
(Digital OTN)

Dynamic
WDM
(Analog OTN)

Flexible
WDM
(Analog OTN)

G.709 provides dynamic


switching
WDM with reconfigurable
connections

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G.709 provides framing


only
WDM for all dynamic
capabilities

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51

Increasing Capacity and Reach

100G and Beyond Coherent Detection


Direct Detection
Must correct for impairments in the physical domain (insert DCUs)
Forced to live with non-correctable impairments via network design (limit
distance, regenerate, adjust channel spacing)
Dumb detection (OOK), no Digital Signal Processing, only FEC
DCU

DCU

DCU
DD

Coherent Detection

DD

Regen

Moves impairment correction from the optical domain into the digital domain
Allows for digital correction of impairments (powerful DSP) vs. physical correction of
impairments (DCUs). Adds advanced FEC.
Massive performance improvements over Direct Detection.
CD

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53

Flexible Modulation Reach vs. Capacity


Modulation

Baud Rate

Line Rate

Payload Rate

Distance

BPSK

28 GBaud

56 Gbps

50 Gbps

10,000 km

QPSK

32 GBaud

112 Gbps

100 Gbps

6,800 km

16-QAM

35 GBaud

224 Gbps

200 Gbps

1,200 km

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Traditionally DWDM capacity is limited by the


channel spacing imposed by the 50GHz ITU grid.
50 GHz ITU Grid

Rigid Spacing
Wasted Spectrum

Gridless or FlexSpectrum

Superchannel with Minimal Spacing


Efficient Spectrum Use

Tightly spaced Superchannels deliver ~30% increase in capacity


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Adding Flexibility

ROADM brought flexibility to DWDM networks.


Any wavelength. Anywhere.

But it was static flexibility.


Moves and changes required a truck roll.

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because ROADM ports were


colored and directional.
Colored Add/Drop
Fixed port frequency assignment
One unique frequency per port

Directional Add/Drop
Physical add/drop port is tied to a
ROADM degree

Due to these restrictions, a change in direction or frequency of an optical circuit


required a physical change (move interface to different port) at the endpoints.
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58

Colorless and Omni-directional add/drop bring


touchless flexibility, and hence programmability, to
ROADM networks.
Colorless Add/Drop
No port-frequency assignment
Any frequency, any port

Omni-Directional Add/Drop
Add/Drop ports can be routed
to/from any ROADM degree

With Colorless plus Omni-Directional, the frequency and direction of the signal
can be changed, without requiring a change of ROADM add/drop port, therefore
no truckrolls, and henceprogrammability!
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ButColorless and Omni-directional introduce


wavelength contention at the add/drop stage. Need
a Contentionless architecture.
Directional Add/Drop ROADMs
form a Contentionless node by
definition.

Contentionless add/drop allows


multiple instances of the same
frequency to A/D from one unit.

With Contentionless, N instances of a given wavelength (where N = the number


of line degrees in the ROADM node) can be add/dropped from a single device,
eliminating any restrictions on dynamic wavelength provisioning.
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Tunable lasers and coherent receivers are also key


enablers of the touchless programmable optical layer.
Transmitter can tune its lasers
frequency to any channel in the
ITU grid.

Receiver can select any channel


from of a composite (unfiltered)
signal.

Tunable lasers work with colorless add/drop to enable touchless changes in the
frequency of an optical signal. Coherent receivers simplify the construction of
colorless and omni-directional ROADM nodes, by eliminating the need to demultiplex a signal down to the individual wavelength.
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61

But this touchless capability is of limited use without


intelligence.
Intelligence to find an optically feasible
route through the network.
WSON

The WSON Control Plane combines


GMPLS signaling with knowledge of
optical interface requirements and
channel impairments.

Embedded Optical
Intelligence

WSON enables automated, constraintbased zero-planning wavelength setup,


which in turn enables advanced optical
layer features such as Optical Restoration.
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62

animated slide

Dynamic Optical Restoration


ROADM Network
Client

Client

Transponder
Shelf

Transponder
Shelf

Fiber Cut!
Embedded WSON intelligence locates and verifies a new path and wavelength
Transponders re-tune to available wavelength
Colorless, Omni-Directional ROADM switches the path
Service is brought back up with the same Client and Optical interfaces, zero touches
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63

Adding a User Network Interface (GMPLS-UNI) to


WSON turns a touchless ROADM into a
programmable optical layer.
GMPLS
UNI

UNI-N
UNI-C

GMPLS UNI enables multi-layer circuit provisioning by signaling exchanges between UNI

Client (typically routers) and UNI Network (typically optical) nodes.


Provides the ability to share and leverage information across layers
Facilitates scale while maintaining organizational segmentation and distinct operational

expertise among layers


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Key Takeaways

Dramatic increase in Bandwidth has led to the use of DWDM

Fiber type effects the quality of transmission

Linear Effects are predictable and can be compensated

Non-Linear Effects are known but somewhat unpredictable

OTN Switching is an emerging transport technology

Modern DWDM systems are intelligent and simple to operate

Good reference is:


http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/optical/ps2011/products_tech
nical_reference_chapter09186a00802342dd.html
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65

Conclusion

Introduction What is DWDM?

Optical Fiber

Linear/Non-linear Effects and Solutions

DWDM Components

DWDM Software

Intro to OTN

Increasing Capacity, Flexibility and Reach in DWDM

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BRKOPT-2106

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Glossary
Arrayed

Waveguide (AWG)

Automatic

Node Setup (ANS)

Automatic

Power Control (APC)

Chromatic

Dispersion (CD)

Cross

Phase Modulation (XPM)

Decibels

(dB)

Decibels-milliwatt
Dense

(dBm)

Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM)

Dispersion

Compensation Unit (DCU)

Dispersion

Shifted Fiber (DSF)

Erbium

Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA)

Four-Wave

Mixing (FWM)
BRKOPT-2106

2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public

69

Glossary
International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
Non-Zero Dispersion Shifted Fiber (NZ-DSF)
Optical Add Drop Multiplexer (OADM)
Optical Signal to Noise Ratio (OSNR)
Optical Supervisory Channel (OSC)
Optical Supervisory Channel Module (OSCM)

Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)


Reconfigurable Optical Add Drop Multiplexer (ROADM)
Self Phase Modulation (SPM)

Single Mode Fiber (SMF)


Variable Optical Attenuator (VOA)
BRKOPT-2106

2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public

70