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What is Computer

an electronic device which

consist of several components
that together provide the
capability of executing a stored


It has three essential


Refers to the physical components of

a computer that you can actually

It categorize into 4 devices:

- Electronic device

- Input devices

- Programmable

- Output devices

- Can Store, Retrieve and

- Central Processing
- Storage devices

process data

Unit CPU)

Computer System Performs four Operations:

Computer System Devices

- Input

Input device - Which allow users to

input data for processing.

Output device
- Where the
results of processing operations are
displayed or printed.

* Input Operation

- The computer system accepts data

from external sources, such as: users or a
separate computer system.

Central Processing Unit(CPU)

Process and converts data from input
to output.

Storage device
- Where the data
us stored permanently.

Some Input Devices

Keyboard - It has a function keys for

the entry of information.

Mouse - It is used to repositioning

the cursor or the pointer .

Scanner - Translates images of text,

photo, or other graphics into digital

Joystick - it usually used in playing

computer games.

- Processing
- Output
- Storage

* Processing Operation
- It performs logical operations on
inputted data.
* Storage
- The results are sent to temporary
* Output
- Where the processed data

Some Output Devices

Computer System Elements

Monitor - It is the most common

output device that shows information
on the screen when you type.

Printer - a computer peripheral that

puts text or a computer-generated
image on paper or on another

Speaker - Produce sound output

from the computer.


Basic CPU Components



CPU(Central Processing Unit) - Process and

converts data from input to output. heart
of the Computer

Random Access Memory (RAM) is a part of

the memory the computer uses to store
given instructions.
Read Only Memory (ROM) can only read
the information or instruction stored.

Some Storage Devices

Magnetic Disk - is a direct access to

media which, like a phonograph
record, is divided into tracks and
Common types are:
- Hard disks
- Floppy disks

Optical Disk - it is made up of plastic

which data are recorded.
Common types are:

The motherboard is the computer's main
circuit board. It's a thin plate that holds the
CPU, memory, connectors for the hard drive
and optical drives, expansion cards to
control the video and audio, as well as
connections to your computer's ports (such
as the USB ports).

installed, and it's also where your

documents and other files are stored.
The hard drive is long-term storage, which
means the data is still saved even if you
turn the computer off or unplug it.

Expansion Cards

Central Processing Unit

Also called a processor, is located inside
the computer case on the motherboard. It is
sometimes called the brain of the computer,
and its job is to carry out commands.
Whenever you press a key, click the mouse,
or start an application, you're sending
instructions to the CPU.

Most computers have expansion slots on

the motherboard that allow you to add
various types of expansion cards. These are
sometimes called PCI (Peripheral
Component Interconnect) cards.
Video Card
The video card is responsible for what you
see on the monitor.
If you like playing graphics-intense games
on the computer, you can add a faster video
card to one of the expansion slots to get
better performance.

Sound Card

Random Access Memory

RAM is your system's short-term memory.
Whenever your computer performs
calculations, it temporarily stores the data
in the RAM until it is needed.

The sound card, also called an audio card, is

responsible for what you hear in the
speakers or headphones. Most
motherboards have integrated sound, but
you can upgrade to a dedicated sound card
for higher quality sound.

Hard Drive

Network Card

The hard drive is the data center of the

computer. This is where the software is

The network card allows your computer to

communicate over a network and access
the internet. It can either connect with

an Ethernet cable or through

a wireless connection (often called Wi-Fi).

Power Supply Unit (PSU)

PSUs supplies power to all the components

inside the system unit.