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# Advanced Quantum Mechanics

WS 2016/17, FU-Berlin

Problem sheet 2
Please hand in your solutions before the lecture on Wednesday, November 9nd.

Multipartite systems
Problem I - Harmonic oscillator
N particles are placed in a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator potential with frequency .
(a) What is the ground state energy of the N -particle system if these N particles are distinguishable? What is
the degeneracy of the ground state?
(b) What is the energy of the first excited state if the particles are distinguishable? What is the degeneracy of
this state?
(c) Answer questions (a) and (b) for the case that the N particles are indistinguishable spinless bosons.
(d) Answer questions (a) and (b) for the case that the N particles are indistinguishable spin 1/2 fermions.

## Problem II - Spin-1 bosons

Two spin-1 bosons of mass m are trapped in a confining potential V and interact via an interaction potential U .
Their Hamiltonian has the form
(
p(2) )2
p(1) )2
== (
+
+ V (r(1) ) + V (r(2) ) + U (r1 r2 ).
H
2m
2m

(1)

If you wish, you may think of V as a harmonic-oscillator potential and of U as a Coulomb repulsion, but the
2 and Sz , where
commutes with S
explicit form of the potentials V and U is not important in this exercise. Since H
(1)
(2)

## S = s + s is the total spin operator, the two-boson eigenstates can be factorized as

|i = |i|i,

(2)

where |i is a spin state |i is a state that represents the orbital degrees of freedom only, which is described by a
two-particle wavefunction (r1 , r2 ).
2 and Sz , the spin state |i can be chosen an eigenstate of S
2 and Sz . What are
commutes with S
(a) Since H
the possible eigenvalues of these operators, and what is the degeneracy of each eigenstate?
(b) For each of the eigenstates you constructed in (a), specify whether it is symmetric or antisymmetric under
exchange of the particle labels. What does this imply for the corresponding wavefunction (r1 , r2 )?
(c) If the interaction potential U is weak and if the single-particle ground state of the potential V is non degenerate
(as it is the case for a harmonic-oscillator potential), what values can the total spin S 2 of the two-boson ground
state take?

## Problem III - Bosons and fermions: the interference term

Consider a system of two particles and the states:
1
|A i = ((x1 )(x2 ) (x1 )(x2 ))
2

## where (x) and (x) are normalized (and orthogonal).

a) Calculate the mean value of the symmetric operator f (
x1 , x
2 ) = f (
x2 , x
1 ) in the states |A+ i, |A i, |A0 i.
b) Calculate the mean value of the operator f (
x1 , x
2 ) = f (
x2 , x
1 ) in the states |A+ i, |A i, |A0 i in the case (x)
and (x) have disjoint support: (x)(x) = 0.