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Draft ESIA Report for Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and three Transfer Stations Project of Addis Ababa City Administration

The Sendafa landfill site Prepared by: (Final Draft) In association with
The Sendafa landfill site
Prepared by:
(Final Draft)
In association with

ZTS Environment and Development Consulting Engineers

MTS Consulting Engineers Addis Ababa, May 2014

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Table of Content LIST OF ACRONYMS 6 EXECUTIVE

Table of Content

LIST OF ACRONYMS

6

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

9

1. INTRODUCTION

10

2. BACKGROUND AND PROJECT JUSTIFICATION

12

 

2.1 OBJECTIVES

12

2.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE ESIA STUDY

 

12

2.3 SCOPE OF THE ESIA STUDY

12

3. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT

13

 

3.1. LOCATION

13

3.2

DESCRIPTION OF THE NEW SANITARY LANDFILL DESCRIPTION PROJECT

14

3.2.1 Main features of the sanitary landfill

15

3.2.2 Leachate Treatment Plant

17

3.2.3 Drainage System of the Sanitary Landfill

18

3.2.4 Storm Water Management System

19

3.2.5 Final Cover of the landfill cells

19

3.2.6 Landfill Gas Management

20

3.2.7 Site facilities and Infrastructures

20

3.2.8 Stockpiles, borrow areas and quarries

21

3.2.9 Landfill Operation

22

3.2.10

Site Closure

23

3.3

TRANSFER STATIONS

23

3.3.1 Akaki transfer station

28

3.3.2 Koshe transfer Station

28

3.3.3 Bole Arabsa transfer Station

29

4. NATIONAL AND REGIONAL POLICIES AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

31

4.1

POLICY FRAMEWORK

31

4.1.1

Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

31

4.1.2

National and Regional Conservation Strategy

32

4.1.3

Environmental Policy of Ethiopia

32

4.1.4

National Health Policy

33

4.1.5

Land Tenure Policy

34

4.1.6

National Biodiversity Policy

34

4.1.7

The Dry Waste Management Policy of the AACA

35

4.2

LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK

36

4.2.1

Establishment of Environmental Protection Organs (Proclamation No. 295/2002)

36

4.2.2

Environmental Impact Assessment (Proclamation No. 299/2002)

36

4.2.3

Addis Ababa City Government Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations No. 21/2006

38

4.2.4

Oromiya National Regional State Environmental Impact Assessment Proclamation No.176/2012

38

4.2.5

Environmental Pollution Control (Proclamation No. 300/2002)

38

4.2.6

Solid Waste Management Proclamation (No. 513/2007)

39

4.2.7

Public Health Proclamation

41

4.2.8

National Rural Land Administration and Use (Proclamation No. 456/2005)

41

4.3

INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK

43

and Use (Proclamation No. 456/2005) 41 4.3 I NSTITUTIONAL F RAMEWORK 43 ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page
and Use (Proclamation No. 456/2005) 41 4.3 I NSTITUTIONAL F RAMEWORK 43 ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project   4.3.1 The Environmental Protection Organs  
 

4.3.1 The Environmental Protection Organs

 

43

4.3.2 Ministry of Environment and Forestry (former EPA)

43

4.4. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT STANDARDS

44

 

4.4.1 Draft Urban Waste Management Standards

44

4.4.2 IFC Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) Guidelines

49

5. METHODOLOGY

50

6. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT ENVIRONMENT

53

6.1

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

53

6.1.1 Climate

53

6.1.2 Topography of the project area

 

54

6.1.3 Geology of Addis Ababa and its Surrounding

55

6.1.3.1

Geology and Soil type of Sendafa Land fill site

57

6.1.3.2 Geology and soil type of Bole Arbasa Transfer station site

58

6.1.3.3 Geology and soil type of Koshe Transfer station site

58

6.1.3.4 Geology and soil type of Akaki Transfer station site

59

6.1.4

Hydrology of the project area

60

6.1.4.1

Hydrology of the Sendafa Sanitary Landfill Area

60

6.1.4.2

Hydrology of the Bole Arbasa Transfer Station Area

61

6.1.4.3

Hydrology of the Koshe Transfer Station Area

61

6.1.4.3

Hydrology of the Akaki Transfer Station Area

62

6.1.5 Land Use and visual

63

6.1.6 Water Resources

64

6.1.6.1 Surface

waters

64

6.1.6.2 Ground waters

 

67

6.1.7

Ambient Air Quality

68

6.2

BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT

69

6.2.1 Terrestrial Vegetation

69

6.2.2 Wildlife

69

6.3

SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

 

69

6.3.1 Demography

69

6.3.2 Administration

 

70

6.3.3 Economic Activity

70

6.3.4 Health

71

6.3.5 Health Professionals

 

71

6.3.6 Education

72

6.3.7 The current Municipal Solid Waste Management System in Addis Ababa

 

73

6.3.7.1

The

Formal Sector

73

6.3.7.2

The

Informal Sector

77

6.3.8 Cultural Activities, Language, Religion and Ethnic groups

 

79

6.3.9 Socio economic background of Bereh woreda and the five towns of Oromia Special zone

79

7. ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES

82

8. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT IDENTIFICATION, PREDICTION AND ANALYSIS 84

 

8.1

THE POSITIVE IMPACTS

84

8.1.1 Impact on public health of the wider city

 

84

8.1.2 Impact on public health of the residents of the five towns in Oromia special zone

85

8.1.3 Impact on improvement of the overall solid waste management system of the city

86

8.1.4 Improvements on enhancing and formalizing ISWM

86

system of the city 86 8.1.4 Improvements on enhancing and formalizing ISWM 86 ZTS-EDCE & MTS
system of the city 86 8.1.4 Improvements on enhancing and formalizing ISWM 86 ZTS-EDCE & MTS

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 8.1.5 Improvement on overall environmental quality and

8.1.5 Improvement on overall environmental quality and property value around Koshe

86

8.1.6 Employment creation

87

8.1.7 Income generating and small businesses

88

8.2

THE NEGATIVE IMPACTS

89

8.2.1

Impact of leachate on the surface and ground water resources

89

8.2.1.1 Impact of Leachate on surface water resources

90

8.2.1.2 Impact of Leachate on ground water resources

91

8.2.2 Impact of landfill Gases on ambient air quality

8.2.2.1 Impacts related to emission of greenhouse gases

95

98

8.2.3 Impact on public health

98

8.2.4 Impacts on soil

99

8.2.5 Impact of Noise, Dust and vibration

100

8.2.6 Impact on land use and aesthetics

102

8.2.7 Impact on traffic volume during construction and operation

103

8.2.8 Impacts on occupational health and safety of workers

104

8.2.9 Impacts on terrestrial flora and fauna

105

8.2.10 Impact of Fire Hazard

105

8.2.11 Impacts due to spillage of used oil and lubricants

105

8.3

IMPACT ON SOCIOECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

106

8.3.1 Loss of Farm Land

106

8.3.2 Exposure to HIV / AIDS and other Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)

107

8.3.3 Impact on Women

107

8.4

PUBLIC AND STAKEHOLDERSCONSULTATION

107

9. IMPACT MITIGATION MEASURES

114

9.1

MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACTS OF LEACHATE ON SURFACE AND GROUND WATERS

114

9.1.1 Mitigation measure to minimize leachate volume

114

9.1.2 Mitigation Measures to Minimize Leachate Infiltration from the Disposal cells

114

9.1.3 Leachate treatment plant

116

9.2 PROPOSED MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACT OF AKAKI TRANSFER STATION ON AKAKI WELL FIELDS

118

9.3 MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACTS OF LANDFILL GAS ON AMBIENT AIR QUALITY

119

9.3.1 Gas collection and treatment

119

9.3.2 Measures to mitigate emission of GHG and exposure to landfill gas

120

9.3.3 Mitigation measures for impacts of dust and vehicle exhaust smoke

121

9.4 MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACT ON PUBLIC HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT

121

9.5 MITIGATION MEASURE FOR IMPACTS ON SOIL

123

9.6 PROPOSED MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACT OF NOISE AND VIBRATION

124

9.7 MITIGATION MEASURES FOR LAND USE AND AESTHETICS (POST –CLOSURE OF THE LANDFILL)

125

9.8 PROPOSED MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACTS ON INCREASED TRAFFIC

127

9.9 MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACTS ON HEALTH AND SAFETY

127

9.10 EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE MECHANISM FOR FIRE HAZARD

129

9.11 MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACTS OF USED OIL AND LUBRICANTS

129

9.12 MITIGATION MEASURES FOR LOSS OF FARM LAND

129

9.13 MITIGATION MEASURES FOR EXPOSURE TO HIV / AIDS AND OTHER STD

130

9.14 MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACT ON WOMEN

130

10. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL MANAGEMENT PLAN (ESMP)

143

10.1

INSTITUTIONS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ESMP

143

10.1.1

Responsibility for the implementation of ESMP related to design change

143

10.1.1 Responsibility for the implementation of ESMP related to design change 143 ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page
10.1.1 Responsibility for the implementation of ESMP related to design change 143 ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 10.1.2 Responsibility for the implementation of ESMP in

10.1.2 Responsibility for the implementation of ESMP in the construction phase

143

10.1.3 Responsibility for the implementation of ESMP in the operation phase

144

11. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL MONITORING

12. COST ESTIMATE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MITIGATION AND MONITORING

MEASURES

163

169

12.1 SUMMARY OF ENVIRONMENTAL MITIGATION AND MONITORING COSTS

176

13. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

177

14. REFERENCES

178

ANNEXES

180

ANNEX I: MINUTES OF CONSULTATION

181

ANNEX II : LIST OF EIA PREPARERS AND CVS

197

M INUTES OF C ONSULTATION 181 A NNEX II : L IST OF EIA PREPARERS AND
M INUTES OF C ONSULTATION 181 A NNEX II : L IST OF EIA PREPARERS AND

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project List of Acronyms AACG EPA A.A City Government

List of Acronyms

AACG EPA

A.A City Government Environmental Protection Authority

AACG

Addis Ababa City Government

AACMA

Addis Ababa Cleansing Management Agency

AARDPO

Addis Ababa Recycling and Disposal Project Office

AAWSA

Addis Ababa Water and Sewerage Authority

BOD5

Biological Oxygen Demand

CIS

Corrugated Iron Sheet

COD

Chemical Oxygen Demand

CSE

Conservation Strategy of Ethiopia

CW

Constructed Wetland

dB

Decibel

EHS

Environmental, Health, and Safety

EIA

Environmental Impact Assessment

EPA

Environment Protection Authority

EPE

Environmental Policy of Ethiopia

ESIA

Environmental and Social Impact Assessment

ESMF

Environmental and Social Management Framework

EWNHS

Ethiopian Wildlife & Natural History Society

FDRE

Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

FWSF

Free Water Surface Flow

GHG

Green House Gases

GIIP

Good International Industry Practice

GSE

Geological Survey of Ethiopia

HDPE

High Density Poly ethylene

HSSF

Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow

IEC

Information, education and communication

IFC

International Financial Corporation

LAEPB

Land Administration and Environmental Protection Bureau of Oromiya

Corporation LAEPB Land Administration and Environmental Protection Bureau of Oromiya ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 6
Corporation LAEPB Land Administration and Environmental Protection Bureau of Oromiya ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 6

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project LEL Lower Explosive Limit LFG Landfill Gas LTP

LEL

Lower Explosive Limit

LFG

Landfill Gas

LTP

Leachate Treatment Plant

MoEF

Ministry of Environment and Forestry

MSE

Micro and Small Enterprises

NGO

Non Governmental Organization

NMOC

Non-methane organic compounds

NIMBY

Not In MY Back Yard

NSR

Noise Sensitive Receivers

NUSWMS

National Urban Solid Waste Management Standards

OHS

Occupational Health and Safety

PAP

Project Affected Parties

PPE

Personal Protective Equipment

ppm

Parts per Million

RPF

Resettlement Policy Framework

STDs

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

SWM

Solid Waste Management

UEL

Upper Explosive limit

UV

Ultra violate

VOCs

Volatile Organic Chemicals

WWDCE

Water Works Design and Construction Enterprise

VOCs Volatile Organic Chemicals WWDCE Water Works Design and Construction Enterprise ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 7
VOCs Volatile Organic Chemicals WWDCE Water Works Design and Construction Enterprise ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 7

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project List of Tables Table 1: Geographical coordinates of

List of Tables

Table 1: Geographical coordinates of the Sendafa landfill site Table 2: Design dimension and function of the blocks of the transfer station Table 3: Monthly Mean temperature (0c) and average rainfall (mm) data for 6 years (2007-2012) from Bole Meteorological Table 4: Average Monthly wind speed (km/hr) of 6 years (2007-2012) Table 5: Population by sub city and number of kebelle Table 6: Health professional by qualification Table 7: Top ten diseases Table 8: Showing school enrolment by gender Table 9: Ratio of school boys to girls

Table 10: Population of the towns in Oromia Special zone

Table 11: Top ten diseases in Bereh Woreda Table 12: Summary table of alternative sites considered Table 13: Draft Noise emission standards of FEPA Table 14: Magnitude Matrix showing the significance of potential impacts of the project Table 15: Summary of Major impacts and proposed Mitigating Measures Table 16: Summary of Major Positive Impacts and Enhancement Measures Table.17: Summary of Environmental and Social Management Plan (ESMP) Table 18: Environmental and social monitoring indicators, frequency of measurement and reporting Table 19: Cost estimates for implementing mitigation measures Table 20: Summary of Environmental Mitigation and Monitoring costs

List of Maps

Map 1: Location of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill site Map 2: Location of Transfer station and the Sanitary landfill Map 3: Geology of Addis Ababa and Surrounding Area Map 4: Geological Map and water points in Sendafa Sanitary Landfill Site Map 5: Water points and Geological structures around Akaki Transfer station Map 6: Drainage Map of Akaki Catchment Map 7: Aquifer Map of Addis Ababa and its surrounding Area

Map 8: Akaki Well Fields (WF)

List of Figures

Fig 1: Showing the design layout of the new Sendafa Sanitary landfill Fig 2: Site layout of the Bole Arabsa transfer stations Fig 3: General layout of the transfer shade (Block 6) of Koshe Transfer Station Fig 4: Partial view the Akaki transfer station site Fig 5: Partial view the open land in Koshe/Repi for transfer station site Fig 6: Partial view the Bole Arbasa transfer station site Fig 7: Showing current land use types at Sendafa landfill, Akaki and Bole Arbasa transfer station sites Fig 8: Showing the confluence of Legetafo with Legedadi River where sample was collected Fig.9: Solid waste collection coverage in Addis Ababa Fig 10: Annual Solid waste generation and collection Fig 11: Street cleaning performance vis-a-vis demand Fig 12: Showing recently abandoned and new open dump sites in Sebeta town Fig 13: Showing an engineered sanitary landfill turned to open dump site in Adama Fig 14: Showing the community consultation conducted at Sendafa landfill site

site in Adama Fig 14: Showing the community consultation conducted at Sendafa landfill site ZTS-EDCE &
site in Adama Fig 14: Showing the community consultation conducted at Sendafa landfill site ZTS-EDCE &

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Executive Summary ZTS-EDCE & MTS

Executive Summary

Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Executive Summary ZTS-EDCE & MTS
Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Executive Summary ZTS-EDCE & MTS

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 1. Introduction Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia,

1. Introduction

Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, is one of the recently flourishing cities in Africa. Encompassing nearly 3 million inhabitants in its area of 540km 2 with a comfortable average temperature of 16 0 C and an altitude of 2500m above sea level, Addis Ababa is becoming the attention-getting of many international agencies, tourists, and diplomatic corps to mention few to live, work in and visit. Geographically, Addis Ababa is located in 8055 & 9005 North latitude and 38040 & 38050 East latitude.

Historically passing through different administrative restructurings, Addis Ababa now is managed by four governmental hierarchies- The City Council and The City Government (Administration) at the top, the Sub cities (10 in number) in the middle and Woredas (equivalent to districts) at the bottom. Though Addis Ababa is astonishingly booming, the poor waste handling and management practices both by the public and the municipality are putting their shadows on its international image and development. Its causes are numerous and interwoven in nature attributed to an individual inhabitant, the community, and the administrative level. Uncontrolled disposal of wastes in general and solid wastes in particular to the earth, water, and air will seriously affect the health of the growing, producing and elderly citizens of the City. Moreover, it will decrease the productivity of the land, and change the image of the city as a capital of an exemplary country of independence to Africans and a sit for different local and international organizations. Hence, the need for integrated management approach and up-to-date collection, transport and controlled removal of solid wastes in an organized landfill is necessary to avert these problems.

The development of well designed and planned solid waste disposal site that could address the long term desire of the city is now under implementation. In this respect, the city has identified waste management sites, namely, construction of new sanitary land fill at Sendafa, construction of three transfer stations in Koshe/Repi, Bole Arabsa and Akaki. The construction of the Sendafa sanitary land fill and three transfer stations is expected to respond to the long awaited problem of the city. In addition since the services of the proposed solid waste project extends to cover Sebeta, Burayu, Sululta, Sendafa, and Gelan towns, it will also respond to the emerging needs of these five towns of Oromia Special Zone for such appropriate solid waste management facilities and services.

Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) is a process for examining the environmental and social consequences of a proposed development project. The ESIA process is designed to

and social consequences of a proposed development project. The ESIA process is designed to ZTS-EDCE &
and social consequences of a proposed development project. The ESIA process is designed to ZTS-EDCE &

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project provide decision makers and stakeholders with adequate

provide decision makers and stakeholders with adequate information to manage responsibly the environmental and often social consequences of their actions. The present ESIA report is prepared for the new Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and three transfer stations to be developed by the Addis Ababa Solid waste management project. The stated project is implemented by the Addis Ababa City Administration in cooperation with French Development Agency. The present ESIA report is prepared to respond to the requirements of the National and Regional Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) legislations by meeting relevant International standards.

While undertaking this ESIA study due considerations were given to relevant International, National and Regional requirements. Chapter one to three of the ESIA study report presents information that introduces the proposed development project, its objectives and describes the key components of the Solid waste management project. The baseline data reflecting the current status of the physical and social environments of the project area are outlined in chapter six. Whereas identification and analysis of all potential environmental and social impacts are thoroughly discussed in chapter eight, the proposed mitigation measures for the major and significant adverse impacts followed by the Environmental and Social Management Plan are presented in the succeeding chapters.

by the Environmental and Social Management Plan are presented in the succeeding chapters. ZTS-EDCE & MTS
by the Environmental and Social Management Plan are presented in the succeeding chapters. ZTS-EDCE & MTS

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 2. Background and Project Justification 2.1 Objectives The

2. Background and Project Justification

2.1 Objectives

The overall objective of this project is to preserve, protect and improve the environmental quality of Addis Ababa and the five towns of Oromia Special Zone (i.e. Sebeta, Burayu, Sululta, Sendafa, and Gelan towns) through the development of the new sanitary land fill, the closure of the existing dump site, the construction of three transfer stations and by providing accompanying services towards an environmentally sustainable, cost effective and affordable integrated waste management system in compliance with the national waste management legislation through developing environmentally friendly infrastructures in the waste sector for Addis Ababa City and the five towns of Oromia special zone.

2.2 Objective of the ESIA Study

The main objectives of the ESIA study is to describe the existing bio-physical and socio-cultural features of the proposed project environment, assess the potential positive and negative effects, and recommend appropriate mitigating measures that will avoid, minimize or compensate any undesirable effects expected to result from the construction and operation activities of the project. The study is aimed to ensure that the environmental and social effects of the project activities are adequately and appropriately addressed before decisions are made to implement them.

2.3 Scope of the ESIA study

The spatial and temporal scope of the ESIA study is bounded by the location, construction and operation activities envisaged by the components of the solid waste project. The spatial scope of the project will consist of the areas of direct and indirect impact zones. The direct impact zone is considered to be those areas where the existing biophysical, socio-economic and environmental components are likely to be directly affected by the activities of the project components. These include Addis Ababa city and limited towns of Oromia special zone. The project sites form the centre of influence for the direct impact zone. Accordingly, the spatial scope is centred at Koshe/Repi, at Sendafa/Legedadi, at Bole Arabsa; and Akaki Beseka areas.

The temporal scope of the ESIA study would mainly focus on assessing the potential impacts that are likely to occur during construction and operational periods of the project. The environmental and social assessment framework would identify the direct and indirect impacts on humans, flora and fauna, soil, water, air, landscape, material assets and cultural heritage stemming from the implementation activities of the project. It will also develop relevant mitigation/enhancement

activities of the project. It will also develop relevant mitigation/enhancement ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 12
activities of the project. It will also develop relevant mitigation/enhancement ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 12

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project /offsetting measures and monitoring, institutional

/offsetting measures and monitoring, institutional strengthening measures to be undertaken during project implementation and operation.

3. Description of the Proposed Project

3.1. Location

The new Sendafa sanitary land fill site is located at North-Eastern side of Addis Ababa in Oromia Region, Finfine Zuria special zone, Bereh Woreda, in Chebe Weregenu kebelle close to a town called ‘Legetafo’. The new Sendafa sanitary landfill site is sometimes called the ‘Chebe Woregenu landfill site’. It is located about 25km away from Addis Ababa city and about 5km South-West of Lagedadi dam. The new sanitary landfill site can be accessed by diverting from the main Addis Ababa-Dessie highway near Sendafa and taking the new dry weather road that connect Sendafa town with Dukem town. It can also be accessed via Hayat road though it requires maintenance and bridge construction over the Legetafo River. Geographically, the new sanitary landfill site is delimited with the following coordinates.

Corner point

Northing

Easting

CW0

999500.79209330

492458.49501042

CW1

999594.78457313

491843.04732505

CW2

999470.33567845

491727.10099301

CW3

997392.15479734

491784.92665263

CW4

997506.52507593

492459.67219718

Table 1: Geographical coordinates of the Sendafa landfill site

492459.67219718 Table 1: Geographical coordinates of the Sendafa landfill site ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 13
492459.67219718 Table 1: Geographical coordinates of the Sendafa landfill site ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 13

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Sendafa Sanitary Landfill Site Map -1: Location of
Sendafa Sanitary Landfill Site
Sendafa Sanitary
Landfill Site

Map -1: Location of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill site

3.2 Description of the new Sanitary Landfill Description project

The proposed sanitary landfill consists of the following project components.

Main Features of the Sanitary Landfill site

Drainage System of the Sanitary Landfill

Leachate Treatment

Plant

Storm Water Management System

Final Cover of the landfill cells

Landfill Gas Management

Site facilities and Infrastructures

of the landfill cells Landfill Gas Management Site facilities and Infrastructures ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 14
of the landfill cells Landfill Gas Management Site facilities and Infrastructures ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 14

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Stockpiles, borrow areas and quarries Landfill Developments

Stockpiles, borrow areas and quarries Landfill Developments and Operation Site Closure Transfer Stations

3.2.1 Main features of the sanitary landfill

The shape of the sanitary landfill site is a strip oriented in North-South direction with a natural slope of 1.2% toward the south. It has a total area of 124.5 hectare out of which 102 hectares will be used for the landfill development and the rest is free zone left as a buffer between the land fill and the Bole airport. The area used for the construction of the landfill cells and leachate treatment plant is about 82 hectares and the remaining space will be used for the development of all other required facilities such as roads, buildings and drainages.

For preliminary planning purposes, it has been assumed that the landfill will be developed as five cells including one for hazardous waste. Four of the five cells will be used for disposal of non- hazardous solid waste and the remaining one (cell No.5) for hazardous waste (see fig 1). Disposal of wastes at the site will take place 12 hours a day, 6 days a week throughout the year.

The type of waste expected to be disposed in the new Sendafa sanitary landfill will be composed of hazardous and non hazardous waste that will be generated from residential, industrial, institutional and commercial sources as well as from service areas of Addis Ababa City, Legetafo, Sendafa, Sebeta, Gelan and Burayu towns. However the new Sanitary landfill will not accept medical wastes for disposal in the cells. The new sanitary land fill is expected to handle about 8,200,000 tons over the next 20 years. It is anticipated that the life span of the new Sendafa Sanitary Landfill would be 20 years.

It is anticipated that the life span of the new Sendafa Sanitary Landfill would be 20
It is anticipated that the life span of the new Sendafa Sanitary Landfill would be 20

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Fig 1: Showing the design layout of the
of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Fig 1: Showing the design layout of the

Fig 1: Showing the design layout of the new Sendafa Sanitary landfill

Access to the site will be through a newly constructed asphalt road on the north western part of the landfill site. Approximately 170 meters of new road will be constructed from the access road to the gate of the landfill.

Rainwater infiltration through disposed solid waste is expected to produce leachate. To prevent infiltration of leachate into the ground that may pollute the soil and the groundwater, the bottom and slopes of the constructed cells will be covered with active and passive barriers. The proposed liner systems for active and passive barrier will have the following specifications;

- Passive barrier: 5 meters of materials with a permeability of maximum 10 -6 m/s, or equivalent.

- Active barrier: The active barrier will be created by placing a 2mm thick HDPE geo- membrane on the whole bottom surface of the cells. For the cell receiving hazardous wastes (i.e. Cell No. 5), the active security barrier will be reinforced by an additional smooth and UV protected 2mm thick HDPE geo-membrane.

will be reinforced by an additional smooth and UV protected 2mm thick HDPE geo-membrane. ZTS-EDCE &
will be reinforced by an additional smooth and UV protected 2mm thick HDPE geo-membrane. ZTS-EDCE &

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project For checking the integrity of the active barrier

For checking the integrity of the active barrier system, a 15cm sand layer with slotted HDPE pipes within it will be placed between the two HDPE geo-membranes. This will serve as leakage detection layer. The pipes will lead to a leakage control manhole that will be checked on a monthly basis as soon as the first raw of hazardous waste will be disposed of.

3.2.2 Leachate Treatment Plant

The proposed sanitary landfill is designed to have a leachate treatment plant. The proposed leachate treatment plant will consist of facultative aerobic pond, anaerobic pond and constructed wetland. These are explained as follows.

(a) Anaerobic Pond

An anaerobic pond (3m deep) will receive leachate with high organic loads. This pond will not contain dissolved oxygen or algae. In this anaerobic pond, COD and BOD 5 removal is achieved by

conversion of both soluble and non-soluble COD and BOD 5 into mainly methane, carbon dioxide

and water. The process of anaerobic digestion is more intense at temperatures above 15°C and can reach up to 75% of BOD 5 removal. A retention time of at least 20 days will be used to ensure

proper treatment.

(b) Facultative Aerobic Pond

The facultative aerobic pond (1.2 m deep) is used to treat the remaining BOD 5 and COD

downstream of the anaerobic pond. The process of oxidizing organic matter by algae and aerobic bacteria is dominant.

The algal concentration in the pond depends on nutrient loading, temperature and sunlight, but is usually in the range of 500 - 2000 µg chlorophyl-a/l. Because of the photosynthetic activities of pond algae, there is a diurnal variation in the dissolved oxygen concentration. The dissolved oxygen concentration in the leachate gradually rises after sunrise, in response to photosynthetic activity, to a maximum level in the mid afternoon, after which it falls to a minimum during the night, when photosynthesis ceases and respiratory activities consume oxygen. The pond proposed is sized and designed in order to ensure a long retention time to avoid hydraulic by-passes of the leachate in the pond.

to ensure a long retention time to avoid hydraulic by-passes of the leachate in the pond.
to ensure a long retention time to avoid hydraulic by-passes of the leachate in the pond.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project (c)Wetland A constructed (or engineered) wetlands (CW) is

(c)Wetland

A constructed (or engineered) wetlands (CW) is planned to be constructed to grow wetland

vegetation to assist in treating wastewater in a more controlled environment than what occurs in

natural wetlands. The pollutants removed by CWs include organic materials, suspended solids, nutrients, pathogens, heavy metals and other toxic or hazardous pollutants. The choice has been made to design a Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow (HSSF) system as the efficiency is higher than a Free Water Surface Flow (FWSF) for the same plan area.

3.2.3 Drainage System of the Sanitary Landfill

A drainage layer will be placed all over the bottom liner system and at the bottom of the cells and

on the side slopes. To avoid clogging and capillary action holding water in the drainage layer,

coarse material is used so that there is space within the drainage layer for leachate to drain freely.

A layer of 50 cm of gravels (with low CaCO 3 content to prevent degradation by acidic leachate)

will be laid on top of the protection geo-textile (last layer of the Liner System) .The size of the

gravels will be 16/32mm. A geo-textile filter will be placed over the drainage layer to protect it from clogging as a result of solids transport.

Since it is impossible to place 50cm of gravels on the side slopes, a geo-composite side slope drainage layer with at least the same hydraulic conductivity will be placed. The geo-composite for drainage will be composed of a HDPE core bonded on both sides by a non-woven filtration geo- textile. The thickness of this geo-composite for drainage will never be less than 7.5mm.

At the bottom of the slopes, the geo-composite will be laid below the granular drainage layer, with

a minimum length of 1.5m, allowing for a safe discharge of sides slopes collected leachate into the bottom LCRS.

Slotted collection pipes will be laid (embedded) within the gravel layer in such a manner that the leachate will be drained within the gravels layer to these slotted pipes. Maximum spacing between pipes varies. The slotted pipes will be connected to HDPE collectors (full pipes) at the base of the slopes at each low point of cells.

The collectors shall lead to HDPE transmission pipes in the peripheral trenches near the ground level and along the perimeter bunds. These pipes will lead the leachate by gravity to the downstream part of the site.

bunds. These pipes will lead the leachate by gravity to the downstream part of the site.
bunds. These pipes will lead the leachate by gravity to the downstream part of the site.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project For the operation of Cell 1, the Leachate

For the operation of Cell 1, the Leachate Treatment Plant will be fed by gravity only whereas for the other Cells the gravity collector pipes will lead to a pumping manhole downstream of the site, where a pump will be installed in order to feed the Leachate Treatment Plant. The maximum leachate inflow at the LTP inlet will be controlled so as to never get over 650m 3 /day. Control valves will therefore be installed on the feeding pipe and assure that this maximum flow is never exceeded.

3.2.4 Storm Water Management System

The design of the sanitary landfill consists of a storm water management system. Storm water management works are designed to control flow within the waste-relief boundary and external surface water flow to prevent flooding and erosion. The storm water management system will include peripheral storm water ditches made of reinforced concrete. In addition, berm will be made on top of the waste mass and ditches, on the slopes and on the final cover to protect slopes from erosion.

Non-contaminated storm water, originating from non-operating areas of the landfill will be collected and conveyed downstream of the cells. Storm water coming from outside the cells will all be collected by the ditches of the perimeter road. Non-contaminated storm water, originating from non-operated cells or sub-cells will be collected through the leachate collection network in place and will be conveyed via another storm water piping network parallel to the leachate transmission network.

The Leachate Collection System is entirely separated from the Storm water Management System. Leachate will be collected from the lined cells area and sent to the downstream Leachate Treatment Plant. No leachate will be discharged to the Storm water Management System.

The pipes used to drain the uncontaminated storm water coming from non-operated cells will be the same as the future Leachate Drainage Pipe.

3.2.5 Final Cover of the landfill cells

The new sanitary landfill is designed to have a final cover with proper slopes. The final cover will meet internationally recognized slope requirements of 5 to 20 percent. The cover will be designed to allow stability over the waste mass and it will be placed in progress with the operation. The slopes may be adapted during the operation period depending on the actual waste density, and ratio of cover soil to waste. Compacted waste will be mounded and compacted to provide base for

of cover soil to waste. Compacted waste will be mounded and compacted to provide base for
of cover soil to waste. Compacted waste will be mounded and compacted to provide base for

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project profiled cap. Finally, the external slope of the

profiled cap. Finally, the external slope of the peripheral bunds will be covered with local vegetation at their installation whereas the surface of each cell will be covered as soon as the height of waste reaches its final dimension.

3.2.6 Landfill Gas Management

The proposed sanitary landfill has included a mechanism for landfill gas management in its detail design. Fermentation is a phenomenon that occurs spontaneously in engineered landfills as a result of the anaerobic digestion of organic compounds. This produces a gas referred to as “Landfill Gas” (LFG) or “biogas” that is essentially composed of methane (CH 4 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The confinement of the solid waste at the Sendafa sanitary landfill will steadily increase the production of methane until it finally stabilizes at around 45% by volume. This LFG will need to be collected because of the danger it presents for the staff and local residents, and its impact on the greenhouse effect.

The equipments that will be used to collect the LFG are:

Vertical pumping wells drilled within the waste body. Each well has a radius of about 30 meters. Each cell would have about 25 wells. These wells could also be used for leachate pumping in case of clogging or breakdown of the bottom leachate drainage system;

Horizontal network of HDPE pipes connecting the wells to the extraction system and the flare;

Condensate traps collecting the humidity condensate in the pipes;

Blower creating a negative pressure in the LFG network for LFG extraction and

Flare burning the gas and converting the hazardous methane gas into CO2 reducing the impact on global warming;

Analyzers to monitor the gas quality and prevent explosions;

The LFG system including drilling of the wells will be constructed with the final cover at the end

of the lifetime of each cells or sub-cells. The LFG collection pipes are necessary to get the vacuum to the wells and get the gas from the well to the flare.

3.2.7 Site facilities and Infrastructures

The Addis Ababa Road Construction Authority is implementing a project for the construction of 8km asphalt road that provides access to the new Sanitary landfill site in Sendafa. The social and environmental impacts of these works had been tackled late 2012 and early 2013 by Omega

and environmental impacts of these works had been tackled late 2012 and early 2013 by Omega
and environmental impacts of these works had been tackled late 2012 and early 2013 by Omega

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Consulting, also in charge of the works supervision

Consulting, also in charge of the works supervision and contract management on behalf of AACA. In addition a new 170 meter long access road will be connecting the entrance gate of the sanitary landfill site to the main road at the northwest corner of the site.

A gate will be constructed across the entrance and instructions to the vehicle drivers delivering

the waste to the site will be put in place. A road 7.0 m wide with a two-lane cross section will be

constructed on the top of the bund between cells 1 and 2/3 and between Cells 4 and Cells 1/2/3. These roads will be asphalted and the remaining bund crests will be gravel-surfaced so as to allow for maintenance vehicle to access if needed.

Potable water to the landfill site will be provided from two water storage tanks of 10 m.cu capacity that will be constructed next to the building facilities area. Moreover, electricity to the site will be provided through an on-site generator owned and operated by the Landfill operator.

The fencing of the entire sanitary landfill site with concrete pole and barbed wire has been implemented already and is well underway. The fence is planned to be completed well before the

commencement of civil works of the sanitary landfill development. Weighbridges and gatehouse are to be provided close to the entrance of the site to control access and record quantities and types

of the incoming waste. A guard house will be provided for the weighbridge attendant.

Trucks wheel cleaning is required to remove litter and mud at the tipping face of the waste collection vehicles. The release of this mud and particularly litter on the site access road will create an unacceptable environmental impact. To minimize such impact concrete hardstand for a high- pressure washer will be provided.

An administration building will also be constructed close to the entrance and will provide offices for the management and administration staff as well as meeting room, locker room and toilet for operators. Shades will also be constructed for the maintenance of equipment and protection of vehicles from direct sunlight.

3.2.8 Stockpiles, borrow areas and quarries

During construction phase it is planned in the design report that soil from excavations on the site will first be used, when suitable, for construction of cells, bunds as well as any filling operations necessary to fit with the projected levels of the overall site as indicated on the design drawings.

to fit with the projected levels of the overall site as indicated on the design drawings.
to fit with the projected levels of the overall site as indicated on the design drawings.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Any excavated soil not utilized immediately will be

Any excavated soil not utilized immediately will be stockpiled on site for future use. Stockpiling will be the sole responsibility of the landfill operator. Any surplus of soil from excavation will be used for daily, intermediate, and final cover on the landfill areas. Soil will also be needed for road construction, any required backfilling operations, and berms. Sources of soil will include all excavations within the site boundaries. As the south-western part of the site can be utilized neither for any landfill cell nor for any leachate treatment facilities, it will only serve as borrow area for any filling works both during construction and operation.

In case of a lack of suitable material from the landfill construction excavations, the following borrow sites and quarries sites has been identified.

Clay material is found in a borrow area located 2km away from the landfill in the north-east direction (493654E and 999834mN)

Gravel material is available within 3-4km radius of the Landfill site. The material is coming from the basaltic rock formation which is moderately weathered. The site is currently used as aggregate quarry site for gravel road construction

3.2.9 Landfill Operation

At the end of each working day, the entire working face of a cell will be graded smooth and compacted. Approved cover material will be placed on all exposed waste at the working face. If soil is used as daily cover, a minimum thickness of 150 mm will be placed. When possible, sandy soil will be preferred as daily cover material to allow the downward passage of water and provide good hydraulic connection between the waste layers. Finer-grained soils are less suitable because they can create lower permeability layers and pathways for the lateral migration of leachate towards the landfill side slopes. Use of finer-grained soils for daily cover purposes can also cause access problems for waste delivery vehicles, particularly during windy weather conditions.

Basic functions to be performed by landfill equipment at the site are:

Waste grading and compaction;

Excavation and compaction of daily and intermediate cover;

Typically, these functions will be performed by landfill compactors and wheeled loaders. A pick-up truck will also be included in the typical on-site equipment fleet. Other functions requiring equipment are landfill cell preparation, final cover construction, delivery of drop-off bin wastes to the working face, road maintenance, and dust control. Some of these functions may be performed

working face, road maintenance, and dust control. Some of these functions may be performed ZTS-EDCE &
working face, road maintenance, and dust control. Some of these functions may be performed ZTS-EDCE &

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project with on-site equipment, but others may require equipment

with on-site equipment, but others may require equipment to be leased or a contractor to be hired. Routine maintenance and cleaning will be performed as necessary to keep onsite equipment in good operating order.

In areas where land filling has been temporarily discontinued for six months or more, soil will be

placed to minimum thickness of 300 mm as intermediate cover. This intermediate cover will facilitate the movement of equipment and prevent the exposure of waste from erosion. Intermediate cover will be placed on the top of each lift of waste and on any interior slopes that will not be disturbed until the next land filling stage.

3.2.10 Site Closure

During the operational phases of the sanitary landfill, final cover and seeding will be applied progressively to portions of the landfill area that are completed. Consequently, site closure will involve reaching final waste elevations over the last remaining area of the landfill followed by the application and seeding of final cover in that area. During site closure, equipment on site will be removed. The entrance gate and perimeter fencing will be retained to control access.

A Closure Plan will be submitted to the relevant Federal and Regional offices of the EPA for

approval when the landfill site is two years from its projected completion or by the time 90 percent

of the landfill has been filled, whichever comes first. The closure plan for the site would include

plan showing site appearance after closure, description of the proposed end use of the site, descriptions of the procedures for closure of the site, including advance notification of the public of

the landfill closure.

3.3 Transfer Stations

A transfer station is an interface between short haul waste collection vehicles and long haul vehicles which are more appropriate for economical long distance hauling in the process of waste disposal. Three transfer stations are proposed to be constructed at Akaki, Koshe and Bole Arabsa sites as part and parcel of the overall waste management system of Addis Ababa City Administration and the five towns in Oromia special zone. It is to be recalled that the Filidoro site has been changed to Bole Arabsa site because of the unavailability and unsuitability of the former for transfer station purpose.

The proposed transfer stations are designed to have the following main building blocks that are necessary for its day to day operations (see table 2). These blocks are coded Block-A to Block-K in the site layout of the three transfer stations with slight variation in coding from one to another. In

layout of the three transfer stations with slight variation in coding from one to another. In
layout of the three transfer stations with slight variation in coding from one to another. In

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project order to avoid confusion, the main blocks are

order to avoid confusion, the main blocks are listed in table 2 as Block 1 to 7. In addition the blocks in each transfer station are equipped with the required basic facilities for the staff working in the stations.

Block No.

 

Size of the Building block

 

Function of the Building block

 

Akaki

Bole Arabsa

 

Koshe

Block 1

1000 m 2

1130

m 2

1130

m 2

Sorting room

Block 2

128 m 2

128 m 2

128 m 2

Changing room, shower room and toilets

Block 3

139.84 m 2

165 m 2

165 m 2

Maintenance workshop

Block 4

12

m 2

12

m 2

12

m 2

Generator House

Block 5

12.25 m 2

30

m 2

30

m 2

weighing bridge control room

Block 6

900 m 2

1052

m 2

2070

m 2

Transfer station shed

Block 7

33

m 2

33

m 2

33

m 2

Guard House /Main Gate

Table 2: Design dimension and function of the blocks of the transfer station

Block 6 will consist of a shed where the 8m 3 skip trucks unload the solid waste hauled from different parts of the city to the transfer stations. Block 6 also serves as a loading ground for the 30m 3 trucks that haul the solid waste to the sanitary landfill. The mode of operation of the proposed transfer stations are designed to have low level of sophistication. Its operational mechanism will fundamentally consist of depositing the waste onto a suitably designed platform for manual loading into the large long-haul vehicle by scraping waste from the floor by front end loader. Access roads for unloading trucks (8m 3 ) and for loading trucks (long haul vehicles) will be separated. All the access ways will be asphalt road and the manoeuvrings areas (loading & unloading docks) will be paved with concrete slab (see fig. 3). The long haul trucks to be applied will be open top trailers that unload by tipping in the Sanitary landfill cells. Loading will be achieved by front-end loader in the transfer stations.

The catchment area for each transfer station is defined based on sub city limits while giving due consideration to maintain the collection areas to be as close as possible to the transfer stations by

to maintain the collection areas to be as close as possible to the transfer stations by
to maintain the collection areas to be as close as possible to the transfer stations by

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project taking into account distance between sub-cities and expected

taking into account distance between sub-cities and expected outlets. For those sub-cities or Oromia special zone towns situated close to the Sanitary landfill (Such as Sendafa and Legetafo towns), waste will be hauled directly from skip point to the landfill. According to the traffic flow analysis of the detail design report of the transfer stations, about 333 trips of the 8m 3 skip trucks and 34 trips of the 30m 3 long haul trucks are expected to be handled daily in each of the transfer stations.

The transfer station design have also incorporated a large shade (i.e. block 1) for undertaking waste sorting activities where wastes will be segregated for recovery, reuse and recycling. On the other hand, tracks that will be engaged in the transportation of wastes from the City to the transfer station and then to the sanitary landfill will be maintained in block 3. The incoming trucks loaded with waste will be weighed in Block 5 of the control room. The site layout of Bole Arabsa transfer stations is shown in fig 2 as typical demonstration.

There will be fence around the transfer station sites and the length of the fences around Akaki, Koshe and Bole Arabsa transfer station sites is about 2082 meters, 1820 meters and 1207 meters respectively.

Arabsa transfer station sites is about 2082 meters, 1820 meters and 1207 meters respectively. ZTS-EDCE &
Arabsa transfer station sites is about 2082 meters, 1820 meters and 1207 meters respectively. ZTS-EDCE &

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Fig 2. Site layout of the Bole Arabsa
of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Fig 2. Site layout of the Bole Arabsa

Fig 2. Site layout of the Bole Arabsa transfer stations

and Transfer Stations Project Fig 2. Site layout of the Bole Arabsa transfer stations ZTS-EDCE &
and Transfer Stations Project Fig 2. Site layout of the Bole Arabsa transfer stations ZTS-EDCE &

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Fig 3: General layout of the transfer shade
of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Fig 3: General layout of the transfer shade

Fig 3: General layout of the transfer shade (Block 6) of Koshe Transfer Station

Project Fig 3: General layout of the transfer shade (Block 6) of Koshe Transfer Station ZTS-EDCE
Project Fig 3: General layout of the transfer shade (Block 6) of Koshe Transfer Station ZTS-EDCE

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 3.3.1 Akaki transfer station The Akaki transfer station

3.3.1 Akaki transfer station

The Akaki transfer station is located Southern part of Addis Ababa. It is found in Akaki Kaliti Sub city of Addis Ababa City Administration. Geographically the site is located 473679E and 979014N. The site is bounded by the Condominium house in northern, liquid waste treatment site in the East and by a farm land on southern and eastern part. The topography of the Akaki transfer station site is relatively flat. The elevation of the site varies from 2066 to 2068 masl.

One geotechnical core drilling with depth of 10m and 4 test pits were excavated to understand the geology of the area. Geologically, the Akaki transfer station site is situated on residual soil. This residual soil has three layers and has more than 10m thickness. The first layer is characterized by top clay soil and has a thickness of 0.2- 0.3m. The second layer is characterized by black clay soil with an average thickness of 1.4m. The third layer is greyish salty clay and it extended up to 10m.

third layer is greyish salty clay and it extended up to 10m. Fig 4: Partial view

Fig 4: Partial view the Akaki transfer station site

3.3.2 Koshe transfer Station

The Koshe Repi transfer Station is situated at the south west part of Addis Ababa City on the existing landfill site. It is found in the Woreda 01/02 of Nifas Silk Lafto Su-city of the Addis Ababa City Administration. Geographically the site is located 468026E and 991692N.

The site is bounded by the reclaimed land fill site in the northern part, active land fill site in the southern part and ring road and a school in the northern part.

The site is found in the Little Akaki River catchment and its tributary Jomo River is found 200 meters north of the landfill site. The river flow direction is from south to north. Since the southern

of the landfill site. The river flow direction is from south to north. Since the southern
of the landfill site. The river flow direction is from south to north. Since the southern

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project part of the site is bounded by the

part of the site is bounded by the ring road that already has its own drainage system, storm water flow is not expected to enter into the transfer station area from outside.

Koshe transfer station is partially operating landfill site. The Koshe landfill site will be rehabilitated in two phases. The first phase of 19 hectares will be rehabilitated with the aim of optimization of the transportation of waste to the future Sendafa Landfill site. The site is characterized by organic soil and rhyolite rock formation. The organic soil is characterized by partly decomposed waste material with little clay and thickness of 10 to 80cm. Below the organic soil, there is rhyolitic volcanic rock. Koshe site lies on Rhyolite rock formation that extends up to 7 meters deep. Koshe transfer station site is located on zone 2 seismic zone of Ethiopia with pick ground acceleration of

0.1g.

zone of Ethiopia with pick ground acceleration of 0.1g. Fig 5: Partial view the open land

Fig 5: Partial view the open land in Koshe/Repi for transfer station site

3.3.3 Bole Arabsa transfer Station

The Bola Arabsa Transfer station is located South East part of Addis Ababa. It is found in Bole Sub city of Addis Ababa City Administration, Ethiopia. Geographically the site is located 486390E and 988652N. The site is bounded in all directions by agricultural farm land. The transfer station site is 3.5km away from Bole Lemi Industry zone and Bole Ayat Condominium Site.

The Bole Arabsa site is situated on basaltic rock formation and is covered by very thin soil layer. The soil layers have a thickness of 0.1m to 0.8m thick soil. This soil is black in colour, it is sandy clay. The thickness of the soil is not more than 80cm and has very loose top soil. Therefore, it is considered as bad material for the construction of engineering structures and it has to be removed during construction. Below this soil layer there is basaltic rock characterized by slight to moderately weathered rock having thickness of more than 10m. The bed rock has slight to

to moderately weathered rock having thickness of more than 10m. The bed rock has slight to
to moderately weathered rock having thickness of more than 10m. The bed rock has slight to

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project moderately weathered rock and has moderate strength. Akaki

moderately weathered rock and has moderate strength. Akaki and Bole Arabsa Sites are located on Zone 3 of seismic earthquake zone with peak ground acceleration of 0.15g.

earthquake zone with peak ground acceleration of 0.15g. Fig 6: Partial view the Bole Arbasa transfer

Fig 6: Partial view the Bole Arbasa transfer station site

Fig 6: Partial view the Bole Arbasa transfer station site Map 2: Location of Transfer station

Map 2: Location of Transfer station and the Sanitary landfill

Arbasa transfer station site Map 2: Location of Transfer station and the Sanitary landfill ZTS-EDCE &
Arbasa transfer station site Map 2: Location of Transfer station and the Sanitary landfill ZTS-EDCE &

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 4. National and Regional policies and regulatory framework

4. National and Regional policies and regulatory framework

4.1 Policy framework

Following the constitution of the FDRE; social, economic and public health related importance of

solid waste management is getting increasing attention by the various levels of the government.

Hence relevant policies and laws at various government levels have been drafted and issued in

more recent years. Accordingly a review and commentary on the extent to which all social,

economic and environmental related issued are addressed as following.

4.1.1 Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia The Constitution is the supreme law of the country, whose provisions must be complied with by all

other policies, regulations and institutional frameworks. The Constitution of the FDRE

(Proclamation No. 1/1995 as amended) is the foundation for human rights, and natural resources

and environmental management.

The concepts of sustainable development and environmental rights are enshrined in the

Constitution of the FDRE through articles 43 and 44, which states among others the right to

development and right to live in clean and healthy environment. Article 44(2) of the Constitution

states that all persons who have been displaced, or whose livelihood has been adversely affected as

a result of state programs have the right to commensurate monetary or alternative means of

compensation including relocation with adequate State assistance. The government shall pay fair

compensation for property found on the land but the amount of compensation shall not take into

account the value of land. Moreover the Constitution states that, without prejudice to the right to

private property, the government may expropriate private property for public purposes subject to

payment in advance of compensation commensurate to the value of the property (Article 40(8).

Moreover, Article 43 (2) dealing with the rights to development states that nationals have the right

to participate in national development and, in particular, to be consulted with respect to policies and

projects affecting their community.

Economic objectives of the Constitution states that Government has the duty to hold, on behalf of

the people, land and other natural resources and to deploy them for their common benefits &

development. Government shall all the time promote the participation of the people in the

formulation of national development policies and programmes; it shall also have the duty to support

the initiatives of the people in their development endeavours (Article 89 5&6).

support the initiatives of the people in their development endeavours (Article 89 5&6). ZTS-EDCE & MTS
support the initiatives of the people in their development endeavours (Article 89 5&6). ZTS-EDCE & MTS

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Article 92 of the Constitution states that the

Article 92 of the Constitution states that the design and implementation of any program and development projects shall not damage or destroy the environment, and people have the right to be fully consulted and express their views in planning and implementation of environmental policies and project.

4.1.2 National and Regional Conservation Strategy

Since the early 1990s, the Federal Government of Ethiopia has undertaken a number of initiatives that aims to develop regional, national and sectoral strategies to conserve and protect the environment. Paramount amongst these was the conservation strategy of Ethiopia (CSE, 1996). This document provides a strategic framework for integrating environment into new and existing policies, programs and projects. It is also an important policy document, which views environmental management as an important component of development. It recognizes the importance of incorporating environmental factors into development activities from the outset.

The major environmental and natural resources management issues facing Ethiopia are well documented in the CSE (FDRE, 1997). The CSE sets out detailed strategies and action plans as well as the institutional arrangements required for the implementation of sectoral as well as cross- sectoral interventions for the management of Ethiopia’s natural, man-made and cultural resources. The most important areas that are addressed by the CSE include the following:

Management of forest and woodland resources.

Land resource use policy and strategies; physical land use planning.

Integration of social, cultural and gender issues in sustainable resources and environmental management.

Promotion of participation in sustainable development of natural, artificial and cultural resources, and environmental protection.

Development of environmental education, public awareness and human resources.

4.1.3 Environmental Policy of Ethiopia

The Environmental Policy of Ethiopia (EPE) was issued in April 1997. The overall policy goal is to improve and enhance the health and quality of life of all Ethiopians and promote sustainable social and economic development through sound management and use of natural, human-made and cultural resources and their environment as a whole, so as to meet the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The

without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The ZTS-EDCE & MTS
without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The ZTS-EDCE & MTS

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project policy consists mainly of guiding principles and various

policy consists mainly of guiding principles and various sectoral and cross-sectoral policies for sustainable environmental management.

The policy seeks to ensure the empowerment and participation of the people and their organizations at all levels in environmental management activities, raise public awareness and promote understanding of the essential linkage between environment and development. In addition to its guiding principles, the policy addresses sectoral and cross sectoral environmental issues.

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) policies are included in the cross sectoral environmental policies. The EIA policy emphasizes the early recognition of environmental issues in project planning at all levels of administration. The principal features of the Environmental Policy in this area are:

Provides for protection of human and natural environments.

Provides for an early consideration of environmental impacts in projects and program design.

Recognizes public consultation.

Includes mitigation plans and contingency plans.

Provides for monitoring and auditing

Establishes legally binding requirements

Institutionalizes policy implementation

The policy establishes the Federal Environmental Protection Authority (nowadays Ministry of Environment & Forestry) to harmonize sectoral development plans and implement environmental management programs for the country.

4.1.4 National Health Policy

Ethiopia had a low level of health coverage even in comparison with other Sub-Saharan countries. This is largely related to low levels of income and widespread poverty, low levels of education, nutritional deficiencies, poor environmental conditions, and inadequate access to health services. The government has therefore assigned a very high priority to significantly improving health care and, in 1998, issued a health policy based on the following main principles:

Promotion of disease preventive components.

Ensuring accessibility to health care for the whole population.

Development of appropriate capacity based on needs assessment.

Promotion of private sector and NGO participation in the provision of health care.

∑ Promotion of private sector and NGO participation in the provision of health care. ZTS-EDCE &
∑ Promotion of private sector and NGO participation in the provision of health care. ZTS-EDCE &

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project ∑ Promotion and strengthening of inter-sectoral

Promotion and strengthening of inter-sectoral activities through a national self-reliance

program.

Democratization and decentralization of the health care system

Health Sector Development Plans and Strategies have been designed to implement the stated health principles within a defined period of time. The strategies include raising the awareness of personal and environmental health care and sanitation through information, education and communication (IEC); control of disease; and promotion of primary health care through community participation.

4.1.5 Land Tenure Policy

The Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE) states that the right to ownership of rural and urban land, as well as all natural resources, is exclusively vested in the State and People of Ethiopia. Article 40 of the Constitution indicates that land is a common property of the Nations, Nationalities and the People of Ethiopia, and shall not be subjected to sale or to other means of transfer.

The Constitution of FDRE retained land under the control of the people and government of Ethiopia thus, prohibiting its buying and selling. Also article 4(5) of the Proclamation 94/1994 deals with provision of land for the conservation, development and utilization of state forests or protected areas. However, this can be effective only after the consultation and consent of the peasantry and subject to the assurance of their benefits.

In general, all legal provisions cited above, make rural and urban lands the property of the People and Government of Ethiopia, and buying and selling of land is prohibited but leasing rights is allowed. Moreover, it is the right for existing land owner to be compensated fully and satisfactorily if land is expropriated by the state.

The Land Policy of Ethiopia strongly support that project plans must include attractive and sustainable resettlement strategies to the people who are going to be displaced as a result of the development plan, and they have to be fully convinced, compensated and have to participate in all phases of the project implementation.

4.1.6 National Biodiversity Policy

The National Biodiversity Policy (NBP) was established in 1998 based on a holistic ecosystem approach to conserve, develop and utilize the country's biodiversity resources. The policy provides for guidance towards effective conservation, rational development and sustainable utilization of the country’s biodiversity, and contains comprehensive policy provisions for the conservation and

biodiversity, and contains comprehensive policy provisions for the conservation and ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 34
biodiversity, and contains comprehensive policy provisions for the conservation and ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 34

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project sustainable utilization of biodiversity. Integration of

sustainable utilization of biodiversity. Integration of biodiversity conservation and development in federal and regional sectoral development initiatives, and mobilization of international cooperation and assistance, have been identified as the principal strategies for implementation of the policy.

Wetlands are considered among the most productive type of ecosystem in the world, providing benefits far in excess of those obtained from alternative uses to which they are subjected. Ethiopia is endowed with vast wetlands, however, efforts towards their conservation and sustainable utilization are very limited, and no clear policy and legislative framework have been designed. The EPA and Ethiopian Wildlife & Natural History Society (EWNHS), in collaboration with Ramsar Bureau and other funding organizations, are focusing efforts in this direction, and have conducted successful workshops and awareness raising programs.

4.1.7 The Dry Waste Management Policy of the AACA

Issued by the Addis Ababa City Government (in Amharic, 1995 E.C.) the document provides a good background on solid waste and its management in Addis Ababa as well as specific city-level solid waste related figures. The major objectives of the policy include: enhancing the City’s image and generating employment and income, which implies a view that consider solid waste as a resource, and promoting the use of indigenous and appropriate technology in solid waste management related operations. The achievement of sustainable solid waste management services through the adoption of cost recovery mechanisms as well as the involvement of the private sector as an alternative mode of service delivery are other aspects stressed in the policy. It is worth noting that, compared to the above mentioned issues, the policy gives less attention to public health aspects of waste management, hence OSH issues, although this can possibly linked to an implicit assumption about its coverage in other separate legislations.

The policy, among others, suggests strategies in the following four major areas, namely (a) Information, Monitoring and Evaluation, (b) Research and Development and (c) Environmental Impact Assessment. Moreover, it is explicit about the desired roles to be played by the various actors. Accordingly, while the government is to play regulatory and capacity building roles as well as to provide the requisite institutional and legal support thus creating an enabling environment for non-state actors, NGOs are encouraged to play an active role in information, education and communication (IEC). The policy is expected to serve as framework for other more detailed pieces of legislations (dry waste management regulations) to be issued by the City Administration.

of legislations (dry waste management regulations) to be issued by the City Administration. ZTS-EDCE & MTS
of legislations (dry waste management regulations) to be issued by the City Administration. ZTS-EDCE & MTS

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 4.2 Legislative Framework 4.2.1 Establishment of

4.2 Legislative Framework

4.2.1 Establishment of Environmental Protection Organs (Proclamation No. 295/2002)

This law clarifies the institutional mandate and responsibilities of the Federal Environmental Protection Authority (nowadays MoEF) and aims to integrate environmental considerations into the policies and decision-making of sectoral agencies through such means as the establishment of environmental units in these agencies at the federal level and the creation of independent environmental agencies at the regional level.

This law also re-established the Environmental Protection Council, a cross-sectoral co-coordinating body that advises the federal EPA and supervises its activities. The mandate of the Council includes: (i) reviewing environmental policies, strategies and laws proposed by the EPA and issuing recommendations to government; (ii) providing appropriate advice on the implementation of the Environmental Protection Policy of Ethiopia; and (iii) reviewing and approving directives, guidelines, and environmental standards prepared by the EPA.

4.2.2 Environmental Impact Assessment (Proclamation No. 299/2002)

This Proclamation (No 299/2002) aims primarily at making the EIA mandatory for categories of projects specified under a directive issued by the EPA. The law specifies the projects and activities that will require an environmental impact assessment (EIA). The proponent of the project must prepare the EIA following the format specified in the legislation. The EPA will then review the EIA and either approve the project (with or without conditions) or reject it. The Proclamation requires, among other things:

Specified categories of projects to be subjected to an EIA and receive an authorization from the EPA or the relevant regional environmental agency prior to commencing implementation of the project.

Licensing agencies to ensure that the requisite authorization has been duly received prior to issuing an investment permit, a trade or operating license or a work permit to a business organization.

The EPA or the relevant regional environmental agencies may issue an exemption from carrying out an EIA in projects supposed to have an insignificant environmental impact.

A licensing agency may suspend or cancel a licence that has already been issued where the EPA or the relevant regional environmental agency suspends or cancels environmental authorization.

the relevant regional environmental agency suspends or cancels environmental authorization. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 36
the relevant regional environmental agency suspends or cancels environmental authorization. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 36

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of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Procedures that need to be followed in the

Procedures that need to be followed in the process of conducting an environmental impact assessment are described in the Proclamation. Thus a project developer is expected to act as follows:

Undertake a timely environmental impact assessment, identifying the likely adverse impacts, incorporating the means of their prevention, and submitting the environmental impact study report accompanied by the necessary documents to the EPA or the relevant regional environmental agency.

Submit an environmental impact study report to the EPA or the relevant regional

environmental agency for review. Environmental guidelines are among the tools for facilitating the consideration of environmental issues and principles of sustainable development and their inclusion in development proposals. To put this Proclamation into effect the EPA issued guideline documents, which provide details of the

EIA process and its requirements. According to this EIA guideline projects are categorized into three schedules:

Schedule 1: Projects which may have adverse and significant environmental impacts thus requiring a full Environmental Impact Assessment

Schedule 2: Projects whose type, scale or other relevant characteristics have potential to cause some significant environmental impacts but are not likely to warrant a full EIA study

Schedule 3: Projects which would have no impact and do not require an EIA

However, projects situated in an environmentally sensitive areas such as land prone to erosion; desertification; areas of historic or archaeological interest; important landscape; religiously important area, etc. will fall under category 1 irrespective of the nature of the project.

According to this guideline all project proponents and executing bodies (agencies) in the country should operate in close cooperation with the EPA to ensure that proper mitigating measures are designed and implemented, especially for projects with an adverse effect on the environment. This in effect means that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) should be prepared by project proponents and be examined, commented and approved by the EPA.

should be prepared by project proponents and be examined, commented and approved by the EPA. ZTS-EDCE
should be prepared by project proponents and be examined, commented and approved by the EPA. ZTS-EDCE

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of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 4.2.3 Addis Ababa City Government Environmental Impact

4.2.3 Addis Ababa City Government Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations No. 21/2006

This Regulation (No. 21/2006) aims primarily at making the EIA mandatory for categories of projects specified under a guideline issued by the Authority and which will be implemented within the jurisdiction of A.A city government,. However, the National EIA Proclamation No.299/2002 is the basis for this regulation and the principles and procedures are almost similar except the coverage and difference on the responsible organ actively involved on the decision making process of the EIA (i.e. A.A City Government Environmental Protection Authority and its structures at different levels).

4.2.4

Proclamation No.176/2012

The Oromia regional state has adopted the Federal Proclamation on Environmental Impact Assessment after it customized it to the regional realities. The Oromia region version of the proclamations is called ‘Oromia National Regional state Environmental Impact Assessment Proclamation No. 176/2012’. In addition to the proclamations, the Land Administration and Environmental Protection Bureau (LAEPB) of Oromiya is preparing detailed regulations on EIA.

State

Assessment

Oromiya

National

Regional

Environmental

Impact

The Environmental Impact Assessment Proclamation No. 176/2012 of the region clearly stipulates the requirement for environmental assessment by stating that “no person shall commence implementation of a project that requires environmental impact assessment without the authorization from the Bureau”. The enforcement of this requirement for environmental assessment is spearheaded by LEPB and its branch offices at Zonal, City and Woreda levels. According to the regional proclamation, the environmental impact study report is required to contain sufficient and accurate information that would enable the bureau to give its decision. This implies that the EIA report is expected to contain all necessary information that is relevant to the project site, nature and characteristics of the proposed project, technology and its application process, direct and indirect impacts, cumulative impacts and e.t.c. The regional proclamation also stipulates that LEPB “shall ensure the inclusion of the opinion of the public, particularly of the affected community in environmental impact assessment study and their participation while review of the EIA is made”. The LEPB is required by the law to review the EIA study report submitted to it within ten days and issue the authorization letter if satisfied with the report within the stated time limit.

4.2.5 Environmental Pollution Control (Proclamation No. 300/2002)

Proclamation No. 300/2002 on Environmental Pollution Control primarily aims to ensure the right of citizens to a healthy environment and to impose obligations to protect the environment of the

citizens to a healthy environment and to impose obligations to protect the environment of the ZTS-EDCE
citizens to a healthy environment and to impose obligations to protect the environment of the ZTS-EDCE

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project country. The law addresses the management of hazardous

country. The law addresses the management of hazardous waste, municipal waste, the establishment of environmental quality standards for air, water and soil; and monitoring of pollution. The proclamation also addresses noise as one source of environmental pollution and it seeks for standards and limits for noise providing for the maximum allowable noise level taking into account the settlement patterns. In general, the Proclamation provides a basis from which the relevant environmental standards applicable to Ethiopia can be developed, while sanctioning violation of these standards as criminally punishable offences

Furthermore, it empowers the Federal Environmental Protection Authority or the Regional Environmental Authority to assign environmental inspectors with the duties and responsibilities of controlling environmental pollution. In order to ensure implementation of environmental standards and related requirements, inspectors belonging to the EPA or the relevant regional environmental agency are empowered by the Proclamation to enter, without prior notice or court order, any land or premises at any time, at their discretion. Such wide powers derive from Ethiopia's serious concern and commitment to protecting the environment from pollution.

4.2.6 Solid Waste Management Proclamation (No. 513/2007)

This proclamation came into force on February 2007 with an objective of implementing effective solid waste management in the country. The Proclamation recognized the existing solid waste management problems in the country and emphasizes the need to prevent environmental pollution that may result from the disposal of solid waste. Environmental Protection Authority (nowadays MoEF) is responsible for initiating and overseeing the implementation of overall policies, strategies and guidelines on solid waste management. Capacity building is also an area of intervention by the federal and regional environmental entities to foster sound management of waste in the country. Regional environmental agencies and urban administrations are also responsible for drawing out their plans as regards the implementation of the Proclamation and monitoring efficacy.

In this proclamation the following provisions pertinent to the treatment and disposal of hazardous waste management has been provided:

As regards to Inter-Regional Movement of Solid wastes:

Regional states may require any transit of solid waste through their region to be packed and transported in conformity with the directives and standards issued by the concerned environmental agency.

in conformity with the directives and standards issued by the concerned environmental agency. ZTS-EDCE & MTS
in conformity with the directives and standards issued by the concerned environmental agency. ZTS-EDCE & MTS

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of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project ∑ Each urban administration shall in conformity with

Each urban administration shall in conformity with the relevant environmental standards, ensure that solid waste disposal sites are constructed and properly used and managed.

As regards to the Transportation of Solid Waste:

Without prejudice to the mandate of the appropriate agency to register, undertake annual registration and technical inspection of the motor vehicles as well as to issue a driving license .the conformity of any vehicle or equipment with the specifications set by concerned environmental agency shall be ascertained by the relevant urban administration prior to its use for solid waste management

Each urban administration shall ,without prejudice to the weight and size of the vehicles determine under the relevant laws, set standards to determine the skills of drivers and appropriateness of the equipment and equipment operators and to prevent overload of the solid wastes

As regards to the Construction of Waste Disposal Sites

Urban administrations shall ensure that a solid waste disposal site that was under construction or was constructed prior to the coming into force of this proclamation is subjected to environmental auditing as per the relevant laws.

Urban administration shall ensure that any new solid waste disposal site being constructed or an existing solid waste disposal site undergoing any modification has had an environmental impact assessment according to the relevant law.

As regards to the Auditing of Solid Waste Disposal Sites

Each urban administration is responsible for ensuring that an environmental audit is carried out on every existing solid waste disposal sites.

The owner of any solid waste disposal site shall make the necessary modification if the environmental audit made under sub-article (1) of this article shows that its continued operation poses a risk to public health or the environment.

The authority may prescribe environmental criteria to determine the alternative use of a solid waste disposal site that has ceased operation or is abandoned.

As Regards to Civil Liabilities

The owner of any solid waste disposal site shall, regardless of fault, be liable for any damage caused to the environment, human health or property in the course of its operation and after its closure

environment, human health or property in the course of its operation and after its closure ZTS-EDCE
environment, human health or property in the course of its operation and after its closure ZTS-EDCE

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of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project ∑ Without prejudice to sub-article (1) of the

Without prejudice to sub-article (1) of the article ,exemption from liability shall be granted only when certified that it is the victim himself or a third party for whom the owner of the solid waste disposal site is not responsible that has caused the damage

Any claim for damage under sub-article (1) of this article shall be barred by a period of limitation unless thought within two years from the date on which the occurrence of the damage is known

The major intents of the proclamation, as described in the preamble and objective, are maximizing the economic and social benefits of waste as well as promoting decentralized waste management services which also include a more strong involvement of the community and public at all level in the delivery of waste management services. The proclamation considers waste as a resource, and accords due attention to the issue of waste recycling.

4.2.7 Public Health Proclamation

The Public Health Proclamation (200/2000) comprehensively addresses aspects of public health including among others, water quality control, waste handling and disposal, availability of toilet facilities, and the health permit and registration of different operations. The Proclamation prohibits the disposal of untreated solid or liquid hazardous wastes into water bodies or the environment that can affect human health.

4.2.8 National Rural Land Administration and Use (Proclamation No. 456/2005)

The Rural Land Administration and Use Proclamation (Proclamation No. 456/2005) defines the state ownership of rural land and the tenure rights of the land occupant, including rights to "property produced on his land", rights of inter-generational tenure transfer, and rights of exchange land and limited leasing rights. Provisions are made for the registration and certification of tenure rights. Part Three of the Proclamation presents regulations relating to the use of rural land, particularly as it relates to soil and water conservation and watershed management. The rural land administration and land use laws are to be implemented by the regional states.

Land holding right gives the right to use the land for agricultural purposes as well as to lease it and, while the right remains in effect, bequeath it to family members, as well as the right to acquire property thereon, by labour or capital, and to sell, exchange and bequeath the same. The Proclamation also addresses environmental concerns, including non-compliance with directives on environmental protection.

environmental concerns, including non-compliance with directives on environmental protection. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 41
environmental concerns, including non-compliance with directives on environmental protection. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 41

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Article 7(3) of the Proclamation reinforces the rights

Article 7(3) of the Proclamation reinforces the rights of land users to compensation for the development they have made on the land. It also states that when the land holder is evicted by federal government, the rate of compensation would be determined based on the federal land administration law. When the rural land holder is evicted by regional governments, the rate of compensation would be determined based on the rural land administration laws of regions.

It is envisaged that the Proclamation will create a sense of ownership among the vast majority of the rural population and enable them to take initiatives and collectively engage in environmental management activities.

4.2.9 Addis Ababa City Administration Waste Management, Collection & Disposal Regulation

This is an elaborate piece of legislation (Regulation No 13/2004) which has 9 parts and 37 articles. Among the key concerns of this regulation are environmental pollution and public health related issues as well as the economic importance of waste. The general spirit of the regulation is the promotion of a more decentralized, participatory and private sector driven waste management service delivery in the City. The regulation also provides, among others, for the establishment of governmental organizations dedicated for waste management related affairs both at the City, Sub- City and Kebele levels.

As expected, the regulation stipulates general provisions that assume detail guidelines and directives to be developed at a later stage to enable the proper implementation of the regulation. The regulation gives a clear definition for the term “hazardous waste”. Article 13 which refers to the management and disposal of hazardous wastes, for example, stipulates that a directive shall be issued on this issue. The regulation also stresses the need to have special authorization from the City’s Environmental Protection Authority, although specific tools that will be used in enforcing these provisions are not indicated.

Notwithstanding the key roles residential and business establishments in the City play in achieving the objectives stated in the regulations, it is more explicit about the responsibility of the generators than on the commitment of the government. Likewise, Article 27 that refers to “Safety and Health of Online Workers” stipulates that taking care of the safety and health of online workers is the responsibility of the employer, although it does not provide for specific instruments to be employed to ensure its proper adherence. It is also worthwhile to note that Article 29, which is about incentives, explicitly promotes the use of appropriate technology for recycling and reduction of

explicitly promotes the use of appropriate technology for recycling and reduction of ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page
explicitly promotes the use of appropriate technology for recycling and reduction of ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project waste, but it is silent about the need

waste, but it is silent about the need to provide incentives to those that adopt and/or promote OHS practices.

4.3 Institutional Framework

4.3.1 The Environmental Protection Organs

Environmental Protection Proclamation (Proc. 295/2002) is aimed to assign the responsibilities for environmental management to various entities in order to ensure sustainable use of environmental resources, thereby avoiding possible conflicts of interest and duplication of efforts. It is also intended to establish a system that fosters coordinated but differentiated responsibilities among environmental protection offices at a federal and regional level.

At the federal level the Environmental Protection Authority (i.e. MoEF) is in charge of formulating policies, laws, regulations and standards. Enforcing the laws and policies including EIAs and environmental monitoring, for all projects or activities that falls under the control of the Federal Government also falls within the responsibilities of the EPA.

According to the Environmental Protection Organs Proclamation, the regional states are required to create their own regional environmental agencies. These institutions are to deal, among others, with EIAs for regionally managed infrastructures or development activities. Most of the regional states have already established their own Regional Environment Protection offices. Accordingly, the A.A City Government Environment Protection Authority is such an institution established by the A.A City Government, while Land Administration and Environmental Protection Bureau of Oromiya is established by Oromiya Regional State. Both institutions will have a stake on the proposed Sanitary Landfill construction, operation and decommission processes.

4.3.2 Ministry of Environment and Forestry (former EPA)

The MoEF is one of the line ministries which directly report to the prime minister. The MoEF is the key national level environmental agency, with a mandate to address environmental issues. The environmental legislation gives the MoEF powers to fulfil its role, support all federal agencies in establishing environmental units, and develop skills in strategic environmental analysis of policies and public instruments. The MoEF is involved in the development of environmental policy and legislation, setting environmental quality standards for air, water and soils, monitoring pollution, establishing EIA procedures and an environmental information system, and undertaking capacity

establishing EIA procedures and an environmental information system, and undertaking capacity ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 43
establishing EIA procedures and an environmental information system, and undertaking capacity ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 43

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project development in relevant agencies to ensure the integration

development in relevant agencies to ensure the integration of environmental management in policy development and decision making.

The mandate and duties of the former EPA were subsequently clarified in the Establishment of Environmental Protection Organs Proclamation (Proclamation No. 295/2002). The Federal EPA is responsible for:

Establishment of a system for environmental assessment of public and private sector projects, as well as social and economic development policies, strategies, laws, and programs of federal level functions.

Review, decision-making and follow-up implementation of environmental impact study reports for projects, as well as social and economic development programs or plans where they are subject to federal licensing, execution or supervision; also proposed activities subject to execution by a federal agency, likely to entail inter- or trans-regional and international impacts.

Notification of its decision to the concerned licensing agency at or before the time specified in the appropriate law or directives.

Auditing and regulation of implementation of the conditions attached to the decision.

Making its decisions and the EIA report available to the public.

Resolution of complaints and grievances in good faith and at the appropriate time.

Development of incentives or disincentive structures required for compliance with regional environmental agency requirements.

4.4. Solid Waste Management Standards

4.4.1 Draft Urban Waste Management Standards

The National Urban Solid Waste Management Standards (NUSWMS) create the framework for municipalities to provide effective, affordable and sustainable urban SWM systems in order to protect public health and environmental quality.

The Standards provide minimum requirements to enable competent authorities to meet their legal responsibilities as set out in various legal instruments, most specifically the SWM Proclamation (No 513/2007). The NUSWMS shall be applied across Ethiopian cities and towns and they provide the basic minimum requirements to be achieved in the design, implementation and operation of SWM systems.

requirements to be achieved in the design, implementation and operation of SWM systems. ZTS-EDCE & MTS
requirements to be achieved in the design, implementation and operation of SWM systems. ZTS-EDCE & MTS

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project The NUSWMS places responsibility on regional and local

The NUSWMS places responsibility on regional and local public authorities (hereinafter referred to

as the ‘Competent Authorities’) to:

Ensure that all urban residents are provided with regular and reliable waste collection

services that meet the basic minimum requirement to protect public health.

Ensure that collected waste is managed properly, regardless of whether it is destined for

recycling, treatment or disposal, in order to protect the quality of the environment.

Catalyze the economic development of the sector in terms of growth opportunities for small

and medium sized enterprises.

The Standards have been designed to ensure that they address the above priorities and at the same

time are realistically achievable and applicable to different contexts. Competent authorities shall

ensure that basic minimum standards of SWM are implemented to acceptable levels. Competent

authorities may exceed the standards, and implement alternative conforming waste management

system types, so long as the three basic minimum goals are achieved.

For the purpose of implementing the SWM standards urban settlements are categorised as follows:

Category 1 - towns/cities with population above 500,000.

Category 2 - towns/cities with population of 100,001 - 500,000.

Category 3 - towns with population of 50,001 to 100,000.

Category 4 - towns with population of 20,001 to 50,000.

Category 5 - towns with population of 2,001 to 20,000.

Hence the new Sendafa sanitary landfill project falls under Category 1. The following are some of the requirements outlined in the standards for class I sanitary landfill and waste transfer stations.

a. Class 1 Sanitary landfill

The following are minimum standard requirements for class I sanitary land fill.

Establishment and operation of leachate treatment through the installation of oxidation

ponds etc.

Installation of active landfill gas collection systems with flaring (or utilization) of gas.

Installation of full liner system with groundwater monitoring and control measures and

seepage control.

of full liner system with groundwater monitoring and control measures and seepage control. ZTS-EDCE & MTS
of full liner system with groundwater monitoring and control measures and seepage control. ZTS-EDCE & MTS

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Located with sufficient void space for a minimum

Located with sufficient void space for a minimum of 10 years operational life.

Operation in accordance with management plan.

Auxiliary and amenity facilities

Minimum area requirement shall be area required for fill volume plus ~ 40% for additional facilities and site activities.

Approximate waste acceptance capacity = 251 – 500 Tones/day

Whole tyres, medical and other hazardous wastes, industrial wastes, demolition and construction wastes (except where utilized as cover and site engineering purposes) shall be prohibited from being disposed at such sites.

In addition the solid waste management standards require the following as a minimum for category 1 landfill management.

Competent authorities shall ensure the installation and functioning of landfill gas management systems at all landfill sites.

As a minimum ‘passive’ landfill gas venting shall be ensured at all sites.

Where possible landfill gas shall be collected and flared, and where economically justifiable, utilized as a source of renewable energy.

Category 1 and 2 landfills will have vehicle weigh scales installed to obtain exact records of waste quantities being delivered. Weigh scales should be installed at all other landfill sites where possible.

b.

Waste transfer

Waste transfer involves transferring waste materials from a small collection vehicle / cart to a larger vehicle / trailer. This allows small collection vehicles to return quickly to collection routes and maximises efficiency of transporting large volumes of waste to distant treatment or disposal facilities through use of larger capacity haulage vehicles. The location and type of transfer station will depend upon the location of the final disposal/treatment facilities in relation to the location of waste production and the type of collection system implemented.

The need for and design of waste transfer systems shall be considered in regional/city SWM plans.

need for and design of waste transfer systems shall be considered in regional/city SWM plans. ZTS-EDCE
need for and design of waste transfer systems shall be considered in regional/city SWM plans. ZTS-EDCE

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project However, where the final disposal/treatment centre is

However, where the final disposal/treatment centre is located close to the city/town centre – say within 2-3 km, there may be no need to employ waste transfer points / stations.

Depending on the design and management regime for the transfer station, they may be located either within or outside of the urban area.

The competent authority shall ensure an EIA is completed in conjunction with consultation with the local residents before final selection of a transfer-station location.

Category 1 and 2 municipalities shall evaluate the need for installing and operating transfer stations at fixed sites within the urban area – where waste from primary collection services is to be transferred into larger containers/vehicles.

The design of the transfer operation shall enable the site operations to be efficient and hygienic.

Incoming waste shall be transferred from the transfer-station within 1 day, unless temporary operational reasons do not permit this.

Category 3, 4 & 5 municipalities shall evaluate the use of containers at agreed collection points – utilizing a hook-lift system or a crane-tipper system – as a transfer option.

Transferring waste from the ground, using a front-end loader, or similar, shall only be undertaken as a temporary or emergency measure.

Competent authorities shall ensure that waste transfer and waste transport is undertaken during daylight hours other than where traffic congestion is a serious concern.

Where traffic density dictates the movement of waste at night time, enhanced health and safety procedures and equipment shall be utilized to minimise the risk of accidents and injuries.

Size of small transfer points shall be determined by the same methodology as calculating container sizes as detailed in Box-1 plus minimum additional area of 2 times area of containers to accommodate transfer vehicles, ramps, etc.

Service radius of transfer stations shall be determined by maximum radius of primary collection vehicles serving the transfer point or station.

by maximum radius of primary collection vehicles serving the transfer point or station. ZTS-EDCE & MTS
by maximum radius of primary collection vehicles serving the transfer point or station. ZTS-EDCE & MTS

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of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project The type, design, location, site area and service

The type, design, location, site area and service radius of transfer stations shall be determined through Feasibility Study.

Transfer station sites shall have a hard standing and security fencing with gate, sanitary facilities, water and electricity.

All waste transfer points, facilities and containers shall be kept clean and orderly at all times with containers and site area inspected and cleaned monthly, and a total area clean extending to 20m in all directions around entire site every quarter (3 months).

c.

Health and Safety

Competent authorities have an employer’s responsibility and humanitarian duty to prevent illness and injury of the workforce. Consideration shall be given to all aspects of the work, including: the design of the equipment; provision and use of personal protective equipment (PPE); regular medical check-ups and immunization; and provision of toilets and washing facilities.

Competent authorities shall establish an accident and incident reporting system whereby every event is recorded and investigated.

Competent authorities shall ensure that collection workers should never be expected to lift wastes above their shoulder height because the risk of serious injury.

Collection workers shall not stand on wastes in collection vehicles during loading and/or transport.

Health and safety training, supported by appropriate levels of supervision, shall be ensured so that waste management workers understand the origins of the risks that they face and know how to minimize these risks.

Equality of employment opportunity shall be ensured between women and men within the SWM sector at all levels: from policy to administration and financing, planning, educating and interfacing within the communities; monitoring neighborhood waste collection services; and handling complaints from the public.

monitoring neighborhood waste collection services; and handling complaints from the public. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 48
monitoring neighborhood waste collection services; and handling complaints from the public. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 48

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 4.4.2 IFC Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) Guidelines

4.4.2 IFC Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) Guidelines

a. Overview

The Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) Guidelines are technical reference documents with general and industry-specific examples of Good International Industry Practice (GIIP). The EHS Guidelines contain the performance levels and measures that are generally considered to be achievable in new facilities by existing technology at reasonable costs. Application of the EHS Guidelines to existing facilities may involve the establishment of site-specific targets, with an appropriate timetable for achieving them. The applicability of the EHS Guidelines should be tailored to the hazards and risks established for each project on the basis of the results of an environmental assessment in which site-specific variables, such as host country context, assimilative capacity of the environment, and other project factors, are taken into account.

b. General waste management

The following guidance applies to the management of nonhazardous and hazardous waste. Additional guidance specifically applicable to hazardous wastes is also presented in IFC guideline document. Waste management should be addressed through a Waste management system that addresses issues linked to waste minimization, generation, transport, disposal, and monitoring.

c. Waste management planning

Facilities that generate waste should characterize their waste according to composition, source, types of wastes produced, generation rates, or according to local regulatory requirements. Effective planning and implementation of waste management strategies should include:

Review of new waste sources during planning, sitting, and design activities, including during equipment modifications and process alterations, to identify expected waste generation, pollution prevention opportunities, and necessary treatment, storage, and disposal infrastructure

Collection of data and information about the process and waste streams in existing facilities, including characterization of waste streams by type, quantities, and potential use/disposition

Establishment of priorities based on a risk analysis that takes into account the potential EHS risks during the waste cycle and the availability of infrastructure to manage the waste in an environmentally sound manner

and the availability of infrastructure to manage the waste in an environmentally sound manner ZTS-EDCE &
and the availability of infrastructure to manage the waste in an environmentally sound manner ZTS-EDCE &

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project ∑ Definition of opportunities for source reduction, as

Definition of opportunities for source reduction, as well as reuse and recycling.

Definition of procedures and operational controls for onsite storage

Definition of options/procedures /operational controls for treatment and final disposal

d. Treatment and Disposal

If waste materials are still generated after the implementation of feasible waste prevention, reduction, reuse, recovery and recycling measures, waste materials should be treated and disposed of and all measures should be taken to avoid potential impacts to human health and the environment. Selected management approaches should be consistent with the characteristics of the waste and local regulations, and may include one or more of the following:

On-site or off-site biological, chemical, or physical treatment of the waste material to render it nonhazardous prior to final disposal

Treatment or disposal at permitted facilities specially designed to receive the waste. Examples include: composting operations or organic non-hazardous wastes; properly designed, permitted and operated landfills or incinerators designed for the respective type of waste; or other methods known to be effective in the safe, final disposal of waste materials such as bioremediation.

e.

Transportation

On-site and Off-site transportation of waste should be conducted so as to prevent or minimize spills, releases, and exposures to employees and the public. All waste containers designated for off- site shipment should be secured and labelled with the contents and associated hazards, be properly loaded on the transport vehicles before leaving the site, and be accompanied by a shipping paper (i.e., manifest) that describes the load and its associated hazards.

5. Methodology

The methodology adopted for conducting the environmental and social impact assessment study includes the conventional methods, which are briefly discussed below.

impact assessment study includes the conventional methods, which are briefly discussed below. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page
impact assessment study includes the conventional methods, which are briefly discussed below. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project a. Field Surveys The method of field surveying

a. Field Surveys

The method of field surveying is second to none in understanding the likely impacts of a given development project on the particular environment around the project site. The team of environment consultants were mobilized for field survey to the project sites several times during the extended project period, as it was necessary to ensure a thorough assessment of the project impacts. The team has already made observations in and around the Sendafa landfill site, Bole Arabsa, Koshe and Akaki transfer station sites and gathered essential field data. During the field survey information on physical, biological and socio-economic environment was collected for each site. In addition base line data collection was done through field investigations.

b. Interviews with designing firm specialists

The ESIA team has the opportunity to closely work with the consultancy firms (i.e. Artelia in association with Metaferia Consult) that were in charge of designing the Sanitary landfill and transfer stations project. The team discussed project detail designs and processes with the engineers at different stages of the designing process. This has enabled the ESIA team to provide its inputs and positively influence the design process to make it more environment friendly. In due course extensive discussions were also made with the project management to develop common understanding of the main components of the project.

c. Literature review

Information on existing environmental conditions was obtained from review of various published and unpublished sources. In addition review of detail design reports and drawings of the new sanitary landfill and transfer stations, national and regional policies, legislations and standards as well as the World Bank Safeguard Policies, IFC-EHS guidelines on waste management, relevant ESMF and resettlement policy framework (RPF) documents were also reviewed.

d. Competent authority guidelines

The Federal, Addis Ababa and Oromia Region EPA’s legislative and institutional framework, policies, procedures, standards, guidelines etc. are also reviewed and consulted. The recent draft solid waste management standard hand books issued by the Ministry of Urban Development, Housing and Construction were also extensively consulted. Sociological and environmental data were gathered by discussing and filling questionnaires with the experts in concerned government agencies. These include the Bereh woreda sector offices and Addis Ababa City Administration

agencies. These include the Bereh woreda sector offices and Addis Ababa City Administration ZTS-EDCE & MTS
agencies. These include the Bereh woreda sector offices and Addis Ababa City Administration ZTS-EDCE & MTS

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project health, education, urban agriculture, culture and tourism,

health, education, urban agriculture, culture and tourism, Water Supply and Sewerage, Cleansing Management Agency, as well as the Addis Ababa Recycling and Disposal Project Office were consulted.

e. Sampling and Monitoring

Two surface water samples were collected from Hambisa River and from a point below the confluence of Legedadi River with Legetafo River. The Hambisa River is situated east of the Sendafa landfill project site and both the Legetafo and Legedadi rivers drain on the west side. The water samples were collected from upstream positions relative to the proposed landfill site. The samples were collected on the same day at an interval of approximately one hour interval. The samples were collected using grab sampling techniques and were sent to Addis Ababa Environment Protection Authority Laboratory for analysis. The resulting data from the analysis is applied to establish bench mark conditions as part of the baseline assessment.

f. Consultation with relevant regional and local authorities

Interviews and discussions with several local authorities and stakeholders were carried out in the

project area. At Federal level the Ministry of Urban Development Housing and Construction and the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (former EPA) as well as other relevant offices were consulted. Extensive consultation was also conducted with the relevant Authorities of the Bereh Woreda Administration as well as Addis Ababa City Administration.

g. Community consultation

The primary purpose of public consultation is to protect the interest of affected persons/communities, especially the poor and vulnerable groups. It also gives opportunity for the affected people to influence the project to reduce adverse impacts, maximize additional benefits, and ensure that they receive appropriate compensation for loss of property and land due to the project.

Public consultations were carried out with the objective of informing the public on the potential impacts, identifying additional potential social impacts (positive and negative); and on the implementation of the proposed mitigation measures for the negative impacts and on measures of reinforcement for the positive impacts; and to seek the participation and contribution of the public during the implementation of the project.

the participation and contribution of the public during the implementation of the project. ZTS-EDCE & MTS
the participation and contribution of the public during the implementation of the project. ZTS-EDCE & MTS

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project FDRE Constitution also reaffirms the participation of the

FDRE Constitution also reaffirms the participation of the public, in policies and projects that affect their livelihood. Article 43 No.2 states that “Nationals have the right to participate in national development and, in particular, to be consulted with respect to policies and projects affecting their community”.

Stakeholders’ consultation was also conducted to ensure the participation of all interested parties, including people residing in the project area, local government officials, Kebelle administrations and Woreda experts and professionals from different offices in the woreda.

The objective of public and stakeholders’ consultation were;

To ensure that the public and stakeholders, interested groups, civil societies are informed about the project and its impact and the information will clarify doubts about who will be affected or benefit from the project.;

To enable meaningful and accessible participation of the public and the affected population in particular;

To identify local issues and concerns to be addressed;

To obtain acceptance of the project both by the public and stakeholders.

To inform on the nature of potential social impacts of the project and its impacts on the social, cultural and economic ties and networks during and after construction works;

To consult on the loss of productive resources mainly loss of farm and grazing land,

To identify major social impact issues, such as involuntary resettlement, community severance and compensation for affected properties and assets.

To solicit the views of local population what beneficial impact they expect from the project

6. Description of the project environment

6.1 Physical environment

6.1.1 Climate

Based on Rainfall, the climate of the area can be categorized in to two broad seasons: the dry season (winter) which covers the period from October to May and the Wet season extends from June to September, with slight rainfall during autumn and spring. This seasonal variation of rainfall distribution within the study area is due to the annual migration of the inter-tropical convergence

within the study area is due to the annual migration of the inter-tropical convergence ZTS-EDCE &
within the study area is due to the annual migration of the inter-tropical convergence ZTS-EDCE &

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project zone, a low-pressure zone marking the convergence of

zone, a low-pressure zone marking the convergence of dry tropical easterlies and moist equatorial westerlies across the catchment.

Meteorological data of the past six years (2007-2012) has been collected from Bole meteorological station which is relatively representative to the project sites in Bole Arabsa, Akaki, Legedadi and Koshe sites.

Based on the data collected and analyzed, mean maximum annual temperature over the record periods is 23.5 0C, while mean minimum annual temperature value is 10.5 0 C. The daily variation in temperature in the area is more pronounced than the annual variation and the calculated mean annual temperature is around 17 0 C. The annual rainfall of Addis Ababa collected from Bole meteorological station is 1040mm. Small variation in annual rainfall is observed towards Akaki and Legedadi areas. In general, one can classify the climate in this area as warm temperate climate. The average annual wind speed calculated is 0.55km/hr.

 

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

June

July

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Mean monthly max. Temp. ( 0 C)

23.8

24.8

25.7

25.0

25.4

23.7

21.2

20.8

21.7

23.4

23.1

22.7

Mean monthly min. Temp. ( 0 C)

8.8

9.7

10.8

12.1

12.7

12.0

11.9

12.0

11.6

9.7

8.6

8.0

Average

annual

                       

rainfall (mm)

9.1

25.0

35.2

80.4

84.2

109.

253

251

140.5

17.1

16.1

19.1

Table 3: Monthly Mean temperature ( 0 c) and average rainfall (mm) data for 6 years (2007-2012) from Bole Meteorological

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

June

July

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

0.62

0.77

0.67

0.67

0.55

0.37

0.27

0.3

0.4

0.65

0.68

0.63

Table 4: Average Monthly wind speed (km/hr) of 6 years (2007-2012)

6.1.2 Topography of the project area

The new Sendafa sanitary landfill site is relatively flat topped and elevated from the surrounding but the margin of the site is gentle sloped towards eastern and south western gorges. The site on its middle western and eastern part slopes toward the southwest and southeast respectively. It extends

western and eastern part slopes toward the southwest and southeast respectively. It extends ZTS-EDCE & MTS
western and eastern part slopes toward the southwest and southeast respectively. It extends ZTS-EDCE & MTS

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project between the levels +2436m and +2470m ASL. Its

between the levels +2436m and +2470m ASL. Its shape represents a strip oriented North-South with a natural slope of 1.2% (average value) toward the south. The site also presents on its Middle Eastern part a slope toward the south-east ranging from 2 to 6%. On the other hand, the topography of Akaki transfer station site has flat topography. The elevation difference is about 2m and it is from 2066m to 2068m. Bole Arabsa transfer station site has gentle topography. Its elevation difference is about 25m and it is from 2249m to 2225m.

6.1.3 Geology of Addis Ababa and its Surrounding

The Akaki River catchment comprises of wide range of volcanic rocks of different ages (Morton et al, 1979; Vernier and Chernert, 1985; Tsehayu and H/Mariam, 1990; AAWSA & Seureca, 1991). In addition, different workers and scholars have contributed to the geology of this area, some are:

Mohr (1964, 1966, and 1967), Kazmin (1975), Hailesellasie Girmay and Getaneh Asefa (1989).

Due to the location of the study area with respect to the Main Ethiopian Rift, the rocks were subjected to rift tectonics that is manifested by a number of fault systems having a general trend of the rift system (Northeast – Southwest), but there are some faults and lineaments oriented Southeast-Northwest and Northeast-Southwest.

The litho-stratigraphic units of the catchment can be outlined from the oldest (bottom) to the youngest (top) as follows:

a. Alaji series (Lower Miocene)

This unit covers the Entoto Mountain and extends to the north beyond Akaki catchment. It comprises of basalts associated with rhyolites, trachyte, ignimbrites, tuffs and agglomerates. Earlier works further subdivided this series into Alaji Rhyolites and Intoto silicic.

b. Addis Ababa Basalts

They overlie Intoto silicic and outcrops mainly occur in the Intoto Mountain, central Addis Ababa, along Akaki River course (south) in the vicinity of Lega Dadi dam to the north of Lake Gefersa and southern part of the city. Their composition can be porphyritic olivine basalt, porphyritic feldspar basalt & aphanitic basalts. Individual flows are usually easily observed & paleosols & scoraceous horizons are found at the bottom of flows in many places (Kebede Tsehayu and Taddese Hailemariam, 1990).

found at the bottom of flows in many places (Kebede Tsehayu and Taddese Hailemariam, 1990). ZTS-EDCE
found at the bottom of flows in many places (Kebede Tsehayu and Taddese Hailemariam, 1990). ZTS-EDCE

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project c. Nazareth Group Aphanitic basalt, welded tuffs,

c. Nazareth Group

Aphanitic basalt, welded tuffs, ignimbrites, trachyte and rhyolites make up this group of younger Volcanics. Aphanitic basalt flows cover the southern portion of Addis Ababa. Trachy basalt out crops are found around Repi area and General Winget School and associated with undifferentiated volcanic. An ignimbrite sheet (upper Welded tuff) out crop occurs in the northeast of Addis Ababa at the base of Intoto Mountain and Lega Dadi areas. This formation is gray colored, vertically and horizontally jointed (Hailesellasie Girmay and Getaneh Assefa, 1989). Rhyolite flows belonging to this group outcrop at the top and southern flanks of Mt. Yerer. The exposed thickness of the lava sequence is about 500m (Anteneh Girma, 1994).

d. Bofa Basalts

This unit comprises of olivine porphyritic basalt, scoria, vesicular & scoriaceous basalt, and trachy - basalt lava flows. They extend in to the south from Akaki River and the unit is as thick as 10 meters (Anteneh Girma, 1994). They appear to have upper thick basalt of 20 - 40m over the Akaki well field but thinner to absent in other places. They have well preserved shape of cones.

e. Lacustrine Deposits, alluvial & Residual soils:

These are quaternary to recent deposits. Lacustrine soils occur around Bole, Lideta, Mekanisa, Between Abba Samuel Lake and small Akaki River. The thickness of this deposit varies between 5m to 50m.

The Akaki catchment where all the Addis Ababa SWM project sites are located has been subjected to the rift tectonics, which is manifested by a number of major and minor fault systems. The general trend of most of these faults follows the rift system (NE – SW) orientation but there are some faults with orientation of east-west and northwest-southeast. The major lineament oriented along east - west that extends from Kessem River in the east through Addis Ababa to Ambo in the west, cuts across the Western rift escarpment and uplifted its northern block (Zennettin et al., 1978).

Another major lineament oriented in Northwest direction & situated to the northeast of the Akaki well field extends between Akaki and Dukem (following the main Debrezeit highway) is one of the lineaments that do not follow the rift trend. The density of faults increases to the southeast of the rift valley. Therefore, some of the basaltic lava and cinder cones situated to the Southeast & Northeast of the Akaki well field probably have erupted through these fractures as they are concentrated along the major NE – SW trending fault systems of Akaki and Dukem areas.

are concentrated along the major NE – SW trending fault systems of Akaki and Dukem areas.
are concentrated along the major NE – SW trending fault systems of Akaki and Dukem areas.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Map 3: Geology of Addis Ababa and Surrounding
of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Map 3: Geology of Addis Ababa and Surrounding

Map 3: Geology of Addis Ababa and Surrounding Area

6.1.3.1 Geology and Soil type of Sendafa Land fill site Sendafa Land fill site lies within Tarmaber basalt and ignimbrite sheet (upper Welded tuff) out

cropped in the northeast of Addis Ababa at the base of Intoto Mountain and Legadadi areas. The

ignimbrite formation is gray colored, vertically and horizontally jointed (Hailesellasie Girmay and

Getaneh Assefa, 1989). It is underlain by aphanitic basalt and overlain by young olivine basalts

(Hailesellasie Girmay, 1985).

From Geological map of Addis Ababa, the land fill site in Legedadi is at a vicinity of a fault

trending N-S direction.

Ababa, the land fill site in Legedadi is at a vicinity of a fault trending N-S
Ababa, the land fill site in Legedadi is at a vicinity of a fault trending N-S

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project With regard to soil type, the entire project

With regard to soil type, the entire project area is dominantly covered with black cotton soil. The

black cotton soil horizon or layer from the three test pits observed during field assessment has an

average thickness of 1.5m. Soils encountered in the site are black cotton soils with characteristics of

high plasticity and high degree of swelling.

6.1.3.2 Geology and soil type of Bole Arbasa Transfer station site

The southern segment of the site area is covered by basalt flows representing the oldest rock unit

exposed in the site area. It is well exposed all along the Akaki river gorge and its tributaries and

extensively excavated for various construction purposes. The rock is dark gray in colour, degree of

weathering ranges from strong to moderate, predominantly aphantic, vesicular, locally

amygdaloidal, strongly fractured and jointed, locally strongly layered.

The northern segment site is covered by Miocene ignimbrite (welded tuff) and trachyte underlain

by aphantic basalts. It is grey colored, vertically and horizontally jointed (Getaneh Aseffa et al.,

1989). There is a fault close to Bole Arabsa transfer station trends NNE-SSW direction like most

faults of Ethiopian rift valley.

From field observation, Bole Arabsa site is dominantly covered with black cotton soil. According

to the Test Pitting dug at the site, the black cotton soil cover above the weathered rock ranges

between 0.1m to 1m. Therefore the average of the soil cover is about 0.5m. The land is gently

sloping landscape. Its porous, dark-colored soils developed from volcanic origin, such as volcanic

ash, tuff and pumice.

6.1.3.3 Geology and soil type of Koshe Transfer station site Koshe site is found in the younger volcanic of Chilalo formation comprising Trachyte, Trachy

basalts, Ignimbrites and Rhyolites. Trachytic flow and Trachy-basalts dominantly cover extensive

areas in the site as well as west and southwest part of the site, from Mt. Furi, Tulu Iyoo to Repi and

Wechecha Range. The trachyte flow is underlain by tuff and overlain by alternating flows of

plagioclase basalt and rhyolite at Repi (Anteneh Girma, 1994).

According to Solomon Tale (2000), Olivine porphyritic basalt (Addis Ababa Basalt) outcrop in the

north eastern part of the site and the central part of the city.

It was difficult to identify the soil type of the site from field observation as the site is filled with

solid waste and selected soil materials transported from other areas for recapping. However, from

soil map of Addis Ababa, the area around the site is covered dominantly with clay and to some

proportion of silt developed from young volcanic rocks of Mt. Furi and Mt. Wechecha.

to some proportion of silt developed from young volcanic rocks of Mt. Furi and Mt. Wechecha.
to some proportion of silt developed from young volcanic rocks of Mt. Furi and Mt. Wechecha.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 6.1.3.4 Geology and soil type of Akaki Transfer

6.1.3.4 Geology and soil type of Akaki Transfer station site Akaki transfer station is within lacustrine silts and clays underlain by Bofa basalts. Bofa basalts

comprises of scoria , vesicular & scoraceous basalts and it is also close to Alluvial deposits along

the bank of Big Akaki River The site is also at the vicinity of normal fault striking NW-SE and

dipping towards the site.

The site is dominantly covered with black cotton soil developed over lacustrine clay and silt

deposits. The type of soil along the bank of Big Akaki River which is not far from the site is

dominantly loose materials consisting of clay, silt, sand and gravel in different proportions.

of clay, silt, sand and gravel in different proportions. Map 4: Geological Map and water points

Map 4: Geological Map and water points in Sendafa Sanitary Landfill Site

proportions. Map 4: Geological Map and water points in Sendafa Sanitary Landfill Site ZTS-EDCE & MTS
proportions. Map 4: Geological Map and water points in Sendafa Sanitary Landfill Site ZTS-EDCE & MTS

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 6.1.4 Hydrology of the project area Hydro-geologically, the

6.1.4 Hydrology of the project area

Hydro-geologically, the study area is a complex catchment. Different aquifers have different hydro geological characteristics.

Previous works show that the Akaki river catchment is made up of both inter - granular and fracture - type aquifers. Alluvial sediments and pyroclastic rocks are inter- granular porosity aquifers, and volcanic rocks such as weathered/fractured basalts, ignimbrites, trachyte, welded tuffs and rhyolites are fractured aquifer types.

Accordingly, major aquifers are fractured and intergranular aquifers of young volcanic sequences excluding the mountain ranges. Boreholes of variable discharges have been drilled in these aquifers and in most cases the yield is over 10 l/sec. The transmisivities of these aquifers vary between mean minimum value of 616m 2 /day and mean maximum of about 37000 m 2 /day. Scoria deposits, among the major aquifers are the most important unit from hydrological point of view. The interconnection of the voids has resulted in high permeability for these deposits. In the Akaki area highly productive wells were drilled in these deposits.

Minor aquifers are those fractured and inter granular aquifers of old volcanic rocks covering the city of Addis Ababa & the bases of Intoto Mountain and Legedadi plains. Wells drilled in these aquifers often yielded between 2 l/sec and 5 l/sec. The transmissivity of these aquifers varies between mean minimum value of 3m 2 /day and mean maximum of about 1700 m 2 /day.

Poor aquifers are fine - grained alluvial deposits intercalated with ash materials and well compacted lacustrine deposits, but this generalization is exceptional to alluvial deposits of sand and gravel types that cover smaller area in the catchment as wells drilled in them have good yields. The mountain ranges of Intoto, Wechecha and Furi are non-aquifers because are generally not considered as ground water containing materials in exploitable quantities.

6.1.4.1 Hydrology of the Sendafa Sanitary Landfill Area

From hydro-geological map of Addis Ababa, the site lies on aquifers which are fractured and inter granular aquifers of old volcanic rocks covering Legedadi plains. Old wells owned by AAWSA drilled up to 250m in these aquifers of fractured old basalt and ignimbrites often yielded between 5 l/s and 10 l/s except an artesian well relatively close to the site owned by AAWSA with a depth of 200m yielding 50 l/s during conducting pumping test.

the site owned by AAWSA with a depth of 200m yielding 50 l/s during conducting pumping
the site owned by AAWSA with a depth of 200m yielding 50 l/s during conducting pumping

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project From the deep test wells drilled up to

From the deep test wells drilled up to depth 432 and 500m around the site to assess the hydro- geological characteristics of the Legedadi-Legatafo-Ayat groundwater prospective area, the major aquifer in the area is fractured basalt, scoria and Scoraceous basalt. The deep test wells have water yield of 15 and 20 l/s and static water level of 6m - 8m. During drilling significant amount of water was struck at 60m and 180m depths.

6.1.4.2 Hydrology of the Bole Arbasa Transfer Station Area

The Hydro geological characteristic of the area is variable. Less fractured ignimbrite, rhyolite and trachyte are with relatively less permeable upper aquifer system. The Hydraulic conductivity of these upper aquifers varies between mean minimum value of 1m/day and mean maximum of about 6m/day. However, boreholes drilled more than 400m deep into the lower aquifer in South Ayat - North Fanta well field are productive wells with a yield of 35 -50 l/s.

No

 

Bore hole location

Owner

Well

Static water

depth(m)

level(m)

1

Abune Yosef school

Abune Yosef school

94

29

2

Voice of Gospel

Voice of Gospel

33

-

3

Ginbot 20 school

Ginbot 20 school

-

-

4

Rahima Diary

Rahima Diary

100

-

borehole was observed within a radius of 1km from the site. However, the site is at the periphery of South Ayat-North Fanta well field buffer zone which is one of the five Groundwater prospective sites identified in Addis Ababa city.

6.1.4.3 Hydrology of the Koshe Transfer Station Area

The site is categorized as extensive and moderate productive fissured aquifer stored with in moderately weathered and fractured trachyte, rhyolites and tuffs. Moderately fractured and weathered ignimbrites, tuffs and basalts form moderate productive aquifers with yield of 262m 3 /day to 432m 3 /day. Wells drilled towards south and west of the site on moderately fractured trachyte, rhyolites and tuffs often yielded between 2 l/sec and 5 l/sec and transmissivity between 50m 2 /day and 100m 2 /day. The porphyritic to Aphantic basalt unit which covers north eastern part of the site is productive aquifers yielding 5l/Sec to 10 l/Sec.

covers north eastern part of the site is productive aquifers yielding 5l/Sec to 10 l/Sec. ZTS-EDCE
covers north eastern part of the site is productive aquifers yielding 5l/Sec to 10 l/Sec. ZTS-EDCE

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Table 5: Boreholes within a radius of 1

Table 5: Boreholes within a radius of 1 km from Koshe site

6.1.4.3 Hydrology of the Akaki Transfer Station Area

Four principal hydrogeological units are recognized in Akaki area groundwater prospective site where the transfer station is located;

Alluvial confining layer

Upper basalt aquifer- vesicular basalt and scoria

Confining layers – trachytes and massive basalts

Lower Basalt aquifer- vesicular basalt and scoria

The first hydro lithological units is alluvial sediment composed of clay and silty clay material and its thickness is about 40m and it acts as confining layer of the upper aquifer. The upper aquifer is composed of vesicular basalt intercalated with scoria and massive basalt layers of multi layered aquifer. The massive basalt layers within this aquifer may act as a separating layer between the upper and lower aquifer. The thickness of the upper aquifer is estimated to be a maximum of 360 meters; the thickness of the lower aquifer is penetrated by 500 meters deep wells. Deep wells drilled up to 400m to 550m around the site yielding water from 22 l/s to 90 l/s with static water level depth of 8m - 35m.

The general groundwater movement is from north to south. Akaki area groundwater prospective site is one of the five prospective groundwater sites identified around Addis Ababa city. (WWDSE, March 2008) showed that Akaki prospective site has high groundwater potential and the annual exploitable groundwater resources from the Akaki prospective site is preliminarily estimated to be about 168 MCM/Year or 537,000m 3 /day.

Currently, in addition to operational old Akaki well fields, Addis Ababa Water Supply Authority has actively undertaking groundwater development through drilling deep wells in selected three well fields named as WF01, WF02, and WF03.

through drilling deep wells in selected three well fields named as WF01, WF02, and WF03. ZTS-EDCE
through drilling deep wells in selected three well fields named as WF01, WF02, and WF03. ZTS-EDCE

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Map 5: Water points and Geological structures around
of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Map 5: Water points and Geological structures around

Map 5: Water points and Geological structures around Akaki Transfer station

6.1.5 Land Use and visual

The major land use type dominating the areas around Sendafa sanitary landfill are farming, grazing and residential uses. The project area itself was widely used for agriculture with less dense residential places. It is the primary land use; barely, teff, wheat and lentils are the major crops in the area. Legedadi dam, one of the major water supply sources for Addis Ababa city, is also found in the locality and forms one of the important land uses in Sendafa area.

On the other hand the Bole Arbasa and Akaki transfer station sites are found at the outer peripheries of Addis Ababa city and hence the major land use types were agricultural and residential. However, the dominance of these land use types in the areas appears to be changing fast. For example, in the Akaki transfer station area, the agricultural fields are changing into vast residential places with the development of housing projects by the City Government. Similarly, industrial and residential land use types are fast approaching towards Bole Arbasa area with the expansion of industrial and residential projects. Thus the dominance of agricultural and rural residential land use types is thinning out fast around the project sites.

and rural residential land use types is thinning out fast around the project sites. ZTS-EDCE &
and rural residential land use types is thinning out fast around the project sites. ZTS-EDCE &

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Fig 7: Showing current land use types at
of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Fig 7: Showing current land use types at
of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Fig 7: Showing current land use types at
of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Fig 7: Showing current land use types at

Fig 7: Showing current land use types at Sendafa landfill, Akaki and Bole Arbasa transfer station sites

6.1.6 Water Resources

6.1.6.1 Surface waters

The Akaki River catchment comprises of numerous small rivers. The dominant ones are the Big Akaki with catchment area of 900km 2 , which drains the eastern part of the catchment area, and the little Akaki catchment with area of about 540km 2 , that drains the western part of the catchment; and their respective tributaries. The two rivers form one of the biggest tributaries of the Awash River called Akaki River. Almost all the streams in the catchment originate from the northern part of the catchment (see map 6).

Entoto Mountain range in the northern forms the surface water divide between the Blue Nile and Awash River basins. The drainage of an area is affected by numerous factors among which, rainfall, slope, vegetation, rock type and tectonic activity, infiltration capacity, soil types and thicknesses, are some. In the northern part of the catchment the drainage forms steep narrow gorges (facilitates runoff) which can be attributed to high rainfall, dense vegetation cover and high topographic elevation (>2800m). Where there are volcanic ridges /domes, drainage radiates in all directions forming radial or parallel drainage system. It is clear that areas with higher permeability have lower drainage density that in turn may decrease the surface runoff. These can be observed from the topographic map of the area in that areas with high elevation and that are not covered with vegetation have higher drainage density compared to flat lying areas and areas that are covered with vegetation (increases permeability). Generally the drainage in the catchment is oriented nearly from north to south following the regional slope.

in the catchment is oriented nearly from north to south following the regional slope. ZTS-EDCE &
in the catchment is oriented nearly from north to south following the regional slope. ZTS-EDCE &

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Map 6: Drainage Map of Akaki Catchment a.
of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Map 6: Drainage Map of Akaki Catchment a.

Map 6: Drainage Map of Akaki Catchment

a. Surface water around Sendafa Sanitary Landfill site

There are no permanent streams flowing within the Sendafa sanitary landfill site boundary; however during heavy rainfall events there are some streams created within and around the current site. During rainy season storm water from the western part of the project site is drained into small creek locally named as” Bickine” which is small tributary of Legedadi river while the eastern part of the site drains the water through dry gorges into Hambisa river which also joins Big Akaki River further downstream. There is no surface water flowing from the outside to the inside of the project site since its general elevation is higher than the adjacent areas.

the inside of the project site since its general elevation is higher than the adjacent areas.
the inside of the project site since its general elevation is higher than the adjacent areas.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Fig 8: Showing the confluence of Legetafo with
of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Fig 8: Showing the confluence of Legetafo with

Fig 8: Showing the confluence of Legetafo with Legedadi River where sample was collected

The Sendafa sanitary landfill site is located downstream of Legedadi dam which has reservoir capacity of 40x10 6 m 3 and supply rate of 127,000m 3 /day. From field observation, Hambisa River is brackish and polluted with cattle dung as it is extensively used for grazing by the near community.

 

Parameters

Water quality

Water qualit