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Learning Objectives Chapter 7 Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6 t h Edition by Douglas

Learning Objectives

Learning Objectives Chapter 7 Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6 t h Edition by Douglas C.

Chapter 7

Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 6

th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery.

Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3

7.1 Introduction

Many quality characteristics are not measured on a continuous scale or even a quantitative scale. In such cases, one may judge each unit of product as either conforming or nonconforming on the basis of whether or not it possesses certain attributes or we may count the number of nonconformities (defects) appearing on the unit of product. Control charts for such quality characteristics are called attributes control charts.

1

7.2 The Control Chart for Fraction nonconforming

The population fraction nonconforming (FNC) is defined as the ratio of the number of nonconforming items in a population to the total number of items in that population. Similarly, the sample fraction nonconforming is defined as the ratio of the number of nonconforming items in a sample to the number of items in the corresponding sample. The item may have several quality characteristics that are examined simultaneously by the inspector. If the item does not conform to standard on one or more of these characteristics, it is classified as nonconforming. The statistical principles underlying the control chart for FNC are based on the binomial distribution. We assume that the process is operating in a stable manner, such that the probability that any unit will not conform to specifications is p and successive units produced are independent. Then each unit produced is a realization of Bernoulli random variable with parameter p . Suppose that each subgroup is of the same size n , and D denotes the random variable that counts the number of nonconforming items in a subgroup. Then D can be modeled as a binomial random variable with parameters n and p .

That is

n

    p

P D

(

=

x

) =

x

(1

p

)

n x

;

x

= 0,1,2,,

n

x

Then

D

=

np

,

2

D

=

np

(1

p

)

(1)

The sample fraction nonconforming corresponding to population nonconforming is obtained as:

It can be shown that

and

Var ( p ˆ) =

p ˆ =

D

n

.

D

n

E ( p ˆ) =

p ˆ

2

p ˆ

=

1

2

n

=

E

=

np

= p

 

n

np

(1

p

)

p

(1

p

)

 

2

=

.

 

n

n

(

Var D

) =

So the mean and standard deviation of pˆ are respectively

p ˆ

=

p

,

and

2

p ˆ

=

p (1  p ) . n
p
(1
p
)
.
n

7.2.1 Development and Operation of the Control Chart

Let w be a sample statistic that measures some quality characteristic of interest, and suppose,

E ( w) =

w

and

2

V(w) = ,

w

SD ( w) =

w

Then the UCL, center line, and LCL become:

UCL

CL =

LCL

=

w

w

=

w

L

w

L

w

,

(2)

where L (usually 3) is the ``distance'' of the control limits from the center line, expressed in standard deviation units. This is called Shewhart (Dr. Walter A. Shewhart) Control chart.

Fraction Nonconforming Control Chart: Standard Given

UCL

=

p

3

p (1  p ) n
p
(1
p
)
n
3 p (1  p ) n

CL

=

p

LCL

=

p

3

p (1  p ) n
p
(1
p
)
n
3 p (1  p ) n

The actual operation of this chart would consist of taking subsequent samples of n units. Computing the sample fraction nonconforming

pˆ versus its subgroup number i on the

chart. As long as pˆ remains within the control limits and the sequence of plotted points does not exhibit any systematic nonrandom pattern, we may conclude that the process is in control at the level p . If a point plots outside of the control limits, or if a nonrandom pattern in the plotted points is observed, we may conclude that the process fraction nonconforming most likely shifted to a new level and the process is out of control.

pˆ

i and plotting the statistic

i

3

(3)

Fraction Nonconforming (FNC) Control Chart: No Standard Given

UCL

=

p

3

p (1  p ) n
p
(1
p
)
n
3 p (1  p ) n

CL

=

p

LCL

=

p

3

p (1  p ) n
p
(1
p
)
n
3 p (1  p ) n

(4)

The control limits in (4) should be considered as trial control limits.

Estimation of p

When the process fraction nonconforming p is not known, then it must be estimated from observed data. The usual procedure is to select m preliminary samples (20 to 30), each of size n (5 to 10).

Case 1: Suppose there are

then we compute the fraction nonconforming for the

D

i nonconforming items in the sample i ,

i th

sample as

p ˆ

i

=

D

i

n

,

i = 1,2,

, m.

And the average of these individual sample FNC is

m

D

i

m

p ˆ

i

i =1

=

i =1

sample FNC is m  D i m  p ˆ i i =1 = i

p =

Case 2: When the subgroup sizes p can be calculated as

n

1

nm , n ,

2

,

n

m

m

are not all equal, then the

p =

D

1

D

2

,

,

D

m

=

D   D

 

n

1

1

n

2

,

2

N

,

n

m

    D

m

N

N

n

N

=

1

p ˆ

1

   n

2

N

p ˆ  

2

n   p ˆ

 

m

N

m

=

m

i =1

w p ˆ

i

i

,

where

w i =

n

i

N

and n

1

 

n

2

the subgroup statistics.

n =

m

N

and p is a weighted average of

4

(5)

Example 7.1, page 292

From Table 7.1, we calculate the following preliminary control limits.

m

D

i

347

=

i =1

=

p

nm

30

50

= 0.2313

The upper control limit, center line and the lower control limits are

UCL

=

p

3

p (1  p ) n
p
(1
p
)
n
3 p (1  p ) n

= 0.4102

CL

=

p

= 0.2313

LCL

=

p

3

p (1  p ) n
p
(1
p
)
n
3 p (1  p ) n

= 0.0524

(6)

= p  3 p (1  p ) n = 0.0524 (6) Figure 7.1 Initial

Figure 7.1 Initial phase I fraction nonconforming control chart

The control chart has shown in Figure 7.1. We observed that samples 15 and 23 plot above the upper control limit. Therefore, the process is not in control. Since the samples 15 and 23 are out of control limits they are eliminated and the revised control limits are as follows:

UCL

CL

LCL

m

 D i 301 i =1 p = = = 0.2150 nm 28  50
D
i 301
i =1
p
=
=
= 0.2150
nm
28
 50
p (1
p
)
= p 
3
= 0.3893
n
= p
= 0.2150
p (1
p
)
= p 
3
= 0.0407
n

5

(7)

The revised control chart has shown in Figure 7.2. We observed that samples 15 and 23 plot above the upper control limit, even they have been excluded from the calculation of the control limits. In the revised control limits, the sample number 21 is out of the limit. However, there is no assignable causes related to that sample. So we conclude that the process is in control at level p = 0.2150 and the

used for monitoring current

production.

revised

control

limits

should

be

current production. revised control limits should be Figure 7.2 Revised control limits for the data in

Figure 7.2 Revised control limits for the data in Table 7.1 (page 293)

During the next three shifts following the machine adjustments and the introduction of the control chart, an additional 24 samples of size n = 50 observations each are collected and provided them in Table 7.2, page 295. The sample fraction nonconforming are plotted on the control chart in Fig 7.3.

nonconforming are plotted on the control chart in Fig 7.3. Figure 7.3: Continution of frac tion

Figure 7.3: Continution of fraction nonconforming control chart.

6

From Fig 7.3, we see that the process is now operating at a new level which is lower than the present level p = 0.2150 . Now, we are interested for the following hypothesis

Hp

:

01

=

p

2

We have

ˆ

p

1

= 0.2150

, and

p ˆ

2

=

Hp

:

11

>

p

2

54

i

=31

D

i 133

=

50

24

50

24

= 0.1108

The approximate Z-test (see more on page 296) is

Z

0

=

p ˆ  p ˆ 1 2 p ˆ (1  p ˆ ) 1/
p ˆ
 p ˆ
1
2
p
ˆ (1 
p
ˆ ) 1/
n
1/
n
1
2
0.2150
 0.1108

Z

0

=

 (0.1669)(0.8331) 1/1400  1/1200

(0.1669)(0.8331) 1/1400

1/1200

= 7.10

, we do reject the null hypothesis and conclude

that there has been a significant decrease in the process fallout. The revised control limits based on the last 24 samples (numbers 31-54) are

Since

Z

0

= 7.10 > 1.645

UCL

=

p

3

p (1  p ) n
p
(1
 p
)
n
3 p (1  p ) n

= 0.2440

 

CL

=

p

= 0.1108

(8)

LCL

=

p

3

p (1  p ) n
p
(1
 p
)
n
3 p (1  p ) n

=

0.0224 = 0

The new revised control chart has shown in Figure 7.4.

= 0 The new revised control chart has shown in Figure 7.4. Figure 7.4: New control

Figure 7.4: New control limits on FNC control chart, Example 7.1

7

The new control limits will have only upper control limit. All points are inside the revised control limits. Therefore the process is in control at this new level.

The continued operation of this control chart for the next five shifts (data in Table 7.3, page 298) is shown in Fig 7.5.

shifts (data in Table 7.3, page 298) is shown in Fig 7.5. Figure 7.5: Completed fraction

Figure 7.5: Completed fraction nonconforming CC for Example 7.1

The process in control. However, the fraction nonconforming is still high. You need Experimental Design to reduce the process fraction nonconforming. See more on page 297.

Design of the Fraction Nonconforming Control Chart (FNCC)

The FNCC has three parameters: the sample size, the frequency of sampling and the width of the control limits.

Various rules have been suggested for the choice of sample size n .

When p is small, larger subgroup sizes are necessary, and for larger p , smaller subgroups are necessary. We can choose the sample size n so that the probability of finding at least one nonconforming unit per sample is at least . If D denotes the number of NCF items in the sample, then we want to find n such that

p{ D 1} .

8

Using Poisson approximation to binomial, we find that

n =

ln (1

)

p

.

(9)

Example, if P ( D 1) 0.95 , & p = 0.01, then sample size should be 300.

Example, if P ( D 1) 0.99 , & p = 0.01, then sample size should be 461.

Duncan (1986) suggested that the sample size should be large enough such that we have approximately 50% chance of detecting a process shift of some specified amount. If is the magnitude of the process shift, then

n =

L   p

2

(1

p

)

(10)

For example, p = 0.01, we want to detect a shift when p = 0.05 . Then = 0.05 0.01 = 0.04 . And the sample size for 3-sigma control limit would be

n =

3

0.04

 

2

0.01(1

0.01) = 56

For example, p = 0.01, we want to detect a shift when p = 0.02 . Then = 0.02 0.01 = 0.01 . And the sample size for 3-sigma control limit would be

n =

3

0.01

2

0.01(1

0.01) = 891

For a smaller shift, you need a bigger sample size.

What is the smallest sample size that would give a positive lower limit?

p (1  p ) LCL  p  L > 0 n (1 
p
(1
p
)
LCL
p  L
> 0
n
(1
 p
)
2
 n >
 L .

p

For example, if p = 0.05, and 3-sigma limits are used, the sample size must be n 171. For example, if p = 0.01, and 3-sigma limits are used, the sample size must be n 892 .

9

The np Control Chart The number nonconforming or np control limits are as follows:

UCL

CL

LCL

=

=

np

np

=

np

3 np (1  p ) 3 np (1  p )
3
np
(1
p
)
3
np
(1
p
)

If p is unknown, use p to estimate p .

Example 7.2, page 300.

(11)

Consider the data in Table 7.1 of example 7.1. The control limits for np chart would be

UCL

CL

LCL

=

= np

3

np (1  p
np
(1
p

) = 20.51 = 20

np

= 11.57 = 12

= np

3

np (1  p
np
(1
p

) = 2.62 = 2

(12)

From Table 7.1, the sample number 15 and 23 are out of control.

7.2.2 Variable Sample Size

There are three approaches to constructing and operating a control chart.

1. Variable-width Control Limits

The control limits for the

i th

sample are

UCL

=

p

3

p (1  p ) n i
p
(1
p
)
n
i
3 p (1  p ) n i

CL

=

p

LCL

=

p

3

p (1  p ) n i
p
(1
p
)
n
i
3 p (1  p ) n i

Replace p with p , where,

m

 D i i =1 p = . m  n i
D
i
i
=1
p
=
.
m
n
i

i =1

10

(13)

Consider data in Table 7.4, page 302 we calculate

25

D

i 234

i =1

=

p =

25

i

n

2450

i =1

= 0.096

then the center line is 0.096. The control limits are

UCL = 0.096

3

CL = 0.096

LCL = 0.096

3

0.096  0.904 n i 0.096  0.904 n i
0.096
 0.904
n
i
0.096
 0.904
n
i

= 0.096

= 0.096

0.884

n i 0.884 n i
n
i
0.884
n
i

(14)

The control chart for fraction nonconforming with variable sample size is provided in Fig 7.6.

nonc onforming with variable sample size is provided in Fig 7.6. Figure 7.6: CC for FNC

Figure 7.6: CC for FNC with variable sample size

11

2. Control limits based on an average sample size

m

 i n i =1 n =
 i
n
i
=1
n =

m

Then the approximate control limits are

UCL

=

p

3

p (1  p ) n
p
(1
p
)
n
3 p (1  p ) n

CL

=

p

LCL

=

p

3

p (1  p ) n
p
(1
p
)
n
3 p (1  p ) n

(15)

Consider data in Table 7.4, page 302 we calculate

25

 D i 2450 i =1 n = = 25 25  i n i
D
i
2450
i =1
n =
=
25
25
 i
n
i =1
Then the control limits are
0.096
0.904
UCL = 0.096  3
= 0.185
98
CL = 0.096
0.096
0.904
LCL = 0.096  3
= 0.007
98

= 98

(16)

The resulting control chart is shown in Fig 7.8.

98 = 98 (16) The resulting control chart is shown in Fig 7.8. Figure 7.8: CC

Figure 7.8: CC for FNC based on the average sample size

12

3. The standardized control chart The standardized control chart has center line at 0, upper and lower limits of +3 and -3 respectively. The variable plotted on the chart is

Z

i

=

p ˆ  p i p (1  p ) n i
p
ˆ
 p
i
p
(1
p
)
n
i

where p (or p , if standard is not given) is the process fraction nonconforming in the in-control state. The standardized control chart for fraction nonconforming is presented in Fig 7.9 for the data in Table 7.5, page 305.

presented in Fig 7.9 for the data in Table 7.5, page 305. Figure 7.9: Standardized CC

Figure 7.9: Standardized CC for FNC

7.2.3 Application in Transactional and Service Business: pages 304-

306

7.2.4 The Operating Characteristic (OC) Function and Average Run Length (ARL)

The OC function of the fraction nonconforming control chart is a graphical display of the probability of incorrectly accepting the hypothesis of statistical control (i.e. type II error or -error) against the process fraction nonconforming. The OC curve provides a measure of the sensitivity of the control chart, that is, its ability to detect a shift in the process fraction nonconforming from the nominal value p to some other value.

13

The probability of type II error is

< D n

<

D

n

< D n

=

{

{

<

P LCL

P LCL

ˆ <

p

UCL p

|

|

<

UCL p

}

}

=

{

P D

<

|

n UCL p

}

{

P D

|

n LCL p

}

(17)

Since D is the binomial random variable with parameters n and p , the error defined in (17) can be obtained from binomial table. Table 7.6, page 307 illustrates the calculations of a OC curve for n = 50 , LCL = 0.0303 and UCL = 0.3697 . The corresponding OC curve has shown in Fig 7.11.

curve for n = 5 0 , LCL = 0.0303 and UCL = 0.3697 . The

14

The average run length (ARL) for any Shewhart control chart is defined as ARL =

The average run length (ARL) for any Shewhart control chart is defined as

ARL

=

1

Sample point plots out of control

If the process is in control,

ARL

0

=

1

ARL

0 is defined as

(18)

(19)

For example, if the process is in control with p = 0.20 , the probability of a point plotting in control is 0.9973 (from Table 7.6). Then

ARL

0

=

1

1

0.9973

= 370

Then, even the process is in control, we will experience a false alarm out of control signal about every 370 samples.

However, if the process is out of control, then

ARL

1

=

1

1

(20)

For example, if the process shift to p = 0.30 , Table 7.6 indicates that

= 0.8594 . Then

ARL

1

=

1

1

0.8594

= 7

and it will take about 7 samples, on average, to detect this shift with a point outside of the control limits.

Exercise 7.7, page 336.

15

Exercise 7.10, page 336.

Exercise 7.18, page 337.

7.3 Control Charts for Nonconformities (Defects)

A nonconforming item is a unit of product that does not satisfy one or more of the specifications for that product. Each specific point at which a specification is not satisfied results in a defect or nonconformity. Consequently, a nonconforming item will contain at least one nonconformity. It is possible to construct control chart based on the total number of nonconformities in a unit or the average number of nonconformities per unit.

7.3.1 Procedures with Constant Sample Size Consider the occurences of nonconformities in an inspection unit of product. The inspection unit is simply an entry for which it is convenient to keep records. Suppose that defects or nonconformities occur in the inspection unit according to the Poisson distribution. That is,

p x

(

) =

c x

e

c

x !

,

where x is the number of nonconformities and c is the parameter of Poisson distribution. The control chart for nonconformities with 3- sigma control limits are defined as follows:

Control chart for Nonconformities: Standard Given (c-chart)

UCL

=

c

3

c
c

CL

=

c

(21)

LCL

=

c

3

c
c

If the LCL is a negative value, consider as LCL=0.

16

Control chart for Nonconformities: No Standard Given

UCL

=

c

3

c
c

CL

=

c

(22)

LCL

=

c

3

c
c

When no standard is given, the control limits in equation (22) should be regarded as trial control limits. Example 7.3, page 310

 

Table 7.7 (page 310) represents the number of nonconformities observed in 26 successive samples of 100 printed circuit boards. For reasons of convenience, the inspection unit is defines as 100 boards. Construct control limits for the c-Chart. Since 26 samples contain 516 total nonconformities, we have

 

516

c =
c =

= 19.85.

26

The trial control limits are

UCL

=

c

3

c
c

= 33.22

CL

=

c

= 19.85

 

(23)

LCL

=

c

3

c
c

= 6.48

The control chart based on limits in (23) is shown in Fig 7.12.

6.48 The control chart based on limits in (23) is shown in Fig 7.12. Figure 7.12:

Figure 7.12: CC for NConformities for Example 7.3

17

From Fig 7.12, we observe that Samples 6 and 20 plot outside the control limits. Then exclude these two samples and revised control limits which are obtained as follows:

472 c = 24
472
c =
24

= 19.67.

The revised control limits are

UCL

=

c

3

c
c

= 32.97

CL

=

c

= 19.67

 

(24)

LCL

=

c

3

c
c

= 6.37

The above control limits become the standard values against which production in the next period can be compared. Twenty new samples are collected and given them in Table 7.8, page 311. Using revised control limits in (24), these points are plotted in Fig 7.13. It is evident that this process in statistical control.

It is evident that this process in statistical control. Figure 7.13: Continution of the CC for

Figure 7.13: Continution of the CC for NConformities, Example 7.3

Exercise 7.36, 338.

18

Control chart for average number of nonconformities per unit (u- chart)

To account for the variable numbers of inspection units, c charts are replaced by the u charts. The u chart monitors nonconformities per inspection unit, when the number of inspection units are vary from sample to sample. If a total of x nonconformities are found in the subgroup of size n inspection units, then the average number of nonconformities per unit can be estimated as

u =

x

n

,

where x is a Poisson random variable. The control limits for u chart are:

where

UCL

CL

=

LCL

=

u

=

u

u

u  3 n u  3 , n
u
 3
n
u
 3
,
n

m

 u i i =1 u = .
u
i
i
=1
u =
.

m

Example 7.4, page 315

Data are presented in Table 7.10 (page 316).

20

u

i 1.48

u

i =1

= =

20 20

= 0.0740

(25)

The upper control limit, center line and lower control limits are

UCL

=

u

3

u n
u
n

= 0.1894

 

CL

=

u

= 1.93

 

LCL

=

u

3

u n
u
n

=

0.0414

0

(26)

The control chart for nonconformities is presented in Fig 7.16. The preliminary data do not exhibit lack of statistical control. Therefore, the trial limits in (26) would be adopted for current control purposes.

19

Figure 7.16: The CC for NConform ities per unit for Example 7.4 Exercise 7.38, Page

Figure 7.16: The CC for NConformities per unit for Example 7.4

Exercise 7.38, Page 338.

6-3.2 Procedures with Variable Sample Size There are three approaches to constructing and operating a control chart.

1. Variable-width Control Limits: The control limits for the sample are

i th

UCL

=

u

3

u n i
u
n
i
3 u n i

CL

=

u

(27)

LCL

=

u

3

u n i
u
n
i
3 u n i

Consider data in Table 7.11, page 319 we calculate

153 u n i Consider data in Table 7.11, page 319 we calculate 107.5 = 1.42 The

107.5

= 1.42

The upper control limit, center line and lower control limits are

UCL = 1.42

3

CL = 1.42

LCL = 1.42

3

3.575 = 1.42  n i 3.575  1.42 n i
3.575
= 1.42
n
i
3.575
 1.42
n
i

20

The control chart for fraction nonconforming with variable sample size is provided in Fig 7.17.

onforming with variable sample size is provided in Fig 7.17. Figure 7.17: CC for Example 7.5

Figure 7.17: CC for Example 7.5

2. Control limits based on an average sample size

The approximate control limits are

where

UCL

CL

=

LCL

=

u

=

u

u

u 3 n u 3 , n
u
3
n
u
3
,
n

m

 n i i =1 n = .
n
i
i
=1
n =
.

m

3. The standardized control chart

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The standardized control chart has center line at 0, upper and lower limits of +3 and -3 respectively. The variable plotted on the chart is

Z

i

=

u ˆ  u i u n i
u ˆ
u
i
u
n
i

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The standardized control chart for nonconformities per unit is presented in Fig 7.18 for the data in Table 7.11.

21

Figure 7.18: Standardized CC for NConformities per unit, Example 7.5 22

Figure 7.18: Standardized CC for NConformities per unit, Example

7.5

Figure 7.18: Standardized CC for NConformities per unit, Example 7.5 22

22

7.3.4 The Operating -Characteristic (OC) Function

The OC curves for both the c and u charts can be obtained from the Poisson distribution. For c chart, the OC curve plots the probability of type II error against the true mean number of defects c . The expression for is

=

=

{

P LCL

<

x

P x

{

<

|

UCL c

|

UCL c

<

}

P x

{

}

LCL c

|

}

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where x is a Poisson random variable with parameter c . Table 7.13, page 323 illustrates the calculations for a OC curve for example 7.3, LCL = 6.48 and UCL = 33.22 . The corresponding is

= P{ x 33 | c}P{ x 6 | c}

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The OC curve has shown in Fig 7.19, page 324.

6 | c } (31) The OC curve has shown in Fig 7.19, page 324. Figure

Figure 7.19: OC Curve of a c chart with LCL=6.48 and UCL=33.22

The OC curve for u chart is

UCL u

n UCL u

= {

P x

<

= {

P c

<

|

}

|

Exercise 7.56, Page 340.

{

P x

}

P c

{

|

LCL u

}

|

n LCL u

23

}

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7.3.5 Dealing with Low Defect Levels

When defect levels (or count rates) in a process become very low (less than 1000 per million), there will be very long periods of time between the occurrence of nonconforming unit. In these situations many samples will have zero defects and therefore, conventional c and u chart become ineffective. See more in Example 7.6, page 324.

7.4 Choice between attributes and variables control charts

Read page 326.

Example 7.7, page 327, demonstrates the economic advantage of variable control chart. Example 7.8, page 328, demonstrates a misapplication of x and R charts.

7.5 Guidelines for implementing control charts (pages 330-334)

1. Determining which process characteristics to control

2. Determining where the charts should be implemented in the process

3. Choosing the proper type of control charts

4. Taking actions to improve processes as the result of SPC/ control

chart analysis.

5. Selecting data-collection systems and computer software

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