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Aircraft are generally built up from the basic components of wings, fuselages, tail units and control

surfaces. There are variations in particular aircraft, for example, a delta wing aircraft would not

necessarily possess a horizontal tail although this is presenting a canard configuration such as that of

the Euro fighter (Typhoon). Each component has one or more specific functions and must be

designed to ensure that it can carry

Out these functions safely. In this chapter we shall describe the various loads to which aircraft

components are subjected, their function and fabrication and also the design of connections.

Loads on Structural Components

The structure of an aircraft is required to support two distinct classes of load: the first, termed ground

loads, includes all loads encountered by the aircraft during movement or transportation on the

ground such as taxiing and landing loads, towing and hoisting loads; while the second, air loads,

comprises loads imposed on the structure during flight by maneuvers and gusts.

The two classes of loads may be further divided into surface forces which act upon the surface of the

structure, e.g. aerodynamic and hydrostatic pressure, and body forces which act over the volume of

the structure and are produced by gravitational and inertial effects. Calculation of the distribution of

aerodynamic pressure over the various surfaces of an aircrafts structure is presented in numerous

texts on aerodynamics and will therefore not be attempted here. We shall, however, discuss the types

of load induced by these various effects and their action on the different structural components.

Page 1 of Unit 5

UNIT V STRESS ANALYSIS OF WING AND FUSELAGE

Basically, all air loads are the resultants of the pressure distribution over the surfaces of the skin

produced by steady flight maneuvers or gust conditions. Generally, these resultants cause direct

loads, bending, shear and torsion in all parts of the structure in addition to local, normal pressure

loads imposed on the skin. Conventional aircraft usually consist of fuselage, wings and tail plane.

The fuselage contains crew and payload, the latter being passengers, cargo, weapons plus fuel,

depending on the type of aircraft and its function; the wings provide the lift and the tail plane is the

main contributor to directional control. In addition, ailerons, elevators and the rudder enable the pilot

to maneuvers the aircraft and maintain its stability in flight, while wing flaps provide the necessary

increase of lift for take-off and landing. Figure shows typical aerodynamic force resultants

experienced by an aircraft in steady flight .The force on an aerodynamic surface (wing, vertical or

horizontal tail) results from a differential pressure distribution caused by incidence, camber or a

combination of both. Such a pressure distribution, shown in Fig. has vertical (lift) and horizontal

(drag) resultants acting at a centre of pressure (CP). (In practice, lift and drag are

Measured perpendicular and parallel to the flight path, respectively.) Clearly the position of the CP

changes as the pressure distribution varies with speed or wing incidence.

Page 2 of Unit 5

UNIT V STRESS ANALYSIS OF WING AND FUSELAGE

V-n Diagram

The control of weight in aircraft design is of extreme importance. Increases in weight require

stronger structures to support them, which in turn lead to further increases in weight and so on.

Excesses of structural weight mean lesser amounts of payload, thereby affecting the economic

viability of the aircraft. The aircraft designer is therefore constantly seeking to pare his aircrafts

weight to the minimum compatible with safety.

However, to ensure general minimum standards of strength and safety, airworthiness regulations lay

down several factors which the primary structure of the aircraft must satisfy. These are the limit load,

which is the maximum load that the aircraft is expected to experience in normal operation, the proof

load, which is the product of the limit load and the proof factor(1.01.25), and the ultimate load,

which is the product of the limit load and the ultimate factor(usually 1.5). The aircrafts structure

must withstand the proof load without detrimental distortion and should not fail until the ultimate

load has been achieved

Page 3 of Unit 5

UNIT V STRESS ANALYSIS OF WING AND FUSELAGE

.

The basic strength and flight performance limits for a particular aircraft are selected by the

airworthiness authorities and are contained in the flight envelope or Vn diagram shown in Fig. The

curves OA and OF correspond to the stalled condition of the aircraft and are obtained from the wellknown aerodynamic relationship

Therefore, for speeds below VA (positive wing incidence) and VF (negative incidence)the maximum

loads which can be applied to the aircraft are governed by CLmax. As the speed increases it is

possible to apply the positive and negative limit loads, corresponding to n1andn3, without stalling

the aircraft so that AC and FE represent maximum operational load factors for the aircraft. Above the

design cruising speed VC, the cut-off lines CD1and D2E relieve the design cases to be covered since

it is not expected that the limit loads will be applied at maximum speed. Values of n1, n2 and n3 are

specified by the airworthiness authorities for particular aircraft.

Wings

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

Page 4 of Unit 5

UNIT V STRESS ANALYSIS OF WING AND FUSELAGE

The wing sections consist of thin skins stiffened by combinations of stringers, spar webs, and caps

and ribs. The resulting structure frequently comprises one, two or more cells, and is highly

redundant. However, as in the case of fuselage sections, the large number of closely spaced stringers

allows the assumption of a constant shear flow in the skin between adjacent stringers so that awing

section may be analyzed as though it were completely idealized as long as the direct stress carrying

capacity of the skin is allowed for by additions to the existing stringer/boom areas. We shall

investigate the analysis of multi cellular wing sections subjected to bending, torsion and shear loads,

although, initially, it will be instructive to examine the special case of an idealized three-boom shell.

Three - Boom Shell

The wing section shown in Fig. has been idealized into an arrangement of direct stress carrying

booms and shearstress-only carrying skin panels. The part of the wing section aft of the vertical

spar 31 performs an aerodynamic role only and is therefore unstressed. Lift and drag loads, Sy and

Sx, induce shear flows in the skin panels which are constant between adjacent booms since the

section has been completely idealized. Therefore, resolving horizontally and noting that the resultant

of the internal shear flows is equivalent to the applied load.

Page 5 of Unit 5

UNIT V STRESS ANALYSIS OF WING AND FUSELAGE

In the above there are three unknown values of shear flow,q12, q23, q31and three equations of

statically equilibrium. We conclude therefore that a three-boom idealized shell is statically

determinate. We shall return to the simple case of a three-boom wing section when we examine the

distributions of direct load and shear flows in wing ribs. Meanwhile, we shall consider the bending,

torsion and shear of multi cellular wing sections.

Bending

Bending moments at any section of a wing are usually produced by shear loads at other sections of

the wing. The direct stress system for such a wing section is given by Equation

in which the coordinates (x,y) of any point in the cross-section and the sectional properties are

referred to axes Cxy in which the origin C coincides with the centroid of the direct stress carrying

area.

Page 6 of Unit 5

UNIT V STRESS ANALYSIS OF WING AND FUSELAGE

Example:

The wing section shown in Fig. has been idealized such that the booms carry all the direct stresses.

If the wing section is subjected to a bending moment of 300 kNm applied in a vertical plane,

calculate the direct stresses in the booms.

Boom areas: B1=B6=2580 mm2 B2=B5=3880 mm2 B3=B4=3230 mm2

We note that the distribution of the boom areas is symmetrical about the horizontal x axis. Hence

Ixy=0. Further,Mx=300 kN m and My=0.

Page 7 of Unit 5

UNIT V STRESS ANALYSIS OF WING AND FUSELAGE

The solution is now completed in Table in which positive direct stresses are tensile and negative

direct stresses compressive.

Torsion

The chord wise pressure distribution on an aerodynamic surface may be represented by shear loads

(lift and drag loads) acting through the aerodynamic centre together with a pitching momentM0 This

system of shear loads may be transferred to the shear centre of the section in the form of shear loads

Sx and Sy together with a torque T. It is the pure torsion case that is considered here. In the analysis

we assume that no axial constraint effects are present and that the shape of the wing section remains

unchanged by the load application. In the absence of axial constraint there is no development of

direct stress in the wing section so that only shear stresses are present. It follows that the presence of

booms does not affect the analysis n the pure torsion case. The wing section shown in Fig.

Comprises N cells and carries a torque T which generates individual but unknown torques in each of

the N cells. Each cell therefore develops a constant shear flow qI,qII,...,qR,...,qN given by Equation

The total is therefore

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

Page 8 of Unit 5

UNIT V STRESS ANALYSIS OF WING AND FUSELAGE

Shear

Initially we shall consider the general case of an N-cell wing section comprising booms and

skin panels, the latter being capable of resisting both direct and shear stresses. The wing

section is subjected to shear loads Sx and Sy whose lines of action do not necessarily pass

through the shear centre S the resulting shear flow distribution is therefore due to the

combined effects of shear and torsion.

The open section shears flow qb in the wing section is given by equation

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

Page 9 of Unit 5

UNIT V STRESS ANALYSIS OF WING AND FUSELAGE

Consider the Rth cell shown in Fig. 23.9. The complete distribution of shear flow around the

cell is given by the summation of the open section shear flow qb and the value of shear flow

at the cut,qs,0,R. We may therefore regard qs,0,R as a constant shear flow acting around the

cell. The rate of twist is again given by Equation

Fuselages

Aircraft fuselages consist, of thin sheets of material stiffened by large numbers of longitudinal

stringers together with transverse frames. Generally, they carry bending moments, shear forces and

torsional loads which induce axial stresses in the stringers and skin together with shear stresses in the

skin; the resistance of the stringers to shear forces is generally ignored. Also, the distance between

adjacent stringers is usually small so that the variation in shear flow in the connecting panel will be

small. It is therefore reasonable to assume that the shear flow is constant between adjacent stringers

so that the analysis simplifies to the analysis of an idealized section in which the stringers/booms

carry all the direct stresses while the skin is effective only in shear. The direct stress carrying

capacity of the skin may be allowed for by increasing the stringer/boom areas as described in Section

20.3. The analysis of fuselages therefore involves the calculation of direct stresses in the stringers

and the shear stress distributions in the skin.

The skin/stringer arrangement is idealized into one comprising booms and skin as The direct stress in

each boom is then calculated using bending Equation in which the reference axes and the section

properties refer to the direct stress carrying areas of the cross-section.

Page 10 of Unit 5

UNIT V STRESS ANALYSIS OF WING AND FUSELAGE

Example:

The fuselage of a light passenger carrying aircraft has the circular cross-section shown in Fig. The

cross-sectional area of each stringer is 100mm2 and the vertical distances given in Fig. are to the

mid-line of the section wall at the corresponding stringer position. If the fuselage is subjected to a

bending moment of 200 KNm applied in the vertical plane of symmetry, at this section, calculate the

direct stress distribution.

Page 11 of Unit 5

UNIT V STRESS ANALYSIS OF WING AND FUSELAGE

Shear

For a fuselage having a circular cross-section of the type shown in Fig. the determination of the

shear flow distribution in the skin produced by shear is basically the analysis of an idealized single

cell closed section beam. The shear flow distribution is therefore given by Equation in which the

direct stress carrying capacity of the skin is assumed to be zero.

the above equation is applicable to loading cases in which the shear loads are not applied through the

section shear centre so that the effects of shear and torsion are included simultaneously.

Alternatively, if the position of the shear centre is known, the loading system may be replaced by

shear loads acting through the shear centre together with a pure torque, and the corresponding shear

flow distributions may be calculated separately and then superimposed to obtain the final

distribution.

Page 12 of Unit 5

UNIT V STRESS ANALYSIS OF WING AND FUSELAGE

Example:

The fuselage is subjected to a vertical shear load of 100 kN applied at a distance of 150mm from the

vertical axis of symmetry as shown in fig. Calculate the distribution of shear flow in the section.

The first

term on

the righthand side

of

Equation

is the

open

section

shear flow

qb. We

therefore cut 'one of the skin panels, say 12, and calculate qb. The results are presented

in Table.

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

Page 13 of Unit 5

UNIT V STRESS ANALYSIS OF WING AND FUSELAGE

Note that in Table, the column headed Boom indicates the boom that is crossed when the analysis

moves from one panel to the next. Note also that, as would be expected, the qb shear flow

distribution is symmetrical about the Cx axis. The shear flow qs,0 in the panel 12 is now found by

taking moments about a convenient moment centre, say C.

Page 14 of Unit 5

UNIT V STRESS ANALYSIS OF WING AND FUSELAGE

Page 15 of Unit 5

UNIT V STRESS ANALYSIS OF WING AND FUSELAGE

Torsion

A fuselage section is basically a single cell closed section beam. The shear flow distribution

produced by a pure torque is therefore given by Equation

q = T/2A

It is immaterial whether or not the section has been idealized since, in both cases, the booms are

assumed not to carry shear stresses. the above Equation provides an alternative approach to that

above Example for the solution of shear loaded sections in which the position of the shear centre is

known. the shear centre coincides with the centre of symmetry so that the loading system may be

replaced by the shear load of 100 kN acting through the shear centre together with a pure torque

equal to 100103 150=15106Nmm. The shear flow distribution due to the shear load may be

found using the method of above Example but with the left-hand side of the moment equation, equal

to zero for moments about the centre of symmetry. Alternatively, use maybe made of the symmetry

of the section and the fact that the shear flow is constant between adjacent booms. Suppose that the

shear flow in the panel 21 is q2 1. Then from symmetry and using the results of Table

Page 16 of Unit 5

UNIT V STRESS ANALYSIS OF WING AND FUSELAGE

The spars of aircraft wings usually comprise an upper and a lower flange connected by thin stiffened

webs. These webs are often of such a thickness that they buckle under shear stresses at a fraction of

their ultimate load. The form of the buckle is shown in Fig. where the web of the beam buckles

under the action of internal diagonal compressive stresses produced by shear, leaving a wrinkled web

capable of supporting diagonal tension only in a direction perpendicular to that of the buckle; the

beam is then said to be a complete tension field beam.

Page 17 of Unit 5

UNIT V STRESS ANALYSIS OF WING AND FUSELAGE

Page 18 of Unit 5

UNIT V STRESS ANALYSIS OF WING AND FUSELAGE

Page 19 of Unit 5

UNIT V STRESS ANALYSIS OF WING AND FUSELAGE

Page 20 of Unit 5

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