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1. Anoushka Shankar 2. CHiranji Lal Tanwar 3. Benji Wertheimer & Steve Gorm

GCSE Music: AoS4 World

North Indian Classical Music

-Closely linked to Hinduism- the many Hindu
Gods are often worshipped through performing
different raga
-It is part of an oral tradition (passing down
music by word of mouth and listening- gharana)
- There are over 200 different rags for particular
times of day and occasions.
- The music is linear- emphasis is purely on the
The main element of the Raga:
1. Melody- improvised from notes of the
2. Drone- (on sa and pa) played by the
tambura (keeps a sense of tuning)

Different types of tala

Rag Desh 1- Jhaptal tala: 10 beats
Teental tala: 16 beats
Rag Desh 2- Keherwa tala: 8 beats

Rage Desh 2- Words from the Bhajan

(song). Hindu devotional song
Words translated from Hindu
You are my companion through life and death and I
cannot forget you night and day. My heart pines for
you and I feel totally restless when I am not able to

Rag Desh- A monsoon rag

Key Words
Bols- Independent rhythm parts in a tala: they
create exciting syncopations by going against the
main beat

Rasa (primary moods) = devotion,

romance, longing
The notes are based on the Indian notation

Bandish- the last section of a vocal raga: a fixed

composition in the form of a song
Jhor- the 2nd section of a raga- medium tempo with

Matras- individual beats in a rhythmic cycle

Jhalla- 3rd section of a raga- lively tempo and

virtuosic improvisatory skills shown: the climax

Sam- the first beat of the rhythmic cycle

Meend- the sliding effects between notes

Alap- Opening unmetered and improvised section of

a raga

Tan- Rapid scalic flourishes on the sitar, sarod or


Gat- the final section of an instrumental raga: a

fixed composition with improvised embellishments

Tihai- A short phrase repeated 3 times to indicate

the end of a section/piece

Sitar- 7 metal strings (inc.2 drone strings) +
around 12 sympathetic strings= twangy sound:
uses techniques such as meend and tan
Sarangi- Fretless, bowed string instrument- gentle
tone for accompanying singers

Sarod- Fretless string instrument with

sympathetic strings and a metal fingerboardlower range than sitar
Tambura- 4 strings and a resonator for playing
the drone
Tabla- Small set of 2 drums: 1 wooden, 1 metal

Rag Desh - 1. Anoushka Shankar 2. CHiranji Lal Tanwar 3. Benji Wertheimer & Steve Gorm

GCSE Music: AoS4 World

Rag Desh 1 - Anoushka Shakar (sitar) - Sitar & Tabla

0.00-0.55: Alap: Slow, unmetered, improvisatory, short section- played on the Sitar
0.55-9.27: Gat 1: Fixed composition- decoration added, medium tempo, Tihai end of
improvisations with an idea played 3 times- Tabla enters (Jhaptal tal- 10 beats)
9.27-10.10: Gat 2: Faster tempo- Tabla plays Tintal tal (16 beats)

Rag Desh 2 - Mhara janam maran Chiranji Lal Tanwar (voice)Voice, sarangi, sarod, pakhawaj cymbals tabla
0.00-0.50: Alap: Slow, unmetered, improvisatory- features the sarangi and the voice
introduce notes of rag.
0.50-end: Bandish/Bhajan: Fixed composition (a song in verse form). Tabla enters
(Keherwa tal- 8 beats)
1.10: short sarod solo, 1.22=sarangi solo. Dynamics and tempo increase= exciting! Main
pattern- verse,refrain, solos, x3. Ends with a short tihai.

Rag Desh 3 - Benjy Wertheimer (esraj & tabla) & Steve Gorn (bansuri)
Tambura, bansuri, esraj, tabla
0.00-8.35: Alap: Slow, unmetered, free, improvisatory- Tambura plays drone (sa +pa),
bansuri and esraj play the notes of the rag. VERY long section.
0.00- 4.41: Gat 1: Slow tempo. Tabla enters at 0.31 (Rupak tal- 7 beats). Fixed
composition starts at 0.43: improvisation happens around the gat. Tabla gets more
complex. Bansuri (wooden flute) plays the gat whilst tabla improvises- then swap. Tihais
are heard to signal the end of sections. Last one leads to 2nd gat
4.41:end- Gat 2- A fast tempo in Ektal tal (12 beats). Bansuri plays elaborate gat- scalic