Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 59

INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMOTIVE NVH

S Raju
Sr. Deputy Director
NVH and CAE Laboratory
ARAI
NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Necessity of NVH Awareness


SOUND IS A PROPAGATING TYPE OF ENERGY.
NOISE IS A UNWANTED SOUND.
NOISE

- AUDIBLE

VIBRATION

- TACTILE

HARSHNESS - TACTILE AND AUDIBLE


(15Hz - 300Hz)

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Necessity of NVH
Noise Pollution CMVR, CPCB & NCNPC
Customer Awareness Of Vehicle Ride Comfort
Marketability
Trend Towards Higher Power And Smaller Size
Power trains.
Sound Quality
Design Optimization
Consistency In Production

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

PASS BY
NOISE

RIDE
COMFORT

SPL
OEL

EXTERIOR

INTERIOR

NOISE

NOISE

SOUND QUALITY

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

N i Contributions
Noise
C t ib ti
from
f
Various
V i
Systems
S t
Other Structural
Components 10%

Miscellaneous 3%
Engine 21%

Fan & Radiator Assembly


6%

D i Line
Drive
Li 14%
Exhaust System 32%

Intake System 14%

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Automotive Noise Sources-Levels and Frequency Bands

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Noise Sources-Levels
Sources Levels

Noi
se
met
er

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

NVH Classification

By Noise Type
Road NVH
Wind noise
Powertrain/Driveline
NVH
Squeak and Rattle

By Vehicle Systems
Body
y NVH
Chassis NVH
Powertrain/Driveline
NVH
Vehicle components
Climate control
system
Wipers
Seat motors
Switches

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

NVH Sources and their interinter-relation


Power--train
Power

Sound
Quality

Ride
Comfort

Engine
Transmission

Intake system
Cooling system

Harshness

Others

Exhaust system

Mount

Vibration

Brake System
Road and Tyre
Wind

Noise

Suspension
Air

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Sound Quality
Sound quality (SQ) is the perceptual reaction to
the sound of a product that reflects the
listeners reaction to the acceptability of that
sound
d for
f that
th t product;
d t the
th more acceptable,
t bl
the greater the SQ
Both objective
j
& subjective
j
assessments need
to be made

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Pass-by Noise of Automotive Vehicles

Community Noise Pollution.(IS-3028/ISO-362)


Maximum Sound Pressure level in dB(A) measured
at a distance of 7.5m from the vehicle during vehicle
accelerated to full throttle

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Pass-by Noise of Automotive Vehicles

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Pass-by Noise of Automotive Vehicles

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Legislative Noise Requirements


SPL dB (A)
2 Wheelers

Commercial vehicles

< 80 cc

75

M2/N1

80 cc to 175 cc

77

GVW < 2 ton

76

> 175 cc

80

2 3.5 ton

77

3 Wheelers

M2/M3

< 175 cc

77

< 150 KW

78

> 175 cc

80

150 kW

80

g Cars
Passenger
M1

N2/N3
74

< 75 kW

77

75 kW to 150 kW

78

> 150 kW
80

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Interior Noise of Vehicle

One of the most decisive selling points for passenger car


is the level and quality of interior noise.
Like exterior noise engine is the main source of vehicle
interior noise.It gets transmitted inside the vehicle by,
Direct infiltration:
Improper sealing , Holes in the lower dash panel
Structurall vibrations
b
Engine mounts, loops in the exhaust system
Drive shafts,, support
pp
bearing
g ,rear
,
axle drive shaft.

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Interior Noise Sources


Intake System

Exhaust System

Surface Noise Radiation


O ifi Noise
Orifice
N i
System Vibrations

Wind Noise

Surface Noise Radiation


Tailpipe Noise
System Vibrations

Transfer Behaviour

Wheel Suspension

Vehicle
Interior Noise
Drive Train

of Noise and Vibration

T
Tyre

Power Train

Engine and Gearbox Surface


Global Power Train Mode
Local Mode (P/T Mode, P/T Mount Brackets
Accessories)

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Interior Noise of Vehicle

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Power Train Engine Noise


yp of Engine
g
Noise
Types

Airborne Noise : Exhaust and Intake

Structure borne Noise : Vibrating


surfaces of engine structure and
connected
d covers

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Power Train Engine Noise


Main Excitation Forces and Structure borne Engine
Noise :
C b ti Noise:
Combustion
N i
Unidirectional
U idi ti
l gas &
Inertia forces cause
combustion noise.
Mechanical Noise : Reversible forces created
due to crank mechanism
induce mechanical noise.
noise

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Intake Noise
Noise Generated due to

Opening and closing of the valves.


valves

Inlet air column oscillation by sharp pressure


pulse
l from
f
cylinder.
li d

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Exhaust Noise

Exhaust valve opens and releases gas at high pressure


into the exhaust system.
The principal component of noise - Fundamental and
harmonics of firing frequency.

Exhaust system design is a compromise between


noise reduction and engine power loss due to
increase in back pressure.

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Clutch Noise
Clutch Judder is basically torsional vibration in the drive line
d i starting
during
t ti off engagement.
t Thi
This results
lt in
i rough
h starts
t t
and affects the ride comfort.
The major causes are :

Friction characteristics of the clutch i. e. relationship


between slip speed and the friction coefficient

Torsional vibirations due to variation in axial load


resulting from misalignment of the driveline

Th clutch
The
l t h pedal
d l vibrations
ib ti
can cause interior
i t i noise
i
problems

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

T
Transmission
i i
Noise
N i
Driveline noise and vibration sources results from transmission
of power from the engine to wheels.
Transmission gear noise:
Bending dynamics of the individual gear tooth.
Both bending and torsional dynamics of gear shafts.
Type and precision of gears used.
Fundamental and second harmonics of the gear mesh
frequency - most significant components of gear noise.

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

The image cannot be display ed. Your computer may not hav e enough memory to open the image, or the image may hav e been corrupted. Restart y our computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, y ou may hav e to delete the image and then insert it again.

T
Transmission
i i
Noise
N i
Driveshaft and Propeller shaft :
Excitation at rotational(fundamental) speed.
Universal joint can provide excitation at second order
due to high angles of coupling.
Rear wheel drive vehicles employ a constant velocity joint
in the center joint of two piece propeller shaft - provides axial
compliance in the driveline which decouples vibration from
rear axle.

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

D i li
Driveline-Axle
A l Noise
N i

Gear whine generated by gear mesh of the differential. See WHINE.

Vibration excited by tooth meshing action of the axle gear set


set.
Noise is narrow band and annoying even at low levels in the
passenger compartment of the vehicle.
y
Noise due to resonance mode of the axle mayy be reduced by
altering axle mass and stiffness so that resonance lie outside
the normal operating range.

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Belt Noise
Impact generated by collision of
tooth of belts against bottomland of
sprocket at the beginning of
meshing
Transverse and torsional vibration
of the belt
Airflow between belt and pulley at
meshing
Friction between belt and pulley
and slip of the belt
Vibration of the pulley

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Chain Noise
Impact of chain with sprocket and
polygonal effect
Roller
R ll impacts
i
off chain
h i at higher
hi h speed
d
Torsional vibration of camshaft causes
significant
g
tension fluctuation in chains
and magnifies chain transverse
vibrations
Chain natural frequencies
Cover frequencies

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Tyre Noise

Tyre noise is generated by,


Rolling contact of the tyre ( a resonant system)with
surface of random roughness( the road).
Tread vibration - Radial vibration of tread - primary
contributor noise.
Tread squirm - Localized lateral vibration of tread
high frequency part of noise spectrum.

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Enginee ing Meas


Engineering
Measures
es of So
Sound
nd

Sound pressure actual pressure change caused by


sound usually measured in Pascals (Pa).
sound,
(Pa) 1 Pa = 1
N/m2
Sound intensity average amount of acoustic power
passing through a unit area that is perpendicular to
the direction of sound propagation. A vector
quantityy of
qua
o sound.
ou d Can
a be
b used
u d to
o indicate
d a the
source of noise, or to calculate sound power.
Measured in Watts/square meter (W/m2)
S
Sound
d power acoustic
ti power off sound,
d measured
d
in Watts (W)

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

So nd Weighting Schemes
Sound

dB(A),
( ), dB(B),
( ), dB(C)
( )
Basic method of representing or approximating
how humans perceive sound level
Sound Quality Metrics:
More advanced methods of approximating human
perception of sound
Sones, speech intelligibility, roughness
Filters applied
pp
to sound signals
g
to provide
p
metrics
which correlate with human perceptions

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Source/Path/Receiver

Source

Path Sensitivity

= Response

Source - causes disturbance


Path - may isolate or amplify disturbance
Receiver - responds to disturbance
NVH strategy

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

NVH Tools and Methods

Source identification
Sound Intensity
Sound Acoustic Holography
Modal analysis

Experimental Modal Testing

Operating Deflection Shapes

Operational Modal Analysis


Operating Measurements
Order tracking
Noise Path Analysis
CAE
Sound Quality
Sound synthesis
Jury Evaluation

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Sound Source Identification

Sound Intensity
Obtain vector quantity of sound at various points/grid
locations around the test article using a 2-microphone
probe

Acoustical Holography/Beam Forming


Obtain a visual representation of the sound radiated from a
test article using a microphone array
y
microphone

source

y
x

focal point (level max)

antenna

focal point (level min)

Focusing plane = source plane

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Noise Contribution of Various Components


of Engine

Exhaust
system-35%

Intake system15%

Engine Block35%

Others-35%

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Modal Analysis
EXPERIMENTATION

EMA MODE : 346 Hz

EMA MODE : 791Hz

FE ANALYSIS

FEA MODE: 345 Hz

FEA MODE: 787 Hz

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

ODS Operating
Ope ating Deflection Shapes

Operating Deflection Shapes


Measure motion transmissibility
functions relative to one fixed
location, ( acci / accj ) at a lot of
points, like with Modal Analysis
It looks like a duck, but ITS NOT A
DUCK (mathematically, these are
forced response shapes, not mode
shapes - its NOT modal analysis)
Can be time
time-domain
domain or frequency
domain
Laser Vibrometer

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Vibro-acoustic Prediction Technique

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Vibro-acoustic Prediction Technique


q

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Multi-body dynamics Software

Components modeled as rigid, lumped mass part


Connections through springs and dampers
Understand trajectory and time
time-response
response of system
As in suspension systems, steering systems, rigid-body
vibration modes of powertrain (bounce, pitch, roll)
Low frequency (below 100 HZ)
ADAMS is popular CAE software for this type of modeling
Used as support for Boundary Condition for FEM

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Noise Prediction by FEM Technique

FE Modal Analysis
Dynamic Response Analysis
Coupled Analysis

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

BEM Technique
It is one of Numerical techniques
used
d to
t solve
l the
th acoustic
ti
problems like Finite Element
Method(FEM).
(
)
In BEM only the boundary of the
domain is dicsretized. For complex
Geometries the BEM modeling
leads to significant savings of
manpower and computational
time.

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Other CAE Techniques

Statistical Energy Analysis


Higher Frequency computational NVH
technique, usually used at frequencies
higher than 300 Hz in automotive
applications
Computational Fluid Dynamics
Applied to fluid-flow and air-flow (e.g.
wind noise)

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Correlation Between FE Technique and


Experimental Testing
Test
Model

I iti l FRFs
Initial
FRF

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Correlation Between FE Technique and


Experimental Testing
VIBRATION VELOCITIES WITH
COMBUSTION FORCES

MEASURED VIBRATION VELOCITIES


V-Loc 1
V-Loc
V
Loc 3

LOC 01

LOC 2

LOC 03

LOC 07

1.97E+02

Vibration V
Velocity_

Vibration Veloc ity

2.17E+02

V-Loc 2
V-Loc
V
Loc 7

1.77E+02
1 57E+02
1.57E+02
1.37E+02
1.17E+02
9 70E+01
9.70E+01

630

800

1000

1250

1600

2000

Centre Band Frequency in " Hz "

2500

3150

200 250 315 400

500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3150 4000

Centre Band Frequency (Hz)

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Acoustical
Treatment

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Ride Comfort
Ride

- Tactile And Visual Vibrations,


0 - 25 Hz
Ride Perception

Vibrations - Noise Aural (25 Hz - 20 kHz)


EXCITATION
SOURCES
Road roughness
Ti /Wh l
Tire/Wheel
Driveline Engine

VEHICLE
DYNAMIC
RESPONSE

VIBRATIONS

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Vehicle Ride Comfort


> Ride comfort in a vehicle is a subjective perception normally
associated with level of comfort experienced during travelling
in a vehicle.
> Perceived ride is cumulative effect of many factors.
> In the vibration spectrum,
Ride - 0 -25 Hz
Noise - 25Hz - 20KHz.
20KHz
> Ride is a tactile and visual vibrations.

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Vehicle Ride Comfort


> Vertical frequencies which feels most uncomfortable falls in the
range of 20Hz - 200Hz.
200Hz
> Fatigue occurs most rapidly when subjected to vibrations in the
range of 4Hz to 8Hz or in the low band below 0.75 Hz where
dizziness and motion sickness can results
> Lateral or fore/aft frequencies in the same range are also
uncomfortable because it disturb balance of inner ear.
> ISO:2631 for exposure limits of whole body vibrations and
ISO:5349 for exposure to hand arm vibrations.

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Noise issues during Vehicle operation and maintenance

Engine
Mounting of engine and top cover
Mismatch of mass between piston and connecting rods
Crank shaft balancing
Torsional vibration
Exhaust
Loose mounting Brackets
Leakages
Corrosion
Baffles in mufflers
Shielding material

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Noise issues during Vehicle operation and maintenance


Transmission
Mounting of differential and shock absorbers
Cutch judder
g
Misalignment
g
of rubbers and Split shaft systems
y
Propeller shaft, Yoke alignment,
Body
Vibrations of Wire harness that are routed through brackets welded to body
Steering
Pump, belts and rack mechanisms
Door
Swelling of rubber seals or slipping action of rubber seals for windows
Moving glass windows actuators are not designed for required torque

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Vehicle

Steering
Imbalance of the wheel will induce vibration in steering wheel
Looseness in track and tie rods
Ball joint wearing off
Knuckle bearings wearing off
Wh l
Wheel
Loose wheel caps
Washers for fitments
Nut conical and flat ((conical-inside,, flat-outside))

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Vehicle

Panels
Bonnets, latch
Bonnets
Joint which are not welded homogeneously
After accident some of the panels are not joined properly
Dashboard
Air-conditioning unit
Seat
Sliding rails

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Vehicle
Trunk
Latches and hinges,
hinges Tension bar inside
Suspension
Rubber mounts, functioning
Wipe mechanism
M t
Motors,
Wiper
Wi
pads
d
Timing drives
Chains noise are overcome by using belt
Accessories
Valve mechanisms
Tyre
Pump noise
Battery
Fan noise
Pipes

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Acoustic holography

Holography is measurements of a wave field

are made on a two dimensional surface and is


used to calculate wave field in three
dimensional space
p

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Pass By Noise Measurement

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Engine Noise Measurement

NVH & CAE LABORATORY

Vehicle Interior Noise Measurement

COURTESY:LMS
documents
NVHtheory
& CAE
LABORATORY

Vehicle Interior Noise Measurement

COURTESY:LMS
documents
NVHtheory
& CAE
LABORATORY