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This magazine is a result of team collaboration. We express our gratitude

to all our team members. Apart from the given names, several freelance
writers have also made important contributions which have been
acknowledged alongside their articles.
& CMD : Dr. Vikas Divyakirti
Executive Officer: Shivesh Mishra
Advisory Board

D. Kumar, Kumar Gaurav, Akhil Murti, Rajesh Mishra, Nishant
Shrivastava, Ritesh Jaiswal, Sourabh Chaturvedi, K.P. Dwivedi
Executive Editor : Neel Parmar
Editorial Team

Dr. Vikas (Editor-Content), Abhishek Mishra (Editor-News), Rabmeet Kaur,
Dr. Deepshikha, Abhishek Gautam, Sarmad Wani, Chandra Bhan Singh,
Prerna Priya, Debabrat Gogoi, Gaurav Bana, Neha Saini, Sandeep Verma
Typesetting and Designing

Mohd. Sajid Saifi, Jitender Ruhela, Vivek Kumar, Anil Kumar, Poonam
Saxena, Pankaj Gupta, Sachin Pal, Rajo Kamti, Manoj Sharma
Web Section

Narendra Pratap, Avinash Kumar, Durgesh, Geeta Pal, Abhishek Kumar,
Anu Raj, Deepak Shree, Abhilasha Kumari
Managerial Support (Senior)
Mohd. Aftab Alam, Ekta Kalia, Arun Singh, Ajay Sharma, Arvind Mishra,
Arushi Verma, Gopal Rai, Rajesh Dhasmana
Managerial Support

Ravishankar Shukla, Pooja Sharma, Mohit Walia, Abhishek Singh,
Nitesh Kumar Jha, Mohit Mishra, Priyanka Nayak, Rachna Singh, Riddhima
Raj, Rakesh Singh Chauhan, Mohit Pandey, Kundan Kumar, Ved Prakash,
Asim Karan, Pramod Singh Kanwal, Lavkush Mishra
Day-to-day Support

Gajender, Ravi Kumar, Bhavesh Giri, Mahesh Kumar, Sunny, Dilip Tiwari,
Vijay Kumar, Amit Kumar, Vikesh Kumar, Raju Bera, Vijay Kumar, Panchanan
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Kumar, Sahil, Subhash Kumar, Ram Surat Yadav, Raju Verma, Manish
Kumar, Deepak Kamti, Kishan Kanojia, Gyan Prakash Maurya, Ram Krishna
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The views expressed in the articles in

the magazine are of the individual

writers. It is not necessary that the editor
or publisher shares the same viewpoint.
It is our endeavor to include articles
from writers believing in diverse
ideologies so that our readers can
benefit from the diversity of views on
any subject.

The information, news and facts

published in this magazine have been

duly verified and cross-checked. Even
then, if any information or fact is found
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Vikas Divyakirti, H-203, Signature View Apartments, Mukherjee Nagar, Delhi-110009. Editor : Vikas Divyakirti

Strategy for Mains



4. Law on compensatory afforestation will help those

destroying forests
5. Plight of 7,700 starving Indian workers in Saudi Arabia
6. Region without Regionalism: Cooperation in South Asia
7. Multiplier effects of Self-help Groups (SHGs)
Miscellaneous issues, in brief
Yojana (118)

Political / Constitutional Issues

1. Rural electrification

democracy? (12)

2. Renewable energy

Economic Issues

3. Energy efficiency

4. Solar power: National Solar Mission

5. Shale gas in India

AFSPA: Security Necessity or blot on Indian

25 Years of Economic Reforms in India (20)
International Relations

Contemporary Themes In Indian Foreign Policy (25)

International / Global Issues

UN: Indispensable or Irrelevant? (29)

Current Affairs


Most Important News Events (34)

Constitutional & Administrative Updates (51)
Economic Scenario (60)
International News Events (69)
India-World Relations (73)
Science & Technology (81)
Environment & Ecology (87)
Social Issues (93)
Other National News (95)
States Scan (98)
Art & Culture (101)
Sports News (103)
In News (107)

Academic Vitamins

Kurukshetra (122)

1. Rural Youth
2. Rural Entrepreneurship
3. Urban migration & Employment opportunities

Down To Earth (125)

1. Jharkhand's Fish Revolution (Matsya Mitra)

2. Redefining forests
3. Cow Dung is HOT CAKE: From cowshed to
4. Rural electrification
5. Route by Root

Science Reporter (128)


Economic and Political Weekly (112)

1. Cyber cell against trolls: Securing Womens Right
to Free Speech on Social Media
2. Reviewing Indias National Mission on Electric Vehicles
3. Medical Termination of Pregnancy

1. Welcome Back, Himalayan Bear!

2. The Black Tiger
3. Fuzzy Logic
4. Graphene
5. Barley
6. Drosera in Danger

Learning Through Maps 130

Map 1 (130)
Map 2 (131)
Map 3 (132)
Map 4 (133)

To The Point


Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971 (134)

Citizen Charter (135)
Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) (136)
Foreign Trade Policy 2015-2020 (137)
10 Years of MGNREGA: A Critical Evaluation (138)
National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) (139)
Niche Banks (140)
Infrastructure: Power sector in India- an analysis (141)
Different Irrigation Systems (142)
National Water Commission (144)
100 years of Champaran Satyagraha (145)
United Nations Convention On The Law Of The Sea
(UNCLOS) (146)

Railway Budget Merged with Union Budget (147)

Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Mechanisms (148)
Non Performing Asset (NPA): Resolution Methods (149)
Role of NGOs (150)
One Rank One Pension (OROP) (151)
Coastal Regulation Zone and Shailesh Nayak
Committee (152)

Seventh Pay Commission (153)

Unified Payment Interface (154)

P.T. Express


Movement (155)

Shashank Tripathi (IAS, CSE 2015, AIR-5) (167)

Target Mains 2016


GS Paper I, II, III (169)



Preparing for the Personality Test (Part-III) (180)

Mock Interview & its Evaluation (182)

Ethics, Integrity and



Attitude: Influence on Behaviour; Moral & Political

attitudes and Persuasion (187)

Case Studies (193)



Disaster Management &

Internal Security
Mains Capsule -2


Introducing Disasters (202)

Disaster Management (214)
Internal Security (222-257)

Internal Security of India: Introduction (222)

Terrorism Role of External State and Non-State


Lending Hands to Someone is Better than Giving

a Dole (162)

Is Linguistic Diversity a Hindrance to the Unity and

Essay Writing Competition (166)

Toppers Interview

Disaster & Disaster Management (202-221)

General Science : Bio Chemistry (156)

Geography : Soils in India (157)
Environment & Ecology : Ecosystem (158)
Polity : Parliament of India (159)
Economy : Fundamentals of Economy (160)
Current Affairs (161)

Integrity of India? (164)


Censorship: Good or Bad? (197)

Indian History : Mahatma Gandhi and Indian National



Actors (223)

Left Wing Extremism (234)

Cyber Security (239)
North East Insurgency (245)
Money Laundering (250)
Border Management: Security Challenges and their
management (253)

Dear Aspirants,
Olympics are the biggest and the oldest carnival of competitive sports in the world. Every four
years, thousands of athletes representing hundreds of countries compete against each other with an eye
on winning medals. But the Olympics is not merely about fierce competition. It is as much about the
spirit of sportsmanship, the idea of following a goal with ultimate focus, as it is with the constant pushing
of ones limits with eyes all set on nothing less than excellence; which these games or in a way every
fair competition seeks to promote. And it stands true for UPSC CSE as well.
Civil Services demand an all-round approach which must not be limited merely to the syllabus or
examination but it must also extend to our general outlook towards life. It may definitely demand hard
work, dedication and efficiency, but most of all, it is a test of your quest for not settling for the average,
for the mediocre, and to go with full dedication and preparedness, for excellence. Supposedly, this is
all common-sense. But even what appears as common-sense, require efforts, discipline and hard work
to be imbibed in day-to-day life. Remember that even a last-minute faltering has changed the course of
history and that of lives!
Since we began by recounting the Olympics, let me recount one more anecdote from the same to
illustrate the above point. Indian performance in this year's Olympics has not been up to the mark and
even though one must avoid the rhetoric of so-few-medals-for-a-billion-plus-country, there were some
real disappointments, as several stalwarts underperformed and could not even match their performances
of domestic tournaments or of qualifying rounds. For example, as per the report in a national daily, in
the 48kg womens weightlifting category, Mirabai Chanu had stepped on to the Olympic dais with a
total lift of 192 kg behind her, a national record achieved just a couple of months earlier at the selection
trials in Patiala. But in Rio, Chanu managed just a single clean lift of 82kg in the snatch segment. The
silver in Rio went to Indonesias Wahyuni Agustiani she lifted 192 kg. This, unfortunately, was one
of the many similar examples. Experts say that there are two reasons for such performances. First, several
players get contended with the qualified for Olympics tag and a final win is never their ultimate goal.
Second, this year in Rio, a number of athletes got overawed by the occasion and by the time they got
their nerves under control, their participation in the event was over.
So, I would advise you, as a serious aspirant, irrespective of your stage of preparation, to take few
lessons from the close analysis of Indias performance at the Olympics, which youll anyhow study in
the course of your GS preparation. Especially for those who are convinced of their success in prelims
2016 and are hopeful of appearing in Mains - DONT GET COMPLACENT. Prelims was only a qualifying
paper and wont contribute towards your rank in the final merit list. Remember, MERELY QUALIFYING
PRELIMS WAS NEVER YOUR DREAM. Also, remember to be consistent in your answer writing practice
so that you dont get overawed in the real exam. Mains examination is as much about knowledge as it
is about presenting that knowledge in a limited space and time.
From this issue onwards, we are going to introduce a few changes in the magazine where we will
be increasing the pages for concise GS notes, which is presented as To The Point and will also be adding
more maps for practice. This has been done keeping in view the feedback we have received from our
readers and due to the changing trend in UPSC CSE which is increasingly getting tilted in the favour
of current affairs. We hope these changes will make the magazine more competent in helping you with
a systematic preparation of UPSC CSE. Your suggestions, enquiries and comments are always welcome.

With Best Wishes

(Dr. Vikas Divyakirti)

Strategy for Mains

Now that the CSE Prelims is over,
you must be in preparation mode for
the Mains examination going to be
held from 3rd December onwards. It
is a very interesting and testing period
of time in the CSE calendar and we
would like to help you in your
preparation through sharing a timehonoured Strategy for Mains.
This strategy has been prepared
using inputs from various honest and
trustworthy sources like ex-students
with experience of appearing in Mains,
students who have excelled in last
years Mains and from candidates who
have over the years shared their
valuable insight on Mains examination
with us.
This strategy is also very flexible
in that it allows you to concentrate on
your daily studies while aggressively
pushing yourself towards newer
boundaries. Please do not hesitate to
challenge or customize the various
stratagems youll find mentioned here
because we want you to adapt and
evolve according to your own
strengths and weaknesses when
preparing for the Mains examination.
We wish you good luck on your efforts
and sincerely hope your name appears
on the final cut-off list!
Team Drishti.

Dos and Donts

Whats done is done,
dont look back
In all probability you will be
reading this in the first week of
September and from there on you will
have about 12 weeks to prepare for the
Mains. One of the first suggestions we
are going to make is to stop worrying

on the Prelims cut-off and jump into

the Mains preparation already. Scoring
somewhere between 100-110 (general
category) in the Prelims should invite
a Mains attempt and even if an aspirant
is sure to score in the 90-100 bracket
he or she should not lose heart and
start Mains prep immediately without
losing time. This is because even if
somebody doesnt clear the Prelims
this year, and if he or she is a serious
contender, there is always the
possibility of clearing the Prelims in
the next year. Preparation done today
i.e in 2016 will surely help in 2017!

Understanding Mains
Horses for courses approach
The fundamental difference
between CSE Prelims and Mains is that
while the Prelims focusses on
recognition (of information) and
requires an exhaustive study covering
a wide variety of topics, Mains need
the ability to recall, analyse and
express (ideas and information,
including ones own thoughts)
properly which can only be done
through an intensive study of the topic.
Therefore it is very important to stay
focussed and cover in-depth, the topics
that you have picked for Mains and
in doing so you have to match your
skills with the subject at hand. Using
the right approach and picking the
right parts of the syllabus for intensive
study will not only help manage time
but also garner more marks in the end.
It is also equally important to
understand the syllabus for the Mains
pretty well. The syllabus is designed
such that it cannot be directly studied
in isolation from current happenings.
Moreover the syllabus is open-ended
and requires much analysis and an

understanding of the underlying

trends and ideas. In order to help you
grasp the Mains syllabus we have
divided it into core and peripheral
areas. Core areas are essential to help
build the Mains vocabulary and should
not be ignored at any costs. If due to
the paucity of time one is unable to
thoroughly study all of the core areas
of the syllabus, at least the basic level
of study, by going through the relevant
NCERTs, must be done. The peripheral
areas can be safely kept aside for study
in free time or can be covered when
the core areas are done.

GS Paper I
Indian National Movement and PostIndependence consolidation of India

questions are interlinked

pertaining to a number of affairs.
For example- Linking Gandhian
ideology to the national movement.
So focus should on underlying
themes rather than the events.


Chandras Indias Struggle

for Independence and India Since
Also Focus on current based
themes such as anniversaries of
any important event during the
Freedom Struggle.
Indian Society

current affairs based

questions. For Basics Indian Society
Class XI Ncert.


important geographical
phenomena with special focus on
Human Geography.

Drishti Current Affairs Today

|| October 2016 || 7


Focus on CAG report on government



Focus on Important Geophysical
phenomenon - Earth Quakes,
Tsunami, Landslide etc in
World History
Focus areas are the Enlightenment,

American and French Revolutions

and the World Wars.


Modern World History
- Norman Lowe


GS PaperII
Federal relation between Union &
States Separation of Powers between
various institutions

current based Questions

are asked.


basics, follow Lakshmikant

without getting into detail like
For Current DCAT or any other
standard magazine.
Comparison of Indian Constitution
with various constitutions of important

to the forthcoming US
Presidential election, prepare a
comparison between Indian and US
constitutions and political systems.
June Issue for details

Government Policies


NGOs and SHGs


related to issues in news

are mostly asked.

Internet for basic functions of NGOs

and SHGs and their role in Indian

DCAT Magazine Articles, TTP,
Academic Vitamins.

Issues relating to poverty and hunger


related to issues in news

are mostly asked.


Magazine Articles, TTP,

Academic Vitamins.

International Relations
International institutions
Electoral reforms

from current affairs. For

eg. The simultaneous holding of


August Issue for in depth


GS Paper III
Agricultural issues
Prepare time tested areas like Farm

subsidies, MSP, Irrigation etc


schemes in news.
Also focus on Flagship schemes of
the government and their impact.

Year Book 2016.

Last one year Yojana and Kurushetra.
(For effort maximization refer to
Academic Vitamins in DCAT for
in depth analysis).

Macroeconomic issues that are in the

news including issues on infrastructure like waterways, railways and

topics like Monetary

Policy, RBIs role in the economy,
Employment viz. skill training,
Economic Survey Vol. II, 25 years
of LPG subsidy, Civil Aviation
Policy etc.

8 || Drishti Current Affairs Today || October 2016

Science & Tech

Prepare from current affairs topics-

New Technologies, Indias Defence

and Space program, Milestone
development in Medical Science,
Nanotechnology, and Biotechnology.


Hindu Science and Tech

segment for the last one year. (Refer
to archives in case you have missed
any segment).
D C A T S e p t e m b e r i s s u e

exclusively from current

affairs but also study the science
behind the facts. For example, topics
like CAMPA Bill or the man animal
conflict viz. culling etc.


Economic Survey chapter on

Climate Change.
DCAT July Issue supplement.
India Year Book environment
Disaster Management
Prepare from current affairs keeping

an eye out for policy frameworks.

Topics like Urban flooding and
water crisis, Drought and the IPL
controversy, Sendai Framework
for Disaster Risk Reduction and
the National Disaster Management
Plan should be prepared.


class XI: Physical

DCAT October issue supplement.
ARC recommendations (only
Internal Security

topics connected with

current affairs is the way to go. For
example, Cross border terrorism
and Mob control, AFSPA, Money
laundering viz. Panama Leaks, 30
years of Mizo Accord etc


October issue Supplement.

Internal Security of India- Tata
Mcgraw Hills.

GS Paper IV
Case Studies

Best prepared after consulting

previous years Q&As. There are lots
of case studies out there so knowing
which ones to read and which ones to
not read will save a lot of time. Please
go through previous DCAT issues and
the forthcoming Ethics supplement
that we are working on.

Prepare on topics that have current

relevance, like Doping (ethics in sports).
Also prepare on ethical issues in
corporate governance, Civil Service,
environment and the art of ethical
living, international issues and relations
viz. European Migrant Crisis etc.


for Ethics, Integrity and



ethical biographies and

understand the reasons behind some
of the historical decisions taken
by the leaders (like Gandhi) who
shaped Indian history and society.
The art of coverage of Mains
syllabus is a secret that very few will
share in all honesty. The untold secret
of Mains prep is the fact that the
syllabus cannot be covered 100%. The
most brilliant of candidates will testify
that even their own coverage of the
syllabus was not completely 100%. The
best way to, therefore, prepare for the
Mains is to selectively choose or leave
topics. But such decisions have to be
taken after due considerations and not
just randomly. Topics that have been
in the news are generally considered
as more important. So they must be
prepared at all costs.

There are going to be areas of the

syllabus that you will be familiar with
and there will be topics that will be
relatively easier for you to master.
These areas should serve as your
strength and in no way should you
take them lightly. These areas should
rather be intensively studied, so that
whenever a question comes from your
area of expertise you can answer them
with gusto and lucidity. For areas in
the syllabus that you find challenging
it is best to tackle them relentlessly until
you succeed but it must also be kept
in mind that time is of the essence here.
Do not waste time chasing after topics,
the study of which require unreasonable
amounts of time. Remember to
maximize your gains and cut your

The art of Answer Writing

Please go through the following
points and remember them by heart
because it will help you not only in
CSE Mains but also everytime you
open a question paper in any
examination at your life.
To write an answer first understand
the question. Every question should
be read and re-read at least two
to three times before attempting
an answer. In the meaning of the
question lies the secret to a good
answer. Only if the aspirant can
understand what the question is
demanding then he or she can treat
it with finesse. Please consult the
table given here to see what different
types of questions mean.
Before attempting an answer it is
necessary to have at least a bare
minimum framework for the answer.
Things like how to begin, what point
should come where and how to
close the answer, should be decided
before-hand. This helps streamline
thoughts and saves valuable time.
You can use the rough pages in
the answer sheet for this purpose.
Always and as a rule of thumb
answer only what the question

demands. Do not write unnecessary

things or give useless data (false
information is even worse) related
to the topic but not demanded by
the question. This will generate
a negative impression on the
examiner and may even affect the
marking process. It will also save
time. If there are multiple parts in a
question, remember to answer the
question completely and not just one
part - do justice to all parts of the
question. Also do not overshoot the
word limit as it would be a double
penalty as one would lose out on
time and may also be penalized by
the paper checker.
When writing an answer always
end on a positive note. Even after
an intense criticism, find a way
to end on a positive note. This is
because the Mains test is meant
for budding Civil Servants and
not University students. Civil
Servants are supposed to be positive
individuals with a positive outlook
in life. So, remember to put yourself
in the shoes of a Civil Servant
while answering any question in
the Mains examination. Remember
the saying every dark cloud has its
silver lining and apply it to your
answer writing.
This is perhaps one of the most
popular and yet one of the best
advices for someone aiming to
conquer the Mains exam - Practice
Makes A Man Perfect. Practising
answer-writing is a quintessential
part of any Mains preparation. Write
answers (including essays) daily and
try to get them evaluated by either
peers or professionals. Any form of
evaluation is better than practising
answer-writing all by oneself. You
may join the Drishti IAS Mains test
series for evaluating your answers.
Remember that keeping stock of
progress is very important and
should be done at regular intervals.
Last but not the least, it is imperative
to address the language side of the
UPSC answer-writing technique.

Drishti Current Affairs Today

|| October 2016 || 9

UPSC wants its candidates to write
in precise, easy to understand
language while avoiding flowery
language. This basically means
that if an aspirant has a good
command over the language he
or she is writing in, it is best to
write simple and fluid sentences
while avoiding complex words and

unnecessary stylistic elements. For

those who have to struggle a bit
with the written language it is best
to write in points or bullets the main
parts of the answer, while writing
simple and easy introductions and
conclusions in paragraphs. It is
therefore important to remember
that for CSE Mains, content is


more important than expression,

but at the same time mistakes in
things like grammar and spellings
may sometimes cause a reduction
in marks. So, it does no harm in
practising answer-writing that
is expressive and yet free from
common spelling and grammatical
Answer Structure


To Comment choose your position on the

subject/issue and stick to it; Provide arguments
and examples/facts to support your choice;



To Critically Comment mention both sides

Begin the answer by writing the positive arguments

of the arguments including both the positive

and negative points.
Your opinions in the answer should be
based on facts.

first, followed by the negative arguments.

Based on your opinion conclude by supporting either

the positive or the negative argument.

Examine probe deeper into the given

Support your answer by going into details
like the causes, implications and what is
being done about it.

Begin with a brief discussion of the various aspects


A Critical Examination requires going into



Discussion requires a broadly covered and





with an introduction;
with a body containing your opinions and
the relevant examples/facts;
Finish with a short and precise conclusion;

details of the issue while also mentioning

the strengths and weaknesses.
The answer must also carry whatever
consequences/implications the issue may
have. This includes consequences for any
action taken over the issue.
all encompassing answer.
Also have to mention both Positive/negative
and strength/weakness.
The causes and consequences are also to
be mentioned.

of the issue at hand.

it up with the details and conclude in the
same paragraph.


answer, first write the strengths or the positive

aspects, then write the weaknesses or the negative
Third paragraph should carry the consequences.
Conclude briefly without taking sides.
with an introduction.
write the Positive/Negative part.
Follow it up by framing the causes and consequences.
In next paragraph provide the solutions, remedies/
prescription or suggestions for the issue.
Conclude by covering the issue holistically.


Evaluate, assess both sides of the Begin with an introduction to the topic then write in
paragraphs the positive and negative arguments
Follow it up by mentioning the worth or respectively.
usefulness of the subject.
Also mention both the positive and negative

C r i t i c a l l y Almost the same as to Evaluate with the Same as above.

exception of requiring to establish the value
of something.


Analyse, break the main idea into

constituent ideas.
Then simply Examine each part separately.


a short introduction.
explain the broken down ideas one by one.
Write a conclusion addressing the main idea.

Questions and their Meanings


10 || Drishti Current Affairs Today || October 2016

Political / Constitutional Issues...................................... 12

n AFSPA: Security Necessity or blot on Indian democracy?

AFSPA is severely debated and criticised by civil society, disliked by

a lot of people but is defended by the Army and governments. Why
do this central Act generate such fierce streams of opinion? Dr. Vikas

Economic Issues........................................................... 20
n 25 Years of Economic Reforms in India

At the time, when India is in need for a second push to revive its economy,
it is a pertinent time to critically analyse the economic reforms that took
place 25 years back. Abhishek Gautam

International Relations.................................................. 25
n Contemporary Themes In Indian Foreign Policy

How far has the Modi government modified Indian foreign policy?
Which are the new doctrines followed in Indian diplomacy? By posing
such questions, this article attempts to trace the evolution and changes
in Indian foreign policy under the Modi government. Debabrat Gogoi

International / Global Issues........................................... 29

n UN: Indispensable or Irrelevant?

Whether the UN is losing its relevance with growing importance of

groupings like G-20 or remains the indispensable world body of choice to
address global challenges. Abhishek Mishra

AFSPA: Security Necessity or blot on

Indian democracy?
Dr. Vikas

The article takes a look at the debate around AFSPA through the lenses of both human rights and
the national security perspectives.
There is no other security legislation in independent India that has been
debated and contested as much as the
Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act
(AFSPA). As the name suggests,
AFSPA are Acts made by Indian parliament which give special powers
to the armed forces. In notified areas
(in the North East India and J&K),
security personnel have statutory protection for their use of special powers.
It has been called draconian and anti-people by human rights activists
and NGOs and defended as unjustifiably criticized by army and others.
Not a day passes when AFSPA is not
mentioned and debated in the media
in the context of discussions on human
rights and internal security in India,
extrajudicial killings, unity and integrity of the country, fundamental rights
and centre-state relations. Most recently, the end of hunger strike by Irom
Chanu Sharmila after some sixteen
years, agitation in Kashmir and
Supreme Court interim judgement (9
July) has put AFSPA back in the limelight. Opponents of AFSPA hold that
such a law has no role in democracy
and should be scrapped whereas the
army views it as functional requirement, to quote General V. K. Singh,
former chief of army staff.

Genesis of AFSPA
The Armed Forces (Special
Powers) Act, 1958 had its genesis in
the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act
of 1948 which was enacted to replace
four ordinances (relating to disturbed
areas in Bengal, United Provinces,
Assam and East Bengal; partition

related riots) to deal with internal security situation in 1947. The 1948 Act
was modelled on the Armed Forces
Special Powers Ordinance of 1942
promulgated by the British on 15
August 1942 to suppress the Quit
India Movement. The ordinance provided complete immunity to officers
for use of force (even to cause
death);their acts could not be challenged in court except with the prior
approval of the central government.
The Act of 1948 was repealed in
1957 but resurrected in 1958 when the
internal security situation deteriorated
in the unified Assam. Nagas opposed
the merger of their area with the Indian

state; they even voted in a referendum

in 1951 supporting independent
Nagaland and boycotted the first general election (1952). Central government sent the Army to Naga hills to
suppress the rebellion and restore
normalcy as the President promulgated the AFSPA ordinance on 22 May
1958 conferring special powers on
the armed forces to help them function
in the disturbed areas of Assam and
Union Territory of Manipur.

Debate in Parliament (1958)

The bill seeking to replace the
ordinance was met with opposition
in Parliament. G. B. Pant, the then

AFSPA: North East, Punjab and Chandigarh, J&K

Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA), 1958 was enacted on September
11, 1958. At present, AFSPA, 1958 is operational in the entire State of
Assam and in a 20 km wide belt bordering Assam in the State of Meghalaya
since 27th November, 1990; entire State of Nagaland since 10th December,
1986; Tirap and Changlang districts in Arunachal Pradesh since 17th
September, 1991; Longding district in Arunachal Pradesh since 30th July,
2012; entire State of Manipur excluding Imphal Muncipal Area from August,
2004 and in the area falling under the jurisdiction of 16 police stations in
districts of Arunachal Pradesh bordering Assam since 5th May, 2015. Most
recently, AFSPA was withdrawn by the Manik Sarkar government (it
recommended repeal of AFSPA to Union Home Ministry in May 2015) in
Tripura in view of the significant taming of terrorism in the state where
it was in operation for some 18 years.
The Armed Forces (Punjab and Chandigarh) Special Powers Act was
enforced in 1983 in view of the outbreak of militancy in Punjab and withdrawn
in 1997 fourteen years later when militancy was decisively dealt with.
The Armed Forces (Jammu & Kashmir) Special Powers Act, 1990
was enacted in disturbed areas of the State of J&K w.e.f. 5th July, 1990.
This Act is operational in the Districts of Anantnag, Baramulla, Badgam,
Kupwara, Pulwama and Srinagar since 6th July, 1990 and in the Districts of
Jammu, Kathua, Udhampur, Poonch, Rajouri and Doda since 10th
August, 2001.
[Source: Reply to a Parliamentary Question in Lok Sabha, 2015]

12 || Drishti Current Affairs Today || October 2016

25 Years of
Economic Reforms in India
Abhishek Gautam

At the time, when India is in need for a second push to revive its economy, it is a pertinent time to
critically analyse the economic reforms that took place 25 years back.
No power on earth can stop an idea
whose time has come.
25 years ago when Dr. Manmohan
Singh the then Finance Minister rose
to present the maiden budget of P.V.
Narsimha Rao led congress government and quoted this famous statement of Victor Hugo, hardly anyone
had imagined that they were going to
witness a historical event which was
going to change the economic, social
and cultural landscape of India
What was the idea that Dr. Singh
referred to? Whether those ideas were
inevitable? Whether the right time had
arrived? These all questions were
answered in the finishing sentences
of the historical budget of 1991-92.
I suggest to this august House that
the emergence of India as a major economic
power in the world happens to be one such
idea. Let the whole world hear it loud and
clear. India is now wide awake. We shall
prevail. We shall overcome

On the Verge of Default

Late 1980s and early 1990s were
the troubled era for India. It has seen
governments at the centre. Due to the
ongoing Gulf War the remittances
dried off and exports were shrinking.
To make the things worse former
Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi was
assassinated in an election rally for the
upcoming general election of 1991. In
such hard circumstances senior
Congress leader P.V. Narasimha Rao

was chosen as consensus candidate by

the Congress party and he became the
new Prime Minister. On the evening
of 20 June, 1991 (then cabinet secretary)
Naresh Chandra met Narasimha Rao
and handed over a top-secret eightpage note highlighting the urgent tasks
awaiting the new prime minister. After
looking at the note, Narasimha Rao's
first response was: 'Is the economic
situation that bad?' To this, Naresh
Chandra's reply was, No, sir, it is
actually worse! To this the Prime
Minister who until now kept a low
profile gave his nod for the decision
which before him no one had dared!
-The go ahead for the full fledge
economic reforms.

India Before 1991

When the economic reform started
in 1991, Infosys was a 10-year-old
small venture with hardly any
international presence. N.R. Narayana
Murthy was just another struggling
entrepreneur, running from pillar to
post, trying to get licenses for
importing computers. It was the time
when it took three years and about
fifty trips of Delhi for Murthy to import
a computer!
These things seems to be
unbelievable to the post-reform
generations of today that in the prereform era one had to wait for three
years to get a scooter and ten years to
get a car that too among a handful of
choices! In the light of these two
examples it becomes necessary to
underline the factors that led to this
gloomy situation.

20 || Drishti Current Affairs Today || October 2016

If we analyse the economic

policies of India till 1980, it can be
termed as command and control
economy where the state took the
commanding heights of the economy
and actively participated in rapid
industrialization with the help of
heavy industries. Here the state played
a critical role with the public sector as
a major investor. This strategy was
called Nehru-Mahalanobis Model
and it was based on Soviet closedeconomy thinking. The purpose was
optimum utilization of resources for
nation building and at the same time
to satisfy the socialist aim of equal
distribution of community resources.
Control of imports was seen as
necessary to manage the balance of
payment in the erstwhile closed
economy of India and also to allocate
scarce imports to so called priority
uses. Imports were allowed only after
clearance from the indigenous angle
and based on degree of essentiality.
Restriction was placed on private
sector investment getting into nonpriority areas including reservation of
some items for the small scale industry.
Domestic protection to the industry
made it uncompetitive and raised the
cost of production.
This economic model was called
the License-Quota-Permit raj where
crucial economic and commercial
decisions were taken in the corridors
of North Block rather the boardrooms
of companies. The era of 70s was the
peak of socialism with rapid bank
nationization and poverty alleviation

Contemporary Themes In Indian

Foreign Policy
Tracing the evolution and changes in Indian foreign policy under the Modi government
Debabrat Gogoi
If India is to meet the challenge of change, mere incremental progress is not enough. A metamorphosis is needed. That is why
my vision for India is rapid transformation, not gradual evolution - Narendra Modi

The Modi Mandate of 2014

The verdict of the 2014 general
elections brought in the Modi
government with an overwhelming
majority not seen since the days of
Indira Gandhi. The election was sold
on the promises of a better future, acche
din, of economic development and of
doing away with inefficiency. The
mantra was minimum government,
maximum governance. The goal was
getting rid of the plodding culture
systemic to all things Indian.
Keeping in mind the election
promises and in alignment with the
BJPs ideological directions, the Modi
government took to change and
promote Indias foreign policy with a
vigorous drive. This also was, for
many, a sign of the times, for they
believed the previous Congress-led
governments had failed to capture the
global stage which the people of India
rightfully deserved.
The Modi Mandate of 2014 was
in many ways a demand by the people
of India to make India a power to reckon
with within the International system and
in this way it can be safely said that
foreign policy (or the hopes for a
newer, better foreign policy) was one
of the reasons in the sweeping victory
of the Modi-led BJP.

Overcoming Constraints
Indian foreign policy had always
been guided by ennobled principles,
constraints. The overbearing legacies
of the Indian National Movement

Nehruvian statecraft (over-dependence
to a fault on International Institutions,
following of unrealistic ideologies, moralethical personal values antithetical to
shaping a purely national interest based
foreign policy) and self-imposed
dogmas when it came to acting with
strength and deliverance, made sure
that foreign policy played a second
fiddle to domestic and regional

Points to Ponder
How far has the Modi government

modified Indian foreign policy?

are the new doctrines
followed in Indian diplomacy?
Has the order of business
changed for India in its own
What are the latest shifts in the
policy building strategies of India?
What does the future hold for
Indian diplomacy?

In observing and maintaining

relations with other countries India
had demonstrated considerable
intelligence, substance and patience
but sadly in perspective such acuity
and modesty had not been enough.
This can be said so because there is
still a visible lag in the progress of
many important foreign policy goals
such as the UNSC permanent
membership or peace with Pakistan.
The success of Indias foreign policy
today, therefore, requires resetting the
old methods and welcoming newer

Some of the fresh policy

changes brought on by the Modi
government at the ideological stage
are as follows:
Integration of domestic and foreign
policy towards achieving common
goals, eg. Economic growth fuelled
by foreign investment.
Freeing up of self-imposed, historical
and mental constraints on developing
relationship with any country to
its full potential, eg. Continuing
relationship with Iran despite global
Enhancement of military power
especially with regards to
asymmetric warfare, eg. Military
raid on NSCN (K) camps allegedly
inside Myanmars borders.
Jettisoning misplaced fears of offending
other countries, eg. Military deal
with Vietnam confronting China.
Emphasizing on soft power by
engaging the Indian diaspora, eg.
Engagement with the Girmitiyas
(Indian colonial indentured labour
in Fiji, Mauritius, Singapore,
Malaysia, South Africa and the
Caribbean) ahead of the 2017
event commemorating the
Centennial of the Abolition of
Indian Indentureship.
Following through the pragmatic
reset of policy towards the U.S.
eg. The new defence agreement
Logistics Exchange Memorandum
Of Agreement (LEMOA) which
allows India and the US to use each
other's land, air and naval bases for
repair and resupply.

Drishti Current Affairs Today

|| October 2016 || 25

UN: Indispensable or Irrelevant?

Abhishek Mishra

We should, rather, recognize the United Nations for what it is an admittedly imperfect but
indispensable instrument of nations working for a peaceful evolution towards a more just and secure
world order. Dag Hammarskjld (2nd Secretary General of UN)
The term United Nations (UN)
brings to mind the imagery of a world
government or a global high table
where important matters concerning
the world at large are decided by
consensus based on the equitable
principle of one country-one vote. In
practice, though the UN has at times
lived up to the ideal of working by
consensus, it has at other times come
up short. In this article we shall be
reviewing the historical underpinnings
of the UN, its original mandate and
evolving role as well as the need to
reform its various organs. We will also
see whether the UN is losing its
relevance with growing importance
of groupings like G-20 or remains the
indispensable world body of choice
to address global challenges.
Reform in its literal sense means
to change to a better state, form, etc.
and when one talks of UN Reforms,
the idea is to tweak its functioning and
structures to make UN more effective,
efficient, transparent, accountable
and pro-active. To understand and
appreciate the need for reforming an
institution like UN, it is necessary to
know about its origins and the
changing landscape in which it has
had to function.

cooperation and to achieve peace and

security after the First World War. The
primary mandate of the UN at the time
of its formation was to ensure that the
world is saved from the horrors of yet
another world war and in its 70 plus
years of existence UN has been
successful on this front.

decisions on important matters

require a two-thirds majority of the
General Assembly while other
questions are decided by simple
majority. A President is elected every
year for a one-year term by the General

Organs of the UN

The Security Council has primary

responsibility for the maintenance of
international peace and security. It has
15 Members of which 5 are permanent
having veto powers and the remaining
10 are non-permanent members
elected for a two-year term. As per
the UN Charter, all Member States
must comply with the Security Council
decisions. The Security Council is
required to take the lead in determining
the existence of a threat to peace or an
act of aggression. It can call the parties
to a dispute for settlement by peaceful

The UN has the following six main

organs through which it operates and
all these organs were established in
1945, at the time of its founding.

General Assembly
It is the main organ of the UN for
policy-making and deliberations. All
the 193 members (South Sudan was
the latest to join UN in 2011) of the
UN are represented in the General
Assembly making it the only UN body
with universal representation. The

Security Council

Historical Backdrop
The UN was founded on 24th
October, 1945 when the UN Charter
was ratified by 51 countries. The
United Nations had succeeded the
League of Nations, an organization
established in 1919 under the Treaty
of Versailles to promote international

Drishti Current Affairs Today

|| October 2016 || 29

Most Important News Events


Constitutional & Administrative Updates


Economic Scenario


International News Events


India-World Relations


Science & Technology


Environment & Ecology


Social Issues


Other National News



States Scan



Art & Culture



Sports News



In News



Eleven years after it was first
mooted in Parliament, the Lok
Sabha passed the GST amendment bill
(122nd Constitutional Amendment)
unanimously after the Rajya Sabha had
passed the bill on 3rd August 2016.
Now the Parliament needs to pass two
more supporting legislations Central
GST and integrated GST Bill. The
government would need oppositions
support if the GST Bill is presented in
the form of a Finance Bill and not a
Money Bill. The opposition parties
have strongly demanded that the
government present the GST Bill as a
Finance Bill.
At least 16 state assemblies will have
to pass the state GST Bills, before it
reaches the implementation stage.
Hence, consensus is a must. Assam
became the first state to ratify GST
Bill followed by states like Bihar,
Jharkhand and Himachal Pradesh.
But what complicates the issue for
the Central government is the issue
of standard GST rate.
The Congress still maintains
the demand for 18 percent GST
rate in the Bill, while most state
governments have demanded a
rate above 20 percent.
States are worried that they will
have to take a huge hit on their
revenues if they settle for a lower
GST rate. Though the government
has promised to fully compensate
the losses of states for five years,
states are nervous about revenue
loss and hence want a higher rate.
Rajya Sabha had passed the 122nd
Constitution Amendment with twothirds majority, as all parties, except
the AIADMK, pledged support.

This set in motion the process for

the start of the biggest tax reform
India has seen post independence.
Once passed, the GST will subsume
several state level levies including
Octroi, excise duty etc and is

34 || Drishti Current Affairs Today || October 2016

expected to broaden the tax base

adding a few percentage points to
GDP growth.
The NDA-government has set a
deadline of 1 April, 2017 for the
final roll out.

Most Important News Events

Current Affairs


When the Rajya Sabha gave its
nod on 8th August 2016 to the Mental
Health Care Bill 2013, it provided not
only for healthcare for an estimated
6-7 per cent of Indias population said
to be suffering from mental ailments
but also laid down that any person
who attempts suicide would, instead
of being treated as a criminal, be
treated as a person under severe stress
and unless proved otherwise, there
will be a presumption of mental illness.

Why a new
Mental Health Care Bill?
The government ratified the United

Nations Convention on the Rights

of Persons with Disabilities in 2007.
The Convention requires the laws
of the country to align with the
The new Bill was introduced as the
existing Act does not adequately
protect the rights of persons with
mental illness nor promote their
access to mental health care.
The Mental Health Care Bill, 2013
repeals the Mental Health Act, 1987.

Key features of the Mental

Health Care Bill, 2013

of persons with mental

illness: Every person shall have the
right to access mental health care
and treatment from services run or
funded by the government. This
includes affordable, good quality
of and easy access to services.
Advance Directive: A mentally-ill
person shall have the right to make
an advance directive that states how
he wants to be treated for the illness
during a mental health situation and
who his nominated representative
shall be. The advance directive
has to be certified by a medical
practitioner or registered with the
Mental Health Board.


and State Mental Health

Authority: These administrative
bodies are required to (a) register,
supervise and maintain a register of
all mental health establishments,(b)
develop quality and service provision
norms for such establishments,
(c) maintain a register of mental
health professionals, (d) train
law enforcement officials and
mental health professionals on the
provisions of the Act, (e) receive
complaints about deficiencies in
provision of services, and (f) advise
the government on matters relating
to mental health.
Mental Health Establishments:
Every mental health establishment
has to be registered with the relevant
Central or State Mental Health
The Bill also specifies the process
and procedure to be followed for
admission, treatment and discharge
of mentally ill individuals. A
decision to be admitted in a mental
health establishment shall, as far as
possible, be made by the person with
the mental illness except when he
is unable to make an independent
decision or conditions exist to make
a supported admission unavoidable.
Mental Health Review Commission
and Board: This will be a quasijudicial body that will periodically
review the use of and the procedure
for making advance directives and
advise the government on protection
of the rights of mentally ill persons.
The Commission shall with the concurrence of the state governments,
constitute Mental Health Review
Boards in the districts of a state.
Decriminalising suicide and prohibiting electro-convulsive therapy:
A person who attempts suicide shall
be presumed to be suffering from
mental illness at that time and will
not be punished under the Indian
Penal Code (IPC). Electro-convulsive

therapy is allowed only with the

use of muscle relaxants and anaesthesia. The therapy is prohibited
for minors.

A new deal for mental health


allocates just over 1 per

cent of the Centres health budget
to mental health, with States
making comparable allocations.
This situation should change if
the provisions of the bill are to be
The legislation, inter alia, gives
everyone the right to access mental
healt care as well as treatment
from mental health services run or
funded by the government; it also
provides for supply of all notified
essential medicines free of cost to
those with mental illness, through
the government.
While the bill says mental health
services should be available at the
district level, even States with wellfunctioning district hospitals do not
offer regular psychiatric outpatient
services, let alone in-patient facilities.
In government hospitals, medication
to treat even the more common
psychiatric disorders is not always
The bill rightly blocks the application
of the Indian Penal Code section 309
that criminalises attempted suicide.
A duty is also cast on the authorities
to care for and rehabilitate such
Reliable and free professional
counselling must be widely offered.
For too long, mental health treatment
in India has existed with the
colonial legacy of large asylums and
degrading confinement. Many who
are held in such places have nowhere
else to go, as families facing stigma
have abandoned them.
The halfway home system that the
bill provides for, where supportive

Drishti Current Affairs Today

|| October 2016 || 37


Defamation law cant be used
as political weapon: SC
The Supreme Court said in a
recent hearing that a person cannot
be prosecuted for defamation for
calling a government corrupt or unfit.
The court observed that it amounts to
curbing of free speech. There has to
be tolerance for criticism. The
defamation law cant be used as a
political counter-weapon. The SCs
observations came on the petition of
one such opponent DMDK chief
Captain Vijayakanth who said
Jayalalithaa misused the law to stifle
free speech in the state. The law
empowers public prosecutors to
approve defamation cases filed against
government employees.
The bench said the right to speech
was not absolute, and that ones
right to reputation was part of ones
fundamental right to life. When
reputation is hurt, a man is halfdead, the SC had said.
India is one of the few countries
in the world with both civil and
criminal defamation proceedings
and punishments ranging up to
two years in prison or a fine or both.

Defamation under Indian law

In India, defamation can both be a

civil wrong and a criminal offence.

The difference between the two lies
in the objects they seek to achieve.
While a civil wrong tends to
provide for a redressal of wrongs by
awarding compensation, a criminal
law seeks to punish a wrongdoer
and send a message to others not
to commit such acts.

Defamation means harming

APRIL 2016: Kerala Ex. CM
Oommen Chandy filed a
case against CPI(M) veteran
VS Achutanandan for alleged
false statements during
campaigning for the May 16
Assembly polls.

someone's reputation by making

a false and derogatory statement
against him/her without any
lawful justification

It can be done by spoken, written

words or visual representation


publication of
the alleged
statement is a must

A single statements can give rise

to both civil and criminal

DEC 2015: Finance

minister Arun Jaitley filed
a criminal defamation case
against Delhi CM Arvind
Kejriwal, who alleged
discrepancies in the cricket
body's accounts in Jaitley's
tenure as its chief

Criminal defamation is codified

SEPT 2014: Tamil Nadu

CM Jayalalithaa filed a
criminal defamation case
against leader Subramanian
Swamy and a newspaper
for saying most boats
apprehended by Lankan
navy belonged to her

in the IPC Section 499 and

punishment of up to two years
in jail is prescribed as per Section
500 of IPC

Intention to harm reputation is

must for criminal defamation


Sri Lanka In 2002, the
Sri Lankan government announced that
it was repealing its
criminal defamation
law, which provided
for a two-year jail
term and fine
Zimbabwe In June
2014, the Constitutional court of seven
judges unanimously
scrapped criminal
defamation from the
countrys statute

The US There is no
federal law of criminal
defamation in the US
but 17 states have not
struck it down from
their books

Australia Defamation
Law in Australia is not
defined in any statute
but it recognizes both
criminal and civil

The UK It did away

with the law in 2013
by passing a Defamation Act under which
the claimants are
required to show
actual or probable
serious harm before

South Africa Here,

defamation falls within
the ambit of the law of
delict i.e. any wrong
conduct or wrong
doing that causes
harm to another, it has
provisions for criminal

Indian law, criminal

defamation has been specifically
defined as an offence under
the Indian Penal Code (IPC)

whereas the civil defamation is

based on tort law.
In a criminal case, defamation has

to be established beyond reasonable

Drishti Current Affairs Today

|| October 2016 || 51

RBI document - Payments and
Settlement Systems in India:
Vision 2018
The Reserve Bank of India recently
unveiled a documentPayments
and Settlement Systems in India:
Vision 2018setting out a plan to
encourage electronic payments which
would enable India to move towards
a cashless economy in medium and
long term.
The first vision document on this
subject was released four years ago.
Since then massive changes have taken
place in e-commerce, for e.g. electronic
payments through Real Time Gross
Settlement (RTGS) have risen threefold between 2012 and 2016 while
mobile banking transactions rose
seven-fold. Therefore, a new and
enabling policy as well as
infrastructure needs to be put in place
to suit present demands.
There are also other reasons for
which RBI intends to bring an
electronic payment and settlement
system as given below:
The rapid growth in e-commerce
and mobile banking channels
has the potential for boosting tax
revenues by bringing e-business
under tax net.
Discouraging tax avoidance by
providing an electronic audit trail,
other than already mentioned
building of a multi-tier national
payment infrastructure facility for
easy, convenient and transparent
payment of bills, as well as lowering
the costs of hand for the central bank
to monitor banks.
Studies have shown that a higher
use of electronic payments leads to

improvement in consumption by
spurring demand which ultimately
translates into GDP growth.
The central bank hopes to achieve
this by focusing on coverage or a wider
access to a variety of electronic payment services involving structural and
procedural reforms such as ensuring
convenient user friendly e-platforms,
promoting security of operations,
convergence and consistency between platforms, a robust infrastructure, effective supervision besides
addressing customer grievances.
Now India has the required payment systemUnified Payments
Interface (UPI), which RBI Governor
Raghuram Rajan reckons will revolutionise mobile banking. However, a policy intervention in terms of incentives
to people by government could complement UPI to transform Indias
payment landscape.

IndiaStack will provide a

Unified Platform for electronic
Software think-tank iSpirt has
developed an initiative, IndiaStack,
which is a system built on the infrastructure of Jan Dhan Yojana, Aadhaar
and mobile telephony. IndiaStack has
five programmes: Aadhaar, e-KYC,
e-signature, digital locker and a unified payments interface (UPI).
At present, an individual can use
Aadhaar, digital signatures and knowyour-customer (KYC) documents to
prove her identity and conduct
financial transactions. The government
wants to go further and link these
different identity proofs.

Transaction facilities
Aadhaar: A 12-digit unique
identity number issued to residents

60 || Drishti Current Affairs Today || October 2016

of India by the Unique Identification

Authority of India (UIDAI), a central
government agency. Aadhaar collects
your biometric data, which is used to
identify you.
e-KYC: This runs on the Aadhaar
database. Fulfilling the KYC process
is mandatory for many financial
transactions such as opening a bank
account or investing in a mutual fund.
Earlier, one had to provide physical
proofs of address and identity, but
e-KYC eliminates the need to provide
hard copies. UIDAI can be allowed to
share Aadhaar Data electronically.
e-Signature: Signatures are a
secure way of authenticating transactions. When wet signatures are used,
one either has to sign in person or
physically transport the document
with his signature. Electronic signatures allow to digitally sign a document. This is based on Aadhaar and
e-KYC services.
Digital locker: One can save, get
and share any documents in electronic
and printable format. This digital
repository eliminates the need for
maintaining hard copies of documents
like certificates, and provides secure
and consented access to them. For
instance, when one goes to a bank
seeking a loan, he can simply share
documents like the Permanent
Account Number (PAN) and address
proof from the digital locker, instead
of carrying their attested hard copies.
UPI: This is a payment system that
allows one to send money from bank
account the way one sends an SMS or
email. Built on the immediate payment
service (IMPS) platform, UPI allows
to send money from one bank account
to another in real time and it is
available 24x7. It needs just one virtual

Beijing, Moscow to hold joint

drills in South China Sea
China and Russia are underscoring their military partnership by holding a joint naval exercise in the South
China Sea (SCS) in September, following a ruling by an international tribunal at Hague, which did not go in
Beijings favour and rejected Chinas
claim to the nine-dash demarcation
line. The drill will enhance the capabilities of the two navies to jointly deal
with maritime security.

The U.S. factor


decision of the U.S. to deploy

the Terminal High Altitude Air
Defence (THAAD) missile system
in South Korea, opposed by both
China and Russia, has reinforced
Beijing-Moscow defence ties.

Terminal High Altitude Area
Defense (THAAD), formerly Theater
High Altitude Area Defense, is a
United States Army anti-ballistic
missile system designed to shoot
down short, medium, and intermediate range ballistic missiles in their
terminal phase, using a hit-to-kill
approach. The missile carries no
warhead but relies on the kinetic
energy of the impact to destroy the
incoming missile. A kinetic energy
hit minimizes the risk of conventional warhead ballistic missiles.

June 26, Chinese President

Xi Jinping and Russian President
Vladimir Putin signed a joint
statement in Beijing which aimed to
reinforce global strategic stability.
Experts believe that the military drill
in the South China Sea in September

is an action based on
that statement.
A l r e a d y t h e t w o
countries are
demonstrating their
military clout. Last
August, Russia and
China carried out
military exercises
in Peter the Great
Gulf, south of the
Russian Pacific city
of Vladivostok. A
few months earlier,
they had conducted
their first joint naval
exercises in European
waters in the Black Sea
and Mediterranean.

Thailand to hold polls in 2017

Thailands Prime Minister and
Junta chief Prayuth Chan-ocha, announced recently that Thailand will
hold a general election in 2017 to transfer back power to civilians from military; his first comments since people
of Thailand backed a new military-crafted constitution in a recently
held country wide referendum.

New political reforms


the new charter, the upper

house will be entirely appointed,
including six seats reserved for
the military.

A proportional

voting system will

probably reduce the influence of
major parties.

The senate will also have a voice in

picking a non-elected prime minister

if the lower house is deadlocked,
while it will be easier to impeach
a civilian leader.

But critics say the charter will boost

military power and limit the sway

of elected officials.

Background of Thailands
political disturbance.
Thailand has been bitterly divided

ever since a 2006 coup that toppled

Thaksin Shinawatra as prime
Years of competing protests and
instability followed. In 2014 the
army seized power once more,
toppling Thaksin's sister Yingluck.
Recent vote in support of the charter
was the first test of public opinion
since the 2014 coup. Since the
referendum, the European Union
and the United States - both key
allies - have called on Government
to hold elections swiftly and lift
restrictions on civil liberties imposed
since takeover. The military says the
new constitution will purge Thailand
of corrupt civilian politicians and
restore stability after nearly a decade
of political turmoil including two

Drishti Current Affairs Today

|| October 2016 || 69

Wang Yis visit to New Delhi
Chinas foreign minister, Wang
Yi, visited Delhi in August to renew
high-level political engagement,
wherein the two sides emphasized to
limit the negative fallout from Beijings
decision to block Indias membership
of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)
in June this year.
The declaration for a separate
track for discussion on the Nuclear
Suppliers Group is significant as it
required more immediate bilateral
attention. So far, India and China
maintained the mechanism of
bilateral dialogue at the level of
Special Representatives (SR), which
covers comprehensive diplomatic
and strategic affairs.
The Chinese side insisted during
the summit that the established
blueprint visualised during the visits
of Chinese President Xi Jinping to
India in 2014, and the return visit
of Prime Minister Narendra Modi
to China last year, should remain
immune from disruption because
China and India have identical
strategic goals
The visits are taking place at a critical
time in India-China relations when
India has moved strategically closer
to USA and China has desisted to
enlist Hafiz Saeed and Masood
Azhar in UNSC terror list.
External Affairs Minister Sushma
Swaraj also expressed concern to the
visiting Chinese Foreign Minister
Wang Yi about the China Pakistan
Economic Corridor (CPEC), and
sought an end to Chinas opposition
to blacklisting Lashkar-e-Taiba lead-

er Hafiz Saeed and Chinas technical

hold on listing of Masood Azhar in
the UNSC 1267 Committee. China
was urged to revisit its technical
hold in line with its own professed
zero tolerance towards terrorism.
China and India are scheduled to
exchange a series of high-level visits

over the next three months. A visit to

Delhi by Chinese foreign minister
Wang Yi on August 12 would be
followed by that of Chinese state
councillor and former foreign minister
Yang Jiechis visit, who is Beijing's
designated special representative for
border negotiations to India, in coming

Drishti Current Affairs Today

|| October 2016 || 73

Science & Technology

NASA Curiosity
Rover Captures Murray
Buttes on Mars in 360-Degree
NASA's Curiosity rover has
captured a 360-degree view of eroded
mesas and buttes on Mars. The rover
used its Mast Camera (Mastcam) to
capture dozens of component images
of this scene on August 5 this year
(2016) four years after its landing
inside Gale Crater.

Current Affairs


mesas and buttes have a

relatively flat foreground, part of a
geological layer called the Murray
formation, which is formed from
lakebed mud deposits.
The buttes and mesas rising above
this surface are eroded remnants of
ancient sandstone that originated
when winds deposited sand after
lower Mount Sharp had formed.
Curiosity closely examined this
layer-the Stimson formationduring the first half of 2016 while

crossing a feature called "Naukluft

Plateau" between two exposures of
the Murray formation.
In an extended mission, the rover
is examining successively younger
layers as it climbs the lower part of
Mount Sharp.
A key goal is to learn how
freshwater lake conditions, which
would have been favorable for
microbes billions of years ago if Mars
has ever had life, evolved into harsher,
arid conditions much less suited to
support life. The mission is also
monitoring the modern environment
of Mars.

Great Red Spot storm heating

Jupiter's atmosphere
A study showed that an enormous
storm The Great Red Spot', big enough
to swallow three Earths has been
raging on Jupiter for at least three
centuries. Scientists have long
wondered why Jupiter's upper
atmosphere has temperatures similar
to those of Earth, even though the
biggest planet in the solar system is
five times farther away from the sun.
The Great Red Spot could be answer
to that.
Using an infrared telescope at
Hawaii's Mauna Kea Observatory,
scientists discovered that the upper
atmosphere above the Great Red
Spot the largest storm in the solar
system - is hundreds of degrees
hotter than anywhere else on the
Like a hurricane on Earth, the Spot's
center is relatively calm,but farther
out, winds speed reaches 270 mph
to 425 mph (430 kph to 680 kph).
Since there is no land on Jupiter,
which is made almost entirely of

Drishti Current Affairs Today

|| October 2016 || 81

India ranked 77
in disaster risk index
India ranks 77th on the World
Risk Index marginally better
positioned than Pakistan which is
placed at 72. Bangladesh is among the
top five countries at risk of disaster.
The index is part of the World Risk
Report 2016 released by the United
Nations University Institute for
Environment and Human Security
Entwicklung Hilft in cooperation with
the University of Stuttgart in Germany.
The index assessed the risk of
disaster in 171 countries through
combined analysis of natural
hazards and societal vulnerabilities.
Ranking No. 1, the island state of
Vanuatu displayed the greatest
risk in 2016.
The researchers concluded in
the report that lack of critical
infrastructure and weak logistic
chains substantially increase the
risk that an extreme natural event
will become a disaster.
When it comes to aid measures
following extreme natural events,
the challenges mostly lie in the
'last mile' of the logistics chain:
organising transportation despite
destroyed streets or bridges and
ensuring fair distribution when
there is a shortage of (for example)
water, food, and shelter.
Sufficient, high-quality infrastructure, which is well-managed
institutionally, can not only prevent
the often catastrophic consequences
of natural hazards such as flooding
or storms, but it can also play a
crucial role in the distribution of
humanitarian aid supplies in the
event of a disaster.


infrastructure can thus

reduce the risk of natural hazards
for populations and absorb economic

Western Ghats can

contribute up to 30% of
rainfall in Bengaluru: Study
A study by researchers from the
Centre for Earth Sciences (CEaS) and
Divecha Centre for Climate Change
at the Indian Institute of Science,
Bengaluru revealed that the Western
Ghats not only play an important role
in capturing and storing rainwater,
but are also crucial to the amount of
rain falling in Bengaluru and other
neighbouring areas.According to the
studyIn the three months that the
Southwest monsoon lashes the
subcontinent, evaporation from
land masses can contribute up to
30 per cent of the rainfall received.
The quantities of isotopes vary
in the ocean and land, and their
composition in the rainfall can
give an indication to the source of
the rain.
The phenomenon of oceans heating
up during Indian summers and
the associated complications of El
Nino and other global weather
phenomena leads to much of
the moisture during the monsoon.
However, as the swirls of wind and
cloud make their way inland, they
pick up evaporation and moisture
of the rainforests, vegetation and
inland waterbodies.
The implication that the Western
Ghats play a role in the strength
of the rainfall does not seem to
have percolated to policy.

The Western Ghats

A chain of mountains running
parallel to Indias western coast,
approximately 30-50 km inland, the
Ghats traverse the States of Kerala,
Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Goa,
Maharashtra and Gujarat. These
mountains cover an area of around
140,000 km in a 1,600 km long
stretch that is interrupted only by
the 30 km Palghat Gap at around
Older than the great Himalayan
mountain chain, the Western
Ghats of India are a geomorphic
feature of immense global
The Outstanding Universal
Value of the Western Ghats is
manifested in the regions unique
and fascinating influence on largescale biophysical and ecological
processes over the entire Indian
The mountains of the Western
Ghats and their characteristic
montane forest ecosystems
influence the Indian monsoon
weather patterns that mediate
the warm tropical climate of the
region, presenting one of the best
examples of the tropical monsoon
system on the planet.
The Ghats act as a key barrier,
intercepting the rain-laden
monsoon winds that sweep in
from the south-west during late
This mountain chain is recognized
as one of the worlds eight hottest
hotspots of biological diversity
along with Sri Lanka.

2015 Forest Survey of India

report had shown that a disheartening

Drishti Current Affairs Today

|| October 2016 || 87

Social Issues

Child marriages still

a reality in India
Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA)
admitted before Delhi High Court that
child marriages were taking place in
India and the decision to retain a girls
minimum age as 15 years to marry
was taken under the amended rape
law to protect a couple against
criminalisation of their sexual activity.
Although the age of consent is
18 years and child marriage is
discouraged, marriage below the
permissible age is avoidable but
not void in law on account of social
realities, MHA said.
Referring to the amended section
375(2) of IPC, dealing with age of
girl to marry, the ministry said, the
social, economic and educational
development in the country is still
uneven and child marriages are
taking place.
It has been decided to retain the
age of 15 years under exception 2
of section 375 (rape) of the IPC so
as to give protection to husband
and wife against criminalisation
of their sexual activity.
The MHA also said that husbands
have been protected from
prosecution for any sexual acts
with their wives who are above 15
years of age in view of the social
reality of child marriages in India.

MHAs response came on the plea
which raised the legal issue that there
was uncertainty in the two penal
provisions of section 375 and 377 of
IPC as section 375 has an exception
that sexual intercourse or sexual
acts by a man with his own wife, the
wife not being under 15 years of age,
is not rape.

Current Affairs

Section 377 criminalises unnatural

sexual activity between any two individuals, irrespective of their age, gender or marital status. The petition
claimed that existing penal law was
unclear as the act of sexual offence
which was punishable under section
377 of IPC was non-penal under section
375, if committed by the husband.

30% women married

before turning 18
The latest Census report on the
decadal headcount in 2011 reveals that
child marriage is rampant, with almost
one in every three married woman
having been wed while she was still
under the age of 18 years. A whopping
78.5 lakh girls (2.3% of all women or
girls who were ever married or were
married in 2011) were married while
they were not yet 10 years of age. The
Census data also show that 91% of all
married women were married by the
age of 25 years.
The trend of underage marriages
is prevalent among all religious
communities, the Census data shows.
The data shows that the percentage
of girls who were married below
the age of 18 was roughly the same
among both Hindus and Muslims.
The data also indicates that higher
the level of education among
married women, the later she gets
While 38.1% of illiterate married
women were married below the
age of 18, 23.3% of literate married
women got married below the
legal age.

Smoking kills messages in

films may go off screen
A committee headed by director
Shyam Benegal recommended to

government that Statutory smoking

kills warnings on screen every time
an actor lights up in a movie should
be done away with. The Benegal
committee was set up to suggest
changes to the cinematography act.
It said that such static, superimposed
messages blight a films visual
narrative, a message underlining
health hazards of smoking and
tobacco consumption is sufficient at
the beginning of a film or television
This should be applicable in all
Indian languages movies and also
various media platforms.
The film industry should produce
short anti-smoking films with
popular actors, which are to be
screened in theatres or aired on
TV after clearance from the health
ministry. These films can replace
the spots shown at present.
The report also mentioned "To check
animal cruelty, the panel said the
Animal Welfare Board of Indias
nod is a must for films having
performing animals". It said there
should be licensed suppliers
qualified in handling animals and
taking care of them in accordance
with the law.

The government imposed a
smoking ban, prohibiting films and
TV shows from showing actors
smoking, in 2005 after a public debate
over tobacco control in India.
Producers and broadcasters were
told to insert a mandatory warning
in scenes which demanded smoking
visuals for authenticity.
T h e w a r n i n g s a r e p a r t o f
governments fight against smoking

Drishti Current Affairs Today

|| October 2016 || 93

Indian spend on pvt. hospitals

8 times more than on govt. ones
Indians spent eight times more on
private hospitals and twice as much
on transporting patients compared to
costs in government hospitals, according to the National Health Accounts
(NHA) Estimates for the Financial Year
2013-14. The data was recently released by the Health Ministry after
almost a decade.
Considering all revenue sources,
including government funding,
expenditure on private hospitals
Rs. 88,552 crore was double
than that on government hospitals
Rs. 41,797 crore.

The Estimates say households spent

Rs. 64,628 crore in private hospitals

compared to just Rs. 8,193 crore
in government hospitals. A total
of Rs.18,149 crore was spent by
households in patient transportation
services like use of an ambulance.
India spent a total of Rs. 4.2 lakh
crore on healthcare in 2013-14 at 4
per cent of the GDP, of which Rs.
3.06 lakh crore or 73 per cent came
from households.

India on 66th spot in

most innovative economies
According to the UN World
Intellectual Property Organisation

(WIPO) report, India has been ranked

66th in a list of most innovative economies, jumping 15 places from last
year. Report calls for more transparent
policies if the country aspires to become a global driver of innovation.
The Global Innovation Index 2016,
released by the WIPO, Cornell
University, and the multination
business graduate school INSEAD,
said India ranks among the top 50
economies overall in two pillars:
Market sophistication, 33, and
Knowledge and technology outputs, 43.
The country maintains stable
or improved rankings across all

Drishti Current Affairs Today

|| October 2016 || 95

The countrys first

cyber force in Maharashtra
Maharashtra emerged as the first
state to install the crime criminal
tracking network system (CCTNS),
with an aim to adopt a paperless
working mechanism. Through this
network, all police stations would be
connected with each other. Similarly,
cities like Mumbai, Pune, Nagpur
would be entirely brought under
CCTV. Mumbai city and its suburbs
would be brought under CCTV by the
end of 2016.

Maharashtras Draft
Internal Security Act
Maharashtra government has
created a draft Maharashtra Protection
of Internal Security Act (MPISA)
meant to deal with challenges posed
by terrorism, insurgency, communalism and caste violence. The draft
would give great power and authority
to the police, if implemented.
The draft makes it compulsory for
all public spaces whether publicly
or privately owned to have
CCTV surveillance and security
arrangements as mandated by the
Video footage has to be saved for at
least a 30 day period. In addition,
security checks will be mandatory
in government offices, private
institutions, malls, train stations
and other public spaces.
The detailed Standard Operating
Procedures (SOPs) for the security
audit will be framed by the MSSC
(Maharashtra State Security Council)
in consultation with the parties
concerned. These SOPs will be
revised periodically.


the MPISA, any gathering

that expects to receive more than 100
people has to get special permissions
from the police. This could be read
as a move meant to regulate and
curtail protests and agitations.
Special security zones will be set up
under the Act, where the movement
of arms and explosives and the
inflow of unaccounted funds will
be prohibited.
The draft also calls for a state
internal security committee,
with Home Minister as ex-officio
chairman and the Minister of State
(home) and the chief secretary as
members. This committee will
oversee the implementation of the
Act and review its implementation.

RFID at Delhi entry points

The Supreme Court has ordered
for installation of RFID (Radio
Frequency Identification) system at
13 entry points to capital New Delhi.
The move will bring more efficiency
in collection of toll tax and Environment
Compensation Charge (ECC), as per
the apex court. The SC bench, while
hearing matters on Delhis air pollution
today, amended its October 2015 order
which said that the collected ECC
should be used only to augment public
infrastructure for the most vulnerable
lotcyclists and pedestriansin
Delhi. The Court has now said that
the collected ECC can also be used to
install RFID.
The RFID device serves the same
purpose as a bar code or a magnetic
strip on the back of a credit card or
ATM card.
It provides a unique identifier for
that object. The RFID makes the

98 || Drishti Current Affairs Today || October 2016

collection mechanism of ECC very

The amendment has come after a
report by Environment Protection
(Prevention & Control) Authority,
submitted to the SC, recommended
installation of RFID at 13 points that
are entry gates to roughly 80 per cent
of the total commercial traffic that
enters Delhi.

Radio-Frequency IDentification
RFID stands for Radio-Frequency
IDentification. The acronym refers
to small electronic devices that consist of a small chip and an antenna.
The chip typically is capable of carrying 2,000 bytes of data or less.
The RFID device serves the
same purpose as a bar code or a
magnetic strip on the back of a credit
card or ATM card; it provides a
unique identifier for that object.
And, just as a bar code or magnetic
strip must be scanned to get the information, the RFID device must be
scanned to retrieve the identifying

Sukhoi makes first

landing in Arunachal
The advanced landing ground
(ALG) at Pasighat in Arunachal
Pradesh was inaugurated .The
refurbished advanced landing ground
became operational with the first
landing of the advanced fighter jet Su30 MKI. It also marks the first ever
landing by any modern jet anywhere
in Arunachal Pradesh.
Just 100 km from the China border,
Pasighat ALG will be a strategic
asset that will not only improve
the IAF's response time for various
operational situations but also the

Proto-historic rock
art of dancing images
Proto-historic rock art of dancing
images was discovered inside a
rockdwelling in Teppampatti, a remote
village near Andipatti in Theni district
(Tamilnadu). It was while conducting
a survey as part of his PhD research
that P. Jothiswaran found the ancient
piece of art depicting figurines of
humans and birds painted in white and
red ochre.
The human figurines are shown
in a group dance, as pairs and in a
solo dance. Couples standing and
images with upraised hands are
also illustrated.

Protohistory refers to a period
between prehistory and history,
during which a culture or civilization
has not yet developed writing but
other cultures have already noted
its existence in their own writings.
Protohistoric may also refer to the
transition period between the
advent of literacy in a society and
the writings of the first historians.
The preservation of oral traditions
may complicate matters as these
can provide a secondary historical
source for even earlier events.
Colonial sites involving a literate
group and a non-literate group
are also studied as protohistoric
It can also refer to a period in
which fragmentary or external
h i st o r i c a l d oc um ent s , not
necessarily including a developed
writing system, have been found.
Some of the human heads resemble

a bird's head, which bears close

similarity to the Palarpatty and

Erasakkanaickkanur rock-paintings
of proto-historic period found in
Theni district.
A study of the paintings show that
they were done in two different
periods, one over the other.The
underlying painting was in red
ochre, but due to climatic conditions,
it now looks pale orange.
Above this layer, one more layer of
painting seems to have been done
at a later period in white ochre.
They are both dated to protohistoric
period based on the stylistic features
of rock painting.

NIO finds Dholavira treasure

Goa-based National Institute of
Oceanography (NIO), scientists have
excavated the ancient submerged site
of the Harappan port town of
Dholavira which reveals to the world
India's maritime history. Researchers
have been perplexed about why civilization came to an abrupt end.
Archaeological excavations indicate
that the township comprised of the a
castle, a middle town and a lower
town. A team of palaeo-climatologists,
marine archaeologists and geophysicists from NIO surveyed an unexcavated area of the lower town using
ground penetrating radar (GPR).
After systematically collecting the
soil samples and examining the
same, the scientists found fossils
of foraminifera, that is, microscopic
organisms that build calcareous
shells and live only in seawater.
The presence of these shells in the
soil strongly suggest an episodic
deposition of marine sediments in
the area. The deposition of such
a component from seawater into

the soil could have occurred due

to forceful movement caused by
an extreme oceanic event, like the
One of the most intriguing features
of Dholavira is the presence of a
14-18 meters thick wall at the site.
Dholavira is the oldest known site
in the world which could have been
hit by the tsunami, experts at the
NIO said.
Dholavira was well connected to
the ocean 5,000 years ago but it's
not anymore owing to shifts due to
tectonic movement. Dholavira was
an economically strategic location.
So they built the city despite being
prone to storms and protected it
with a thick wall.
M o s t H a r a p p a n w a l l s h a v e
fortification but nowhere have any
walls been constructed with such
thickness. This indicates that ancient
Indians were aware of protection
measures against the tsunami or
storms surges.
Harappans were thus pioneers in
coastal disaster management. Most
importantly, results of this study
opens the possibility that Dholavira,
at least in part, could have been
destroyed by such a tsunami.

About Dholavira
Located in Khadirbet in Gujarat,
Dholavira was the largest port-town
of the Harappan civilization that
flourished for about 1,500 years.
Locally known as Kotada timba, the
site contains ruins of an ancient Indus
Valley Civilization/Harappan city.
It is one of the five largest
Harappan sites and most prominent
archaeological sites in India
belonging to the Indus Valley

Drishti Current Affairs Today

|| October 2016 || 101

Rio Olympics, 2016

The XXXI Olympic Games were
held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from 5
August 2016 21 August 2016. The
Paralympic Games are to follow in a
couple of weeks, from 7 September
18 September.

Salient features of Rio Olympics


than 10,500 athletes from

206 National Olympic Committees
(NOCs) took part in the greatest
sporting event on earth, with the
Olympic Games featuring 28 sports.
For the first time in Olympic history
the Games included golf and rugby
The IOC first time allowed refugee
athletes to compete as independent
Olympians under the Olympic flag.
M o r e t h a n 1 0 , 0 0 0 a t h l e t e s ,
representing 207 nations, competed
in 31 sports in Brazil, with 306 sets
of medals awarded over the course
of the Games.

Major Performers at Rio


new world records were set

in Rio within the seven Olympic
sports that recognise them - archery,
athletics, modern pentathlon, track

cycling, shooting, swimming and

For the second successive Games,
and the 17th time overall, the United
States topped the medal table with
43 golds. The nation's overall medal
total of 121 is their highest since 1984,
when they claimed 174 on home
turf in Los Angeles. The US were
dominant in athletics, winning 32
medals (13 of which were gold ) The
USA's Rio tally helped them achieve
two notable historical milestones as
they passed 1,000 golds and 2,500
Olympic medals overall.
In his final Games, Jamaica's Usain
Bolt confirmed his status as the
greatest sprinter of all time, winning
three more golds to achieve an
unprecedented Olympic 'triple
triple' in the 100m, 200m and
4 100m relay. Bolt's haul of nine
golds is the joint highest among
Olympic athletics, putting him
equal with USA sprinter and long
jumper Carl Lewis and Finnish
long-distance runner Paavo Nurmi.
Ethiopias Almaz Ayana smashed
the World record to win the Olympic
10,000 metres title, blowing away
the competition in one of the
greatest ever long-distance races

at the Games. In only her second

competitive 10,000m, Ayana
dominated from the start and
halfway through the race she
surged away from the leading pack,
injecting staggering pace to finish in
29 minutes 17.45 seconds. Her time
was 14 seconds inside the 29:31.78
set by China's Wang Junxia in 1993
Three nations won their first ever
Olympic medal - Fiji (in the first
ever Olympic men's rugby sevens),
Jordan (Ahmad Abughaush in the
men's -68kg taekwondo) and debutants Kosovo (Majlinda Kelmendi
in the women's -52kg judo).

Indias Performance
at Rio 2016, Olympics
In terms of medal tally, India
finished their Olympic campaign on
the 67th position. Defying all odds,
shuttler PV Sindhu and wrestler Sakshi
Malik became the unlikely heroines
and saved India from returning emptyhanded for the first time since the
Barcelona 1992 Olympic Games

PV Sindhu
The star of the Rio Olympics was
debutant PV Sindhu, who became the
first female to win the silver medal at

Drishti Current Affairs Today

|| October 2016 || 103

Urjit Patel
Dr. Urjit Patel
was appointed as the
24th Governor of
the Reserve Bank of
India (RBI). He was
Deputy Governor of
the central bank. Prior to his term as
Deputy Governor, which began in
January 2013, Dr. Patel was with the
Boston Consulting Group as an advisor
on energy and infrastructure. The
52-year-old has a Ph.D. in Economics
from Yale University and an M. Phil.
from Oxford University. Dr. Patel was
with International Monetary Fund
(IMF) between 1990 and 1995 and
worked on the U.S., India, Bahamas
and Myanmar desks.
Patel will be the first governor to
oversee interest rate decisions by a
monetary policy committee (MPC), a
six-member panel, chaired by the RBI
governor, to decide on interest rates.

Vijay Rupani
BJP leader Vijay
Rupani was sworn in
as the Chief Minister
of Gujarat while
Nitin Patel took over
as the Deputy CM as
Anandiben Patel's
successor. He took oath as the 16th
Chief Minister of Gujarat. As a
compromise formula, Patel was
elevated to be Deputy Chief Minister
after intervention of the central
leadership, including Modi.
A devoted RSS member since his
school days, Rupani, hailing from

politically significant Saurashtra

region, is known for hard work but
keeps a low profile.
Rupani, who represents Rajkot
West seat, joined Jan Sangh in 1971
and has been associated with BJP since
its formation.

commissioned as a Lieutenant in the

Territorial Army by Army Chief
General Dalbir Singh.The Territorial
Army is part of the Indian Army and
is manned by officers and men who
are embodied for training for two
months in a year.

Dr. Najma Heptulla

Territorial Army (TA)

Dr. Najma A
Heptulla was sworn
in as the 18th
governor of Manipur. Acting chief
Ranjan Prasad of the
Manipur high court administered the
oath of office and secrecy to the new
governor. Heptulla, 76, had resigned
as Minority Affairs Minister from
Union Cabinet in July. Meghalaya
Governor V. Shanmuganathan was
holding the additional charge as
Manipur Governor.
Note: The Centre announced new
Governors for four states Punjab,
Assam, Manipur and Andaman and
Najma Heptulla: Governor of
V P Singh Badnore: Governor
of Punjab
Banwarilal Purohit: Governor
of Assam
Prof Jagdish Mukhi: Lt. Governor
of Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Anurag Singh Thakur

BJP MP from
Himachal Pradesh
and president of
Board of Control for
Cricket in India
Singh Thakur was

A military force that can be mobilised for the defence of the country
in case of an emergency. It is composed
of volunteers already gainfully employed in civilian professions, but who
receive military training for a few days
in a year. The TA Act was passed in
1948, and the TA was inaugurated by
C Rajagopalachari on October 9, 1949.
Its origins lie in the Territorial Army
raised by the British in 1920 through
the Indian Territorial Act, 1920.
Its role is to relieve the regular
Army from static duties and assist
the civil administration in dealing
with natural calamities. It is also
tasked to maintain essential services
in situations where the life of the
community is affected or the security
of the country threatened. The TA
also provides units in support of the
regular Army as and when required.

Yuriko Koike
Yuriko Koike
has been elected
as first female
governor of Tokyo.
She is the seventh
woman ever to serve
as a prefectural
governor but she is no stranger to
having served in the lower house of
parliament where less than 10% of MPs
are women. A key task will be leading
the citys troubled preparations for the
2020 Olympics, which have been hit

Drishti Current Affairs Today

|| October 2016 || 107

1. Cyber cell against trolls: Securing Womens
Right to Free Speech on Social Media
2. Reviewing Indias National Mission on Electric
3. Medical Termination of Pregnancy
4. Law on compensatory afforestation will help
those destroying forests
5. Plight of 7,700 starving Indian workers in
Saudi Arabia
6. Region without Regionalism: Cooperation in
South Asia
7. Multiplier effects of Self-help Groups (SHGs)
8. Miscellaneous issues, in brief



1. Rural electrification

1. Rural Youth

2. Renewable energy

2. Rural Entrepreneurship

3. Energy efficiency

3. Urban migration & Employment opportunities

4. Solar power: National Solar Mission

5. Shale gas in India

1. Jharkhand's Fish Revolution (Matsya Mitra)
2. Redefining forests
3. COW DUNG IS HOT CAKE: From cowshed
to doorstep
4. Rural electrification
5. Route by Root

1. Welcome Back, Himalayan Bear!
2. The Black Tiger
3. Fuzzy Logic
4. Graphene
5. Barley
6. Drosera in Danger


Problem lies not with the law but in the

Cyber cell against trolls:

Securing Womens Right to
Free Speech on Social Media
W o m e n

increasingly face
harassment, abuse and stalking
from men on the internet. There
is an urgent need to put in place
adequate mechanism to address
the concern, writes Alok Prasanna
Kumar. Anyone who has spent
considerable time on internet knows
that women face such harassment
online borne out of a misogynistic
impulse to put women in their place
or make them feel threatened about
speaking in public.
A cyber cell was created in the
Ministry of Women and Child
Development (MWCD) in response
to the targeted misogyny (bullying,
stalking, abusive behaviour toward
women) prevalent in social media.
It is a very limited effort at the
momentjust an email address for
women to send complaintsbut can
become an effective tool if there is
a focus on enforcement.
MWCD used the term trolling to
describe such abusive behaviour
which has muddled the matter and
seems to suggest that the ministry
is more interested in policing
content rather than addressing
misogyny. The newly invented
word trolling applies to a wide
range of online behaviour which is
harmful, annoying or provocative.
Freedom of speech does not give the
right to bully, intimidate or harass
others on public forum. But while
addressing such online harassment, it
is possible to overstep the boundary and
curb free speech. Section 66A of the
Information Technology Act, 2000
was struck down by the Supreme
Court (Shreya Singhal v Union of

India 2015) because it often became

a tool of abuse for those in power
to suppress mild criticism even
though it was meant to deal with
messages of a grossly offensive or
menacing character or circulation
of false information with the intent
to cause annoyance, inconvenience,
danger, obstruction, insult, injury.
Some think that another 66-A type law
is not the need for arresting the problem
of women harassment. A thought along
this line presumes that existing law is
inadequate to deal with such behaviour.
But that is not true.
Criminal Law (Amendment) Act,
2013 had introduced many new
provisions in the Indian Penal Code
(IPC) with the intent to cover some
of the online harassment women
face on the web: the offences of
sexual harassment (section 354A),
voyeurism (section 354C) and
stalking (section 354D). Sexual
harassment and voyeurism are
punishable by a prison term between
three and five years and stalking
is punishable with a prison term
between three and five years. Even
before these, section 509 of the
IPC makes it an offence to insult
the modesty of a woman. It will
take time (at least five years) for any
concrete data to emerge on the operation
of these clauses.

112 || Drishti Current Affairs Today || October 2016

difficulty women face in activating the

law enforcement against perpetrators.
Police cyber cells are not always equipped
to identify and book the wrongdoers.
It should be analysed whether
criminal justice system is the forum
to address this behaviour. Burden
of enforcement should be placed
on social media websites and they
should be held liable for failing to
respond to complaints by women.
Major service providers in such cases
are Google, Facebook, Twitter and they
are not based in India; this issue has
come up even in other contexts such
as defamation and sex-selective
abortion ads. A deeper problem here
is that womens right to free speech
and participation in public debate
is in hands of unaccountable private
Given the size of the problem, a
centralised cyber cell is a small
start but it is in the right direction
and should be made more effective.
It could form the basis of government
engagement with social media sites
for effective mechanisms for curbing
online abuse of women. If the cyber
cell is to succeed, it should define
its role as one of implementation
of the legal framework already in
place. This could mean promoting a
range of grievance redressal mechanism
from getting social media services to
take action when women complain to
ensuring police action is set in motion
when it is required.

Reviewing Indias National
Mission on Electric Vehicles
A 20 % subsidy for electric vehicles

was proposed by the Ministry of

New and Renewable Energy through

Rural Electrification
India suffers from chronic energy
poverty with about 300 million people
having no access to electricity. Threefourths of rural population has erratic,
less than 6 hours of supply and most
of the households still use kerosene
for lighting.
Electrification, as backbone of rural
economy, has five major dimensions
which need to be met, viz.
zz Rural electricity infrastructure.
zz Providing connectivity to
zz Sufficient supply of desired
quality of power.
zz Affordable rates.
zz Clean, environment friendly,
sustainable and efficient power
While India has extended the
electricity grid to approximately
98% of the inhabited villages, the
last mile connection has not yet
reached all households. The slow
pace of electrification is because of
irregular policy focus in the past,
political and economic concerns and
constraints at the institutional levels.
The unelectrified households can
be categorized into (i) remote
inaccessible villages, (ii) unconnected
hamlets of grid connected villages
and (iii) non electrified households in
villages where the grid has reached.

equipment manufacturers and also

managing the programs of the
Ministry of Power (MoP).
Recent amendments in the National
Tariff Policy 2006 have now
included mini-grids as an option
to provide power supply to remote
unconnected villages with provision
to purchase power from the grid as
and when the grid reaches there.
Rural Electrification Policy, 2005
aimed at providing access to
electricity to all households by 2009
and also changed the definition
of electrified village. As per REP,
a village would be certified as
electrified by Gram Panchayat if
it had basic infrastructure in place
and electricity present in at least one
dalit basti/ hamlet, public places like
schools/ hospitals and a minimum
of 10% households.
R a j i v G a n d h i G r a m e e n
Vidyutikaran Yojana (RGGVY)
was launched in 2005 to electrify all
un-electrified villages/habitations.
It was implemented through Rural
Electrification Corporation (REC)
which was the designated Nodal
agency of Ministry of Power.
Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram
Jyoti Yojana (DDUGJY) was

Policies and initiatives


first major initiative in rural

electrification was the establishment
of Rural Electric Corporation in
1969. Its main objective was to
finance and promote rural
electrification all over the country
by providing loans to State Electricity
Boards (SEBs)/ state power utilities,

118 || Drishti Current Affairs Today || October 2016

launched in 2014 in order to widen

the scope of RGGVY. It has two
major components, viz. (i) feeder
separation and (ii) power for all by
2019. The scope of program includes:
zz Separation of agriculture
and non agriculture feeders
facilitating judicious rostering
of supply to agricultural and
non-agricultural consumers in
the rural areas.
zz Strengthening of sub-transmission & distribution infrastructure, including metering
at distribution transformers,
feeders and consumers end.
zz Completion of targets laid down
under RGGVY by subsuming
Ujwal DISCOM Assurance Yojana
(UDAY) is aimed at restructuring
the way state-owned DISCOMs
operate, currently reeling under
debt and operational losses. The
major focus is around the financial
plan, with State Governments to
take over their DISCOMs debts.
It empowers the DISCOMs with
the opportunity to break even in
the next 2-3 years through four
initiatives, namely:

pertains to problems of rural youth in
India and suitable solutions presently
at work or not yet undertaken to
counter these challenges thereby
highlighting the benefits they would
bring in near future.

Current Situation
of Rural Youth

current National Youth

Policy (NYP-2014) has defined
youth as those in the age group of
15-29 years.
NYP-2014 covers 11 priority areas
for Youth- Education, Employment,
Health and Healthy lifestyle,
Sports, Promotion of Social
Values, Community Engagement,
Participation in Politics and
Governance, Youth Engagement,
Inclusion and Social Justice- which
provides a strong road map for
realizing the proposed goals during
the next 5 years.
72.2% of Indian population lives
in rural areas.
Though the share of agriculture
in Indias GDP is continuously
declining, it still engages 68% of the
countrys total workforce. 80% of
the rural household depends upon
small and marginal farms. However,
40% of rural households now rely
on non-farm activities as their major
source of income.
Literacy and educational levels
though have improved, 89% of
rural youth still have not taken any
vocational training.
Youth labor market also faces
problem of lack of organized
labor market, lower income and
unhygienic conditions of work and
lack of social security.

Problems faced
by rural youth of India

of physical infrastructure
Lack of technological and innovative
Limited land and great pressure
on land
Seasonal nature of agriculture
Lack of education and ignorance
about scientific and modern means
of agriculture

Probable solutions to the

unemployment in Rural India

quality of education needs

to be improved with focus on job
oriented courses.
Government should encourage and
develop agriculture based industries
in rural areas which will also help
in checking rural-urban migration.

Solutions already at
work to address the problems
MGNREGA has recently included

SMARTHA which is a set of ten

technical training programs for
creation of productive assets, by
training technical functionaries.
RSETI (Rural Self Employment
Training Institutes) will be set
up, one institute in each district, in
collaboration with the banks and
state government will offer training
in different vocations classified
under agriculture, process, product
and general entrepreneurship.
Himayat or Skill Empowerment and
Employment in J&K for inclusive
education and skill development of
youth of J&K, started by Ministry
of Rural Development.

122 || Drishti Current Affairs Today || October 2016

Kaushal Vardhan Kendras (KVK)/

Skill Development Centres being

set up by State Governments at
Panchayat level to provide skilling
and also work as counseling centres
for youths.

Startup Village Entrepreneurship

Programme (SVEP) is targeted

to enhance entrepreneurial
opportunities for the growing
number of rural youth, while reaping
their demographic dividend.


Antyodaya YojanaNational Rural Livelihood Mission

(DAY-NRLM) will have targeted
benefits for SC/STs, minorities
and women skilling them in their
specific areas of choice.


Skill Development
Mission has been developed to
create convergence across sectors
and states in terms of skill-training
activities. Seven sub missions
included under it are Institutional
Training, Infrastructure, Convergence,
Trainers, Overseas Employment,
Sustainable Livelihood and Leveraging
Public Infrastructure.

Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Rurban

Mission which includes development of economic activities and skill

development. It addresses issues like
rural migration, hyper-urbanization
and loss of rural habitat.

Jharkhand's Fish
Revolution (Matsya Mitra)
The program is about training people

to rear fish and, thus, providing them

gainful employment and income.
A village pond is regarded as a
source of income.
As a result of this initiative, the
states fish production has doubled
since the mid-2000. During a survey
of the state in 2015, it was found to
have over 88,000 trained fishermen
enrolled in this programme and
some 3,600 matsya mitras the
cadre of voluntary friends of fish.

Modus Operandi

first the fishery department

undertook survey of the ponds,
tanks and watershed structures in
villages of Jharkhand. Each village
was mapped for its water body.
Some 80 per cent of the water bodies
were privately owned. They were
found to be poorly maintained, filled
with mud and garbage.
The key to the success of this project
lies in improving the productivity
of small natural resource assets.

Redefining forests
Recently efforts have been made by

the MOEF & CC to define forests.

The Ministrys June 2016 notification
to formulate a unified definition of
forests will make forest clearances
easier and give more powers to the
Union government.
Almost all states and forest laws
have different definitions of forests,
which is threatening several forest
areas. For Example- about 11,500
hectares (ha) land in the Aravallis
(the worlds oldest mountain
range which acts as the National

Capital Regions green lungs and

is crucial for its ecosystem) is
controversial. The National Capital
Region Planning Board (NCRPB) is
yet to declare the land as Natural
Conservation Zone (NCZ) because
it does not have a forest definition.
States under forest cover are
classified into two categories.
For the States in the first category
forest cover includes not only areas
recorded as forests but also those
classified as forests under various
State laws and land classification
systems, including shrub lands,
grasslands, ravines, wetlands, hill
For the second category states whose
forest cover and the recorded forest
area is less than the national average
of 33 per cent of its geographical
area, land patches having 10 per
cent crown density will be defined
as forests. This will be done only if

Forest laws/Agency

70 per cent of these patches have

natural forests.
In States where either the forest
cover or the already-demarcated
forestland is above one-third of the
geographical area, patches of land
that have more than 40 per cent
crown density would be considered
Land should not be declared
forests if it does not have tree cover,
hinting that many areas in the state
recorded as forest but without any tree
cover should be used for development

Dictionary meaning

the Indian Forest Act, 1927 and

Forest Conservation Act, 1980, no
clear definition of the two terms,
forest and forestland exists.
Forest Conservation Act, 1980 only
specifies that no State government or
other authority may allow the use of


Indian Forest Act, 1927 Do not have clear definitions for forest or
and Forest Conservation forestland
Act, 1980
Supreme Court order of Forest should be defined in the "dictionary sense"
irrespective of ownership. Also accepted that
any land recorded as forests in government
records should remain forests
Forest Rights Act, 2006

Defines forestland as land of any description

falling within any area and includes unclassified
forests, undemarcated forests, existing or deemed
forests, protected forests, reserved forests,
sanctuaries and national parks

Forest Survey of India

Defines forest as an area of at least 1ha with a

canopy density of 10 per cent; prime forests are
classified as very dense and mid-dense with
canopy densities of at least 70 per cent and 40
per cent respectively

India's forest definition for A forest is a land area of at least 0.05ha, with a
Kyoto protocol
minimum tree crown cover of 15 per cent, and
tree height of at least 2m

Drishti Current Affairs Today

|| October 2016 || 125

Welcome Back,
Himalayan Bear !
Critically endangered
among the brown bear
species found across the world.
Largest mammal in the Himalayan
Hibernate between October to April
in caves or dens.
Predominantly vegetarian but are
found to be omnivorous too.
Over the years, there has been a
drastic reduction in their numbers
due to devastation of the natural
habitat as a result of prolonged
militancy, gunfire and poaching.
In a rare instance, recently a group
of brown bears were sighted in
Drass district of Kargil.


The Black Tiger


white tiger are rare, then black

tigers are rarer. They have a hair
coat which has more black stripes
than normal white tigers.
The black colour in a tiger is a
result of false melanism a
process that in the case of black
tigers, increases the amount of black
pigmentation in the skin.
Black tigers are not a recent
phenomenon because there are
recorded instances of sightings of
black tigers in our country from
time to time.
The black tiger like the white tiger
is an aberration of the Royal Bengal
Tiger. The normal coloured coat of
the tiger has been designed by nature
to help it hunt by camouflaging it
in its surrounding.
The increased sightings of black
tigers give an ominous message that
inbreeding depression is putting

the very existence of the already

highly endangered Royal Bengal
Tigers at stake.
Recently, a black tiger cub was
born in Nandankanan Biological
Park, Odisha.
Nandankanan Biological Park also
holds the Guinness book of world
records for having the largest captive
population of white tigers.

Fuzzy Logic

concept of Fuzzy Logic (FL)

was conceived by Lotfi Zedeh,
a professor at the University of
California in 1965. The chips in
machines and appliances which we
use every day are programmed on
Fuzzy Logic.
FL is a problem-solving control
system methodology that is used
in systems ranging from simple,
small, embedded micro-controllers
to large, networked, workstationbased data acquisition and control
FL provides a simple way to arrive
at a definite conclusion based upon
vague, ambiguous, imprecise, noisy,
or missing input information.
FL's approach to control problems
mimics how a person would make
decisions, only much faster.
The approach of Fuzzy logic to
computing is based on "degrees of
truth" rather than the usual "true
or false" (1 or 0) Boolean logic on
which the modern computer is
based. Fuzzy logic includes 0 and
1 as extreme cases of truth (or "the
state of matters" or "fact") but also
includes the various states of truth
in between so that, for example, the
result of a comparison between two
things could be not "tall" or "short"
but ".38 of tallness."

128 || Drishti Current Affairs Today || October 2016


logic models, called fuzzy

inference systems, consist of
a number of conditional "ifthen" rules. For the designer who
understands the system, these rules
are easy to write, and as many
rules as necessary can be supplied
to describe the system adequately
(although typically only a moderate
number of rules are needed). The
fuzzy systems convert these rules
to their mathematical equivalents.
This simplifies the job of the system
designer and the computer, and
results in much more accurate
representations of the way systems
behave in the real world.


benefits of fuzzy logic

include its simplicity and its
flexibility. Fuzzy logic can handle
problems with imprecise and
incomplete data, and it can model
nonlinear functions of arbitrary
complexity. This also ensures that
you can easily update and maintain
the system over time.

What is Graphene?
synthesized from Graphite.

Structure of Graphene
A single layer of graphite crystal
with hexagonally arranged carbon

Unique Properties of Graphene


known material

conductive material known


Lightest material
Highly transparent







1. N a m e t h e O P E C
countries in Africa
marked as 1(a), 1(b), 1(c)
and 1(d).


2. Name the countries

in Africa recently visited
by Indian PM-2(a), 2(b),
2(c) and 2(d).

3. Name the countries that

are part of Arab Maghreb
Union, marked as 3(a)
and 3(b); also including
1(a) and 1(b).





4. Identify the islands

marked as 4(a), 4(b).



5. Identify 5, the only

Egyptian teritory that
is located in Asia.







6. Idenfity the three cities

in Nile Delta that
constitute the golden
triangle, marked as 6(a),
6(b) and 6(c).
7. Identify the mountain
range 7(a) popularly
known as 'mountain of
dragons" and the
temperature grasslands
marked as 7(b).

8. Identify the region marked as 8 which is a semi-arid area. Why is it a critical feature in Africa?
9. Identify the young fold mountain ranges marked as 9 which are an extension of European Alps through
10. Identify the Coasts marked as 10(a), 10(b), 10(c) and 10(d).

130 || Drishti Current Affairs Today || October 2016

(Answers : Refer to Page No. 258)


1. Identify the recent railway

initiative associated with
the state marked as 1.
2. Identify the city in Kerala
(marked as 2) which
emerged as the cleanest
city on the basis of
management of solid
waste in a recent survey
by centre for Science and
Environment (CSE).
3. Identify this site in Sikkim
(3) which has been added
to the list of World Heritage
sites by UNESCO along
with two other sites. Name
those two other sites also
(not shown in map).
4. Identify India's first river
island district marked
as 4.
5. I d e n f i t y t h e r e g i o n
(marked as 5) in
Maharashtra which was
recently in news. Also
state the cause.
6. Identify India's first
e-court located at site
marked as 6.
7. Identify the transit points
7(a) and 7(b) where the
first trial for Cargo
Transport via inland
waterway commenced?




8. Identify the site (marked as 8) in Arunachal Pradesh where India's Advanced Landing ground for IAF was
inaugurated recently.
9. Identify the river marked as 9 which became a bone of contention between Karnataka and Goa.
(Answers : Refer to Page No. 258)

Drishti Current Affairs Today

|| October 2016 || 131

Designed to hit the bulls eye : point wise, short, crisp material in an easy-to-understand format.

Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971

Why in News?

the Supreme Court

allowed a rape victim to abort her
24-week-old foetus.
The case was in news because
under the Medical Termination
of Pregnancy (MTP) Act, 1971,
abortions are not permissible after
20 weeks, unless there is danger to
the mother's life.
The development also prompted
a debate around the 45-year-old
MTP Act in lieu of women's right
to autonomy and to decide what to
do with their bodies.

What does the Law say?

The MTP Act allows a woman to get

an abortion within the first 12 weeks

of pregnancy, provided a registered
medical practitioner diagnoses grave
danger to the pregnant womans
physical and mental health. (Where
any, pregnancy is to have been
caused by rape, such pregnancy
shall be presumed to constitute a
grave injury to the mental health
of the pregnant woman).
If the foetus is between 12 and
20 weeks old, then the procedure
requires permission from two
medical practitioners.
When there is a substantial risk
that if the child were born, it would
suffer from physical or mental

Unplanned Pregnancy
Pregnancy of a woman, who, having

attained the age of eighteen years, is

a lunatic, shall be terminated with
the consent of her guardian.


shall be terminated
with the consent of the pregnant

How are Women Affected?

Stigma around womens sexuality

and abortion leads to a woman

dying every two hours due of unsafe
measures of abortion.
Their right to autonomy and right
to bodily integrity is curtailed.
Nonavailability of safe abortion
leads to high morbidity and
mortality rate.
Woman who does not want to
continue with the pregnancy, forcing
her to do so represents a violation
of womans bodily integrity along
with a mental trauma which is an
impediment in her healing and
recovery from if the pregnancy has
been a result of physical violence.

Why Abortion?

can be a result of
unwanted situations like
zzFrom coerced or non-consensual
zzIgnorance about the whole
process of conceiving (Since
early marriages are prevalent
in India ignorance is a serious
zzInability to use contraceptives
due to factors like husbands
objection, fear of side effects,
wrong use of methods,
discontinuities in usage and
also method failure.
zzNot receiving information and
counseling at appropriate time.

134 || Drishti Curret Affairs Today || October 2016

MTP (Amendment) Bill, 2014


bill considers post - 1971

developments (medical technology
has advanced since then) and asks
for allowing abortion between 20
weeks and 24 weeks if the mother
or foetus is at risk.
It puts no ceiling on termination
in the presence of life-threatening
foetal abnormalities (which can
only be detected after 18 weeks of
It takes into account that termination
of pregnancy must be permissible
if it is a result of rape.
It also recognizes that sexually
active unmarried women can seek
abortion within the stipulated time
period if pregnancy was unplanned.
The current act only accounts for
sexually active married women.

Way Forward

must be treated as equal

citizens, the right to control their
body and fertility along with
motherhood choices are necessary
for their empowerment.
Judiciary and lawmakers must
ensure a secular outlook and strive
to maintain that women get equal
citizenship rights in consonance with
the Constitution which includes a
right to life, right to dignity and a
right to benefit from scientific progress and not let patriarchal mindset
eclipse their reproductive rights.
Their right to what to do with their
bodies also includes whether or not
to get pregnant and stay pregnant
must be respected.

To the Point

100 years of Champaran Satyagraha

Why in News?

Nitish Kumar government

announced in the month of April
year-long celebrations to mark the
100th anniversary of Mahatma
Gandhis first visit to Bihar and the
Satyagraha movement led by him
which eventually united the whole
nation in its fight for freedom.
The Tourism Department of
Bihar is also exploring ways to
promote Mahatma Gandhi Circuit
in conjunction with the Satyagraha
centenary. A whole host of activities,
from seminars to workshops and
exhibitions, have been planed
from Patna to Motihari (district
headquarters of East Champaran)
during this period.

Uniqueness of the Satyagraha


aims at furtherance of
love and self-purification.
Satyagraha can be regarded as
vindication of truth by taking selfsuffering in the form of love.
According to Gandhiji, it is the
weapon of the bravest and the

Principles of Satyagraha

saw satyagraha as a
universal solvent for injustice.
He felt that it was equally applicable
to large-scale political struggle and
to one-on-one interpersonal conflicts
which should be taught to everyone.
He asked satyagrahis to follow the
following principles:
zzNonviolence (ahimsa).
zzTruth this includes honesty,
but goes beyond it to mean
living fully in accord with and
in devotion to that which is true.
zzNot stealing.
zzChastity (brahmacharya) this
includes sexual chastity, but

also the subordination of other

sensual desires to primary
devotion to truth.
zzNon-possession (not the same
as poverty).
zzEqual respect for all religions.
zzEconomic strategy such as
boycott of exported goods

Reasons Behind the Movement

The European planters had involved

the cultivators in agreements which

forced them to cultivate indigo on
3/20 of their total land holdings
(called Tinkathia system). It means
that out of 20 kathas which make an
acre, they had to dedicate 3 kathas
for indigo plantation.
They had to lease this part in return
to the advance at the beginning of
each cultivation season. The price
was too less and was fixed on the
area cultivated rather than the crop
produced. They were actually being
cheated by the English planters.
The European planters demanded
high rents and illegal dues from the
peasants in order to maximise their
profits before the peasants could
shift to other crops.
Besides, the peasants were forced
to sell the produce at prices fixed
by the Europeans.
This led to the discontent in the
farmers of the Champaran region.

Turn of Events
Gandhiji was requested by Rajkumar

Shukla to look into the problems of

the indigo planters in Champaran
district in Bihar.

When Gandhi reached Champaran

authorities ordered him to leave

the area at once.
Gandhi defied the order and
preferred to face the punishment.
This passive resistance or civil
disobedience of an unjust order
was a novel method of resistance.
The government authorities
unwilling to treat Gandhiji as a
rebel, asked the local government
to retreat and permitted Gandhi to
proceed with an enquiry.
Government appointed a committee
to look into the matter and nominated
Gandhiji as a member.
Gandhiji along with Brij Kishore, Dr
Rajendra Prasad, Mahadev Desai,
Narhari Parikh and J B Kriplani
actually toured the villages, talked
to the peasants to know their exact
Gandhiji was able to convince the
authorities that the tinkathia system
should be abolished and the peasants
should be compensated for the
illegal dues extracted from them.

Impact of the Movement

As a compromise with the planters,

it was agreed that 25 % of the money

which was taken as illegal dues
will be compensated. (Gandhi was
criticised for not demanding a full
refund, to which he responded by
saying that even this demand had
done enough damage to the planters
prestige and position)
Within a decade, the planters left
the area.
The disabilities from which the
peasantry was suffering were
reduced and Gandhi won his first
battle of civil disobedience in India.
He also had a glimpse into the naked
poverty in which the peasants of
India lived.

to probe into the matter, the

Drishti Current Affairs Today

|| October 2016 || 145

Indian History : Mahatma Gandhi and Indian National Movement


Gandhi returned to India from South

Africa in
Who suggested Gandhi to learn about real India by
travelling across length and breadth of the country?

Who did British recognize as Minorities, thus extending

- Gopal Krishna Gokhale

It was at which annual session of Congress that a peasant
invited Gandhi to visit Champaran?


-Lucknow, December 1916

The first nation-wide protest movement led by Gandhi
was against
-Rowlatt Act, 1919
Who said about Non-cooperation movement that it was
negative enough to be peaceful but positive enough
to be effective. It entailed denial, renunciation, and
Self-discipline. It was training for self-rule.?
-Louis Fisher
Who remarked on Gandhis arrest during Noncooperation movement in the following words, Even
those who differ from you in politics look upon you as
a man of high ideals and of even saintly life?
-Justice C.N. Broomfield
Who was the president of Congress in the Lahore session

of 1929, when Purna Swaraj was declared the aim of

Independence movement led by Congress?

-Jawaharlal Nehru
American newsmagazine, during its coverage
of Dandi March, Saluted Gandhi as a Saint and
Statesman who was using Christian acts as a weapon
against men with Christian beliefs?
Which is generally regarded as the first nationalist
activity in which women participated in large numbers?

-Salt March
When was the first Round Table Conference held?
-November 1930, London
Gandhi translated Leo Tolstoys Letter to a Hindu
into Gujarati with his permission. Whom was this letter
originally addressed to?
-Taraknath Das
'Vaishnava jana to - the bhajan included in Gandhis
daily prayers held by him was written by which medieval
Gujarati poet
-Narsinh Mehta

the list already including Muslims, Sikhs and Christians,

who were entitled for separate electorates, by its
-Depressed Classes
did Gandhi shift his base to, after vowing in
1930 that he would not return to Sabarmati Ashram
till Swaraj was won?
- Satyagrah Ashram at Wardha

All India Untouchability league was set-up by Gandhi in

-September, 1932
What did Gandhi refer to as Second lung of the Nation

-Spinning wheel or Charkha


undertook a march from Calicut to Payannur to

break the Salt law?


regiment of Indian Army drew the wrath of

the British when its two platoons refused to serve
anti-riot duty to curb Civil-disobedience movement in
-Royal Garhwal Rifles


Coast by?

Salt March was organized on the East

-C. Rajagopalachari


famous poetess and Congress leader led the

march at Dharsana Salt works in Gujarat?
-Sarojini Naidu


mother belonged to which Vaishnava sect?



session of Congress was presided by

Gandhi, becoming the only occasion when Gandhi
served as the president of Congress?
-Belgaum Session, 1924

Which historian has written the famous essay Gandhi

as Mahatma focusing on how Gandhi was perceived

by majority of the masses who interpreted Gandhian
messages in their own ways.
-Shahid Amin

In 2007, the united Nations General Assembly declared

Gandhis birthday-2nd October as

-The International Day of Non-violence

Drishti Current Affairs Today

|| October 2016 || 155

Lending Hands to Someone is Better than Giving a Dole

Aditya Choppa
Those who are happiest are those
who do the most for others. According
to Dalai Lama, our prime purpose in
life is to help others. Helping each
other is what makes us humans
special. Compassion and altruism are
the basic components of humanness.
Even the most hard-hearted person
might have helped someone in need
at some point of time. Helping others
is the fundamental characteristic of
humans, but different people do it in
different ways. Some tend to donate
money to charitable organisations,
some people give money to the poor
directly, some people volunteer to do
social work, while some create work
for others. It is important to understand
which type of help is most beneficial
to humankind. As a Chinese proverb
says, "Give a man a fish, and you feed
him for a day. Teach a man to fish,
and you feed him for a lifetime." This
essay gives examples of alternative
ways of helping people that are more
helpful than just donating money.
Recently, Chennai experienced
one of the worst floods in over 100
years. Life had come to a standstill.
The repercussions were such that
almost all aspects of life were affected
in the city, from public transport,
railways, flights to electricity supply.
In such crisis, help poured in from
different corners of the world. Many
contributed to flood relief fund. But

this help couldn't reach the Chennai

residents in time as the transportation
facilities were derailed. This money
could be only used for rehabilitation.
But the helping nature of the locals,
the various business entities in
Chennai and initiatives by tech
companies helped immensely in
avoiding a major disaster. Individuals
opened their houses while schools,
movie theatres and marriage halls
welcomed families and persons who
needed a safe and dry shelter. Facebook
initiated a Safety Check feature for
Chennai floods, BSNL gave users in
Chennai free local and STD calls,
Paytm gave residents of Chennai a Rs
30 recharge to help them stay
connected during floods, Ola joined
hands - and resources - with the
Chennai fire department to help
residents reach their homes safely and
Zomato launched 'Meal for flood relief'
wherein people could order free meals
for flood victims. Chennai floods made
people united and take efforts to
combat the disaster. Clearly, the
helping hand lent by individuals and
different companies helped the
Chennai flood victims more than the
money donated to the flood relief fund.
This principle can be seen in our
day-to-day life too. Many of us tend
to give money or food to beggars. This
doesn't really help them to get out of
poverty. In India, begging is quite

162 || Drishti Current Affairs Today || October 2016

often carried out in organized gangs.

Beggars have also been known to
deliberately maim and disfigure
themselves to get more money. In
these circumstances, real help would
be, to provide some source of
livelihood to them, rather than giving
them money which incentivises them
to continue their lifestyle. It would be
more compassionate to buy an item
from a street hawker, even if we don't
require it, to provide him livelihood.
Many of us tend to donate money to
different welfare organisations,
orphanages, old-age homes, NGOs etc.
But some of them could be just scams,
while some organisations may waste
money on managerial duties instead
of actually helping the needy. It would
be much more useful if we give clothes,
blankets, food or time to these
organisations depending on the need.
Instead of giving money, it would be
much more useful if one can lend his/
her expertise to help others. For
example, a teacher can provide free
tutions for the poor, a doctor can
volunteer some time in a week at a
free clinic, a lawyer can provide his
legal services to the poor and a
software engineer can help in
decreasing digital divide. In this way,
one can ensure that their contribution
directly benefits the people in need.
In democratic states, the
governments have a tendency to


(250 Marks, UPSC CS Main Examination): Essay: Candidates may be required to write essays on
multiple topics. They will be expected to keep closely to the subject of the essay to arrange their ideas in orderly
fashion and to write concisely. Credit will be given for effective and exact expression. That is what the UPSC
says about the Essay paper in the CSE notification. Through an essay, the commission wants to know if you will
make the right civil servant who has balance of judgement, variety and depth of interest, logical exposition and
other such bureaucratic qualities.
Keeping this in mind, we present a forum where you are asked to practice your writing skills by writing essays
on the given topics. The topics are decided keeping in view the thematic trends in CS(Mains) examination.
If that is not all, the best essays shall be rewarded and published. Well judge the essay based upon four parameters
viz. Structure of the essay, Content, Flow and language.
The prize details are as follows:
First Prize: ` 5000/- Second Prize: ` 4000/- Third Prize: ` 3000/-

Essay Writing Competition5


(a) If one can address moral crisis, many of world's problems can be solved.
(b) Has the glass ceiling for women finally been shattered?
(c) You cannot shake hands with a clenched fist.

Terms and Conditions

1. The essay shall be of length between 1500-1600 words.

2. It should be neatly typed on A4 sheets.
3. Only one entry per participant is allowed.
4. Entries are to be sent by Registered/speed post only on following address: EXECUTIVE EDITOR,
Please mention For Essay Competition in capital letters on the envelope.
5. Remember to submit your personal details on the form printed on this page after neatly tearing it off
the marked pointers. Submissions without this form shall not be entertained.
6. Your essay must reach the given address before 20th October 2016. Entries reaching us after the given
date will not be accepted.
7. Essays should be original and not plagiarized or copied except for properly quoted references. Prior
published or awarded essays will not be accepted.
8. All rights related to the results of the competition are secure with Drishti Current Affairs Today. The
winners shall be announced in the month of October on the website www.drishtiias.com as well as in
the subsequent issue of the magazine.
9. Copyrights of the rewarded essays will lie with the magazine which may be used in any way by Drishti

Form for Essay Competition5

(Kindly cut and attach this form along with your essay. Use original form and not photocopy.)
Name of participant: .

Mobile no.


Pin code: ...

Email ID: ....................................

166 || Drishti Current Affairs Today || October 2016

Shashank Tripathi is no stranger to success. After his graduation

from IIT-Kanpur in 2013, Shashank successfully made it to the
merit list of UPSC CSE-2014 at Rank 272. Not satisfied being an
Assistant Commissioner of Income Tax (Trainee) under IRS (IT), in
2015, Shashank fulfilled his dream of becoming an IAS officer by
securing the fifth rank. Lets hear from him about his journey to reach
this proud moment.

Shashank Tripathi
Drishti Current Affairs Today
(DCAT): Congratulations on your
selection! How do you feel on being
selected to the administrative
services at such a good rank?
Shashank Tripathi: It feels fantastic!
Thank you very much.
DCAT: Were you satisfied with your
level of preparation before the exam
and were you hopeful of selection?
Shashank: UPSC is quite unpredictable. I learnt that in the 1st attempt
itself, when I had expected a better
rank than what I got. But my level of
preparation was good enough in both
the attempts. I was hoping that with
a bit of luck, I may get a rank that
would get me into the IAS. However,
I had never expected a single digit
DCAT: What changes did you make
in your strategy for this attempt?
Shashank: One major change I did in
my strategy was with respect to the
method of presenting the answer even
when my knowledge base remained
more or less the same.
DCAT: What attracted you to civil
Shashank: I was drawn to the civil
services because of the diversity in the

Selected for IAS in UPSC CSE 2015, AIR-05

work profile and because I feel an
urge to be connected to the work I do.
DCAT: How is the UPSC examination
different from other examinations?
Shashank: At least one and a half to
two years of time is required to
prepare for UPSC. The exam process
itself is of almost a year. Mains is 27
hours of hard work in the examination
hall. The levels of patience, persistence,
hard work and mental conditioning
required is much more than other
DCAT: What do you consider as your
formula of success?
Shashank: I think following lesser
number of sources and revising them
again and again. Also, I feel a wellthought-out and categorized presentation of answers made a difference.
DCAT: Other than your capability
and hard work, to whom would you
like to give credit for your success?
Shashank: My elder brother Mayank
Tripathi has been a rock solid support
for me during the entire preparation.
My mother Mrs. Suman Tripathi and
father Mr. Srinarayan Tripathi had
full faith in me. They did not expect
me to start earning after passing out
of IIT Kanpur and respected my

DCAT: When did you start your

Shashank: I started my preparation
immediately after graduation.
DCAT: Considering the extensive
syllabus of General Studies in
Preliminary Exam and Main
Examination, what strategy did you
adopt in preparing for it?
Shashank: I used the first year of my
preparation in covering the syllabus
extensively. I used minimum number
of sources which were efficient and
reliable for General Studies and for
optional, I studied extensively from
good quality books. Lesser number of
sources and more and more revision
worked for me.
DCAT: Did you give special
emphasis to some particular sections
or equal emphasis on all sections? In
your opinion, can certain sections be
Shashank: I did not skip any heading
mentioned in the syllabus. Also, I did
not study anything extra or seemingly
unrelated to the examination.
DCAT: Did you prepare for each
stage in order of appearance in the
exam cycle or simultaneously?

Drishti Current Affairs Today

|| October 2016 || 167


uestion 1: What is a cloudburst

and why does it lead to heavy
loss of life and property? What steps
can be taken to minimize loss of life
and property in the face of extreme
weather events?

nswer: Cloudburst is a short-term

extreme precipitation which
occurs over a small area. If a place
receives 10 cm or above rainfall in an
hour, it is classified as a cloudburst
event. Cloudbursts despite being
localized in nature lead to large scale
damage to life and property because
of its intensity.

When saturated clouds are unable

to produce rain because of the upward
movement of warm current of air
leading to excessive condensation,
raindrops are carried upwards by the
air current instead of dropping as
rainfall. After a point raindrops
become too heavy to be carried
upwards and drop together in a quick
flash. This phenomenon is known as
Cloudbursts are considered
disastrous only in case of large scale
damage of life & property which
happens mostly in mountainous
Reasons for Destruction
Rainfall does not directly cause
death but the consequences of the
cloudbursts in the form of rainfall
triggered landslides, flash floods,
houses and establishment getting
swept and cave in lead to death and
damage. Landslides cause property
damage and adversely affect lives by
disruption of transport routes.

Restoring settlements near mountain

foothills is difficult due to flashfloods
that might happen from cloudburst.
Engineering projects coming up in
fragile zones lead to large scale
devastation. Too much rain in small
span of time trigger quick rise of water
levels of river leading to flood.
Way Forward
Detecting cloud bursts is a difficult
task as it covers small areas so
precaution will go a long way in
lessening the damage.
Stopping haphazard construction
in hilly areas.
Preventing encroachments of
Afforestation programmes specially
on hill slopes to prevent landslides.
Alert-relay system should be put in
place so that people can evacuate
The damaged ground must be
replanted as soon as possible since
erosion caused by loss of ground
cover can lead to flash flooding
and additional landslides in the
near future.
Space Application Centre (SAC) of
ISRO has developed a model for
heavy rainfall/cloud burst alert to
forbid to the maximum extent the
damage caused by a cloudburst. It
is currently working on pilot basis
but once its effectiveness is proven,
it might help in saving lives.

uestion 2: Online harassment

and cyber crimes are not given
the kind of priority in India as they
deserve. The mindset is such that
these crimes are perceived as minor
crimes and resultantly the number
of such crimes is rising. Discuss and

suggest measures that can be taken

to curb the rising incidence of online
harassment and cyber crimes.

nswer: India has around one

billion mobile subscribers and an
estimated 500 million internet users.
With a year on year rise in these
numbers, the cases of cyber crimes
such as online harassment, cyber
stalking etc. have also gone up.
However, India has failed in
getting the requisite cyber crime
convictions. Few cases are reported
and even fewer are registered. It is
difficult to get cyber crimes registered
since the police invariably dont
register them because they are unsure
whether they will be able to crack it.
Apart from the lack of capacity
building among law enforcement
agencies, the police are more
comfortable with traditional laws
relating to crimes that happen
physically. They consider cyber crimes
as minor crimes and as a consequence,
majority of these cases result in
This is despite the fact that the
impact of online harassment is as
much, if not more than the harassment
in the physical world. It is viewed by
a much larger audience and the sense
of shame and trauma are much higher
since not much can be done to contain
the spread of wrong information.
Casual threats of rape, murder and
violence are very common online.
Even though laws against online
harassment are in place, their
implementation is where the problem
lies. Also, despite legal provisions,
there are loopholesbarring a few
cyber crimes, almost all are bailable
offences. So, there is no deterrent. And
in many cases, the servers used are

Drishti Current Affairs Today

|| October 2016 || 169

Preparing for the Personality Test


Vikas Divyakirti

Dear Aspirants,
In the last edition we tried to address the dilemma a candidate faces while answering the questions of the board
members. Whether a candidate has the leeway to criticize the government policies or the candidate has to only
highlight the positive aspects of the policies were answered to an extent. Few argumentative topics were also
discussed to give you a brief idea about the personality test. In the third part here, we discuss suitable attire for
personality test.

What is the right way of

dressing for the interview?
Dress code is one of the many
queries that an aspirant has about
personality test. Many interviewees
are confused; how they should be
dressed for the interview is worrisome
to them. This is natural as the first
UPSC interview of a candidate is quite
significant for his/her career. Interview
attire is important because it reflects
the total personality of a person, way
of thinking and approach in life.
Graceful dress always leaves a good
first impression in the mind of the
board members. Therefore, your attire
should be attractive and smart. One
must before choosing the interview
attire, take into account the position
for which interview is being held and
the prescribed dress code for the UPSC
interview. In the light of these,
aspirants must ensure that their attire
meets the following requirements
which is applicable to both men and
women aspirants.

remember that the personality

test is a complete formal interaction
and there is no scope for any casual
approach. Aspirants should keep

in mind that an interview is not a

social function.
The attire should not be so tight that

you cannot sit comfortably, not too

loose either that it looks over-sized.
Your dress should be neat and well
ironed. It is not necessary that only
newly bought clothes are worn but
it is preferable that you wear a dress
which is clean and tidy.

Let us now see in detail what is

the right approach while deciding the
clothes for the interview for female as
well as male aspirants.

Interview Attire for Women

For women candidates, following
guidelines will help in choosing their
interview attire:


must decide what you want

to wear which should also be
comfortable. Saree or salwar kameez
or suits are the options that you
have. Depending upon your comfort
level and personality you can opt
for one of the available choices. But
it is highly recommended that you
choose to wear a saree since it has a
more formal look. You cannot come

180 || Drishti Current Affairs Today || October 2016

up with trivial excuses like you

dont know how to wear a saree.
If you choose to wear a saree you
should wear a single light colored
bordered saree.
If a candidate is giving an interview

for the state service commission

then he/she can think of wearing
salwar kammez but wearing the
same for the Union Public Service
Commission Examination should
be avoided at all cost.


candidates also have

another choice of wearing trousers
and shirt but again it should also be
avoided unless you want to make
your own personality-statement. An
aspirant must avoid wearing it for
the state public service examinations


is absolutely not suitable for

any type of interview. Saree is the
most suitable option for an aspirant
giving her the most formal as well
as elegant look.


the design of the saree,

deep coloured saree with fancy
patterns should not be worn.
Depending on the built of the
candidate, fabric of the saree must
be chosen. If someone is on the

Mock Interview


Our Candidate in this edition is Shekhar. He is from
Panna in M.P. It was very unfortunate that he met with
an accident at a young age which left him crippled.
Nevertheless, he did not let this affect his motivation
towards life. His relentless effort resulted in an interview
call from the UPSC. Shekhar is definitely a source of
inspiration for everyone but especially for those who think
that being handicapped is an impediment in their success.
It is necessary for them to aspire big with new levels of
enthusiasm to give their dream wings to fly. Here we
present his personality test for your reading.


Name: Shekhar Kumar
Fathers Name: Surendra Kumar
Mothers Name : Poonam Kumari
Place of Birth : Panna, Madhya Pradesh
Date of Birth : 5th November, 1990
Category : PH
Academic Qualification:
High School: Bluebells Academy (71%)

Senior Secondary: Bluebells Academy (65%)
Graduate: B.A. (Hons) English
Optional Subject: Literature
Medium: English
Attempts: Three
Interview: First
Hobbies: Watching films.
Service Preferences: IAS, IFS, IPS, IRS, IC&ES, IRTS, IRAS
State Preferences: Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh,
Bihar, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Haryana, Maharashtra, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh,
Odisha, West Bengal, Odisha, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra
Pradesh, Telangana, Assam- Meghalaya, Manipur Tripura, Nagaland

182 || Drishti Current Affairs Today || October 2016

(Shekhar went to the door with the
help of a walking stick and the guard
opened the door)
Shekhar : May I Come in?
Chairman : Yes, please have a seat.
(Shekhar has to remove few seats
in order to keep the stick, chairman
looks at him and wants to help)
Chairman : May I help you?
Shekhar : No, Sir, thank you. I am
absolutely fine and have no issues in
(The members are smiling at the
confidence of Shekhar and the way in
which he politely denies any assistance).
Chairman : Where are you exactly
Shekhar : Sir, the name of my
village is Manipur.
Chairman : I am hearing this name
for the first time. Why is it known by
the name of Manipur?
Shekhar : Sorry sir, even I dont
know the reason. This village is 25
kms away from the Panna district.
Chairman : Is it a possibility that
the name comes from the state of
Manipur or the state was named so
after the name of your village?
Shekhar : Sir, I think the chance
of both the scenarios is pretty thin.
Manipur state has its own history.
Before independence it was an estate
which later became a centrally
administered state. As far as my village
is concerned I think the name is such
because of localized reasons. One of
the reasons could be that in my district


Attitude: Influence on Behaviour;

Moral & Political attitudes and Persuasion
If you want to change attitudes, start
with a change in behaviour.
- William Glasser
Attitude is a feeling, belief, or
opinion of approval or disapproval
towards something. Behaviour is an
action or reaction that occurs in
response to an event or internal stimuli
(i.e., thought).

Attitude: Influence on and

relation with thought and
There are several psychological
studies which suggest that attitudes
can positively or negatively affect a
person's behaviour. A person may not
always be aware of his or her attitude
or the effect it has on behaviour. For
instance, a person who has positive

co-workers such as contentment,

friendliness, etc. can positively influence those around them. These positive attitudes are usually manifested
in a person's behaviour; people with
a good attitude are active and productive and do what they can to improve
the mood of those around them.
Similarly, a person who displays negative attitudes such as discontentment,
boredom, etc., will behave accordingly. People with these types of attitudes
towards work may likewise affect
those around them and behave in a
manner that reduces efficiency and

Influence of Attitudes
on Behaviour
Various research works reveals
that attitudes simply influence
behaviour. In fact, the earliest

definitions defined attitudes largely

in terms of behaviour. For example,
Allport defined attitudes as tendencies
or predispositions to behave in certain
ways in social situations. The most
recent research work suggests that the
extent of influence of attitudes on
behaviour depends upon certain
factors that determine the degree of
influence of attitudes on behaviour.
True vs. Expressed attitudes: True
attitude and the expressed attitudes
differ because both are subject to
other influences. Very often we
come across such instances when
an individual says something which
doesnt express his attitude. This
often takes place while dealing
with sensitive issues, contexts and
One instance vs. Aggregate: The
effects of an attitude become more
apparent when we look at a persons
aggregate or average behaviour
rather than at an individual act.
For example, research shows
that peoples general attitude
towards religion poorly predicts
whether they will go and worship
on weekends. This is because the
days weather, their mood, their
health, distance of the temple from
their place, etc. also influence their
behaviour. However, religious
attitudes do predict quite well the
total quantity of religious behaviours
over a long period of time.
Self awareness: Another aspect
that influences behaviour is self
awareness, i.e., how far the individual

Drishti Current Affairs Today

|| October 2016 || 187

Case Study - 1
You are working in an institution
on a high post. One of your subordinate
employees is a dedicated and honest
worker and executes the given work
in a very responsible way. But, in
a departmental enquiry it is found that
he is involved in some serious cases
of corruption and his crime is proven
at first glance. You call the employee
and enquire him. He says that his
son was seriously ill and for his
treatment he needed a lot of money.
So, his compulsion caused him to
do this act. He assures that he will not
do any such act further which
encourages corruption. Within some
days, you have to send departmental
report about the work and conduct
of your subordinate employees to
the senior officers of the institution. If
you provide him a clean-chit then
he can get promotion also because of
his deftness. On the other hand, if
you mention the corrupt deed done
by him in your report, punitive
disciplinary action against him is
nearly certain; which can be harmful
to his future.
(a) In this situation what options
do you have?
(b) Evaluate all the options and
give reasons for the selection
of the option which you have
selected. (250 words)

The case presents an ethical dilemma where one has to choose between two options:

(i) (a) Honouring the deftness and

honesty of the subordinate by
not reporting the corruption
incident in the report and
treating it only as an aberration.
(b) Upholding the rule of law and
subjecting the subordinate to
departmental proceedings to
which he is liable due to his
corrupt act.
The other option is to seek the
opinion of seniors and proceed
accordingly. However it is not
advisable as seniors often avoid
indulging in such situations and hence
it would be lead to only delays.
(ii)Option (a) has following
Since the subordinate is a valuable
asset to the institution due to his
skills and past performances and
he has also confessed his guilt
stating valid reasons for the same,
supporting him in times of crises will
improve my image as a responsible
and cooperative senior. It will bolster
team spirit in the team.
Other members may also come up
with confessions in future being
assured that wrong decisions
taken with right intentions wont
be reprimanded.
However the above option is not
appropriate. Even through the
subordinate was honest in his personal
life, he compromised with institutional
integrity when face with a situation
to choose between his personal
problems and his loyalty to his
The subordinate confession is postfacto i.e. after the commission of
crime, thus it can also be a damage

control mechanism. If he had been

fully honest he could seek my
cooperation to arrange finances to
meet urgent personal requirements.
Abetting wrong doing or turning
a blind eye are similar crimes in
front of law. Such actions can also
damage my credentials and potray
the institution in poor light.
It would set a wrong precedent in
the organization.
Option (B) through punitive for
the subordinate will create a culture
of transparency, accountability and
probity in the institution. Thus in view
of the above of the above I would take
option (b) as my course of action.
However keeping in view the excellent
past performances of the person, I will
mention all this in the report so that
before taking any action the
performance appraisal committee
would consider all factors.
On a personal note, I would
summon the subordinate and explain
him my stance and advise him to
cooperate with the departmental
inquiry so that he may not attract any
further trouble. If he is suspended or
terminated from his post, I will help
him in getting new jobs through my
personal contacts.

Case Study - 2
You are a producer-director of a
big budget film which is being
produced against the violence and
exploitation of women. Debate on this
film is highly on from film-world to
media and other circles of society. This
coming film of yours is being termed

Drishti Current Affairs Today

|| October 2016 || 193


Information Wants To Be Free but because it's so valuable it becomes imperative to maintain some reasonable
community standards and norms whenever dealing with less-than-ordinary information.
Introduction: It is undeniable that freedom of speech and expression is the cornerstone of the very idea of
democracy in the modern world. Curtailing this freedom arbitrarily may nullify the implicit moral force of democracy.
Moreover, the concept of censorship has been a historic anti-thesis of creative vigour. However, this has to be also
agreed upon that modern age is the age of information and in this world of faster-than-thought communication
technology, information travels easily beyond its intended audience and may be accessible, to all sort of entities or
individuals. In such a scenario, the idea of censorship emerges as a two-edged sword which has to be wielded with
a lot of restraint and considerations.
Therefore, we have decided as this months debate the topic Censorship - Good or Bad?. This debate will help
you develop a balance of judgement which is required of any IAS officer. So, we implore you to go through all the
motions of the debate and judge for yourself how the various shades of censorship affect the individual and the


Moral Censorship

It is called Moral Censorship when sometimes it becomes The road to Moral Censorship is fraught with danger for

imperative to stop the dissemination of certain information

deemed morally reprehensible by most of the people in
a concerned society.

what is moral is hard to define and such definitions change

from time to time and from society to society.

Child Pornography and Obscenity fall into this category. In the case of globally banned categories of speech and

expression like Child Pornography there is no one legal

standard nor uniformity in the judgement of harm.

These are not considered a necessary requirement for the For example, the age limits defining Child Pornography

true expression of our human nature and because of some

of them being inherently anti-social and exploitative of
fellow innocent human beings.

is different in different countries and the punishment it

invites varies greatly from society to society.

This type of censorship is the most common and we as Obscenity, especially in nudity, is also not easy to describe.

individuals practice it on a day-to-day basis.

For example, the puritanical differences in the perception

of nudity in South American Tribal and Catholic societies.

Non-nude obscenity on the other hand is impossible to

define without surrendering to even more conservative


Military Censorship
Military Censorship is said to be when information When Military Censorship is used to curtail information

regarding the command, functioning and expenditure of

any military endeavour is kept confidential.

on espionage, weapons development and deployment,

nuclear weapons and nuclear installations, the use of force
or to maintain secretive command structures, it may lead
to higher possibilities of coup or wrongful use of lethal

Drishti Current Affairs Today

|| October 2016 || 197

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Internal security as distinct from cross-border warfare presents a complex web of challenges
comprising- Intelligence gathering, identifying lone wolf attackers among citizens and most importantly
decoding the link between governance vacuum and reprisal movements. Being aware of such realities
at present made NSA Ajit Doval to comment, Internal Security will be a Big Challenge for India.
Thus a clear understanding of these challenges and the strategy required to tackle them is of paramount
The neglect of our natural assets and environment has always led to crisis. Whether it is the Kosi
floodsof Bihar or the Tsunami of Tamil Nadu, these disasters have time and again reminded us of our
responsibility towards NATURE. Some disasters can be avoided while others destructive effects can
be at best mitigated through better preparedness.
This issues mains capsule presents a crisp yet detailed analysis of the issues related with Disaster
management and Internal Security. It would enable aspirants to prepare well for General Studies III
Paper IV.
DISASTER AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT........................................................ 202-221
Introducing Disasters..............................................................................................................................................202
Disaster Management.............................................................................................................................................214

INTERNAL SECURITY................................................................................................... 222-257

Internal Security of India: Introduction..............................................................................................................222
Terrorism Role of External State and Non-State Actors...............................................................................223
Left Wing Extremism...............................................................................................................................................234
Cyber Security..........................................................................................................................................................239
North East Insurgency.............................................................................................................................................245
Money Laundering..................................................................................................................................................250
Border Management: Security Challenges and their management...............................................................253

Disaster Management

202 || Drishti Current Affairs Today || October 2016

Disaster Management

Disaster Management

During Crisis

With the emergence of the

modern welfare state and the 20th
century trends of globalization,
urbanization, large-scale migrations
of human population and climate
changes, the nature of crisis has
increased in both magnitude and
complexity. For example, while the
frequency of calamities may have
remained unchanged, increasing
population and urbanization have
resulted in greater impact on human
lives and property. In the traditional
disaster management approach, the
focus was on emergency relief and
immediate rehabilitation. A Welfare
State entails wider responsibilities on
the governments. This means that in
responsibilities of relief and immediate
rehabilitation, governments along
with the local bodies, the civil society,
voluntary organizations and corporate
bodies must address the factors
leading to the crisis. In other words,
they should aim to prevent their
occurrence, or at any rate, significantly
reduce their ill effects.


Phases of
Disaster Management


During this period, the potential
hazard risk and vulnerabilities are
assessed and steps are taken for preventing and mitigating the crisis.
These include long-term prevention
measures like construction of embankments to prevent flooding, creating or
augmenting irrigation facilities and
adopting water shed management as
drought proofing measures, increasing
plantations for reducing the occurrence of landslides, construction of
earthquake resistant structures and
sound environment management.

In this phase, certain primary

activities like evacuation, search and
rescue, followed by provision of basic
needs such as food, clothing, shelter,
medicines become indispensable. It
aims to bring the life of the affected
community back to a degree of

of potential natural and manmade hazards as well as their

Meticulous long and short term
planning for crisis management,
and effective implementation of
plans and enforcement measures;
B u i l d i n g r e s i l i e n c e o f t h e
communities to face crises and
ensuring their full participation;
Building and maintaining capabilities
(human and institutional),
infrastructure and logistics; and
Developing and disseminating
knowledge for effective crisis
management along with the
integration of traditional knowledge
in crisis management efforts.

Early Warning System

It comprises activities that
encompass two overlapping phases of
rehabilitation and reconstruction. In
this stage, efforts are made to achieve
early recovery and reduce vulnerability
and future risks.
This stage includes interim
measures of temporary public utilities
and housing to assist in the long-term
This phase includes construction
of damaged infrastructure and habitats
to enable sustainable livelihoods.

Elements of Crisis Management

A crisis management strategy
should aim at:
Creating appropriate legal and
organizational framework;
Making government organizations,
local bodies, communities and
individuals aware of the risk

214 || Drishti Current Affairs Today || October 2016

The objective of an early warning

system is to alert the community of
any impending hazard so that they
can take preventive measures. An early
warning system has four components
capturing the precursor events,
transmission of this data to a central
processing facility,
alert recognition of an impending
and warning dissemination.
The early warning phase of disaster management is largely technology driven with satellite imagery,
remote sensing, seismology, oceanography, climatology etc providing vital
inputs. Major advances have been
made in technology relating to data
capture, transmission, analysis and
information dissemination. But like
most technologies there are last mile
problems which make human intervention essential. It is important that
the warnings reach the most vulnerable sections in the manner understood
by them. Therefore, in spite of far reaching technological advances, mechanisms still have to be put in place to
suit the local conditions along with the
involvement of local community.

Internal Security


Internal security of a country is
the act of keeping peace within the
borders of a sovereign state or other
self-governing territories generally by
upholding the national law and defending against internal security
threats. In India the responsibility for
internal security rests with the
Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA).
External security is security
against aggression by a foreign country. External security is the domain of
the armed forces of the country under
directions from the Ministry of Defense.

Classification of Threats
Internal (Communalism).
External (Cyber warfare, Border

Skirmishes etc.)
Internally aided external (Human
trafickking, Cattle smuggling etc.)
E x t e r n a l l y a i d e d i n t e r n a l
(Insurgency, Naxalism)
In India the security challenge is
a dynamic interplay of all the above
factors. Also, the changing external
environment impacts our internal
security. Events in neighbourhood i.e.
Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal
and Myanmar have direct or indirect
linkages with our internal security. In
todays information and digital age,
security threats have no longer been
confined to national boundaries but
have assumed a global dimension.

Major Challenges to
Internal Security today
Terrorism: Accession of the state of

Jammu and Kashmir to India was not

taken kindly by Pakistan and since
1947 it has tried to internationalise
the issue. Following its failures in
the 1965 and 1971 wars it adopted
the strategy of proxy war against
India i.e. by bleeding India through
a thousand cuts and has henceforth
supported various terrorist groups
like HUJ, LeT, JuD etc.
Left wing Extremism: 1960s saw the
rise of Naxalism which started as a
reaction to the governance vacuum
in certain regions but later became
mainly a law and order problem. In
2006, the then Prime Minister even
admitted that this was perhaps the
biggest challenge to the countrys
internal security.
Cyber Security: Cyber security is
the latest challenge. Social media
could play a vital role in spreading
disinformation and fanning violence.
The exodus of Northeast students
from the southern states in 2012

and the Muzaffarnagar riots in 2013

illustrates the classical case of misuse
of social media to destabilize society.
Economic crime: Money laundering,
Circulation of fake currency.
Organised Crime: Human and
Drugs Trafficking.

Factors responsible for

internal security problems
Geostrategic factors: Unfriendly


Governance factors: Poverty,

Unemployment, Inequitable growth

Social factors: Increasing communal
divide, Increasing caste awareness
and caste tensions, Rise of contentious
politics based on sectarian, ethnic,
linguistic or other divisive criteria
Geographical factors: Porous
borders having very tough terrain
Structural factors: Poor criminal
justice system and large scale
corruption leading to nexus between
criminals, police and politicians with
the result that organized crime goes
on unabated

Attributes of Internal Security

The main attributes of internal
security are:
Secure territorial integrity and
protect internal sovereignty
Maintain domestic peace
Prevalence of law and order
Rule of law and equality before law
Sense of Impunity among wrong
doers due to failue of law machinery
to identify and punish them
Peaceful co-existence and communal

222 || Drishti Current Affairs Today || October 2016

Internal Security

Left Wing Extremism

Origin and History
On 25th May 1967, the rebel cadres

led by Charu Majumdar launched

a peasants' uprising at Naxalbari in
Darjeeling district of West Bengal
after a tribal youth, who had a
judicial order to plough his land,
was attacked by "goons" of local
landlords on March 2. Tribal people
retaliated and started forcefully
capturing back their lands.
The CPI (M)-led United Front
government in West Bengal cracked
down on the uprising and in 72
days of the "rebellion", a police
sub-inspector and nine tribals
were killed. The incident echoed
throughout India and naxalism
was born.
The ideology of naxalism soon
assumed larger dimension and
entire state units of CPI (M) in Uttar
Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir
and some sections in Bihar and
Andhra Pradesh joined the struggle.
Mao Zedong provided ideological
leadership for the Naxalbari
movement, advocating that Indian
peasants and lower class tribals
overthrow the government and
upper classes by force. A large
number of urban elites were also
attracted to the ideology, which
spread through Charu Majumdar's
writings, particularly the 'Historic
Eight Documents' which formed the
basis of Naxalite ideology.
At that time, the leaders of naxal
revolt were members of the CPI
(M), which also joined a coalition
government in West Bengal and
thus when in power, CPI (M) did
not approve of the armed uprising.
Consequently all the leaders and a
number of Calcutta sympathizers
were expelled from the party.
Subsequently, in November 1967,
this group of expelled members,
led by Sushital Ray Chowdhury,

organized the All India Coordination

Committee of Communist
Revolutionaries (AICCCR).
On 22 April 1969 (Lenin's birthday),
the AICCCR gave birth to the
Communist Party of India (MarxistLeninist) (CPI (ML)).
Practically all Naxalite groups trace
their origin to the CPI (ML). A
separate offshoot from the beginning
was the Maoist Communist Centre,
which evolved out of the Dakshin
Desh group. The MCC later fused
with the People's War Group to
form the Communist Party of India

Operation Steeplechase
In July 1971, Indira Gandhi took

advantage of President's rule to

mobilise the Indian Army against
the Naxalites and launched a
colossal combined army and police
counter-insurgency operation,
termed "Operation Steeplechase,"
killing hundreds of Naxalites and
imprisoning more than 20,000

234 || Drishti Current Affairs Today || October 2016

suspects and cadres, including

senior leaders.
The paramilitary forces and a brigade
of para commandos also participated
in Operation Steeplechase.

Operation Green Hunt

Operation Green Hunt was the

name used by the Indian media to

describe the "all-out offensive" by
government of India's paramilitary
forces and the state's forces against
the Naxalites.
The operation is believed to have
begun in November 2009 along five
states in the "Red Corridor".
The term was coined by the
Chhattisgarh police officials to
describe one successful drive
against the Communist Party of
India (Maoist) in the state. It was
erroneously used by the media to
describe the wider anti-Naxalite
operations; the government of India
does not use the term "Operation
Green Hunt" to describe its antiNaxalite offensive.

Internal Security

Cyber Security
The Cyber space is borderless and
actions in the cyber space can be anonymous. These features are being exploited by adversaries for perpetration
of crime in the cyber space. The scale
and sophistication of the crimes committed in the cyber space is continually
increasing thereby affecting the citizens, business and Government. As
the quantity and value of electronic
information have increased, so to have
the efforts of criminals and other adversaries who have embraced the cyber space as a more convenient and
profitable way for carrying out their
activities anonymously.
Malware is getting stealthier,
more targeted, multi-faceted and extremely difficult to analyze and defeat
even by the experts in the security
field. Organized crime is fast growing
and targeting the exponential growth
of on line identities and financial transactions. There is increasing evidence
of espionage, targeted attacks and lack
of traceability in the cyber world as
state and non-state actors are compromising, stealing, changing or destroying information and therefore potentially causing risk to national security,
economic growth, public safety and

What is Cyber Security?

Cyber security, also referred to as
information technology security,
focuses on protecting computers,
networks, programs and data from
unintended or unauthorized access,
change or destruction.

Why is Cyber
Security Important?
Governments, military, corporations, financial institutions, hospitals
and other businesses collect, process
and store a great deal of confidential
information on computers and transmit that data across networks to other

computers. With the growing volume

and sophistication of cyber attacks,
ongoing attention is required to protect
sensitive business and personal information, as well as safeguard national

Indian Cyber Space

Two factors set aside Indias digital

spaces from that of major powers

such as the United States and China:
design and density.
A c c o r d i n g t o I n t e r n a t i o n a l
Telecommunications Union (ITU),
the number of Internet users have
doubled between 2005 and 2010 and
have surpassed 2 billion.
As per World Bank report, by June
2012, Internet users in India were
approx. 12.5% of the total population
(approx. 137 million).
According to the Internet and Mobile
Association of India (IAMAI),
the internet user base in India is
projected to touch 243 million by
June 2014, with a year-on-year
growth of 28%.
Nearly 500 million Indians use the
Internet today, but they do not
access the Internet from the same
devices. Apples market share in
U.S., for instance, is 44 per cent,
but iPhones account for less than
1 per cent in India.
The massive gap between the
security offered by the cheapest phone
in the Indian market and a high-end
smart phone makes it impossible for
regulators to set legal and technical
standards for data protection.
susceptible to four kinds of digital
Cyber Espionage
Cyber Crime
Cyber Terrorism
Cyber Warfare

Cyber Espionage
It is the act or practice of obtaining

secrets without the permission of the

holder of the information (personal,
sensitive, proprietary or of classified
nature), from individuals, competitors, rivals, groups, governments
and enemies for personal, economic,
political or military advantage using
methods on the internet networks
or individual computers through
the use of cracking techniques and
malicious software including Trojan
horses and spyware.
Governments can invade the systems
of their rivals to steal sensitive
information that would be useful
for their own purposes.

I n 2 0 1 2 , E u r o p e a n s e c u r i t y

researchers reported that a cyber

espionage virus found on personal
computers in several countries in
the Middle East was designed to
eavesdrop on financial transactions
and perhaps disable industrial
control systems.
The Cyber Attack by the Chinese
Crackers at the computers in the
Prime Ministers Office (PMO) of
India in December 2009 in which
the Crackers targeted Indias key
National Security Peoples including
National Security Advisor M.K.
Narayanan, Cabinet Secretary
K.M. Chandrashekhar, PMs
Special Envoy Shyam Saran and
Deputy National Security Advisor
Shekhar Dutt.
These attacks are usually hard to
discover and the case of Operation
Shady RAT, the worlds biggest
hacking ever, is rather phenomenal.
For five whole years hackers had
access to 70 government and
private agencies around the world
as they secreted away gigabytes
of confidential information,
unbeknownst to those at the
receiving end.

Drishti Current Affairs Today

|| October 2016 || 239

Internal Security

North East Insurgency

Indias Northeast has been the
land of thousand mutinies. Starting
with the Naga insurgency since Indias
independence in 1947, several insurgency movements have sprung up in
most of the constituent states of the
region. At one point of time, about 120
insurgent groups carried out their activities in the seven states of the
Northeast (Sikkim was bracketed under Northeast in 2003). Demands of
the insurgent groups have been
wide-ranging. While groups like the
United Liberation Front of Asom
(ULFA), NSCN-IM (National Socialist
Council of Nagaland: Isak-Muivah
group) aim at establishing independent states, outfits such as the Bodo
Liberation Tigers (BLT) demanded
separate states for their tribal constituency. Fringe outfits, such as the
United Peoples Democratic Solidarity
(UPDS) and Dima Halam Daogah
(DHD), confining their activities to the
geographical limits of separate districts in Assam, have fought for maximum autonomy, within the purview
of the Indian constitution.

Defining Insurgency
Insurgency is an organized
rebellion aimed at overthrowing a
constituent government through the
use of subversion and armed conflict.

North-East Insurgency
The insurgency problem in NorthEast has developed over the years post
independence and has been centred
on region specific demands which
shall be discussed later state-wise in
this article. However, certain common
strands exist amidst these movements
which have enabled policy framers to
devise long-term solutions within the
framework of the Indian Constitution.
They are:


Identity consciousness linked to

Difference between insurgency and terrorism

A key difference is that an insurgency is a movement - a political effort with

a specific aim.

Intent of the component activities and operations: There is nothing inherent

in either insurgency or guerilla warfare that requires the use of terror. The
deliberate choice to use terrorism considers its effectiveness in inspiring further
resistance, destroying government efficiency, and mobilizing support. Although
there are places where terrorism, guerilla warfare, and criminal behavior
all overlap, groups that are exclusively terrorist, or subordinate "wings" of
insurgencies formed to specifically employ terror tactics, demonstrate clear
differences in their objectives and operations.
The ultimate goal of an insurgency is to challenge the existing government
for control of all or a portion of its territory, or force political concessions in
sharing political power.
However Terrorist activities aim to force government in submission and accept
their immediate demands by terrorizing people and creating a fear psychoses.
Terrorism does not attempt to challenge government forces directly, but acts
to change perceptions as to the effectiveness or legitimacy of the government
itself. This is done by ensuring the widest possible knowledge of the acts of
terrorist violence among the target audience.
Insurgencies require the active or tacit support of some portion of the
population involved. External support, recognition or approval from other
countries or political entities can be useful to insurgents, but is not required.
A terror group does not require and rarely has the active support or even
the sympathy of a large fraction of the population.
While insurgents will frequently describe themselves as "insurgents" or
"guerillas", terrorists will not refer to themselves as "terrorists" but describe
themselves using military or political terminology ("freedom fighters",
"soldiers", "activists"). Terrorism relies on public impact, and is therefore
conscious of the advantage of avoiding the negative connotations of the term
"terrorists" in identifying themselves.
Rarely will terrorists attempt to "control" terrain, as it ties them to identifiable
locations and reduces their mobility and security. Terrorists as a rule avoid
direct confrontations with government forces. A guerilla force may have
something to gain from a clash with a government combat force, such as
proving that they can effectively challenge the military effectiveness of the
government. A terrorist group has nothing to gain from such a clash. Terrorists
use methods that neutralize the strengths of conventional forces. Bombings
and mortar attacks on civilian targets where military or security personnel
spend off-duty time, ambushes of undefended convoys, and assassinations
of poorly protected individuals are common tactics.
Insurgency need not require the targeting of non-combatants, although many
insurgencies expand the accepted legal definition of combatants to include
police and security personnel in addition to the military. Terrorists do not
discriminate between combatants and non-combatants, or if they do, they
broaden the category of "combatants" so much as to render it meaningless.
Ultimately, the difference between insurgency and terrorism comes down
to the intent of the actor. Insurgency movements and guerilla forces can
adhere to international norms regarding the law of war in achieving their
goals, but terrorists are by definition conducting crimes under both civil and
military legal codes.

Drishti Current Affairs Today

|| October 2016 || 245

Internal Security

As the global GDP has increased in
the last two decades, so too has the
magnitude of money laundering.
The IMF and World Bank estimate
that 3%-5% of global GDP is
laundered-approximately $2.17 $
3.61 trillion annually. There is no
definitive estimate of the amount of
money that is globally laundered
every year due to the illegal nature
of the transactions.

How is Money Laundered?

Money laundering is a dynamic
three-stage process, described below:
Placement: In this step, the money
generated from criminal activities is
introduced into the financial systems.
This might be done through smurfing
i.e. by breaking up large amount of
cash into less conspicuous smaller
sums to evade financial transparency
reporting requirements of the country.
These smaller sums are deposited directly into a bank account or by purchasing a series of monetary instruments such as cheques, bank drafts
etc., which are then collected and
deposited into one or more accounts
at another location. Placement can also
be done through purchase of or investment in high value commodities

like gold, diamonds, artefacts, antiquities etc. In certain cash rich businesses, like casinos (gambling) and real
estate, the proceeds of crime may be
invested without entering the mainstream financial system at all. This is
the riskiest stage of the money laundering process.
Layering: In the second stage
of money laundering, the purpose
is to make it more difficult for law
enforcement to detect or follow the
trail of illegal proceeds. This is done
through a series of continuous
conversions or movements of funds
within the financial or banking
system by way of numerous
accounts, sometimes spread across
the globe and especially in those
jurisdictions which do not co
operate in anti-money laundering
investigations, to hide their true
origin and to distance them from
their criminal source.
Integration: After successfully
processing the illegal profits through
the first two stages, the funds reach
the legitimate economy after getting
inseparably mixed with the
legitimate money. The laundered
money is introduced into the
economy through methods that make

250 || Drishti Current Affairs Today || October 2016

make it appear to be normal business

activity: through the use of the
financial system, through physical
movement of money (e.g. through
the use of cash couriers), and
through the physical movement of
goods through the trade system.
The above three steps may not
always follow each other. At times,
illegal money may be mixed with legitimate money, even prior to placement in the financial system.

Impact of Money Laundering

The phenomenon of money laundering has socio-economic, political
as well as security implications on any
Social and Political Cost: Through
the process of money laundering,
proceeds gained by crimes such as
fraud, theft, and drug trafficking
are made to look as if they were
the fruits of legitimate activities.
This allows criminals to prosper
from their crimes, without looking
like criminals and places them in
an opportune position to infiltrate
financial institutions, acquire
control of large sectors of the
economy through investment, or
offer bribes to public officials and
also governments. This can weaken
the social fabric, collective ethical
standards, and ultimately the
democratic institutions of society.
E c o n o m i c C o s t : F i n a n c i a l
institutions are heavily reliant on
their reputation for probity and
integrity. A financial centre that
is used for money laundering can
become an ideal financial haven.
Since developing or growing
economies have inadequate controls,
they attract "dirty money" or the
tainted illegal money generated
from criminal activities as a shortterm engine of growth. As a result,
they find it difficult to attract solid

Internal Security

Border Management: Security Challenges and their management

India has 15,200 kms of land border running through 92 districts in 17
States and a coastline of 5,422 kms
touching 12 States and Union
Territories (UTs). India also has a total
of 1,197 islands accounting for 2,094
kms of additional coastline. In fact,
barring Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Delhi and Haryana,
all other States in the country have
one or more international borders or
a coastline and can be regarded as
frontline States from the point of view
of border management.

Introduction to
Border Management
The term border management
must be interpreted in its widest sense
and should imply co-ordination and
concerted action by political leadership and administrative, diplomatic,
security, intelligence, legal, regulatory
and economic agencies of the country
to secure our frontiers and subserve
the best interests of the country.
The proper management of borders is vitally important for national
security. Different portions of our extensive borders have a variety of problems specific to them which have to
be appropriately addressed. These
problems have become aggravated in
recent times with Pakistans policy of
cross- border terrorism, along with its
intensely hostile anti-India propaganda designed to mislead and sway the
loyalties of the border population. The
intensification of cross-border terrorism, targeted to destabilise India, has
thrown up new challenges for our
border management policy.
The concept of border security has
undergone a sea change with the
growing vulnerability of the coastline
and also of the airspace. In response
to the gradual expansion and strengthening of security so far, mainly along
what has long been perceived as a
sensitive land border, the transgressor
is already on the look-out for soft gaps,

either on the land or along the coast

and if need be, from the air. The
Purulia incident of 1995 has already
demonstrated our vulnerability from
the air.
The transgressors, with unprecedented money power, access to latest
technology, organisational strength,
maneuverability and scope for strategic alliances with other like-minded
groups, can select their theatre of action for surprise strikes. While land
borders have from time to time received Governments attention primarily because of the wars with
Pakistan and China and the problems
of insurgency, illegal migration from
Bangladesh and smuggling activities,
the same cannot be said of our coastal
areas or of our airspace.
Insurgent groups in different
parts of the country are receiving foreign support and encouragement.
Illegal infiltration and smuggling of
arms and explosives, narcotics and
counterfeit currency are pressing problems. The porosity of our borders in
many parts, makes the task of the anti-national forces much easier. All this
underscores the need for utmost vigilance on the borders and strengthening the border guarding forces.
Looked at from this perspective,
the management of borders presents
many challenging problems. They
can be surmised as follows:

Indo-Nepal border
The seeds for an open border

between India and Nepal can be

found in the Treaty of Peace and
Friendship which the two countries
signed in 1950.
This porous border, which has been
an open one, was once peaceful and
trouble-free. However, with the
increasing activities of Pakistans
Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) in
Nepal, the nature of the border has
changed completely.

The territory of Nepal is used as

a safe entry point for intelligence

operations by the ISI. The recent
arrests of two high-profile terrorists,
Adul Karim Tunda and Yasin
Bhatkal, have brought the India
Nepal border into sharp focus.
Nepal basically serves as a good
contact point for the purchase of
sophisticated armoury by various
insurgents groups based in NorthEast India. The insurgents do not
face much hurdles sneaking into
The emergence of Nepal as a new
safe haven for the insurgents
further complicates the matter in
terms of Indias security concerns.
The continued interference of the
ISI and its subversive activities in
encouraging secessionism, coupled
with rise of Islamic fundamentalism,
are a serious threat to the entire
countrys socio-political stability.
There are reports of KLO leaders
visiting Chinese and Pakistan
embassies in Nepal.

Indo- China Border:

India and China share a 3,488 km

long boundary most of which is

disputed. The line, which demarcates
the boundary between the two
countries, is popularly called the
McMahon line.
The westernmost, Aksai Chin, is
claimed by India as part of the state
of Jammu and Kashmir and region
of Ladakh but is controlled and
administered as part of the Chinese
autonomous region of Xinjiang.
It is a virtually uninhabited high
altitude wasteland crossed by the
Xinjiang-Tibet Highway.
The Trans-Karakoram Tract along
both sides of the Shaksgam River,
is entirely administered by the
People's Republic of China as a part
of Kargilik County and Taxkorgan
Tajik Autonomous County in the

Drishti Current Affairs Today

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