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Section13:HydrographMethod
Ahydrographrepresentsrunoffasitvariesovertimeataparticularlocationwithinthewatershed.Theareaintegratedunderthehydrograph
representsthevolumeofrunoff.
Estimationofarunoffhydrograph,asopposedtothepeakrateofrunoff,isnecessaryforwatershedswithcomplexrunoffcharacteristics.The
hydrographmethodalsoshouldbeusedwhenstoragemustbeevaluated,asitaccountsexplicitlyforvolumeandtimingofrunoff.The
hydrographmethodhasnodrainageareasizelimitation.
Figure42showsthatincasesforwhichastatisticaldistributioncannotbefittedandaregressionequationwillnotpredictadequatelythe
designflow,somesortofempiricalorconceptualrainfallrunoffmodelcanbeusedtopredictthedesignflow.Suchapplicationisfoundedon
theprinciplethattheAEPofthecomputedrunoffpeakorvolumeisthesameastheAEPoftherainfallusedasinputto(theboundary
conditionfor)themodel.
Thehydrographmethodisapplicableforwatershedsinwhichtcislongerthanthedurationofpeakrainfallintensityofthedesignstorm.
Precipitationappliedtothewatershedmodelisuniformspatially,butvarieswithtime.Thehydrographmethodaccountsforlosses(soil
infiltrationforexample)andtransformstheremaining(excess)rainfallintoarunoffhydrographattheoutletofthewatershed.Figure49shows
thedifferentcomponentsthatmustberepresentedtosimulatethecompleteresponseofawatershed.

Figure410.Componentsofthehydrographmethod
Becausetheresultingrunoffhydrographisatimeseriesofflowvalues,themethodprovidesapeakflowvalueaswellasvolumeofrunoff.
Thismakesthemethodsuitablefordesignproblemsrequiringrunoffvolumeasadesignparameter.
Successfulapplicationofthehydrographmethodrequiresthedesignerto:
DefinethetemporalandspatialdistributionofthedesiredAEPdesignstorm.
Specifyappropriatelossmodelparameterstocomputetheamountofprecipitationlosttootherprocesses,suchasinfiltration,and
doesnotrunoffthewatershed.
Specifyappropriateparameterstocomputerunoffhydrographresultingfromexcess(notlost)precipitation.
Ifnecessaryfortheapplication,specifyappropriateparameterstocomputethelaggedandattenuatedhydrographatdownstream
locations.
BasicstepstodevelopingandapplyingarainfallrunoffmodelforpredictingtherequireddesignflowareillustratedinFigure410.Thesesteps
aredescribedinmoredetailbelow.

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Figure411.Stepsindevelopingandapplyingthehydrographmethod

WatershedSubdivision
Themethodisalsoapplicabletocomplexwatersheds,inwhichrunoffhydrographsformultiplesubbasinsarecomputed,thenroutedtoa
commonpointandcombinedtoyieldthetotalrunoffhydrographatthatlocation.
TxDOTresearchonundevelopedwatersheds(05822012)hasindicatedthatthereislittlejustificationforsubdividingawatershedforthe
purposeofimprovingmodelaccuracy.Ingeneral,subdivisionhadlittleornoimpactonrunoffvolumeforthefollowingreasons:
1.Ingeneral,subdivisionofwatershedsformodelingresultsinnomorethanmodestimprovementsinpredictionofpeakdischarge.
Improvementsgenerallyarenotobservedwithmorethanaboutfivetosevensubdivisions
2.Watershedsubdivisionmultipliesthenumberofsubprocessmodelparametersrequiredtomodelwatershedresponseandintroduces
therequirementtorouteflowsthroughthewatersheddrainagenetwork.Discriminationofparametersbetweensubwatershedsis
difficulttojustifyfromatechnicalperspective
3.Theintroductionofwatershedsubdivisionsrequireshydrologic(orhydraulic)routingformovementofsubwatersheddischarges
towardthewatershedoutlet.Theroutingsubprocessmodelrequiresestimatesofadditionalparametersthataresubjecttouncertainty
4.Thedependenceofcomputedhydrographsoninternalroutingbecamemoreapparentasthenumberofsubdivisionsincreasedand
5.Applicationofdistributedmodeling,ascurrentlyimplementedinHECHMS,wasdifficultandtimeconsuming.Itisunclearwhat
technicaladvantageisgainedbyapplicationofthismodelingapproachinanuncalibratedmode,giventhelevelofeffortrequiredto
developthemodels.
Therearecircumstancesinwhichwatershedsubdivisionisappropriate.Ifoneofthesubwatershedsisdistinctlydifferentthantheother
componentsofthewatershed,andifthedrainageofthatsubwatershedisasignificantfractionofthewhole(2050%),thenasubdivisionmight
beappropriate.Specificexamplesofanappropriateapplicationofwatershedsubdivisionwouldbe:
thepresenceofareservoironatributarystream,
asignificantdifferenceinthelevelofurbanizationofonecomponentofawatershed,or
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asubstantialdifferenceinphysicalcharacteristics(mainchannelslope,overlandflowslope,losscharacteristics,andsoforth).
uniquestormdepthsareappropriateforthedifferentsubbasinareas.
computedhydrographsareneededatmorethanonelocation.

DesignStormDevelopment
Adesignstormisaprecipitationpatternorintensityvaluedefinedfordesignofdrainagefacilities.Designstormsareeitherbasedonhistorical
precipitationdataorrainfallcharacteristicsintheprojectareaorregion.Applicationofdesignstormsrangesfrompointprecipitationfor
calculationofpeakflowsusingtherationalmethodtostormhyetographsasinputforrainfallrunoffanalysisinthehydrographmethod.The
fundamentalassumptionusingdesignstormsisthatprecipitationofanAEPyieldsrunoffofthesameAEP.
SelectionofStormDuration
Selectingstormdurationisthefirststepindesignstormmodeling.Theappropriatestormdurationforstormwaterrunoffcalculationsis
dependentonthedrainageareashydrologicresponse.Theselectedstormdurationshouldbesufficientlylongthattheentiredrainagearea
contributestodischargeatthepointofinterest.Stormdurationisdefinedintermsoftimeofconcentration(tc),whichisthetimeittakesfor
runofftotravelfromthehydraulicallymostdistantpointofthewatershedtoapointofinterestwithinthewatershed.
Forcompletedrainageofthearea,timeforoverlandflow,channelflow,andstoragemustbeconsidered.Typicallyforhydrograph
computationsthestormdurationshouldbefourorfivetimesthetimeofconcentration.Longerdurationofstormwillnotincreasethepeak
dischargesubstantially,butwillcontributegreatervolumeofrunoff.
Commonly,astormdurationof24hoursisused.Howeverthe24hourstormdurationshouldnotbeusedblindly.Runofffromlongerand
shorterstormsshouldbecomputedtodemonstratethesensitivityofthedesignchoices.
ForTxDOT,theNRCS24hourstormshouldbeusedasastartingpointforanalysis.However,iftheanalysisresultsappearinconsistentwith
expectations,siteperformance,orexperience,analternativestormdurationshouldbeconsidered.Inthatcase,thedesignershouldconsultthe
DesignDivisionHydraulicsBranchforadvice.
StormDepth:DepthDurationFrequency(DDF)Relationships
Oncethestormdurationisselected,thenextstepistodeterminetherainfalldepthorintensityofthatdurationfortheselectedAEP.Depth
DurationFrequencyPrecipitationforTexas(Asquith1998)providesprocedurestoestimatethatdepthforanylocationinTexas.TheAtlasof
DepthDurationFrequencyofPrecipitationAnnualMaximaforTexas(TxDOT51301011)isanextensionofthe1998studyandanupdateof
TechnicalPaperNo.40:RainfallFrequencyAtlasoftheUnitedStates(Hershfield1961),TechnicalPaperNo.49:2to10DayPrecipitation
forReturnPeriodsof2to100YearintheContiguousUnitedStates(Miller1964),andNOAANWSHydro35:5to60MinutePrecipitation
FrequencyfortheEasternandCentralUnitedStates(Fredericketal.1977).
TheAtlasofDepthDurationFrequencyofPrecipitationAnnualMaximaforTexasincludes96mapsdepictingthespatialvariationoftheDDF
ofprecipitationannualmaximaforTexas.TheAEPsrepresentedare50%,20%,10%,4%,2%,1%,0.4%,and0.2%(2,5,10,25,50,100,
250,and500years).Thestormdurationsrepresentedare15and30minutes1,2,3,6,and12hoursand1,2,3,5,and7days.
IntensityDurationFrequencyRelationships
Whilehydrographmethodsrequirebothrainfalldepthandtemporaldistribution,therationalmethodrequiresonlyintensity.Therainfall
intensity(I)istheaveragerainfallrateininches/hourforaspecificrainfalldurationandaselectedfrequency.FordrainageareasinTexas,
rainfallintensitymaybecomputedby:
1.UsingmapsintheAtlasofDepthDurationFrequencyofPrecipitationAnnualMaximaforTexaspublicationtoobtainthe
precipitationdepthforagivenfrequency.
2.Convertingtheprecipitationdepthtoaprecipitationintensitybydividingthedepthbythestormduration.Theprecipitationis
measuredininches/hour.
Forexample,ifthe100year,6hourdepthis3.2inches,theprecipitationintensityequals3.2inches/6hours=0.53inches/hour.
ArealDepthAdjustment
Whenestimatingrunoffduetoarainfallevent,auniformarealdistributionofrainfalloverthewatershedisassumed.However,forintense
storms,uniformrainfallisunlikely.Rather,rainfallvariesacrossthedrainagearea.Toaccountforthisvariation,anarealadjustmentismadeto
convertpointdepthstoanaveragearealdepth.Fordrainageareassmallerthan10squaremiles,thearealadjustmentisnegligible.Forlarger
areas,pointrainfalldepthsandintensitiesmustbeadjusted.Twomethodsarepresentedhereforuseindesignofdrainagefacilities:thefirstis
bytheUSWeatherBureauandthesecondisbyUSGS.
USWeatherBureauArealDepthAdjustment
TheUSWeatherBureau(1958)developedFigure411fromanannualseriesofraingaugenetworks.Itshowsthepercentageofpointdepths
thatshouldbeusedtoyieldaveragearealdepths.

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Figure412.Depthareaadjustment(USWeatherBureau1958)
USGSArealReductionFactorsforthePrecipitationofthe1DayDesignStorminTexas
Arealreductionfactors(ARFs)specificforTexasfora1daydesignstormweredevelopedbyAsquith(1999).Asquithsmethodusesanareal
reductionfactorthatrangesfrom0to1.Themethodisafunctionofwatershedcharacteristicssuchassizeandshape,geographiclocation,and
timeofyearthatthedesignstormispresumedtooccur.ThestudywasbasedonprecipitationmonitoringnetworksintheAustin,Dallas,and
Houstonareas.Ifusinga1daydesignstorm,thisistheappropriatemethodofarealreductiontousefordesignofhighwaydrainagefacilitiesin
Texas.
However,theapplicabilityofthismethoddiminishesthefartherawayfromtheAustin,Dallas,orHoustonareasthestudyareaisandasthe
durationofthedesignstormincreasinglydiffersfromthatof1day.ForfurtherinformationandexampleproblemsoncalculatingtheARF,refer
toAsquith(1999).
Arelationshipexistsbetweenthepointofanannualprecipitationmaximaandthedistancebetweenboththecentroidofthewatershedand
everylocationradiatingoutfromthecentroid.Thisisassumingthewatershedisornearlysocircular.ST(r)istheexpectedvalueoftheratio
betweenthedepthatsomelocationadistancerfromthepointofthedesignstorm.Treferstothefrequencyofthedesignstorm.Equationsfor
ST(r)forthe50%(2year)orsmallerAEPvarybyproximitytoAustin,Dallas,andHouston.Foranapproximatelycircularwatershed,theARF
iscalculatedwiththefollowingequation:

Equation424.
Where:
r=variableofintegrationrangingfrom0toR
R=radiusofthewatershed(mi)
S2(r)=estimated2yearorgreaterdepthdistancerelation(mi)
ThesitespecificequationsforS2(r)fordifferingwatershedradiiareinTable412attheendofthissection.
OncetheARFiscalculated,theeffectivedepthofthedesignstormisfoundbymultiplyingtheARFbythepointprecipitationdepthfound
usingAtlasofDepthDurationFrequencyofPrecipitationAnnualMaximaforTexas.
Forexample,anapproximatelycircularwatershedintheDallasareais50.3squaremiles(R=4miles).FromTable412:
S2=1.00000.06(r)for
S2=0.96700.0435(r)for
SubstitutingtheaboveexpressionsintoEquation424gives:

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ARF=0.85
AneasierwaytodetermineARFforcircularwatershedsistousetheequationfromTable412incolumnARFforcircularwatershedshaving
radiusrforthecityandradiusofinterest.Forthepreviousexample(CityofDallas,R=4miles),theequationwouldbe:
ARF=0.96700.0290(r)+(0.0440/r2)
ARF=0.85
Fromtheprecipitationatlas,the1%(100year)1daydepthis9.8inches.Multiplythisdepthby0.85toobtainthe24hour1%AEPareally
reducedstormdepthof8.3inches.
Ifthedesignerfindsthatacircularapproximationofthewatershedisinappropriateforthewatershedofinterest,thefollowingprocedurefor
noncircularwatershedsshouldbeused.Theprocedurefornoncircularwatershedsisasfollows:
1.Representthewatershedasdiscretecellsthecellsdonothavetobethesamearea.
2.Locatethecellcontainingthecentroidofthewatershed.
3.Foreachcell,calculatethedistancetothecentroid(r).
4.UsingthedistancesfromStep3,solvetheappropriateequationsfromTable412forS2(r)foreachcell.
5.MultiplyS2(r)bythecorrespondingcellareatocomputeARFtheareamultiplicationsimplyactsasaweightforaweightedmean.
6.Computethesumofthecellareas.
7.ComputethesumoftheproductofS2(r)andcellareafromStep5.
8.DividetheresultofStep7byStep6.
Table412:EquationsThatDefinetheEstimated2YearorGreaterDepthDistanceRelationandtheArealReductionFactorforCircular
Watersheds
City

Estimated2yrorgreaterdepthdistancerelation
fordistancer(mi)

ARFforcircularwatershedshavingradiusr(mi)

Equationlimits

Austin

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Dallas

Houston

RainfallTemporalDistribution
Thetemporalrainfalldistributionishowrainfallintensityvariesovertimeforasingleevent.Themassrainfallcurve,illustratedinFigure412,
isthecumulativeprecipitationuptoaspecifictime.Indrainagedesign,thestormisdividedintotimeincrements,andtheaveragedepthduring
eachtimeincrementisestimated,resultinginarainfallhyetographasshowninFigure413.
Figure413.Examplemassrainfallcurvefromhistoricalstorm
HyetographDevelopmentProcedure
Intherationalmethodtheintensityisconsideredtobeuniformoverthestormperiod.Hydrographtechniques,however,accountforvariability
oftheintensitythroughoutastorm.Therefore,whenusinghydrographtechniques,thedesignermustdeterminearainfallhyetograph:a
temporaldistributionofthewatershedrainfall,asshowninFigure413.
Figure414.Rainfallhyetograph
MethodsacceptablefordevelopingarainfallhyetographforadesignstormincludetheNRCSmethod,thebalancedstormmethod,andthe
Texasstormmethod.
NRCSHyetographDevelopmentProcedure
TheNRCSdesignstormhyetographswerederivedbyaveragingstormpatternsforregionsoftheU.S.Thestormsthusrepresentapattern
distributionofrainfallovera24hourperiodtowhichadesignrainfalldepthcanbeapplied.Thedistributionitselfisarrangedinacritical
patternwiththemaximumprecipitationperiodoccurringjustbeforethemidpointofthestorm.
Figure414andTable413showtheNRCS24hourrainfalldistributionsforTexas:TypeIIandTypeIII.Figure415showstheareasinTexas
towhichthesedistributiontypesapply.Thedistributionrepresentsthefractionofaccumulatedrainfall(notrunoff)accruedwithrespecttotime.
Figure415.NRCS24hourrainfalldistributions(NRCS1986)
Table413:NRCS24HourRainfall
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Distributions
Time,t
(hours)

Fractionof24hourrainfall
TypeII

TypeIII

0.000

0.000

0.022

0.020

0.048

0.043

0.080

0.072

0.098

0.089

0.120

0.115

8.5

0.133

0.130

0.147

0.148

9.5

0.163

0.167

9.75

0.172

0.178

10

0.181

0.189

10.5

0.204

0.216

11

0.235

0.250

11.5

0.283

0.298

11.75

0.357

0.339

12

0.663

0.500

12.5

0.735

0.702

13

0.772

0.751

13.5

0.799

0.785

14

0.820

0.811

16

0.880

0.886

20

0.952

0.957

24

1.000

1.000

Figure416.RainfalldistributiontypesinTexas(TR551986)
Usethefollowingstepstodeveloparainfallhyetograph:
1.Determinetherainfalldepth(Pd)forthedesireddesignfrequencyandlocation.
2.UseFigure415todeterminethedistributiontype.
3.Selectanappropriatetimeincrementforcomputationofrunoffhydrographordinates.Anincrementequal1/5or1/6ofthetimeof
concentrationisadequateformostanalyses.
4.Createatableoftimeandthefractionofrainfalltotal.Interpolatetherainfalldistributionstablefortheappropriatedistributiontype.
5.Multiplythecumulativefractionsbythetotalrainfalldepth(fromstep1)togetthecumulativedepthsatvarioustimes.
6.Determinetheincrementalrainfallforeachtimeperiodbysubtractingthecumulativerainfallattheprevioustimestepfromthe
currenttimestep.
BalancedStormHyetographDevelopmentProcedure
Thetriangulartemporaldistribution,withthepeakofthestormlocatedatthecenterofthehyetograph,isalsocalledbalancedstorm.Ituses
DDFvaluesthatarebasedonastatisticalanalysisofhistoricaldata.Theprocedureforderivingahyetographwiththismethodisasfollows:
1.FortheselectedAEP,tabulaterainfallamountsforastormofagivenreturnperiodforalldurationsuptoaspecifiedlimit(for24
hour,15minute,30minute,1hour,2hour,3hour,6hour,12hour,24hour,etc.).UsethemapsinAsquith2004,locatingthestudy
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areaontheappropriatemapforthedurationandAEPselectedfordesign.
2.Selectanappropriatetimeinterval.Anappropriatetimeintervalisrelatedtothetimeofconcentrationofthewatershed.Tocalculate
thetimeinterval,use:
Equation425.
Where:
t=timeinterval
tc=timeofconcentration
Forexample,ifthetimeofconcentrationis1hour,t=1/5tc=1/5of1hour=12minutes,or1/6of1hour=10minutes.
Choosing1/5or1/6willnotmakeasignificantdifferenceinthedistributionoftherainfalluseonefractionortheotherto
determineaconvenienttimeinterval.
3.Forsuccessivetimesofintervalt,findthecumulativerainfalldepthsfromtheDDFvalues.Fordepthsattimeintervalsnotincluded
intheDDFtables,interpolatedepthsforintermediatedurationsusingalogloginterpolation.(Durationsfromthetableareusually
giveninhours,butinminutesontheplot.)Forexample,givenastudyareainthenorthernpartofBexarCounty,theloglogplotin
Figure416showsthe10%depthsforthe15,30,60,120,180,360,720,and1440minutedurationsincludedinAsquithand
Roussel2004.Theprecipitationdepthat500minutesisinterpolatedas5.0inches.
Figure417.Logtimeversuslogprecipitationdepth
4.Findtheincrementaldepthsbysubtractingthecumulativedepthataparticulartimeintervalfromthedepthattheprevioustime
interval.
5.Rearrangetheincrementaldepthssothatthepeakdepthisatthecenterofthestormandtheremainingincrementaldepthsalternate(to
leftandrightofpeak)indescendingorder.
Forexample,inFigure417,thelargestincrementaldepthfora24hourstorm(1,440minutes)isplacedatthe720minutetimeintervalandthe
remainingincrementaldepthsareplacedaboutthe720minuteintervalinalternatingdecreasingorder.
Figure418.Balancedstormhyetograph

TexasStormHyetographDevelopmentProcedure
TexasspecificdimensionlesshyetographsweredevelopedbyresearchersatUSGS,TexasTechUniversity,UniversityofHouston,andLamar
University(WilliamsSetheretal.2004,Asquithetal.2005).Twodatabaseswereusedtoestimatethehyetographs:1)rainfallrecordedfor
morethan1,600stormsovermostlysmallwatershedsaspartofhistoricalUSGSstudies,and2)hourlyrainfalldatacollectionnetworkfromthe
NWSovereasternNewMexico,Oklahoma,andTexas.
Threemethodsofdevelopingdimensionlesshyetographsarepresented:1)triangulardimensionlesshyetograph2)Lgammadimensionless
hyetographand3)empiricaldimensionlesshyetograph.AnyofthesehyetographscanbeusedforTxDOTdesign.Briefdescriptionsofthe
threemethodsarepresentedhere.ForfurtherinformationandexampleproblemsontheTexashyetographs,refertoAsquithetal.2005.
TriangularDimensionlessHyetograph
AtriangulardimensionlesshyetographispresentedinFigure418.Theverticalaxisrepresentsrelativerainfallintensity.Therainfallintensity
increaseslinearlyuntilthetimeofpeakintensity,thendecreaseslinearlyuntiltheendofthestorm.Thetriangularhyetograph,intermsof
relativecumulativestormdepth,isdefinedbyEquations426and427,withvaluesforparametersaandbprovidedinTable414.
Equation426.
Equation427.
Where:
p1=normalizedcumulativerainfalldepth,(rangingfrom0to1)forFrangingfrom0toa
p2=normalizedcumulativerainfalldepth,(rangingfrom0to1)forFrangingfromato1
F=elapsedtime,relativetostormduration,rangingfrom0to1
a=relativestormdurationpriortopeakintensity,fromTable414
b=relativestormdurationpriortopeakintensity,fromTable414
Figure419.TriangulardimensionlessTexashyetograph
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Table414:TriangularModelParametersaandb
Stormduration

Triangularhyetographmodel
parameters

512hours

1324hours

2572hours

0.02197

0.28936

0.38959

0.97803

0.71064

0.61041

Basedonthestormduration,thedesignerselectstheappropriateparametersaandbforuseinEquations426and427.Theordinatesof
cumulativestormdepth,normalizedtototalstormdepth,arethusobtained.Valuesofrainfallintensityareobtainedbycomputingtotalstorm
depthfordurationsofinterest,anddividingbytheduration.
TriangularDimensionlessHyetographProcedure
Thefollowingisanexamplecomputationusingthetriangulardimensionlesshyetographprocedurefora12hourstormwithcumulativedepth
of8inches:
1.ExpressFinEquations426and427intermsoftimetandtotalstormdurationT:F=t/T.
2.ExpresspintermsofcumulativerainfalldepthdandtotalstormdepthD:p=d/D.
3.SubstitutingintoEquations426and427gives:

4.FromTable414,a=0.02197andb=0.97803.

5.Substituting12(hours)forTand8(inches)forDgives:

6.Simplifying:

Theseresultingequationsprovidecumulativedepthininchesasafunctionofelapsedtimeinhours,asshowninTable415.
Table415:ExampleDimensionlessHyetographOrdinates
Time,t(hr.)

PrecipitationDepth,d(in.)

PrecipitationIntensity,I(in./hr.)

0.13

0.04

0.33

0.26

0.17

0.99

0.50

0.49

1.32

0.75

0.81

1.29

1.00

1.13

1.26

2.00

2.32

1.19

3.00

3.40

1.08

4.00

4.36

0.97

5.00

5.22

0.85

6.00

5.96

0.74

7.00

6.58

0.62

8.00

7.09

0.51

9.00

7.49

0.40

10.00

7.77

0.28

11.00

7.94

0.17

12.00

8.00

0.06

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LgammaDimensionlessHyetograph
Asquith(2003)andAsquithetal.(2005)computedsampleLmomentsof1,659dimensionlesshyetographsforrunoffproducingstorms.
Stormsweredividedbydurationinto3categories,0to12hours,12to24hours,and24to72hours.Dimensionlesshyetographsbasedonthe
Lgammadistributionweredevelopedandaredefinedby:
Equation428.
Where:
e=2.718282
p=normalizedcumulativerainfalldepth,rangingfrom0to1
F=elapsedtime,relativetostormduration,rangingfrom0to1
b=distributionparameterfromTable416
c=distributionparameterfromTable416
ParametersbandcoftheLgammadistributionforthecorrespondingstormdurationsareshowninTable416.Untilspecificguidanceis
developedforselectingparametersforstormsofexactly12hoursand24hours,thedesignershouldadoptdistributionparametersforthe
durationrangeresultinginthemoresevererunoffcondition.
Table416:EstimatedLGammaDistributionParametersb
andc
Lgammadistributionparameters
Stormduration

012hours

1.262

1.227

1224hours

0.783

0.4368

2472hours

0.3388

0.8152

LgammaDimensionlessHyetographProcedure
UsethefollowingstepstodevelopanLgammadimensionlessTexashyetographforstormdurationof24hoursandastormdepthof15inches:
1.EntertheLgammadistributionparametersfortheselectedstormdurationintothefollowingequation:
2.ExpressFintermsoftimetandtotalstormdurationT:F=t/T.Expresspintermsofcumulativerainfalldepthdandtotalstorm
depthD:p=d/D.Substitutinggives:
3.Substitute24(hours)forTand15(inches)forD:
Thisequationdefinesthestormhyetograph.disthecumulativedepthininches,andtistheelapsedtimeinhours.
EmpiricalDimensionlessHyetograph
Empiricaldimensionlesshyetographs(WilliamsSetheretal.2004,Asquithetal.2005)havebeendevelopedforapplicationtosmalldrainage
areas(lessthanapproximately160squaremiles)inurbanandruralareasinTexas.Thecumulativehyetographsaredimensionlessinboth
durationanddepth,andareapplicableforstormdurationsrangingfrom0to72hours.Thehyetographshapesarenotgivenbyamathematical
expressionbutareprovidedgraphicallyfor1st,2nd,3rd,and4thquartilestormsaswellasforacombined(1stthrough4thquartile)storm.
Tousethehyetographs,thedesignerdeterminestheappropriatestormdepthanddurationfortheannualexceedanceprobability(AEP)of
interest.Thequartiledefinesinwhichtemporalquarterofthestormthemajorityoftheprecipitationoccursthegraphsforindividualquartiles
aswellascorrespondingtabulationsareavailableinWilliamsSetheretal.,(2004).
Figure420.Dimensionlesshyetographsfor0to72hoursstormduration(fromWilliamsSetheretal.2004)
Table417:Median(50th)and90thPercentile,1stthrough4thQuartile,
EmpiricalDimensionlessHyetographs(fromWilliamsSetheretal.2004)
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50th

90th

Percentile

Percentile

Depth

Depth

Stormduration(%)

(%)

(%)

0.00

0.00

0.00

2.50

8.70

21.60

5.00

13.58

37.57

7.50

20.49

51.55

10.0

26.83

63.04

12.5

32.42

71.66

15.0

37.21

77.38

17.5

41.00

80.89

20.0

44.11

83.32

22.5

46.55

85.01

25.0

48.54

86.35

27.5

50.23

87.66

30.0

51.68

88.96

32.5

52.9

90.18

35.0

54.27

91.29

37.5

55.49

92.25

40.0

56.80

93.05

42.5

58.03

93.72

45.0

59.31

94.24

47.5

60.49

94.64

50.0

61.97

94.92

52.5

63.51

95.18

55.0

65.39

95.40

57.5

67.56

95.70

60.0

69.85

96.06

62.5

72.11

96.47

65.0

74.32

96.9

67.5

76.38

97.32

70.0

78.21

97.68

72.5

80.00

97.97

75.0

81.61

98.19

77.5

83.25

98.38

80.0

84.84

98.56

82.5

86.54

98.72

85.0

88.30

98.90

87.5

90.21

99.09

90.0

92.18

99.29

92.5

94.22

99.49

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95.0

96.21

99.70

97.5

98.21

99.92

100.0

100.00

100.00

Figure419isagraphicalrepresentationofthecombinedstormwiththe50thpercentile(green)and90thpercentile(magenta)storm
hyetographhighlighted,andTable417isthecorrespondingtabulationfora50thpercentile(median)stormanda90thpercentilestorm.The
recommended50thpercentilecurverepresentsamediancombined(1stthrough4thquartile)storm.The90thpercentilecurverepresentsan
uppersupportcombined(1stthrough4thquartile)stormwhere90percentofhyetographswouldbeanticipatedtotrackeitheronorbelowthe
curve.
Confidencelimitsfortheempiricaldimensionlesshydrographshavebeencomputedforeachofthefourquartilehyetographsandarereported
inWilliamsSetheretal.,(2004).Becausethehyetographsaredimensionless,allofthepercentilehyetographshavethesamedimensionless
stormdepthbutrepresentvariationsinthetemporaldistributionofrainfallduringthestormduration.
Aspreadsheettool,TXHYETO2015.xlsx(developedbyClevelandetal.,(2015))isavailabletofacilitatetheuseofthedimensionless
hyetograph.Itwillassistthedesignerinproducingelapsedtimeinminutes(orhours)andcumulativedepthininches(ormillimeters)forthe
50thor90thpercentilehyetograph.AvideotutorialforuseofthetoolisincludedinClevelandetal.,(2015).Thetoolcanalsobeusedin
conjunctionwiththeEBDLKUP2015v2.1spreadsheet.

ModelsforEstimatingLosses
Lossesrefertothevolumeofrainfallingonawatershedthatdoesnotrunoff.Witheachmodel,precipitationlossisfoundforeach
computationtimeinterval,andissubtractedfromtheprecipitationdepthforthatinterval.Theremainingdepthisreferredtoasprecipitation
excess.Thisdepthisconsidereduniformlydistributedoverawatershedarea,soitrepresentsavolumeofrunoff.
LossmodelsavailabletotheTxDOTdesignerinclude:
Initialandconstantratelossmodel.
Texasinitialandconstantratelossmodel.
NRCScurvenumberlossmodel.
GreenandAmptlossmodel.
InitialandConstantRateLossModelBasicConceptsandEquations
Fortheinitiallossandconstantratelossmodel,norunoffoccursinthewatersheduntilaninitiallosscapacityhasbeensatisfied,regardlessof
therainfallrate.Oncetheinitiallosshasbeensatisfied,aconstantpotentiallossrateoccursforthedurationofthestorm.Thismethodisa
simpleapproximationofatypicalinfiltrationcurve,wheretheinitiallossdecaysoverthestormdurationtoafinalnearconstantlossrate.Inthe
exampleinFigure420,theinitiallossissatisfiedinthefirsttimeincrement,andtheconstantrateaccountsforlossesthereafter.
Figure421.Initialandconstantlossratemodel
Theinitialandconstantlossratemodelisdescribedmathematicallyas:
Equation429.
Equation430.
Equation431.
Where:
I(t)=rainfallintensity(in./hr.)
f(t)=lossrate(in./hr.)
P(t)=cumulativerainfalldepth(in.)attimet
Ia=initialloss(in.)
L=constantlossrate(in./hr.)
Iaaccountsforinterceptionanddepressionstorage,andtheinitialrateofinfiltrationatthebeginningofthestormevent.Interceptionrefersto
thecaptureofrainfallontheleavesandstemsofvegetationbeforeitreachesthegroundsurface.Depressionstorageiswheretheponded
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rainfallfillssmalldepressionsandirregularitiesinthegroundsurface.Depressionstorageeventuallyinfiltratesorevaporatesduringdry
weatherperiods.Untiltheaccumulatedprecipitationontheperviousareaexceedstheinitiallossvolume,norunoffoccurs.
EstimatingInitialLossandConstantRate
Theinitialandconstantratelossmodelincludesoneparameter(theconstantrate)andoneinitialcondition(theinitialloss).Respectively,these
representphysicalpropertiesofthewatershedsoilsandlanduseandtheantecedentcondition.
Ifthewatershedisinasaturatedstate,Iawillapproach0.Ifthewatershedisdry,thenIawillincreasetorepresentthemaximumprecipitation
depththatcanfallonthewatershedwithnorunoffthiswilldependonthewatershedterrain,landuse,soiltypes,andsoiltreatment.
Theconstantlossratecanbeviewedastheultimateinfiltrationcapacityofthesoils.TheNRCSclassifiedsoilsonthebasisofthisinfiltration
capacityaspresentedinTable418valuesinColumn4representreasonableestimatesoftherates.
TexasInitialandConstantRateLossModel
Recentresearch(TxDOT041937)developedfourcomputationalapproachesforestimatinginitialabstraction(IA)andconstantloss(CL)
valuesforwatershedsinTexas.Theapproachesareallbasedontheanalysisofrainfallandrunoffdataof92gaugedwatershedsinTexas.One
ofthosemethods,presentedhere,allowsthedesignertocomputeIAandCLfromregressionequations:
Equation432.
Equation433.
Where:
IA=initialabstraction(in.)
CL=constantlossrate(in./hr.)
L=mainchannellength(mi.)
D=0forundevelopedwatersheds,1fordevelopedwatersheds
R=0fornonrockywatersheds,1forrockywatersheds
CN=NRCScurvenumber
Intheaboveequations,Lisdefinedasthelengthinstreamcoursemilesofthelongestdefinedchannelshownina30meterdigitalelevation
modelfromtheapproximatewatershedheadwaterstotheoutlet(TxDOT041937).

NRCSCurveNumberLossModel
NRCShasdevelopedaproceduretodividetotaldepthofrainfallintosoilretention,initialabstractions,andeffectiverainfall.Thisparameteris
referredtoasacurvenumber(CN).TheCNisbasedonsoiltype,landuse,andvegetativecoverofthewatershed.Themaximumpossiblesoil
retentionisestimatedusingaparameterthatrepresentstheimpermeabilityofthelandinawatershed.Theoretically,CNcanrangefrom0
(100%rainfallinfiltration)to100(impervious).Inpractice,basedonvaluestabulatedinNRCS1986,thelowestCNthedesignerwilllikely
encounteris30,andthemaximumCNis98.
TheCNmayalsobeadjustedtoaccountforwetordryantecedentmoistureconditions.DrysoilconditionsarereferredtoasCNI,average
conditions(thosecalculatedusingEstimatingtheCN)arereferredtoasCNII,andwetsoilsarereferredtoasCNIII.Antecedentmoisture
conditionsshouldbeestimatedconsideringaminimumofafivedayperiod.Antecedentsoilmoistureconditionsalsovaryduringastorm
heavyrainfallingonadrysoilcanchangethesoilmoistureconditionfromdrytoaveragetowetduringthestormperiod.
Equation434.
Equation435.
HydrologicSoilGroups
Soilpropertiesinfluencetherelationshipbetweenrainfallandrunoffbyaffectingtherateofinfiltration.NRCSdividessoilsintofour
hydrologicsoilgroupsbasedoninfiltrationrates(GroupsAD).Urbanizationhasaneffectonsoilgroups,aswell.SeeTable418formore
information.
Table418:HydrologicSoilGroups
Rangeoflossrates
Soilgroup

Description

Soiltype

Deepsand,deeploess,aggregated

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(in./hr.)

(mm/hr.)

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Lowrunoffpotentialduetohigh
infiltrationratesevenwhen
saturated
Moderatelylowrunoffpotential
duetomoderateinfiltrationrates
whensaturated
Moderatelyhighrunoffpotential
duetoslowinfiltrationrates

Soilsinwhichalayernearthe
surfaceimpedesthedownward
movementofwaterorsoilswith
moderatelyfinetofinetexture
Highrunoffpotentialduetovery
slowinfiltrationrates

Deepsand,deeploess,aggregated
silts

0.300.45

7.611.4

Shallowloess,sandyloam

0.150.30

3.87.6

Clayloams,shallowsandyloam,
soilslowinorganiccontent,and
soilsusuallyhighinclay

0.050.15

1.33.8

Soilsthatswellsignificantlywhen
wet,heavyplasticclays,and
certainsalinesoils

0.000.05

1.3

EstimatingtheCN
Rainfallinfiltrationlossesdependprimarilyonsoilcharacteristicsandlanduse(surfacecover).TheNRCSmethodusesacombinationofsoil
conditionsandlandusetoassignrunoffCNs.SuggestedrunoffcurvenumbersareprovidedinTable419,Table420,Table421,andTable4
22.NotethatCNsarewholenumbers.
Forawatershedthathasvariabilityinlandcoverandsoiltype,acompositeCNiscalculatedandweightedbyarea.
Table419:RunoffCurveNumbersForUrbanAreas
Averagepercent
imperviousarea

Poorcondition(grasscover<50%)

68

79

86

89

Faircondition(grasscover50%to75%)

49

69

79

84

Goodcondition(grasscover>75%)

39

61

74

80

Pavedparkinglots,roofs,driveways,etc.(excludingrightofway)

98

98

98

98

Pavedcurbsandstormdrains(excludingrightofway)

98

98

98

98

Pavedopenditches(includingrightofway)

83

89

92

93

Gravel(includingrightofway)

76

85

89

91

Dirt(includingrightofway)

72

82

87

89

Naturaldesertlandscaping(perviousareasonly)

63

77

85

88

Artificialdesertlandscaping(imperviousweedbarrier,desertshrubwith1to
2in.sandorgravelmulchandbasinborders)

96

96

96

96

Urbandistricts:

Commercialandbusiness

85

89

92

94

95

Industrial

72

81

88

91

93

1/8acreorless(townhouses)

65

77

85

90

92

1/4acre

38

61

75

83

87

1/3acre

30

57

72

81

86

1/2acre

25

54

70

80

85

1acre

20

51

68

79

84

Covertypeandhydrologiccondition

Openspace(lawns,parks,golfcourses,cemeteries,etc.):

Streetsandroads:

Westerndeserturbanareas:

Residentialdistrictsbyaveragelotsize:

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HydraulicDesignManual:HydrographMethod

1acre
2acres

Developingurbanareas:Newlygradedareas(perviousareaonly,no
vegetation)

20

51

68

79

84

12

46

65

77

82

77

86

91

94

Table419notes:Valuesareforaveragerunoffcondition,andIa=0.2S.Theaveragepercentimperviousareashownwasusedtodevelop
thecompositeCNs.Otherassumptionsare:imperviousareasaredirectlyconnectedtothedrainagesystem,imperviousareashaveaCNof
98,andperviousareasareconsideredequivalenttoopenspaceingoodhydrologiccondition.

Table420:RunoffCurveNumbersForCultivatedAgriculturalLand
Covertype

Fallow

Rowcrops

Treatment

Hydrologiccondition

77

86

91

94

Poor

76

85

90

93

Good

74

83

88

90

Straightrow(SR)

Poor

72

81

88

91

Good

67

78

85

89

SR+CR

Poor

71

80

87

90

Good

64

75

82

85

Poor

70

79

84

88

Good

65

75

82

86

Baresoil
Cropresiduecover(CR)

Contoured(C)

C+CR

Poor

69

78

83

87

Good

64

74

81

85

Poor

66

74

80

82

Good

62

71

78

81

Poor

65

73

79

81

Good

61

70

77

80

SR

Poor

65

76

84

88

Good

63

75

83

87

SR+CR

Poor

64

75

83

86

Smallgrain

Good

60

72

80

84

Poor

63

74

82

85

Good

61

73

81

84

C+CR

Poor

62

73

81

84

Good

60

72

80

83

C&T

Poor

61

72

79

82

Good

59

70

78

81

C&T+CR

Poor

60

71

78

81

Good

58

69

77

80

Poor

66

77

85

89

Good

58

72

81

85

Poor

64

75

83

85

Good

55

69

78

83

Contoured&terraced(C&T)

C&T+CR

SR
Closeseededorbroadcast
legumesorrotationmeadow

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C&T

Poor

63

73

80

83

Good

51

67

76

80

Table420notes:Valuesareforaveragerunoffcondition,andIa=0.2S.Cropresiduecoverappliesonlyifresidueisonatleast5%ofthe
surfacethroughouttheyear.Hydrologicconditionisbasedonacombinationoffactorsaffectinginfiltrationandrunoff:densityandcanopy
ofvegetativeareas,amountofyearroundcover,amountofgrassorclosedseededlegumesinrotations,percentofresiduecoveronland
surface(good>20%),anddegreeofroughness.Poor=Factorsimpairinfiltrationandtendtoincreaserunoff.Good=Factorsencourage
averageandbetterinfiltrationandtendtodecreaserunoff.

Table421:RunoffCurveNumbersForOtherAgriculturalLands
Covertype

Hydrologiccondition

Poor

68

79

86

89

Fair

49

69

79

84

Good

39

61

74

80

30

58

71

78

Poor

48

67

77

83

Fair

35

56

70

77

Good

30

48

65

73

Poor

57

73

82

86

Fair

43

65

76

82

Good

32

58

72

79

Poor

45

66

77

83

Fair

36

60

73

79

Good

30

55

70

77

59

74

82

86

Pasture,grassland,orrangecontinuousforageforgrazing

Meadowcontinuousgrass,protectedfromgrazingand
generallymowedforhay
Brushbrushweedgrassmixture,withbrushthemajor
element

Woodsgrasscombination(orchardortreefarm)

Woods

Farmsteadsbuildings,lanes,driveways,andsurroundinglots

Table421notes:Valuesareforaveragerunoffcondition,andIa=0.2S.Pasture:Pooris<50%groundcoverorheavilygrazedwithno
mulch,Fairis50%to75%groundcoverandnotheavilygrazed,andGoodis>75%groundcoverandlightlyoronlyoccasionallygrazed.
Meadow:Pooris<50%groundcover,Fairis50%to75%groundcover,Goodis>75%groundcover.Woods/grass:CNsshownwere
computedforareaswith50percentgrass(pasture)cover.OthercombinationsofconditionsmaybecomputedfromCNsforwoodsand
pasture.Woods:Poor=forestlitter,smalltrees,andbrushdestroyedbyheavygrazingorregularburning.Fair=woodsgrazedbutnot
burnedandwithsomeforestlittercoveringthesoil.Good=woodsprotectedfromgrazingandwithlitterandbrushadequatelycovering
soil.

Table422:RunoffCurveNumbersForAridAndSemiaridRangelands
Covertype

Hydrologiccondition

80

87

93

71

81

89

Good

62

74

85

Poor

66

74

79

48

57

63

Good

30

41

48

Poor

75

85

89

58

73

80

Good

41

61

71

Poor

67

80

85 16/34

Poor
Herbaceousmixtureofgrass,weeds,andlowgrowing
brush,withbrushtheminorelement

Oakaspenmountainbrushmixtureofoakbrush,aspen,
mountainmahogany,bitterbrush,maple,andotherbrush

Pinyonjuniperpinyon,juniper,orbothgrassunderstory

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Fair

Fair

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Poor
Sagebrushwithgrassunderstory

Fair

Good
Saltbush,greasewood,creosotebush,blackbrush,bursage,
paloverde,mesquite,andcactus

67

80

85

51

63

70

35

47

55

Poor

63

77

85

88

Fair

55

72

81

86

Good

49

68

79

84

Table422notes:Valuesareforaveragerunoffcondition,andIa=0.2S.HydrologicCondition:Poor=<30%groundcover(litter,grass,
andbrushoverstory),Fair=30%to70%groundcover,Good=>70%groundcover.CurvenumbersforGroupAhavebeendeveloped
onlyfordesertshrub.

SoilRetention
Thepotentialmaximumretention(S)iscalculatedas:
Equation436.
Where:
z=10forEnglishmeasurementunits,or254formetric
CN=runoffcurvenumber
Equation436isvalidifSislessthantherainfallexcess,definedasprecipitation(P)minusrunoff(R)orS<(PR).Thisequationwas
developedmainlyforsmallwatershedsfromrecordedstormdatathatincludedtotalrainfallamountinacalendardaybutnotitsdistribution
withrespecttotime.Therefore,thismethodisappropriateforestimatingdirectrunofffrom24houror1daystormrainfall.
InitialAbstraction
Theinitialabstractionconsistsofinterceptionbyvegetation,infiltrationduringearlypartsofthestorm,andsurfacedepressionstorage.
Generally,Iaisestimatedas:
Equation437.
EffectiveRainfallRunoffVolume
Theeffectiverainfall(orthetotalrainfallminustheinitialabstractionsandretention)usedforrunoffhydrographcomputationscanbeestimated
using:
Equation438.
Where:
Pe=accumulatedexcessrainfall(in.)
Ia=initialabstractionbeforeponding(in.)
P=totaldepthofrainfall(in.)
S=potentialmaximumdepthofwaterretainedinthewatershed(in.)
SubstitutingEquation437,Equation438becomes:
Equation439.
PeandPhaveunitsofdepth,PeandPreflectvolumesandareoftenreferredtoasvolumesbecauseitisusuallyassumedthatthesamedepths
occurredovertheentirewatershed.ThereforePeisconsideredthevolumeofdirectrunoffperunitarea,i.e.,therainfallthatisneitherretained
onthesurfacenorinfiltratedintothesoil.Pealsocanbeappliedsequentiallyduringastormtocomputeincrementalprecipitationforselected
timeintervalt.
ClimaticAdjustmentofCN
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NRCScurvenumbers,estimated(predicted)usingtheproceduredescribedinEstimatingtheCN,maybeadjustedtoaccountforthevariation
ofclimatewithinTexas.Theadjustmentisappliedasfollows:
Equation440.
Where:
CNobs=CNadjustedforclimate
CNpred=EstimatedCNfromNRCSproceduresdescribedinEstimatingtheCN
CNdev=DeviationofCNobsfromCNpred=climaticadjustmentfactor
Intwostudies(HaileyandMcGill1983,Thompsonetal.2003)CNdevwascomputedforgaugedwatershedsinTexasasCNobsCNpredbased
onhistoricalrainfallandrunoffvolumes.ThesestudiesshowthatCNdevvariesbylocationwithinthestate.
Thefollowingexcerpt(Thompsonetal.2003)guidesthedesignerinselectionandapplicationoftheappropriateclimaticadjustmenttothe
predictedCN.
GiventhedifferencesbetweenCNobsandCNpred,itispossibletoconstructageneraladjustmenttoCNpredsuchthatanapproximationof
CNobscanbeobtained.ThelargeamountofvariationinCNobsdoesnotlendtosmoothcontoursorfunctionfits.Thereissimplyan
insufficientamountofinformationforthesetypesofapproaches.However,ageneraladjustmentcanbeimplementedusingregionswitha
generaladjustmentfactor.SuchanapproachwastakenandispresentedinFigure421.
ThebulkofrainfallandrunoffdataavailableforstudyweremeasuredneartheI35corridor.Therefore,estimatesforthisregionarethemost
reliable.Thegreaterthedistancefromthemajorityofthewatershedthatwerepartofthisstudy,thenthemoreuncertaintymustbeimplied
abouttheresults.Forthesouthhighplains,thatareasouthoftheBalconesescarpment,andthecoastalplain,therewasinsufficientdatatomake
anygeneralconclusions.
Applicationofthetoolisstraightforward.Forareaswhereadjustmentfactorsaredefined(seeFigure421)theanalystshould:
DetermineCNpredusingthenormalNRCSprocedure.
Findthelocationofthewatershedonthedesignaid(Figure421).Determineanadjustmentfactorfromthedesignaidandadjustthe
curvenumber.
ExamineFigure422andfindthelocationofthewatershed.Usethelocationofthewatershedtodeterminenearbystudywatersheds.
ThenrefertoFigure422andTable423,Table424,Table425,Table426,andTable427anddetermineCNpredandCNobsfor
studywatershedsnearthesiteinquestion,ifanyarenearthewatershedinquestion.
ComparetheadjustedcurvenumberwithlocalvaluesofCNobs.
Theresultshouldbearangeofvaluesthatarereasonablefortheparticularsite.
Asacomparison,theadjustedcurvenumberfromHaileyandMcGill(Figure423)canbeused.
AlowerboundequivalenttothecurvenumberforAMCI(dryantecedentconditions),oracurvenumberof60,whicheverisgreater,shouldbe
considered.
NotethatCNvaluesarewholenumbers.RoundingofvaluesofCNpredinthetablesmayberequired.
Judgmentisrequiredforapplicationofanyhydrologictool.TheadjustmentspresentedonFigure421arenoexception.AlowerlimitofAMC
Imaybeusedtopreventanoveradjustmentdownward.Forareasthathavefewstudywatersheds,theHaileyandMcGillapproachshould
providesomeguidanceontheamountofreductiontoCNpredisappropriate,ifany.
Figure422.ClimaticadjustmentfactorCNdev
Figure423.LocationofCNdevwatersheds
Figure424.ClimaticadjustmentofCNcomparisonofHaileyandMcGilladjustedcurvenumbers,CNH&M,withCNobs.Negative
differencesindicatethatCNH&MislargerthanCNobs.AlsoshownarethelinesofequaladjustmenttocurvenumberfromHaileyand
McGills(1983)Figure4.
Table423:CNobs,CNpred,andCNdevfortheAustinregion
USGSGaugeID

QuadSheetName

CNobs

CNpred

CNdev

8154700

AustinWest

59

68.9

9.9

8155200

BeeCave

65

70.7

5.7

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8155200

BeeCave

8155300

HydraulicDesignManual:HydrographMethod

65

70.7

5.7

OakHill

64

69.8

5.8

8155550

AustinWest

50

87.3

37.3

8156650

AustinEast

60

83.6

23.6

8156700

AustinEast

78

86.6

8.6

8156750

AustinEast

66

86.8

20.8

8156800

AustinEast

66

87

21

8157000

AustinEast

68

88.3

20.3

8157500

AustinEast

67

89.1

22.1

8158050

AustinEast

71

83.9

12.9

8158100

PflugervilleWest

60

72.6

12.6

8158200

AustinEast

62

75.6

13.6

8158400

AustinEast

79

88.9

9.9

8158500

AustinEast

71

85.6

14.6

8158600

AustinEast

73

76.7

3.7

8158700

Driftwood

69

74.5

5.5

8158800

Buda

64

73.3

9.3

8158810

SignalHill

64

69.8

5.8

8158820

OakHill

60

67.9

7.9

8158825

OakHill

49

67.2

18.2

8158840

SignalHill

74

69.8

4.2

8158860

OakHill

60

68

8158880

OakHill

67

79.4

12.4

8158920

OakHill

71

77.5

6.5

8158930

OakHill

56

75.2

19.2

8158970

Montopolis

56

77.7

21.7

8159150

PflugervilleEast

63

78.8

15.8

Table424:CNobs,CNpred,andCNdevfortheDallasRegion
USGSGaugeID

QuadSheetName

CNobs

CNpred

CNdev

8055580

Garland

85

85.2

0.2

8055600

Dallas

82

86.1

4.1

8055700

Dallas

73

85.5

12.5

8056500

Dallas

85

85.8

0.8

8057020

Dallas

75

85.5

10.5

8057050

OakCliff

75

85.7

10.7

8057120

Addison

77

80.2

3.2

8057130

Addison

89

82.9

6.1

8057140

Addison

78

86.8

8.8

8057160

Addison

80

90.3

10.3

8057320

WhiteRockLake

85

85.7

0.7

8057415

Hutchins

73

87.8

14.8

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8057418

OakCliff

85

79.1

5.9

8057420

OakCliff

80

81

8057425

OakCliff

90

82.9

7.1

8057435

OakCliff

82

81.1

0.9

8057440

Hutchins

67

79.1

12.1

8057445

Hutchins

60

86.5

26.5

8061620

Garland

82

85

8061920

Mesquite

85

86

8061950

Seagoville

82

85.3

3.3

Table425:CNobs,CNpred,andCNdevfortheFortWorthRegion
GaugeID

QuadSheetName

CNobs

CNpred

CNdev

8048520

FortWorth

72

82.3

10.3

8048530

FortWorth

69

86.7

17.7

8048540

Covington

73

88

15

8048550

HaltomCity

74

91.2

17.2

8048600

HaltomCity

65

84.3

19.3

8048820

HaltomCity

67

83.4

16.4

8048850

HaltomCity

72

83

11

Table426:CNobs,CNpred,andCNdevfortheSanAntonioRegion
USGSGaugeID

QuadSheetName

CNobs

CNpred

CNdev

8177600

CastleHills

70

84.8

14.8

8178300

SanAntonioWest

72

85.7

13.7

8178555

Southton

75

84.2

9.2

8178600

CampBullis

60

79.7

19.7

8178640

Longhorn

56

78.4

22.4

8178645

Longhorn

59

78.2

19.2

8178690

Longhorn

78

84.4

6.4

8178736

SanAntonioEast

74

92.3

18.3

8181000

Helotes

50

79.2

29.2

8181400

Helotes

56

79.8

23.8

8181450

SanAntonioWest

60

87.3

27.3

Table427:CNobs,CNpred,andCNdevfortheSmallRuralWatersheds
USGSGaugeID

QuadrangleSheetName

CNobs

CNpred

CNdev

8025307

Fairmount

53

55.4

2.4

8083420

AbileneEast

65

84.7

19.7

8088100

True

60

85.9

25.9

8093400

Abbott

61

88.1

27.1

8116400

Sugarland

70

82.9

12.9

8159150

PflugervilleEast

55

83.7

28.7

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8159150

PflugervilleEast

8160800

HydraulicDesignManual:HydrographMethod

55

83.7

28.7

Freisburg

56

67.8

11.8

8167600

Fischer

51

74.3

23.3

8436520

AlpineSouth

64

86.4

22.4

8435660

AlpineSouth

48

86.7

38.7

8098300

Rosebud

88

80.5

7.5

8108200

Yarrelton

77

79.9

2.9

8096800

Bruceville

62

80

18

8094000

Bunyan

60

78.4

18.4

8136900

BangsWest

51

75.8

24.8

8137000

BangsWest

52

74.5

22.5

8137500

Trickham

53

76.5

23.5

8139000

Placid

53

74.6

21.6

8140000

Mercury

63

74.4

11.4

8182400

Martinez

52

80

28

8187000

Lenz

53

83.8

30.8

8187900

Kenedy

63

73.3

10.3

8050200

Freemound

80

79.6

0.4

8057500

Weston

80

78.2

1.8

8058000

Weston

86

80.1

5.9

8052630

Marilee

80

85.4

5.4

8052700

Aubrey

74

84.1

10.1

8042650

Senate

59

63.4

4.4

8042700

LynnCreek

50

62.5

12.5

8042700

Senate

56

62

8042700

Senate

65

55.9

9.1

8063200

Coolidge

70

79.4

9.4

GreenandAmptLossModel
BasicConceptsandEquations
TheGreenandAmptlossmodelisbasedonatheoreticalapplicationofDarcyslaw.Themodel,firstdevelopedin1911,hastheform:
Equation441.
Where:
f=infiltrationcapacity(in./hr.)
Ks=saturatedhydraulicconductivity(permeability)(in./hr.)
Sw=soilwatersuction(in.)
s=volumetricwatercontent(watervolumeperunitsoilvolume)undersaturatedconditions
i=volumetricmoisturecontentunderinitialconditions
F=totalaccumulatedinfiltration(in.)
Theparameterscanberelatedtosoilproperties.
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AssumptionsunderlyingtheGreenandAmptmodelarethefollowing:
Asraincontinuestofallandwaterinfiltrates,thewettingfrontadvancesatthesameratethroughoutthegroundwatersystem,which
producesawelldefinedwettingfront.
Thevolumetricwatercontents,sandi,remainconstantaboveandbelowthewettingfrontasitadvances.
Thesoilwatersuctionimmediatelybelowthewettingfrontremainsconstantwithbothtimeandlocationasthewettingfront
advances.
Tocalculatetheinfiltrationrateatagiventime,thecumulativeinfiltrationiscalculatedusingEquation442anddifferencescomputedin
successivecumulativevalues:
Equation442.
Where:
t=time(hr.)
Equation442cannotbesolvedexplicitly.Instead,solutionbynumericalmethodsisrequired.OnceFissolvedfor,theinfiltrationrate,f,can
besolvedusingEquation441.ThesecomputationsaretypicallyperformedbyhydrologiccomputerprogramsequippedwithGreenAmpt
computationalroutines.Withtheseprograms,thedesignerisrequiredtospecifys,Sw,andKs.
EstimatingGreenAmptParameters
ToapplytheGreenandAmptlossmodel,thedesignermustestimatethevolumetricmoisturecontent,s,thewettingfrontsuctionhead,Sw,
andthesaturatedhydraulicconductivity,Ks.Rawlsetal.(1993)provideGreenAmptparametersforseveralUSDAsoiltexturesasshownin
Table428.Arangeisgivenforvolumetricmoisturecontentinparentheseswithtypicalvaluesforeachalsolisted.
Table428:GreenAmptParameters
Soiltextureclass

Volumetricmoisturecontentunder
saturatedconditionss

Volumetricmoisturecontentunder
initialconditionsi

Wettingfrontsuction
headSw

Saturatedhydraulic
conductivityKs

Sand

0.437(0.3740.500)

0.417(0.3540.480)

1.95

9.28

Loamysand

0.437(0.3630.506)

0.401(0.3290.473)

2.41

2.35

Sandyloam

0.453(0.3510.555)

0.412(0.2830.541)

4.33

0.86

Loam

0.463(0.3750.551)

0.434(0.3340.534)

3.50

0.52

Siltloam

0.501(0.4200.582)

0.486(0.3940.578)

6.57

0.27

Sandyclayloam

0.398(0.3320.464)

0.330(0.2350.425)

8.60

0.12

Clayloam

0.464(0.4090.519)

0.309(0.2790.501)

8.22

0.08

Siltyclayloam

0.471(0.4180.524)

0.432(0.3470.517)

10.75

0.08

Sandyclay

0.430(0.3700.490)

0.321(0.2070.435)

9.41

0.05

Siltyclay

0.479(0.4250.533)

0.423(0.3340.512)

11.50

0.04

Clay

0.475(0.4270.523)

0.385(0.2690.501)

12.45

0.02

CapabilitiesandLimitationsofLossModels
Selectingalossmodelandestimatingthemodelparametersarecriticalstepsinestimatingrunoff.Someprosandconsofthedifferent
alternativesareshowninTable429.Theseareguidelinesandshouldbeusedassuch.Thedesignershouldbefamiliarwiththemodelsandthe
watershedwhereappliedtodeterminewhichlossmodelismostappropriate.
Table429:ComparisonofDifferentLossModels,BasedonUSACE2000
Model

Pros

Hasbeensuccessfullyappliedinmanystudies
throughouttheUS.
Initialandconstantloss
rate

Easytosetupanduse.
Modelonlyrequiresafewparameterstoexplainthe
variationofrunoffparameters.

http://onlinemanuals.txdot.gov/txdotmanuals/hyd/hydrograph_method.htm

Cons

Difficulttoapplytoungaugedareasduetolackof
directphysicalrelationshipofparametersand
watershedproperties.
Modelmaybetoosimpletopredictlosseswithin
event,evenifitdoespredicttotallosseswell.
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Texasinitialand
constantlossrate

DevelopedspecificallyfromTexaswatersheddatafor
applicationtositesinTexas.
Methodisproductofrecentandextensiveresearch.
Simpletoapply.

MethodisdependentonNRCSCN.
Relativelynewmethod,andnotyetwidelyused.
Predictedvaluesnotinaccordancewithclassical
unsaturatedflowtheory.

Simple,predictable,andstable.
NRCSCN

Reliesononlyoneparameter,whichvariesasa
functionofsoilgroup,landuse,surfacecondition,and
antecedentmoisturecondition.
WidelyacceptedandappliedthroughouttheU.S.

Infiltrationratewillapproachzeroduringastormof
longduration,ratherthanconstantrateasexpected.
Developedwithdatafromsmallagricultural
watershedsinmidwesternUS,soapplicability
elsewhereisuncertain.
Defaultinitialabstraction(0.2S)doesnotdependupon
stormcharacteristicsortiming.Thus,ifusedwith
designstorm,abstractionwillbesamewith0.5AEP
stormand0.01AEPstorm.
Rainfallintensitynotconsidered.

GreenandAmpt

Parameterscanbeestimatedforungaugedwatersheds
frominformationaboutsoils.

Notwidelyused,lessexperienceinprofessional
community.

RainfalltoRunoffTransform
Afterthedesignstormhyetographisdefined,andlossesarecomputedandsubtractedfromrainfalltocomputerunoffvolume,thetime
distributionandmagnitudeofrunoffiscomputedwitharainfalltorunofftransform.
Twooptionsaredescribedhereinforthesedirectrunoffhydrographcomputations:
Unithydrograph(UH)model.Thisisanempiricalmodelthatreliesonscalingapatternofwatershedrunoff.
Kinematicwavemodel.Thisisaconceptualmodelthatcomputestheoverlandflowhydrographmethodwithchannelroutingmethods
toconvertrainfalltorunoffandrouteittothepointofinterest.
UnitHydrographMethod
Aunithydrographforawatershedisdefinedasthedischargehydrographthatresultsfromoneunitdepthofexcessrainfalldistributed
uniformly,spatiallyandtemporally,overawatershedforadurationofoneunitoftime.Theunitdepthofexcessprecipitationisoneinchfor
Englishunits.Theunitoftimebecomesthetimestepoftheanalysis,andisselectedasshortenoughtocapturethedetailofthestormtemporal
distributionandrisinglimboftheunithydrograph.
Theunithydrographassumesthattherainfalloveragivenareadoesnotvaryinintensity.Ifrainfalldoesvary,thewatershedmustbedivided
intosmallersubbasinsandvaryingrainfallappliedwithmultipleunithydrographs.Therunoffcanthenberoutedfromsubbasintosubbasin.
Foreachtimestepoftheanalysis,theunithydrographordinatesaremultipliedbytheexcessrainfalldepth.Theresultingtimecoincident
ordinatesfromeachresultinghydrographaresummedtoproducethetotalrunoffhydrographforthewatershed.Thisprocessisshown
graphicallyinFigure424.Hydrographsa,b,c,anddare1hourunithydrographsmultipliedbythedepthofexcessrainfallintheindividual1
hourtimesteps.Thetotalrunoffhydrographresultingfrom4hoursofrainfallisthesumofhydrographsa,b,c,andd.
Figure425.Unithydrographsuperposition(USACE1994)
Mathematically,thecomputationoftherunoffhydrographisgivenby:
Equation443.
Where:
n=numberoftimesteps
Qn=therunoffhydrographordinaten(attiment)
Pm=effectiverainfallordinatem(intimeintervalmt)
=computationtimeinterval
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Qu(nm+1)=unithydrographordinate(nm+1)(attime(nm+1)t)
m=numberofperiodsofeffectiverainfall(ofdurationt)
M=totalnumberofdiscreterainfallpulses
Equation443simplifiedbecomesQ1=P1U1,Q2=P1U2+P2U1,Q3=P1U3+P2U2+P3U1,etc.
Severaldifferentunithydrographmethodsareavailabletothedesigner.Eachdefinesatemporalflowdistribution.Thetimetopeakflowand
generalshapeofthedistributionaredefinedbyparametersspecifictoeachmethod.Thechoiceofunithydrographmethodwilldependon
availableoptionswithinthehydrologicsoftwarebeingused,andalsotheavailabilityofinformationfromwhichtoestimatetheunithydrograph
parameters.
TwounithydrographmethodscommonlyusedbyTxDOTdesignersareSnydersunithydrographandtheNRCSunithydrograph.These
methodsaresupportedbymanyrainfallrunoffsoftwareprograms,whichrequirethedesigneronlytospecifytheparametersofthemethod.
Thesetwomethodsarediscussedinthefollowingsections.
SnydersUnitHydrograph
Snyderdevelopedaparametricunithydrographin1938,basedonresearchintheAppalachianHighlandsusingbasins10to10,000square
miles.Snydersunithydrographisdescribedwithtwoparameters:Ct,whichisastorageortimingcoefficientandCp,whichisapeaking
coefficient.AsCtincreases,thepeakoftheunithydrographisdelayed.AsCpincreases,themagnitudeoftheunithydrographpeakincreases.
BothCtandCpmustbeestimatedforthewatershedofinterest.ValuesforCprangefrom0.4to0.8andgenerallyindicateretentionorstorage
capacityofthewatershed.
Thepeakdischargeoftheunithydrographisgivenby:
Equation444.
Where:
Qp=peakdischarge(cfs/in.)
A=drainagearea(mi2)
Cp=secondcoefficientoftheSnydermethodaccountingforfloodwaveandstorageconditions
tL=timelag(hr.)fromthecentroidofrainfallexcesstopeakofhydrograph
tLisgivenby:
Equation445.
Where:
Ct=storagecoefficient,usuallyrangingfrom1.8to2.2
L=lengthofmainchannel(mi)
Lca=lengthalongthemainchannelfromwatershedoutlettothewatershedcentroid(mi)
Thedurationofexcessrainfall(td)canbecomputedusing:
Equation446.
Equation446impliesthattherelationshipbetweenlagtimeandthedurationofexcessrainfallisconstant.Toadjustvaluesoflagtimefor
othervaluesofrainfallexcessduration,thefollowingequationshouldbeused:
Equation447.
Where:
tLa=adjustedtimelag(hr.)
tda=alternativeunithydrographduration(hr.)
Thetimebaseoftheunithydrographisafunctionofthelagtime:
Equation448.
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Where:
tb=timebase(days)
Thetimetopeakoftheunithydrographiscalculatedby:
Equation449.
EmpiricalrelationsofSnydersunithydrographwerelaterfoundtoaidthedesignerinconstructingtheunithydrograph(McCuen1989).The
USACErelations,showninFigure425,areusedtoconstructtheSnyderunithydrographusingthetimetopeak(tp),thepeakdischarge(Qp),
thetimebase(tb),and2timeparameters,W50andW75.W50andW75arethewidthsoftheunithydrographatdischargesof50percentand75
percentofthepeakdischarge.Thewidthsaredistributed1/3beforethepeakdischargeand2/3after.
Figure426.Snydersunithydrograph
ValuesforW50andW75arecomputedusingtheseequations(McCuen1989):
Equation450.
Equation451.
Where:
qa=peakdischargepersquaremile(i.e.,Qp/A,ft3/sec/mi2)

NRCSDimensionlessUnitHydrograph
TheNRCSunithydrographmodelisbaseduponananalysisandaveragingofalargenumberofnaturalunithydrographsfromabroadcross
sectionofgeographiclocationsandhydrologicregions.Forconvenience,thehydrographisdimensionless,withdischargeordinates(Qu)
dividedbythepeakdischarge(Qp)andthetimevalues(t)dividedbythetimetopeak(tp).
Thetimebaseofthedimensionlessunithydrographisapproximatelyfivetimesthetimetopeak,andapproximately3/8ofthetotalvolume
occursbeforethetimetopeak.Theinflectionpointontherecessionlimboccursat1.67timesthetimetopeak,andthehydrographhasa
curvilinearshape.Thecurvilinearhydrographcanbeapproximatedbyatriangularhydrographwithsimilarcharacteristics.
ThecurvilineardimensionlessNRCSunithydrographisshowninFigure426.
Figure427.NRCSdimensionlessunithydrograph
TheordinatesofthedimensionlessunithydrographareprovidedinTable430.
Table430:NRCSDimensionlessUnitHydrographOrdinates
t/tp

Q/Qp

0.0

0.00

0.1

0.03

0.2

0.10

0.3

0.19

0.4

0.31

0.5

0.47

0.6

0.66

0.7

0.82

0.8

0.93

0.9

0.99

1.0

1.00

1.1

0.99

1.2

0.93

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0.93

1.3

0.86

1.4

0.78

1.5

0.68

1.6

0.56

1.7

0.46

1.8

0.39

1.9

0.33

2.0

0.28

2.2

0.207

2.4

0.147

2.6

0.107

2.8

0.077

3.0

0.055

3.2

0.04

3.4

0.029

3.6

0.021

3.8

0.015

4.0

0.011

4.5

0.005

5.0

0.00

Table430notes:Variablesaredefinedasfollows:t=time(min.)tp=timetopeakofunithydrograph(min.)
Q=discharge(cfs)andQp=peakdischargeofunithydrograph(cfs).

Thefollowingprocedureassumestheareaorsubareaisreasonablyhomogeneous.Thatis,thewatershedissubdividedintohomogeneousareas.
Theprocedureresultsinahydrographonlyfromthedirectuncontrolledarea.Ifthewatershedhasbeensubdivided,itmightbenecessaryto
performhydrographchannelrouting,storagerouting,andhydrographsuperpositiontodeterminethehydrographattheoutletofthewatershed.
ApplicationoftheNRCSdimensionlessunithydrographtoawatershedproducesasitespecificunithydrographmodelwithwhichstorm
runoffcanbecomputed.Todothis,thebasinlagtimemustbeestimated.Thetimetopeakoftheunithydrographisrelatedtothelagtimeby:
Equation452.
Where:
tp=timetopeakofunithydrograph(min.)
tL=basinlagtime(min.)
t=thetimeintervaloftheunithydrograph(min.)
Thistimeintervalmustbethesameasthetchosenforthedesignstorm.
Thetimeintervalmaybecalculatedby:
Equation453.
Andthelagtimeiscalculatedby:
Equation454.
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Thepeakdischargeoftheunithydrographiscalculatedby:
Equation455.
Where:
Qp=peakdischarge(cfs)
Cf=conversionfactor(645.33)
K=0.75(constantbasedongeometricshapeofdimensionlessunithydrograph)
A=drainagearea(mi2)and
tp=timetopeak(hr.)
Equation455canbesimplifiedto:
Equation456.
Theconstant484,orpeakrateconstant,definesaunithydrographwith3/8ofitsareaundertherisinglimb.Asthewatershedslopebecomes
verysteep(mountainous),theconstantinEquation456canapproachavalueofapproximately600.Forflat,swampyareas,theconstantmay
decreasetoavalueofapproximately300.ForapplicationsinTexas,theuseoftheconstant484isrecommendedunlessspecificrunoffdata
indicateadifferentvalueiswarranted.
AftertpandQpareestimatedusingEquations452and456,thesitespecificunithydrographmaybedevelopedbyscalingthedimensionless
unithydrograph.
Foreachtimestepoftheanalysis,thesitespecificunithydrographordinatesaremultipliedbytheexcessrainfalldepth.Theresulting
hydrographaresummedtoproducethetotalrunoffhydrographforthewatershed.ThisprocessisshowngraphicallyinFigure424.Whilethe
computationscanbecompletedusingaspreadsheetmodel,amanualconvolutioncanbesomewhattimeconsuming.Thesecomputationsare
typicallyperformedbyhydrologiccomputerprograms.
Forexample,assumeanareaof240acres(0.375sq.mi.)withTcof1.12hoursandCNof80.For1inchofexcessrainfall,=9min,tp=45
min,andQp=243cfs,usingEquations453,452and456respectively.
Column1ofTable431showsthetimeintervalof9minutes.Column2iscalculatedbydividingthetimeintervalbytp,inthiscase45
minutes.ValuesinColumn3arefoundbyusingthet/tpvalueinColumn2tofindtheassociatedQu/Qpvaluefromthedimensionlessunit
hydrographshowninFigure426,interpolatingifnecessary.Column4iscalculatedbymultiplyingColumn3byQp,inthiscase243cfs.
Table431:ExampleSitespecificUnitHydrograph
t(min.)

t/tp

Qu/Qp

Qu(cfs)

0.00

0.000

0.20

0.100

24

18

0.40

0.310

75

27

0.60

0.660

160

36

0.80

0.930

226

45

1.00

1.000

243

54

1.20

0.930

226

63

1.40

0.780

190

72

1.60

0.560

136

81

1.80

0.390

95

90

2.00

0.280

68

99

2.20

0.207

50

108

2.40

0.147

36

117

2.60

0.107

26

126

2.80

0.077

19

135

3.00

0.055

13

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144

3.20

0.040

10

153

3.40

0.023

162

3.60

0.021

171

3.80

0.015

180

4.00

0.011

189

4.20

0.009

198

4.40

0.006

207

4.60

0.004

216

4.80

0.002

225

5.00

TheexamplesitespecificunithydrographisshowninFigure427.
Figure428.Examplesitespecificunithydrograph
RememberthatthesitespecifichydrographdevelopedinFigure427wasbasedon1inchofexcessrainfall.Foreachtimestepoftheanalysis,
theunithydrographordinatesaremultipliedbytheexcessrainfalldepth.Excessrainfallisobtainedfromarainfallhyetographsuchasa
distributiondevelopedfromlocallyobservedrainfallortheNRCS24hour,TypeIIorTypeIIIrainfalldistributions.Theresultinghydrograph
aresummedtoproducethetotalrunoffhydrographforthewatershed.ThisprocessisshowngraphicallyinFigure424.
ThecapabilitiesandlimitationsoftheNRCSunithydrographmodelincludethefollowing:
Thismethodshouldbeusedonlyfora24hourstorm.
Thismethoddoesnotaccountforvariationinrainfallintensityordurationoverthewatershed.
Baseflowisaccountedforseparately.

KinematicWaveOverlandFlowModel
Akinematicwavemodelisaconceptualmodelofwatershedresponsethatuseslawsofconservationofmassandmomentumtosimulate
overlandandchannelizedflows.Themodelrepresentsthewatershedasawideopenchannel,withinflowequaltotheexcessprecipitation.
Thenitsimulatesunsteadychannelflowoverthesurfacetocomputethewatershedrunoffhydrograph.Thewatershedisrepresentedasasetof
overlandflowplanesandcollectorchannels.
Inkinematicwavemodeling,thewatershedshowninFigure428(a)isrepresentedinFigure428(b)asseriesofoverlandflowplanes(gray
areas)andacollectorchannel(dashedline).Thecollectorchannelconveysflowtothewatershedoutlet.
Figure429.Kinematicwavemodelrepresentationofawatershed(USACE2000)
TheequationsusedtodefineconservationofmassandmomentumaretheSaintVenantequations.Theconservationofmassequationis:
Equation457.
Where:
A=crosssectionalareaofflow(ft2,m2)
T=time(sec.)
Q=flowrate(cfs,m3/sec.)
x=distancealongtheflowpath(ft,m)
qo=lateraldischargeaddedtotheflowpathperunitlengthoftheflowpath(cfs/ft,m3/sec./m)
Themomentumequationenergygradientisapproximatedby:
Equation458.
Where:
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and=coefficientsrelatedtothephysicalpropertiesofthewatershed.
SubstitutingEquation456intoEquation455yieldsasinglepartialdifferentialequationinQ:
Equation459.
Where:
qL=lateralinflow(cfs/ft,m3/s/m)
Equation454canbeexpressedintermsofManningsn,wettedperimeter,andbedslopebysubstitutingthefollowingexpressionforinto
Equation456:
Equation460.
Where:
n=Manningsroughnesscoefficient
P=wettedperimeter(ft,m)
So=flowplaneslope(ft/ft,m/m)
Thesolutiontotheresultingequation,itsterms,andbasicconceptsaredetailedinChow(1959)andothertexts.

HydrographRouting
Insomecases,thewatershedofinterestwillbedividedintosubbasins.Thisisnecessarywhengroundconditionsvarysignificantlybetween
subbasinareas,orwhenthetotalwatershedareaissufficientlylargethatvariationsinprecipitationdepthwithinthewatershedmustbe
modeled.Arainfallrunoffmethod(unithydrographorkinematicwave)willproduceaflowhydrographattheoutletofeachsubbasin.Before
thesehydrographscanbesummedtorepresentflowatthewatershedoutlet,theeffectsoftraveltimeandchannel/floodplainstoragebetween
thesubbasinoutletsandwatershedoutletmustbeaccountedfor.Theprocessofstartingwithahydrographatalocationandrecomputingthe
hydrographatadownstreamlocationiscalledhydrographrouting.
Figure429showsanexampleofahydrographatupstreamlocationA,andtheroutedhydrographatdownstreamlocationB.Theresulting
delayinfloodpeakisthetraveltimeofthefloodhydrograph.Theresultingdecreaseinmagnitudeofthefloodpeakistheattenuationofthe
floodhydrograph.
Figure430.Hydrographrouting(USACE1994)
Therearetwogeneralmethodsforroutinghydrographs:hydrologicandhydraulic.Themethodsaredistinguishedbywhichequationsare
solvedtocomputetheroutedhydrograph.
Hydrologicmethodssolvetheequationofcontinuity(conservationofmass),andtypicallyrelyonasecondrelationship(suchasrelationof
storagetooutflow)tocompletethesolution.Theequationofcontinuitycanbewrittenas:
Equation461.
Where:
I=averageinflowtoreachorstorageareaduringt
O=averageoutflowtoreachorstorageareaduringt
S=storageinreachorstoragearea
t=timestep
Hydrologicmethodsaregenerallymostappropriateforsteepslopeconditionswithnosignificantbackwatereffects.Hydrologicrouting
methodsinclude(USACE1994):
ModifiedPulsforasinglereservoirorchannelmodeledasseriesoflevelpoolreservoirs.
Muskingumchannelmodeledasaseriesofslopedpoolreservoirs.
MuskingumCungeenhancedversionofMuskingummethodincorporatingchannelgeometryandroughnessinformation.
Mosthydrologicsoftwareapplicationscapableofmultibasinanalysisofferaselectionofhydrologicroutingmethods.
HydraulicroutingmethodssolvetheSaintVenantequations.Thesearetheonedimensionalequationsofcontinuity(Equation460)and
conservationofmomentum(Equation461)writtenforopenchannelflow.Theequationsarevalidforgraduallyvariedunsteadyflow.
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Theonedimensionalequationofcontinuityis:
Equation462.
Where:
A=crosssectionalflowarea
V=averagevelocityofwater
x=distancealongchannel
B=watersurfacewidth
y=depthofwater
t=time
q=lateralinflowperunitlengthofchannel
Theonedimensionalequationofconservationofmomentumis:
Equation463.
Where:
Sf=frictionslope
So=channelbedslope
g=accelerationduetogravity
Hydraulicroutingmethodsarecomputationallymoreintensivethanhydrologicmethodsandaredistinguishedbywhichtermsinthe
momentumequation(Equation461)areincluded(notneglected)inthesolutionalgorithm.Hydraulicroutingmethodsinclude(USACE1994):
Dynamicwave(alltermsofSt.Venantequations)
Diffusionwave
Kinematicwave
Onedimensionalunsteadyopenchannelflowsoftwareapplicationsimplicitlyroutehydrographsfromonelocationtoanotherbysolvingfor
depthandvelocityatalllocations(crosssections)inastreamreach(ornetworkofreaches)foreverytimestep.Thehydraulicroutingmethod
employedisdefinedbythesolutionalgorithmofthesoftwareapplication.Someapplicationsallowtheusertoselectwhichhydraulicrouting
methodisused,whileotherapplicationssupportonlyonemethod.
Themostrobustroutingmethod(intermsofsteep/mildstreamslopeandwith/withoutbackwatereffects)isdynamicwaverouting.
SelectionofRoutingMethod
Selectionofanappropriateroutingmethoddependsonseveralfactors.Theapplicationofanymethodwillbeimprovedifobserveddataare
availableforcalibration/verificationofroutingparameters.Generally,hydrologicmethodsaremostsuitableforsteeperreacheshavinglittleor
nobackwatereffectsresultingfromhighstagesdownstreamoftheroutingreach.Hydraulicmethodsaregenerallymoreappropriateforawider
rangeofchannelslopes,includinggradualslopes,andcanaccommodatebackwatereffects.TheexceptiontothisistheMuskingumCunge
method,whichdoesnotperformwellwithsteeprisinghydrographsingradualslopes,orbackwaterconditions.Ofallmethods,onlythe
dynamicwaveroutingmethodisappropriateforsteepandgradualslopes,aswellaswithorwithoutbackwaterconditions.
Asabaselineapproach,thedesignermayconsiderusingtheMuskingumCungemethodincaseshavingsteepslope(greaterthan10feetper
mile)andnobackwatereffects.Thismethod,whichisdescribedinChow(1988)andFread(1993),hastheadvantagethatitwillincorporatethe
shapeofthecrosssectionintocomputations.Insomecases,crosssectiondatamaybeobtainedfromexistinghydraulicmodelsofthereach.If
channelgeometrydataareunavailable,thentheMuskingumormodifiedPulsmethods,whicharedescribedbelow,maybeused.However,
thesetwomethodsshouldbeavoidedforchannelroutingapplicationsunlessobserveddataareaavailableforcalibration/verificationofrouting
parameters.
Incaseshavingbackwaterthatsignificantlyaffectthestorageoutflowrelationshipoftheroutingreach,andtherebysignificantlyaffectthe
routedhydrograph,thedynamicwave,diffusionwave,andmodifiedPulsmethodsareappropriate.
Allmethods,exceptforkinematicwave,areappropriateincaseshavingachannelslopebetween2to10feetpermile,nobackwatereffects,
andsatisfyingtheconditiongivenbyEquation462(USACE1994):
Equation464.
Where:
T=hydrographduration(s)
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So=averagefrictionorslope(ft/ft)
uo=meanvelocity(ft/s)
do=averageflowdepth(ft)
Onlythedynamicwave,diffusionwave,andMuskingumCungemethodsareappropriateincaseshavingachannelslopelessthan2feetper
mile,nobackwatereffects,andsatisfyingtheconditiongivenbyEquation463(USACE1994):
Equation465.
Where:
g=32.2ft/s
Incaseshavingachannelslopelessthan2feetpermile,nobackwatereffects,andnotsatisfyingtheconditiongivenbyEquation463,then
onlythedynamicwavemethodisappropriate.
Itmaybetemptingforthedesignertoselectthedynamicwaveroutingmethodasageneralapproachforallconditions.However,thedesigner
willfindthatthesubstantialamountofinformation(detailedandcloselyspacedcrosssectiongeometrydata)requiredtoconstructaone
dimensionalunsteadyflowmodel,andthesignificanttimerequiredtoensurethatthemodelisrunningproperlywithoutnumericalinstabilities,
willprovidemotivationtoidentifyasuitablehydrologicroutingmethodwhenappropriate.Ifhydrologicmethodsarenotappropriateforthe
caseunderconsideration,thenanunsteadyflowmodelmayberequiredtoproperlyrouteflows.

ReservoirVersusChannelRouting
Inflowhydrographscanberoutedthroughreservoirsusingasimple(singlereservoir)hydrologicroutingmethod,suchasthemodifiedPuls
storagemethod.Thisisbecausetherelationshipbetweenstorageanddischargeisunique(singlevalued).Inotherwords,thestorageinthe
reservoirisfullydescribedbythestageinthereservoirbecausethesurfaceofthereservoiristhesameshapeandslopeduringtherisingand
fallinglimbsofthehydrograph.
Hydrologicroutingmethodsmayalsobeusedforchannelrouting.Achanneldoesnothaveasinglevaluedstorageoutflowcurve.Instead,the
storageoutflowrelationislooped,asshowninFigure430.Asaresult,ahydrologicroutingmethodemployingasinglereservoir
representationcannotbeused.
Figure431.Loopedstorageoutflowrelation(USACE1994)
Thelevelpoollimitationofhydrologicroutingmethodsisovercomebyrepresentingthechannelasaseriesofreservoirs.Thesearetermed
subreaches,orsteps,withintheroutingreach.Anotherenhancementtothelevelpoolapproach,employedbytheMuskingummethod,isto
representthestorageineachreservoirasacombinationofprismstorage(similartolevelpoolreservoir)andwedgestorage(additionalsloped
waterontopofprism).
Anestimateofthenumberofroutingstepsrequiredforahydrologicchannelroutingmethodisgivenby(USACE1994):
Equation466.
Where:
n=numberofroutingsteps
K=floodwavetraveltimethroughthereach(min.)
t=timestep(min.)
Kintheaboveequationisgivenby:
Equation467.
Where:
L=lengthofroutingreach(ft)
VW=floodwavevelocity(ft/s)
VWmaybeapproximatedasequaltotheaveragechannelvelocityduringthefloodhydrograph.AbetterestimateofVWisgivenbySeddons
lawappliedtoacrosssectionrepresentativeoftheroutingreach(USACE1994):
Equation468.
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Where:
B=topwithofthechannelwatersurface(ft)
Q=channeldischarge(cfs)asfunctionofelevationy
=slopeofthedischargeratingcurve(ft2/s)
Twohydrologicroutingmethodsandtheirapplicationarediscussedfurtherinthefollowingsections:themodifiedPulsmethodforreservoir
routing,andtheMuskingummethodforchannelrouting.
ModifiedPulsMethodReservoirRouting
BasicConceptsandEquations
Thebasicstorageroutingequationstatesthatmassisconservedandcanbeexpressedasfollows:Averageinflowaverageoutflow=Rateof
changeinstorage
Innumericalform,thisstatementofflowcontinuitycanbewrittenas:
Equation469.
Where:
It=inflowattimestepnumbert
It+1=inflowattimestepnumbert+1
Ot=outflowattimestepnumbert
Ot+1=outflowattimestepnumbert+1
St=storageinthereservoirattimestepnumbert
St+1=storageinthereservoirattimestepnumbert+1
=thetimeincrement
t=timestepnumber
InEquation464therearetwounknowns:Ot+1andSt+1.InordertosolveEquation464,eitherasecondequationwithOt+1andSt+1is
required,orarelationshipbetweenOt+1andSt+1isneeded.Thestorageindicationapproachisthelatterandispresentedhere.First,itis
convenienttorewritetheroutingequationas:
Equation470.
Inthisform,alltermsknownattimetareontherighthandsideoftheequationandunknownsareontheleft.Ifasinglevaluedstorageoutflow
curvecanbedeterminedfortheroutingreach,thenforanyvalueofOt+1,thecorrespondingvalueofSt+1willbeknown.Thisreducesthe
numberofunknownparametersinEquation465fromtwo(Ot+1andSt+1)toone(Ot+1).
Useofthestorageroutingmethodrequiresthedesignertodeterminetherelationshipbetweenstorageandoutflow.Thisissimplythevolumeof
waterheldbythereservoir,storagefacility,orpondasafunctionofthewatersurfaceelevationordepth.Forareservoirorstoragefacility,this
informationisoftenavailablefromthereservoirsponsororowner.
Forapondorlakeorwherethestagestoragerelationisnotavailable,arelationshipbetweenstorageandoutflowcanbederivedfrom
considerationsofphysicalpropertiesofchannelorpondandsimplehydraulicmodelsofoutletworksorrelationshipofflowandwatersurface
elevation.Thesephysicalpropertiesinclude:
Ratingsoftheprimaryand/oremergencyspillwayofareservoir.
Pumpflowcharacteristicsinapumpstation.
Hydraulicperformancecurveofaculvertorbridgeonahighway.
Hydraulicperformancecurveofaweirandorificeoutletofadetentionpond.
Withthestagestoragerelationestablished,astorageindicationcurvecorrespondingtotheleftsideofEquation468isdeveloped.The
relationshipisdescribedintheformofOversus(2S/T)+O.AnexampleofastorageindicationcurveisprovidedinFigure431.
Figure432.Samplestorageindicationrelation
TheformofEquation468shownaboveisusefulbecausethetermsontheleftsideoftheequationareknown.Withtherelationbetweenthe
outflowandstoragedetermined(Figure431),theordinatesontheoutflowhydrographcanbedetermineddirectly.

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StorageRoutingProcedure
Usethefollowingstepstorouteaninflowfloodrunoffhydrographthroughastoragesystemsuchasareservoirordetentionpond:
1.Acquireordevelopadesignfloodrunoffhydrographfortheprojectsitewatershed.
2.Acquireordevelopastagestoragerelation.
3.Acquireordevelopastageoutflowrelationship.
4.Developastorageoutflowrelationship.
5.AssumeaninitialvalueforOtasequaltoIt.Attimestepone(t=1),assumeaninitialvalueforOtasequaltoIt.Usually,attimestep
one,inflowequalszero,sooutflowwillbezeroand2S1/TO1equalszero.Notethattostart,t+1inthenextstepis2.
6.Compute2St+1/T+Ot+1usingEquation468.
7.Interpolatetofindthevalueofoutflow.Fromthestorageoutflowrelation,interpolatetofindthevalueofoutflow(Ot+1)at
(2St+1)/(T)+Ot+1fromstep6.
8.Determinethevalueof(2St+1)/(T)Ot+1.Usetherelation(2St+1)/(T)Ot+1=(2St+1)/(T)+Ot+12Ot+1.
9.Assignthenexttimesteptothevalueoft,e.g.,forthefirstrunthroughsett=2.
10.Repeatsteps6through9untiltheoutflowvalue(Ot+1)approacheszero.
11.Plottheinflowandoutflowhydrographs.Thepeakoutflowvalueshouldalwayscoincidewithapointontherecedinglimbofthe
inflowhydrograph.
12.Checkconservationofmasstohelpverifysuccessoftheprocess.UseEquation469tocomparetheinflowvolumetothesumof
retainedandoutflowvolumes:
Equation471.
Where:
Sr=differenceinstartingandendingstorage(ft3orm3)
It=sumofinflowhydrographordinates(cfsorm3/s)
Ot=sumofoutflowhydrographordinates(cfsorm3/s)
MuskingumMethodChannelRouting
Routingoffloodhydrographsbymeansofchannelroutingproceduresisusefulininstanceswherecomputedhydrographsareatpointsother
thanthepointsofinterest.Thisisalsotrueinthoseinstanceswherethechannelprofileorplanischangedinsuchawayastoalterthenatural
velocityorchannelstoragecharacteristics.Routingestimatestheeffectofachannelreachonaninflowhydrograph.Thissectiondescribesthe
Muskingummethodequations,alumpedflowroutingtechniquethatapproximatesstorageeffectsintheformofaprismandwedgecomponent
(Chow1988).
TheMuskingummethodalsosolvestheequationofcontinuity.WiththeMuskingummethod,thestorageinthechannelisconsideredthesum
oftwocomponents:prismstorageandwedgestorage(Figure432).
Figure433.Muskingumprismandwedgestorage
TheconstantsKandXareusedtorelatetheprismcomponent,KO,andwedgecomponent,KX(IO),totheinflowandoutflowofthereach:
Equation472.
Where:
S=totalstorage(ft3orm3)
K=aproportionalityconstantrepresentingthetimeoftravelofafloodwavetotraversethereach(s).Often,thisissettotheaverage
traveltimethroughthereach.
X=aweightingfactordescribingthebackwaterstorageeffectsapproximatedasawedge
I=inflow(cfsorm3/s)
O=outflow(cfsorm3/s)
ThevalueofXdependsontheamountofwedgestoragewhenX=0,thereisnobackwater(reservoirtypestorage),andwhenX=0.5,the
storageisdescribedasafullwedge.Theweightingfactor,X,rangesfrom0to0.3innaturalstreams.Avalueof0.2istypical.
Equation468representsthetimerateofchangeofstorageasthefollowing:
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Equation473.
Where:
T=timeintervalusuallyrangingfrom0.3KtoK
t=timestepnumber
CombiningEquation470withEquation471yieldstheMuskingumflowroutingequation:
Equation474.
Where:
Equation475.
Equation476.
Equation477.
Bydefinition,thesumofC1,C2,andC3is1.Ifmeasuredinflowandoutflowhydrographsareavailable,KandXcanbeestimatedusing
Equation471.CalculateXbyplottingthenumeratorontheverticalaxisandthedenominatoronthehorizontalaxis,andadjustingXuntilthe
loopcollapsesintoasingleline.TheslopeofthelineequalsK:
Equation478.
ThedesignermayalsoestimateKandXusingtheMuskingumCungemethoddescribedinChow1988orFread1993.

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