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ATWOOD MACHINE

Mutmainnah S, Rezky Nur Ariatami, Sulbiana, Yola Ivonny Harianto*)


Laboratory of Fundamental Physics Departement of Physics FMIPA
Universitas Negeri Makassar 2015
Abstract. We have conducted an experiment about "Atwood Machine that aims to make the
students understand the kinematics concept to demonstrate the applying of Newtons law, able in
calculating the inertia moment of pulley. Before conducting the experiment, we must know the
equipments needed, such as atwood machine consist of pole-scale R on the upper end there is a
pulley p, neck strap which mass can be ignored, two load M 1 and M2 shaped cylinder with a mass
of equally tied to the ends of the strap hanger, two additional load of mass m, grip G with springs,
retaining the load B, and retaining additional burden A hollow, ohauss balance 311 grams, a time
sensor, and a vernier calliper. After that, we also need to know the procedures. In this experiment,
we conducted two activities which the first activity we observe an object that travel from point C
to A with additional load. Then, the second activity we observe an object that travel from A to B
without additional load. From both activities, we measured the time using time sensor. In the first
activity the results are 0.691, 0.878, 1.163, 1.479, 1.288, 1.524, 1.579. While from the second
activity the results are 1.710, 1.089, 1.016, 0.921, 0.789, 0.659, and 0.456. Based on this this
experiment, we can conclude that in the first activities, object moved accelerated and prove the
applying of 2nd Newtons law, while for the second activity, object moved regular and prove the
applying of 1st Newtons law.
Keywords : Newtons first law, Newtons second law, moment of inertia, time, time

sensor.
PROBLEM FORMULATION
1. How to understand the kinematics concept to demonstrate the applying of
Newtons law?
2. How to determine the moment of inertia of pulley?
OBJECTIVES
1. Can understand the kinematics concept to to demonstrate the applying of
Newtons law.
2. Can determine the moment of inertia of pulley.
THEORY
In this section will be learned two kinds movement that is linear motion and
movement rotation, the cause of the movement and the Newton will be examined.[1]
Based on an experiment and intuitive encouragement from the law Newton I,
Newton had formulated Newtons II Law. One of the conclusion of the Newtons II law is
if the force is still so things will accelerated that is still , it can be reduced equality
movement in the form the others. Moreover, if we consider, it turns out that style is the

result interaction between the two objects as well as having the characteristics of a while.
This nature first put forward by Newton in the law III Newton as action-reaction law.[2]
If a pulley can only be turned on its axis that motionless, then its motion can be
analyzed as follows:
Translation motion

F 0

-T1 mg T2 + N = 0

(2.1)

Rotation motion

mg
T

-T1 R + T2 R = I
I =1/2 MpulleyR2

(2.2)
(2.3)

With a is accelerating tangential in the edge of pulley, the acceleration of is the


same as the acceleration of a rope wrapped around to pulley without slip. If an object
depends on string as picture below, the acceleration of objects are as follows:
R

T2

T1
T1

(m M 1) M 2
g
m M1 M 2 I / R2

T2

M2

m
M1
(m+M1) g

M2 g

a=

................. (2.4)

EXPERIMENTAL METHOD
Equipment :
1. Atwood machine comprising:
a. Pole-scale R on the
upper end there is a
pulley p.
a Neck strap whose mass
can be ignored
b Two load M1 and M2 are
cylindrical with the same
mass of each M attached
to the ends of the strap
hanger.
c Two additional load with
the mass m respectively
d G grip with springs,
retaining the load B,
retaining additional load
A recurring.
2. Ohauss Scale 310 grams
3. Time sensor
4. Ruler

R
p

C
M2+m1

A
R
B

M1

Identification Variables
Activity 1 C to A
1. Controlled Variables : Mass (kg) and diameter (m)
2. Manipulated Variable : Distance (m)
3. Response Variable : Time (s)
Activity 2 A to B
1. Controlled Variables : Mass (kg) and diameter (m)
2. Manipulated Variable : Distance (m)
3. Response Variable : Time (s)
Variables Operational Definition
1. Controlled Variables :
a) Mass are weight size M1 (gr), M2 (gr), m, pulleys mass mp.
b) Diameter is the pulleys diameter that in centimeter.
2. Manipulated Variable :
Distance is a length of the track from C to A and from A to B in
centimeter.
3. Response Variable :
Time is the process of the object to move from C to A and from A to B in
second.

Procedure
All loads M1, M2, m, and m pulley weighed using a balance of 310 grams. Grip G,
the additional load-bearing A and B mounted on a load-bearing pillar of scale. M1 and
M2 are hung on the ends of the rope is then mounted on the pulley. M1 is mounted on the
grip G, using springs, set up large-scale parallel poles with ropes. M additional load is
added to M2. Grip G is pressed, so that the M1 apart and move upwards, while M2 + m
going to move accelerated downward, and when M2 + m through A, m stuck in A, and
then move in uniformly acceleration motion.
Activity 1
Position C and A are recorded. M1 removed and recorded the time needed by the
body to move from point C to A is done 3 times repeated measurements by the same
distance. Repeated steps to shift the position A total of seven times. Observations are
recorded in Table observations.
Activity 2
Determined and recorded one position C and A. Position B is set (under position A) at
a certain distance. M1 removed and recorded the time needed by the body moves from
point A to B. Do 3 times repeated measurements with the distance from A to B the same.
The steps were repeated seven times with the distance from A to B are different.
Observations are recorded in Table observations.
EKSPERIMENT RESULT AND DATA ANALYSIS
Observation Result
Mass

M1

|64,060 0,005| gram

Mass

M2

|64,060 0,005| gram

Mass

|4,015 0,005| gram

Mass of pulley
Diameter pulley

(M )

=
=

|64,020 0,005| gram

|12,9 0,5| cm

Activity 1. Motion from C to A


Table 1. The relationship between the distance to the path C to A
No
,

1.

XCA (cm)

|11,40 0,05|

tCA (second)
1

|0,692 0,001|

|0,693 0,001|

|0,687 0,001|

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

|14,40 0,05|

|19,60 0,05|

|20,30 0,05|

|24,90 0,05|

|30,80 0,05|

|35,00 0,05|

|0,856 0,001|

|0,887 0,001|

|0,891 0,001|

|1,110 0,001|

|1,190 0,001|

|1,189 0,001|

|1,313 0,001|

|1,309 0,001|

|1,242 0,001|

|1,499 0,001|

|1,466 0,001|

|1,473 0,001|

|1,527 0,001|

|1,522 0,001|

|1,524 0,001|

|1,598 0,001|

|1,574 0,001|

|1,564 0,001|

Activity 2. Motion from A to B


XCA =

|35,00 0,05| cm = |35,00 0,05| 10-2 m


Table 2, The relationship between distance and time to the track A to B,

No
.

XAB(cm)

1,

|47,30 0,05|

tAB(second)
1

|1,703 0,001|

|1,708 0,001|

|41,60 0,05|

2,

|35,60 0,05|

3,

|32,10 0,05|

4,

|27,30 0,05|

5,

|23,40 0,05|

6,

|6,40 0,05|

7,

|1,709 0,001|

|1,092 0,001|

|1,078 0,001|

|1,094 0,001|

|1,020 0,001|

|1,002 0,001|

|1,027 0,001|

|0,911 0,001|

|0,924 0,001|

|0,930 0,001|

|0,798 0,001|

|0,782 0,001|

|0,789 0,001|

|0,662 0,001|

|0,654 0,001|

|0,664 0,001|

|0,446 0,001|

|0,456 0,001|

|0,457 0,001|

Data Analysis
Activities 1. Motion C to A
Measurement time
1.

X CA =|11,40 0,05| cm
=
t CA

t 1+ t 2 +t 3 0,692+0,693+ 0,687
=
s=0,691 s
3
3

1=|t 1 t CA|=|0,692 0,691|s=0,001 s


|=|0,693 0,691|s=0,002 s
2=|t 2 t CA
|=|0,687 0,691| s=0,004 s
3=|t 3 t CA
t CA = maks=0,004 s
RE
DC

t CA
t CA

= 100 % -

0,004
x 100 =0,6 (3 SF)
0,691

0,6 %

= 99,4 %
Results Report
2.

t CA = 0,691 0,004s

X CA =|14,40 0,05|cm
=
t CA

t 1+ t 2 +t 3 0,856+ 0,887+0,891
=
s=0,878 s
3
3

1= t 1 t CA 0,856 0,878s=0,022 s
|=|0,887 0,878| s=0,009 s
2=|t 2 t CA
|=|0,891 0,878| s=0,013 s
3=|t 3 t CA
t CA = maks=0,022 s
RE
DC

t CA
t CA

0,022
x 100 =2,5 (3 SF )
0,878

= 100% - 2,5 %
= 97,5 %

Results Report
3.

t CA = 0,878 0,022s

X CA =|19,60 0,05|cm

=
t CA

t 1+ t 2 +t 3 1,110 +1,190+1,189
=
s=1,163 s
3
3

1=|t 1 t CA|=|1,110 1,163| s=0,053 s


|=|1,190 1,163|s=0,027 s
2=|t 2 t CA
|=|1,189 1,163|s=0,026 s
3=|t 3 t CA

t CA = maks=0,053 s
RE
DC

t CA
t CA

0,053
x 100 =4,6 (3 SF)
1,163

= 100% - 4,6%
= 95,4%

Results Report
4.

t CA =1,163 0,053s

X CA =|20,30 0,05|cm
=
t CA

t 1+ t 2 +t 3 1,499+1,466+1,473
=
s=1,479 s
3
3

1= t 1 t CA 1,499 1,479s=0,020 s
|=|1,466 1,479|s=0,013 s
2=|t 2 t CA
|=|1,473 1,479|s=0,006 s
3=|t 3 t CA
t CA = maks=0,020 s
RE
DC

t CA
t CA

0,020
x 100 =1,4 (3 SF)
1,479

= 100% - 1,4 %
= 98,6%

Results Report
5.

t CA =|1,479 0,020| s

X CA =|24,90 0,05|c m
=
t CA

t 1+ t 2 +t 3 1,313+1,309+1,242
=
s=1,288 s
3
3

1= t 1 t CA 1,313 1,288s=0,025 s
|=|1,309 1,288|s=0,021 s
2=|t 2 t CA
|=|1,242 1,288|s=0,046 s
3=|t 3 t CA
t CA = maks=0,046 s
RE
DC

t CA
t CA

= 100% - 3,6 %
= 96,4%

0,046
x 100 =3,6 (3 SF )
1,288

Results Report t CA =|1,288 0,046| s


6.

X CA =|30,80 0,05|cm
=
t CA

t 1+ t 2 +t 3 1,527+1,522+1,524
=
s=1,524 s
3
3

1= t 1 t CA 1,527 1,524s=0,003 s
|=|1,522 1,524|s=0,002 s
2=|t 2 t CA
|=|1,524 1,524|s=0 s
3=|t 3 t CA
t CA = maks=0,003 s

RE
DE

t CA
t CA

0,003
x 100 =0,2 (4 SF)
1,524

= 100% - 0,2%
= 99,8 %

Results Report t CA =|1,524 0,003| s


7.

X CA =|35,00 0,05|cm
=
t CA

t 1+ t 2 +t 3 1,598+1,574 +1,564
=
s=1,579 s
3
3

1=|t 1 t CA|=|1,598 1,579|s=0,019 s


|=|1,574 1,579| s=0,005 s
2=|t 2 t CA
|=|1,564 1,579| s=0,015 s
3=|t 3 t CA
t CA = maks=0,019 s
RE
DC

t CA
t CA

0,019
x 100 =1,2 (3 SF)
1,579

= 100% - 1,2%
= 98,8%

Results Report

t CA =|1,579 0,019| s

Table 3. The relationship between 2XCA (y axis) with t2CA (x axis)


No

2 XCA (cm)

2 XCA (m)

t2CA (s2)

1.
2.

11,40
14,40

0,114
0,144

0,477
0,770

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

19,60
20,30
24,90
30,80
35,00

0,196
0,203
0,249
0,308
0,350

1,352
1,658
2,187
2,322
2,493

0.4
0.35
0.3

f(x) = 0.1x + 0.06


R = 0.92

0.25
0.2

distance 2xCA (m)

0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

time t2CA (s)

Graph1. The relationship between 2XCA (x axis) with t2CA (y axis)


Determining the acceleration
1. Acceleration by graphics
y = mx + c
y = 0,104 x + 0,055
2 XCA = m tCA2 + c
2
(2 X CA ) (m t CA + c)
=
t CA2
t CA 2

a = m = 0,104 m/s2

y=2 X end 2 X start


= 0,35 m 0,114 m = 0,236 m

y = 2 x=0,05 cm=0,0005 m
2

x=t endt start


= 2,493 s2 0,477 s2 = 2,016 s2
2

x = t =(0,001 s) =0, 000001 s


a = y x-1

|ya |dy +|xa |dx


a
a
a =| | dy +| |dx
y
x
a =

| | | |

y x -1
y x -1
a =
dy +
dx
y
x
a = |x-1|dy +|y x -2| dx

| | | |

a
x-1
y x-2
=
dy +
dx
a
a
a

| | | |

a
x-1
y x-2
=
dy
+
dx
a
y x-1
y x-1

|yy | + |xx |
y x
a =| + |a
y
x
a=

|yy + xx |a
0,0005 0,000001
a =|
+
0,104 m/s 2
0,236
2,016 |
a=

a = 0,000 2
RE =

m
s2

a
0,0002
100% =
100% = 0, 19 % (4 SF )
a
0,1040

Results Report = |0,1040 0,0002|


2. Acceleration m+M2 using a =

a =

|xa |dx +|at |dt

2X
t

m/s2
propagation of error:

a =

| |

a =

|2t -2|dx + |4 xt -3|

2X t -2
2X t -2
dx +
dt
x
t
dt

| | | |

a 2t -2
4 xt -3
=
dx +
dt
a
a
a

| | | |

a
2t -2
4 xt -3
=
dx+
dt
a
2X t -2
2X t -2
a
|xx | + |2t
t |
x 2t
a= | +
a
x
t |
a=

a. Acceleration 1

X CA =|11,40 0,05| cm

X CA =|0,1140 0,0005|m
t CA = 0,691 0,004s

a=

2X
t2

a=

2 (0, 1140 ) m 0,228 m


=
m/ s 2=0,478 m/ s 2
( 0 , 6 9 1 s)
0,477 s

a
|xx +2t
t |
0,0005 20,0 04
a =|
+
0,478 m/ s
0, 1140 0,691 |
a=

a = 0,008 m/s2

RE =

a
0,008
100% =
100% = 1,7 % (3 SF)
a
0,478

DC = 100% - 1,7 %
= 98,3 %

Results Report =

|0,478 0,008| m/s2

b. Acceleration 2

X CA =|14,40 0,05|cm
X CA =|0,1440 0,0005|m

t CA = 0,878 0,022s
a=

2X
t2

a=

2 ( 0,1440 ) m 0,288 m
=
= 0,374 m/ s2
2
0,771 s
(0,878 s)

a
|xx +2t
t |
0,0005 20,0 22
a =|
+
|0, 374 m/ s
0, 1440 0,878
a=

a = 0,02 m/s2

RE =

a
0,02
100% =
100% = 5,3 % (3 SF)
a
0,374

DC = 100% - 5,3%
= 94,7%
Results Report =

|0 ,37 0,02| m/s2

c. Acceleration 3

X CA =|19,60 0,05|cm

X CA =|0,1960 0,0005|m
t CA =1,163 0,053s
a=

2X
t2

a=

2 ( 0,196 ) m 0,392 m
=
= 0,255 m/ s 2
2
1,
353
s
(1,163 s)

a=

a
|xx +2t
t |

a=

20,053
+
0,255
|0,0005
0,1960
1,163 |

m/ s2

a = 0,02 m/s2
RE =

a
0,02
100% =
100% = 7,8 % (2 SF)
a
0,255

DC = 100% - 7,8%
= 92,2%
results report =

|0,255 0,020| m/s2

d. Acceleration 4

X CA =|20,30 0,05|cm
X CA =|0,2030 0,0005|m

t CA =|1,479 0,020| s
a=

2X
t2

a=

2 ( 0,2030 ) m 0, 406 m
=
= 0, 186 m/ s 2
2
2,1
87
s
(1,479 s)

a
|xx +2t
t |
0,0005 20,02 0
a =|
+
|0, 186 m/ s
0,2 030 1,4 79
a=

a = 0,005 m/s2
RE =

a
0,005
100% =
100% = 2,7 % (3 SF)
a
0,186

DC = 100% - 2,7%
= 97,3%
Results Report =

|0,186 0,005| m/s2

e. Acceleration 5

X CA =|24,90 0,05|cm
X CA =|0,2490 0,0005|m

t CA =|1,288 0,046| s
a=

2X
t2

a=

2 ( 0,2490 ) m 0, 498 m
=
= 0, 300 m/ s2
2
1,659 s
(1,288 s)

a
|xx +2t
t |
0,0005 20,046
a =|
+
|0, 300 m/ s
0,2490 1,288
a=

a = 0,022 m/s2
RE =

a
0,02 2
100% =
100% = 7,3 % ( 2 SF)
a
0,300

DC = 100% - 7,3%
= 92,7%
Results Report =
f.

|0,300 0,022| m/s2

Acceleration 6

X CA =|30,80 0,05|cm
X CA =|0,3080 0,0005|cm

t CA =|1,524 0,003|s
a=

2X
t2

a=

2 ( 0,3080 ) m 0,6 16 m
=
= 0,2 65 m/ s2
2
2, 323 s
(1,524 s )

a
|xx +2t
t |
0,0005 20,003
a =|
+
0,265 m/ s
0,3 080 1,524 |
a=

a = 0,001 m/s2

RE =

a
0,001
100% =
100% = 0, 4 % (4 SF)
a
0,265

DC = 100% - 0,4%
= 99,6%
Results Report =

|0,265 0,001| m/s2

g. Acceleration 7

X CA =|35,00 0,05|cm
X CA =|0,3500 0,0005|m

t CA =|1,579 0,019| s
a=

2X
2
t

a=

2(0,3500) 0, 700 m
2
=
= 0,2 81 m/ s
2
2,49
3
s
(1,579 s)

a
|xx +2t
t |
0,0005 20,019
a =|
+
|0,281 m/ s
0,3 500 1,5 79
a=

a = 0,007 m/s2
RE =

a
0,007
100% =
100% = 2,5 % (3 SF)
a
0,281

DC = 100% - 2,5%
= 97,5 %
Results Report =

|0,281 0,007| m/s2

Determine the moment of inertia by the equation manipulation


Mass M1,

: |64,060 0,005|

gram

Mass M2

: |64,060 0,005|

gram

Mass m

|4,015 0,005| gram

Pulley mass (M)

|64,02 0,005| gram

Pulley diameter (D)

|12,90 0,05| cm

Radius pulley (R)

|6,00 0,05| cm

{ a } = |0,1040 0,0002| m/s2


a=

(m+M 2 )- M1
m+ M1 + M 2 +

I
2
R

g
I = [ ( m+ M2 ) M1 ] [ ( m+ M1 ) + M2 ] R 2
a

I = [ ( 4, 00 g + 64, 06 g ) 64,06 g ]

9,8 m/ s2
[ ( 4, 00 g + 64, 06 g ) + 64, 06 g ] ( 6,45 cm)2
2
0,1040 m/ s

I = { 376,923166,41 } gcm
I = ( 374,318 g ) 41,60 cm2
I = 210,513 g cm

|Im | dm +|Im | dm 1 + |Im | dm 2 +|Ia | da + |IR | dR 2

I =

|(

| |(

| |(

| [

g
g
g
g
R2 - R2 dm + R 2 R 2 dm1 + CR 2 R 2 dm 2 +|( m+ M 2M 1 ) a|+ 2 R ( m+m1 m2 )
a
a
a
a

|[

| [

] |

g
g
2
2
R ( dm+ dm1 +dm 2 ) +|( m+ M 2 M 1 ) ga da| 2 R+ ( m+m 1m 2 ) ( m+m 1 +m 2 ) dR
a
a

|[
|[

] |

| [
| | [(
| | [(

] |

g
g
R2 - R 3 3 dm +|( m+ M2 - M 1 ) ga -2 da|+ 2R ( m+ m 1 - m 2 ) - ( m+ m 1 + m 2 ) dR
a
a

] ||

] |

g
g
g
R2 - R 3 3 m + ( m+ M 2 - M 1) 2 a + 2R m+ m 1 - m 2 ) - ( m+ m 1 + m 2 ) R
a
a
a

|[

] ||

] |

g
g
g
I = R 2 - R 3 3 m + ( m+ M 2 - M 1) 2 a + 2 R m+ M 2M 1 ) ( m+m1 +m2 ) R
a
a
a

( 6,45 c m

I = [ 2

||

9,8 m/ s2
3
9,8 m/ s2
(
6,45
c
m)
]
3
0,0
1
gram
+
(
4,
00
g
+
64,06
g
64,06
g
)
0,1040 m/ s2
(0,1040 m/ s 2)2

I =

|37425,237| + |0,725| + |46752,959||0,2|

I =

84178,484 g cm2

I = 0,008 kgm2

kgm2
x 100 =4,2
|II | 100 % = 0,008418
0,000002kgm 2

RE =

Result Report = I = |I I|= |0,000002 0,008418|

Moment of inertia using equation

I=

1
m
R2
2 pulley

I=

1
( 64,02 ) ( 6,45 ) 2
2

I=1 331 ,69 gr cm2


I =

|Im |dm +|IR |dR

| | |

(12 m R ) dm + (12 m R ) dR
2

| ||

1 2
R dm
I
2
mRdR
=
+
I
1
1
2
2
mR
mR
2
2
I =

2R
+
I
|m
m
R |

(3 SF)
gcm2

2R
+
I
|m
m
R |
0,0 5
2(0,05)
=|
+
1 331 ,69 gr cm
64,02 6 ,45 |

I =

= 21,69 grcm2

KR=

I
21,69
x 100%=
x 100%= 1,6 % (3 SF)
I
1 331,6 9

Report Result I = |I I| g r cm 2

|1 331,69 21,69| gr cm2

Activity 2. Motion from A to B


Measuring Time
1.

X AB =|47.30 0.05|cm
t AB =

t 1 +t 2+t 3 1.703+1.708+ 1.719


=
s=1.710 s
3
3

1=|t 1 t AB|= 1.703 1.710s=0.007 s


2=|t 2 t AB|=|1.708 1.710| s=0.002 s
3=|t 3 t AB|=|1.719 1.710| s=0.009 s
t AB = maks=0.009 s

KR
PF
2.

t AB
t AB

0.009
x 100 =0.53 (3 AB)
1.710

t AB = 1.71000 0.00900s

X AB =|41.60 0.05|cm

t AB =

t 1 +t 2+t 3 1.096+ 1.078+1.094


=
s=1.089 s
3
3

1= t 1 t AB1.096 1.089s=0.007 s
2=|t 2 t AB|=|1.078 1.089| s=0.011 s
3=|t 3 t AB|=|1.094 1.089| s=0.005 s
t AB = maks=0.011 s

KR
PF
3.

t AB
t AB

0.011
x 100 =1.01 (3 AB)
1.089

t AB = 1.0890 0.0110s

X AB =|35.60 0.05| cm
t AB =

t 1 +t 2+t 3 1.020+ 1.002+1.027


=
s=1.016 s
3
3

1= t 1 t AB1.020 1.016s=0.004 s
2=|t 2 t AB|=|1.002 1.016|s=0.014 s
3=|t 3 t AB|=|1.027 1.016| s=0.011 s
t AB = max=0.014 s

KR
PF
4.

t AB
t AB

0.014
x 100 =1.38 (3 AB)
1.016

t AB = 1.0160 0.0140s

X AB =|32.10 0.05| cm

t AB =

t 1 +t 2+t 3 0.911+0.923+0.930
=
s=0.921 s
3
3

1= t 1 t AB0.911 0.921s=0.010 s
2=|t 2 t AB|=|0.923 0.921| s=0.002 s
3=|t 3 t AB|=|0.930 0.921| s=0.009 s
t AB = max=0.010 s

KR
PF
5.

t AB
t AB

0.010
x 100 =1.09 (3 AB)
0.921

t AB = 0.9210 0.0100s

X AB =|27.30 0.05| cm
t AB =

t 1 +t 2+t 3 0.797+0.782+0.788
=
s=0.789 s
3
3

1= t 1 t AB0.797 0.789s=0.008 s

2=|t 2 t AB|=|0.782 0.789| s=0.007 s


3=|t 3 t AB|=|0.788 0.789|s=0.001 s
t AB = max=0.008 s

KR
PF
6.

t AB
t AB

0.008
x 100 =1.01 (3 AB)
0.789

t AB = 0.78900 0.00800s

X AB =|23.40 0.05| cm
t AB =

t 1 +t 2+t 3 0.661+ 0.654+0.663


=
s=0.659 s
3
3

1= t 1 t AB0.661 0.659s=0.002 s
2=|t 2 t AB|=|0.654 0.659|s=0.005 s
3=|t 3 t AB|=|0.663 0.659| s=0.004 s
t AB = max=0.005 s

KR
PF
7.

t AB
t AB

0.005
x 100 =0.76 (3 AB)
0.659

t AB = 0.65900 0.00500s

X AB =|16.40 0.05| cm

t AB =

t 1 +t 2+t 3 0.455+ 0.455+0.457


=
s=0.456 s
3
3

1= t 1 t AB0.455 0.456s=0.001 s
2=|t 2 t AB|=|0.455 0.456| s=0.001 s
3=|t 3 t AB|=|0.457 0.456|s=0.001 s
t AB = max=0.001 s
KR
PF

t AB
t AB

0.001
x 100 =0.22 (4 AB)
0.456

t AB = 0.456000 0.001000s

Table 4. Relationship between distance XAB with time tAB


tAB (second)
1.710
1.089
1.016
0.921
0.789
0.659
0.456

0.5
0.45
0.4
0.35
0.3
0.25
Distance (m)
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0.2

XAB (cm)
47.30
41.60
35.60
32.10
27.30
23.40
16.40

XAB (m)
0.4730
0.4160
0.3560
0.3210
0.2730
0.2340
0.1640

0.47

f(x) = 0.25x + 0.08


R = 0.9
0.42
0.36
0.32
0.27
0.23
0.16

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

Time (s)

Graph 2. Relationship between distance XAB with time tAB


Measuring Speed
1. Determining speed from the graph

y = mx+c
X AB = m t AB + C
( X AB ) (m t AB +C)
=
t AB
t AB
v= m

v = 0. 2525

m
s

y= X AB finalX ABinitial

1.8

= 0.4730 m 0.1640 m = 0.3090 m

y = X AB =0.05 cm=0.0005 m
x=t AB finalt AB initial
= 1.710 s 0.456 s = 1.254 s

x = t=0.001=0.001 s

|yy + xx | v
0.0005 0. 001
v= |
+
0 .25 25 m /s
0.3090 1.254 |
v=

v= 0.000606
KR =

m
s

v
0. 000606
100%=
100%= 0.24 % (4 AB)
v
0. 2525

m
v = |v v|= |0 .2525000 0 .0006060|
s
2.

Determining speed M2 + m from C to A with GLBB pattern

X CA =|35.00 0.05|cm

X CA =|0.3500 0.0005|m
a=|0,1040 0,0002| | m/s2
2

V t =V 0 +2 a X CA
V t = 2 a X CA
s2
0,1040 m/(0.3500 m)

2
V t =
V t = 0.0728m2 /s 2
V t =0.27 m/s
V t = 2 as

2 as 2
V t =
dV t =

V t
Vt
da+
ds
a
s
1

2 a X CA 2

2as X CA

d X CA

da+

dV t =

| |

1
1
V t = 2 2 X CA 2 a 2 a+ 2 2 a 2 s 2 X CA
2
2
1

1
2

a2
2 X CA
2

2 s 2 a2
1
1
2

X CA 2
2a
2

2 a 2 X CA 2
X CA

a+

Vt
=
Vt

| | | |

V t a1
X 1
=
a+ CA X CA
Vt
2
2

V t a X CA
=
+
Vt
2 a 2 X CA

a X CA
+
V
2 a 2 X CA t

0.0002
0.0005
+
0.27 m/ s
2(0.1040) 2(0.3500)

V t=
V t=

V t =0.000459 m/s
vt
0.000459
100 =
100 =0.17 ( 4 AB )
vt
0.27

KR=
PF =

{ vt }=v t v t =|0.2700000 0.0004590|m/s

3. Determining speed A to B with GLB pattern

V=

X AB
t AB

V =x t 1

| | | |
| | | |

V=

V B
VB
dx+
dt
x
t

V=

x t
x

dx+

xt
t

dt

V =|t 1|dx +|x t 2|dt

V
t 1
x t 2
= 1 dx+ 1 dt
V
xt
xt

|xx + t t |V

V=

a. Speed 1
X AB =|47.30 0.05|cm
X AB =|0.4730 0.0005| m

t AB = 1.71000 0.00900s
V=

X AB
t AB

V=

0.4730m
=0.277 m/s
1.71000 s

|xx + t t |V
0.0005 0.00900
V =|
+
0.277 m/s
0.4730 1.71000|
V=

V =0.00175 m/s
V
0.00175

100
=
100 =0.63 (3 AB)
KR
V
0.277
PF

{ V }=|V V |=|0.27700 0.00175| m/ s

b. Speed 2
X AB =|41.60 0.05|cm
X AB =|0.4160 0.0005| m

t AB = 1.0890 0.0110s
V=

X AB
t AB

V=

0.4160 m
=0.382 m/ s
1.0890 s

|xx + t t |V
0.0005 0.0110
V =|
+
0.382 m/s
0.4160 1.0890|
V=

V =0.00432m/ s
KR
PF

V
0.00432
100 =
100 =1.13 (3 AB)
V
0.382

{ V }=|V V |=|0.38200 0.00432|m/ s

c. Speed 3
X AB =|35.60 0.05| cm
X AB =|0.3560 0.0005| m

t AB = 1.0160 0.0140s
V=

X AB
t AB

V=

0.3560 m
=0.350 m/ s
1.0160 s

|xx + t t |V
0.0005 0.0140
V =|
+
0.350 m/ s
0.3560 1.0160|
V=

V =0.00531m/ s
KR
PF

V
0.00531
100 =
100 =1.52 (3 AB)
V
0.350

{ V }=|V V |=|0.35000 0.00531|m/ s

d. Speed 4
X AB =|32.10 0.05| cm
X AB =|0.3210 0.0005| m

t AB = 0.9210 0.0100s
V=

X AB
t AB

V=

0.3210 m
=0.349 m/s
0.9210 s

|xx + t t |V
0.0005 0.0100
V =|
+
0.349 m/ s
0.3210 0.9210|
V=

V =0.00433 m/s
KR
PF

V
0.00433
100 =
100 =1.24 (3 AB)
V
0.349

{ V }=|V V |=|0.34900 0.00433| m/s

e. Speed 5

X AB =|27.30 0.05| cm
X AB =|0.2730 0.0005| m

t AB = 0.78900 0.00800s
V=

X AB
t AB

V=

0.2730 m
=0.346 m/s
0.78900 s

|xx + t t |V
0.0005 0.00800
V =|
+
0.346 m/s
0.2730 0.78900|
V=

V =0.00414 m/s
V
0.00414

100
=
100 =1.20 (3 AB)
KR
V
0.346
PF

{ V }=|V V |=|0.346 0.00414|m/s

f. Speed 6
X AB =|23.40 0.05| m
X AB =|0.2340 0.0005| m

t AB = 0.65900 0.00500s
V=

X AB
t AB

V=

0.2340 m
=0.355 m/s
0.65900 s

|xx + t t |V
0.0005 0.00500
V =|
+
0.355 m/ s
0.2340 0.65900|
V=

V =0.00345 m/s

V
0.00345

100
=
100 =0,97 (3 AB)
KR
V
0.355
PF

{ V }=|V V |=|0.35500 0.00345| m/s

g. Speed 7
X AB =|16.40 0.05| cm
X AB =|0.1640 0.0005| m
t AB = 0.456000 0.001000s
V=

X AB
t AB

V=

0.1640 m
=0.360 m/s
0.456000 s

|xx + t t |V
0.0005 0.001000
V =|
+
0.360 m/ s
0.1640 0.456000|
V=

V =0.00189 m/ s
KR
PF

V
0.00189
100 =
100 =0.53 (3 AB)
V
0.360

{ V }=|V V |=|0.36000 0.00189| m/ s

DISCUSSION
In this experiment we have conducted two activities. The first activity to find a
relationship between distance and time for path C to A where the path length CA changed
seven times, and each path length is measured the time it took the load m + M2 three
times using a sensor. When Burden m + M2 will move from point C to A load m + M2
will move expedited or accelerated (experienced uniformly accelerated motion). In one
activity, the acceleration is determined based on the analysis and graph theory. Based on
the graph, the acceleration acquired is {a} =
theory is {a} =

|0,1040 0,0002|

m/s2 while based

|0,478 0,008| m/s2. Besides acceleration, moment of inertia is also

determined based on the manipulation of the equation and the equation according to the

theory. By manipulation of the equation I =


based on theoretical unity of the

|0,000002 0,008418| gram cm2 while

|1 331,69 21,69| gr cm2

In the second activity, find the relationship between distance and time for the track A
to B in which the path length AB changed seven times, and each path length is measured
the time taken M2 load after load restraint m stuck in a repeated three times. M2 load will
move at a constant speed (experienced uniform rectilinear motion) from A to B. In this
second activity, determined the speed of the object based on the graph theory and the
theory of uniformly accelerated and rectilinear motion. Based on the graph, for v =

m
s based on the theory of uniformly accelerated motion

|0 . 2525000 0 . 0006060|
of {v_t} =

|0.2700000 0.0004590| m/s , while based rectilinear motion of {V} = |

V V | =

|0.27700 0.00175|m/s .

CONCLUSION
Based on our results, it can be concluded that the aircraft Atwood is a tool used to
prove the legal validity of Newton. In the first activity the applicable law of 2 Newton
and on the activities of both the applicable law of 1 Newton. And the moment of inertia
can be determined using the manipulated of formula :

g
I = [ ( m+ M2 ) M1 ] [ ( m+ M1 ) + M2 ] R 2
a
Or using the formula based on theory :

1
I = m pulley R2
2

REFERENCES
Penuntun Praktikum Fisika Dasar 1 Unit Laboratorium Fisika Dasar Jurusan Fisika
FMIPA Universitas Negeri Makassar
Serway/Jewett. 2005. Physics for scientist and engineers with modern Physics, Seventh
edition. Jakarta : Erlangga.