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<a href=Plant Physiology and Biochemistry xxx (2016) 1 e 16 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Plant Physiology and Biochemistry j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m/ l o c a t e / p l a p h y Review Role of nanomaterials in plants under challenging environments * M. Nasir Khan , M. Mobin, Zahid Khorshid Abbas, Khalid A. AlMutairi, Zahid H. Siddiqui Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Tabuk, Tabuk 71491, Saudi Arabia a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t Article history: The application of nanostructured materials, designed for sustainable crop production, reduces nutrient losses, suppresses Received 27 March 2016 Received in revised form 22 May 2016 Accepted 26 May 2016 Available online xxx disease and enhances the yields. Nanomaterials (NMs), with a particle size less than 100 nm, in fl uence key life events of the plants that include seed germination, seedling vigor, root initiation, growth and photosynthesis to fl owering. Additionally, NMs have been implicated in the protection of plants against oxidative stress as they mimic the role of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX). However, besides their bene fi cial effects on plants, applications of NMs have been proved to be phytotoxic too as they enhance the gen-eration of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Keywords: The elevated level of ROS may damage the cellular membranes, proteins and nucleic acids. Therefore, in such a con fl icting Abiotic stress and ambiguous nature of NMs in plants, it is necessary to decipher the mechanism of cellular, biochemical and molecular Antioxidant enzymes protection render by NMs under stressful environmental conditions. This review systematically summarizes the role of NMs in Defense mechanism plants under abiotic stresses such as drought, salt, temperature, metal, UV-B radiation and fl ooding. Furthermore, suitable Nanomaterials strategies adopted by plants in presence of NMs under challenging environments are also being presented. Oxidative stress © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. Contents 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 2. Nanomaterials and plant growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 3. Nanomaterials and photosynthesis under abiotic stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 4. Nanomaterials and plants under abiotic stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drought stress Salinity 4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 00 4.3. . Temperature stress . Metal stress 4.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 00 4.4.1. Nanomaterials and phytoremediation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 4.5. Other stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 4.5.1. UV-B radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 4.5.2. Flooding stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 4.5.3. Post-harvest stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 5. Phytotoxic effects of nanomaterials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 5.1. Nanotoxicity and plant growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 5.2. Physiological and biochemical responses to nanotoxicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 6. Mechanism of action of nanomaterials under abiotic stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 7. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 * Corresponding author. E-mail address: mo.khan@ut.edu.sa ( M.N. Khan). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.05.038 " id="pdf-obj-0-3" src="pdf-obj-0-3.jpg">
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Plant Physiology and Biochemistry j o u r n a l
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m/ l o c a t e / p l a p h y
<a href=Plant Physiology and Biochemistry xxx (2016) 1 e 16 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Plant Physiology and Biochemistry j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m/ l o c a t e / p l a p h y Review Role of nanomaterials in plants under challenging environments * M. Nasir Khan , M. Mobin, Zahid Khorshid Abbas, Khalid A. AlMutairi, Zahid H. Siddiqui Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Tabuk, Tabuk 71491, Saudi Arabia a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t Article history: The application of nanostructured materials, designed for sustainable crop production, reduces nutrient losses, suppresses Received 27 March 2016 Received in revised form 22 May 2016 Accepted 26 May 2016 Available online xxx disease and enhances the yields. Nanomaterials (NMs), with a particle size less than 100 nm, in fl uence key life events of the plants that include seed germination, seedling vigor, root initiation, growth and photosynthesis to fl owering. Additionally, NMs have been implicated in the protection of plants against oxidative stress as they mimic the role of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX). However, besides their bene fi cial effects on plants, applications of NMs have been proved to be phytotoxic too as they enhance the gen-eration of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Keywords: The elevated level of ROS may damage the cellular membranes, proteins and nucleic acids. Therefore, in such a con fl icting Abiotic stress and ambiguous nature of NMs in plants, it is necessary to decipher the mechanism of cellular, biochemical and molecular Antioxidant enzymes protection render by NMs under stressful environmental conditions. This review systematically summarizes the role of NMs in Defense mechanism plants under abiotic stresses such as drought, salt, temperature, metal, UV-B radiation and fl ooding. Furthermore, suitable Nanomaterials strategies adopted by plants in presence of NMs under challenging environments are also being presented. Oxidative stress © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. Contents 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 2. Nanomaterials and plant growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 3. Nanomaterials and photosynthesis under abiotic stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 4. Nanomaterials and plants under abiotic stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drought stress Salinity 4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 00 4.3. . Temperature stress . Metal stress 4.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 00 4.4.1. Nanomaterials and phytoremediation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 4.5. Other stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 4.5.1. UV-B radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 4.5.2. Flooding stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 4.5.3. Post-harvest stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 5. Phytotoxic effects of nanomaterials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 5.1. Nanotoxicity and plant growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 5.2. Physiological and biochemical responses to nanotoxicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 6. Mechanism of action of nanomaterials under abiotic stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 7. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 * Corresponding author. E-mail address: mo.khan@ut.edu.sa ( M.N. Khan). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.05.038 " id="pdf-obj-0-11" src="pdf-obj-0-11.jpg">

Review

Role of nanomaterials in plants under challenging environments

*

M. Nasir Khan , M. Mobin, Zahid Khorshid Abbas, Khalid A. AlMutairi, Zahid H. Siddiqui

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Tabuk, Tabuk 71491, Saudi Arabia

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

The application of nanostructured materials, designed for sustainable crop production, reduces nutrient losses, suppresses

Received 27 March 2016 Received in revised form 22 May 2016 Accepted 26 May 2016 Available online xxx

 

disease and enhances the yields. Nanomaterials (NMs), with a particle size less than 100 nm, in fluence key life events of the plants that include seed germination, seedling vigor, root initiation, growth and photosynthesis to flowering. Additionally, NMs have been implicated in the protection of plants against oxidative stress as they mimic the role of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX). However, besides their beneficial effects on plants,

 

applications of NMs have been proved to be phytotoxic too as they enhance the gen-eration of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

Keywords:

The elevated level of ROS may damage the cellular membranes, proteins and nucleic acids. Therefore, in such a conflicting

Abiotic stress

and ambiguous nature of NMs in plants, it is necessary to decipher the mechanism of cellular, biochemical and molecular

Antioxidant enzymes

protection render by NMs under stressful environmental conditions. This review systematically summarizes the role of NMs in

Defense mechanism

plants under abiotic stresses such as drought, salt, temperature, metal, UV-B radiation and flooding. Furthermore, suitable

Nanomaterials

strategies adopted by plants in presence of NMs under challenging environments are also being presented.

Oxidative stress

© 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Contents

  • 1. Introduction

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  • 2. Nanomaterials and plant growth

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  • 3. Nanomaterials and photosynthesis under abiotic stresses

 

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  • 4. Nanomaterials and plants under abiotic stresses

 

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  • 4.1. .

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Drought stress

Salinity

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  • 4.3. .

Temperature

stress .

Metal stress

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4.4.1.

Nanomaterials and phytoremediation

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* Corresponding author. E-mail address: mo.khan@ut.edu.sa (M.N. Khan).

Please cite this article in press as: Khan, M.N., et al., Role of nanomaterials in plants under challenging environments, Plant Physiology and Biochemistry (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.05.038

2 M.N. Khan et al. / Plant Physiology and Biochemistry xxx (2016) 1 e 16 Contributions
  • 2 M.N. Khan et al. / Plant Physiology and Biochemistry xxx (2016) 1e16

Contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contributions
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References
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00
Abbreviations
1
MWCNTs Multi-walled carbon nanotubes
NMs Nanomaterials
O 2
Singlet oxygen
Ascorbate peroxidase
Calcium-binding proteins
Catalase
Chlorophyll
Hydrogen peroxide
Hydroperoxy radical
Heat shock proteins
High temperature
Low temperature
Malondialdehyde
Metal stress
NO
APX
NPs
CaBPs
O 2
CAT
OH
Chl
POX
QDs
H 2 O 2
HO 2
HSPs
HT
LT
MDA
MS
ROS
Rubisco
SOD
SWCNTs
ZVI
Nitric oxide
Nanoparticles
Superoxide radical
Hydroxyl radical
Peroxidase
Quantum dots
Reactive oxygen species
Ribulose bis-phosphate carboxylase
Superoxide dismutase
Single-walled carbon nanotubes
Zero-valent iron

1. Introduction

Nanomaterials (NMs), once called by Paul Ehrlich as Magic Bullets(Kreuter, 2007), are one of the most studied materials of

100 nm (1 nm

the century that gave birth to a new branch of science known as nanotechnology. The specific quality of NMs which make these tiny entities unique, is their size which ranges between 1 and

¼

10

9

m) (Ball, 2002). Although, NMs can be pre-

pared from the bulk size materials but small size and shape of these particles make their chemical action entirely different from their parent material (Brunner et al., 2006). Smaller size of NMs helps them to penetrate specific cellular locations and their additional surface area facilitates more adsorption and targeted delivery of substances (Kashyap et al., 2015). The NMs exist in volcanic dust, mineral composites (natural NMs) as well as in anthropogenic waste materials like coal combustion, diesel exhaust, welding fumes etc. (incidental NMs) (Monica and Cremonini, 2009). More- over, engineered NMs manufactured with nanoscale dimensions are generally grouped into four types viz. carbon based NMs, metal based NMs, metal oxides, dendrimers and composites (Yu-Nam and Lead, 2008).

Engineered NMs have revolutionized almost every field of sci- ence and of course, plant science could not remain unaffected. These NMs have been shown to affect plants at every stage of their life cycle (Canas et al., 2008; Lahiani et al., 2013; Siddiqui and Al- Whaibi, 2014; Liu et al., 2016). Fertilizers are integral part of agri- culture that assist growth and development of plants. However, recently employed nano-fertilizers have been proved more efficient alternatives to regular fertilizers. Smaller size of nanoparticles (NPs) provides additional surface area which enhances the avail- ability and facilitates more absorption of fertilizers by the plants and thus reduces losses of fertilizers due to leaching, emissions, and long-term incorporation by soil microorganisms (Liu et al., 2006; DeRosa et al., 2010). Moreover, nano-fertilizers are released at slower rates which help in maintaining soil fertility by decreasing the toxic effects associated with over-application of traditional chemical fertilizers (Suman et al., 2010). Being sessile organisms, plants have no choice to escape or hide

from adverse environmental conditions such as drought, salinity, water logging, extreme temperature, UV-radiation, etc. These stresses create oxidative stress by inducing generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ), superoxide radical (O 2 ), hydroperoxy radical (HO 2 ), hydrogen peroxide

(H 2 O 2 ) and hydroxyl radical (OH ). Excessive accumulation of ROS

damages membrane lipids, proteins and nucleic acids (Foyer and

Noctor, 2000), triggers cytotoxicity, genotoxicity (; Shen et al., 2010a, b; Yadav et al., 2014) and suppresses growth (Begum et al.,

2012). To counter oxidative stress, plants are fitted with a system of enzymatic antioxidants viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), cata- lase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (glutathione, ascorbate) which continuously scavenge harmful ROS. Whereas, plants counter os- motic stress by enhancing the accumulation of organic osmolytes such as trehalose, polyols (glycerol, inositols, sorbitols etc.), amino acids (proline, glycine betaine and taurine) which maintain normal hydration level of cells. Under hypoxic conditions plants are deprived of proper supply of oxygen which causes energy depletion and settle the plants with low energy status, however, to maintain energy level plants alter their metabolism and switch over from carbohydrate metabolism to fermentation (Banti et al., 2013). To counteract metal stress plants synthesize metal-chelates, organic acids and polyphosphates that cause restriction and sequestration of toxic metals either in apoplasm or symplasm. In addition to their role in plant growth and development, NPs play significant role in the protection of plants against various abiotic stresses (Table 1). The NPs mimic the activities of anti- oxidative enzymes and scavenge these ROS (Rico et al., 2013a, 2013b; Wei and Wang, 2013). Small size and large surface area of NPs provide access for toxic metals for binding and thus reduced availability and toxicity of metals (Worms et al., 2012). Under abiotic stresses, photosynthesis is highly susceptible cellular pro- cess, however NMs have been shown to protect photosynthetic system and improve photosynthesis by suppressing oxidative and osmotic stress (Haghighi and Pessarakli, 2013; Qi et al., 2013; Siddiqui et al., 2014). However, response of plants to NMs varies differently depending on plant species and NMs applied (Lin and

Please cite this article in press as: Khan, M.N., et al., Role of nanomaterials in plants under challenging environments, Plant Physiology and Biochemistry (2016),

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.05.038

M.N. Khan et al. / Plant Physiology and Biochemistry xxx (2016) 1e16

3

Table 1

Alleviating effects of nanomaterials on abiotic stresses in plants.

Nanomaterial

TiO 2

ZnO

Analcite

Fe

TiO

2

TiO

2

SiO

2

Zerovalent Fe

Maghemite (g-Fe 2 O 3 )

Ag

SiO

2

SiO

2

SiO

2

SiO

2

SiO

2

SiO

2

ZnO and Fe 3 O 4

ZnO

SiO 2

Se

TiO

2

TiO

2

SiO

2

Ag

MWCNTs

TiO 2

Na 2 SeO 4

TiO 2 Kaolin, montmorillonite, hydroxyapatite, Fe 3 O 4 ,

 

a-Fe 2 O 3 and g-Fe 2 O 3

Magnetic maghemite

Plant

Abiotic

Effect

References

stress

Triticum aestivum L.

Drought

Increased growth, yield, gluten and starch content

Jaberzadeh et al. (2013)

Glycine max

Drought

Increased germination percentage and germination rate, decrease in Sedghi et al. (2013) seed residual fresh and dry weight

Triticum aestivum L., Zea mays L.

Drought

Increased activation of CAT, accumulation of flavonoids and carotenoids, decreased proline accumulation, improved seed

Zaimenko et al. (2014)

Carthamus tinctorius L.

Drought

germination, photosynthetic pigments and biomass accumulation Reduced impact of drought and improved yield

Zareii et al. (2014)

Linum usitatissimum L.

Drought

Enhanced chlorophyll and carotenoids content, improved growth

Aghdam et al. (2015)

Ocimum basilicum L.

Drought

and yield attributes, decreased H