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# Sanchez, Charles Francis B.

## Expt 5. Refraction of light

Conclusion
Based on the data gathered from the experiment, in activity1 the shallowing effect of
refraction was verified. The coin was seen in the same angle as water is added because
of its change in refractive index. In activity 2A the experimental index of refraction of
glass was determined as 1.49 and it provided 0.67% error. In the second activity, the
index of refraction of glass was calculated to be 1.5 which gives 0% error.

Application
1. A mark on the bottom of a pool cannot be seen when the pool is empty. Find
what depth of water must be poured into the pool to enable the man to see an
image of the mark. Assume that the eyes of the man are 1.5m above the floor.
2. State the laws of refraction.
a. Snells Law an equation that relates the incident ray of light with the
refracted ray of light. It is expressed as the following equation: nisini=
nrsinr. Where: i is the angle of incidence, ni = index of refraction of the
incident medium, r = angle of refraction, nr = index of refraction of the
refractive medium
b. Total Internal Reflection is said to occur whenever light travels from a medium
of higher index of refraction to a medium of lower index of refraction.
3. What are the conditions for total internal reflection?
There are two conditions that must be fulfilled for total internal reflection to occur:
a. When light travels from a medium with higher index of refraction n1 to a
medium having a lower index of refraction n2. b. When the angle of the incident i
light is greater than that of the critical angle c .

4. Derive the mathematical relation between critical angle and index of refraction.
From Snells Law that relates angle of incidence and angle of refraction: It is said
that the critical angle is the angle of incidence that results to an angle of refraction
that is equal to 90. Substituting these values in the above equation yields: And
nr

## since the sine of 90 is equal to 1, the equation simplifies to: sinc=

5. An Optical fiber consists of a core and a cladding. Which has a higher index of
refraction: the core or cladding? Why?
The core should be the one to have a higher index of refraction, because optical
fibers use the concept of total internal reflection. Total internal reflection occurs
when light travels from a medium of higher index of refraction n1 to a medium of
lower index n2. This is due when light penetrates the core through the cladding, it
becomes trapped inside by total internal reflection, and this forces the light to
travel along the fiber.

Reference
Sciencelearn. Refraction, Retrieved on 10/18/2015 from
http://sciencelearn.org.nz/Contexts/Light-and-Sight/Science-Ideas-andConcepts/Refraction-of-light
Learnnext. Refraction by Spherical Surfaces. Retrieved on 10/18/15 from
http://www.learnnext.com/nextgurukul/wiki/concept/CBSE/X/Science/Refraction-bySpherical-Lenses.htm