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i

UNDERGRADUATE

THESIS FORMATTING
GUIDE

1st Edition 2006


2nd Edition 2016

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TENAGA NASIONAL

ii

PREFACE

The need for a comprehensive thesis formatting guide to help students prepare their
undergraduate final year project thesis has been felt for some time. To address this need,
the Final Year Project (FYP) Committee of College of Engineering, in August 2005, led
by Mr. Faris Tarlochan, had revamp the existing guidelines completely. The guide
produced have been used for 10 years until it is revised to perfection by the present FYP
Committee.
This guide has been prepared following styling conventions used by various
internationally reputed professional organisations including IEEE, ASME and ASCE in
their publications, so that our engineering graduates can be familiar with the major
elements of styling in their disciplines. However, unlike many conventional guides, the
provisions of this guide are formulated on the presumption that students will use any
word processor program, not a type writer or professional software, in preparing the
thesis. Therefore, we hope that students should be able to implement the provisions with
relative ease.
The guide has been made as comprehensive as possible keeping in mind the need
of the young undergraduates who have little or no exposure to formal and professional
writing styles. Therefore, as much guidance and explanations as possible have been
provided, and logical reasoning behind those provisions have been given where viewed
necessary. A large number of examples in the form of exact replicas have been added to
demonstrate the results of the application of various provisions of this guide. The
contents of this guide have also been formatted, where possible, exactly following the
style prescribed under this guide in order to provide additional guidance. With these
efforts, we hope that this guide will be able to meet the requirements of the young
learners effectively.
The FYP Committee would like to thank everybody who contributed to
preparation of this guide. All efforts have been made to make this guide free from errors.
Any suggestion, however, for improvement will be cordially welcomed, and will be
seriously considered in future revision of the guide.

April 2016

Dr. Azni Wati Azizan


Chairman
Final Year Project Committee
College of Engineering

iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents

Page

PREFACE

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

iii

LIST OF TABLES

vi

LIST OF FIGURES

vii

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1

Overview

CHAPTER 2 APPEARANCE OF THE THESIS

2.1

General

2.2

Length

2.3

Paper

2.4

Printing

2.5

Binding

2.6

Margins

2.7

Font and Spacing

2.8

Page Numbers

2.9

Paragraphs

2.10

Footnotes

2.11

Thesis Cover

2.11.1 Front Cover

2.11.2 Spine

2.11.3 Other Covers

2.11.4 Colour of Thesis Covers

2.12

Language

CHAPTER 3 ARRANGEMENT OF CONTENTS

10

3.1

Introduction

10

3.2

Title Page

11

3.3

Declaration

11

iv

3.4

Dedication

11

3.5

Acknowledgements

12

3.6

Abstract

12

3.7

Table of Contents

13

3.8

List of Tables

14

3.9

List of Figures

14

3.10

List of Symbols or Abbreviations

14

3.11

Text Technical Contents of the Thesis

15

3.11.1 Chapters

16

3.11.2 Headings and Sub-headings

16

3.11.3 Quotations

17

3.11.4 Equations

18

3.11.5 Lists and Bullets

19

3.12

End Pages

19

3.13.1 References

19

3.13.2 Appendix or Appendices

20

CHAPTER 4 FIGURES AND TABLES

22

4.1

General

22

4.2

Captions of Figures and Tables

22

4.3

Placement

23

4.4

Numbering

23

4.5

Citation of Tables and Figures in Text

24

4.6

Formats and Quality of Tables and Figures

24

CHAPTER 5 UNITS, NUMBERS AND SYMBOLS

26

5.1

Units of Measurement

26

5.2

Use of Numbers

29

5.3

Use of Dates

30

5.4

Hyphen, Dashes and Ellipsis

31

5.5

Notations, Symbols and Abbreviations

32

5.5.1

Commonly Used Abbreviations

32

5.5.2 Common Acronyms

33

CHAPTER 6 REFERENCE STYLES

34

6.1

Introduction

34

6.2

Category of Sources and Reference Styles

34

6.2.1

Books

34

6.2.2

Encyclopaedia and Dictionaries

36

6.2.3 Academic Papers in Journals

36

6.2.4 Academic Papers in Proceedings

36

6.2.5 Thesis and Dissertation

37

6.2.6 Reports

37

6.2.7 Standards and Codes of Practice

37

6.2.8 Electronic and Internet Sources

37

6.2.9 Articles in Magazines

39

6.2.10 News or Features in Newspapers

39

6.2.11 Film or Video Recording

39

6.2.12 Maps

39

6.2.13 Personal Communications

39

6.3

40

Citing References in Text

APPENDICES

42

Sample Pages

43

Roman Numerals

58

Greek Alphabets

59

List of Standard Abbreviations

60

vi

LIST OF TABLES
Table No.

Page

2.1

Text margins from the edges of untrimmed paper

5.1

Base and supplementary units in SI system

27

5.2

Derived SI units approved by the International General

5.3

Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM)

28

SI prefixes applicable to engineering

29

vii

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure No.

Page

A.1

Example of page margins

43

A.2

Example of chapter heading

44

A.3

Example of contents of front cover

45

A.4

Example of spine of thesis

46

A.5

Example of title page

47

A.6

Example of Declaration page

48

A.7

Example of Abstract page

49

A.8

Example of table of Contents

50

A.9

Example of List of Tables

51

A.10

Example of List of Figures

52

A.11

Example of List of Symbols

53

A.12

Example of placement of equations

54

A.13

Example of list of References

55

A.14

Example of figure in portrait orientation

56

A.15

Example of a figure in landscape orientation

57

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Overview

A thesis 1 is defined as a dissertation (i.e. a discourse) based on original research,


presented as a work toward an academic degree2. A thesis is a proposition, an assertion
supported by arguments, rather than just a mere collection of data. This means that when
you have finished your research, you should systematically arrange your material to
inform the reader of your purpose and direction.

Thesis presentation has two aspects. Firstly, it is inherently formal, for good
reasons of maintaining scientific and academic standards, ensuring clarity, consistency
and uniformity. Secondly, a thesis should be unambiguous and precise in meaning,
accurate in information, and easy to comprehend. A good set of prescriptive rules can
be very effective in achieving the elements of the first aspect. However, it is difficult to
explore all elements of the second aspect, which comprises issues of effective writing,
writing style, information design, and skills that extend well beyond any set of
prescriptive rules.

Style or format refers to the overall layout of a thesis. Style does not only make
a thesis easier to read but also visually engaging. For lucidity and consistency, it is
important to strictly adhere to a consistent set of style rules or formatting conventions
commonly followed in published professional works within a field. It is very important

The word thesis means an unproven statement or opinion which serves as a premise in an argument,
and which is discussed in a logical way and presented with evidence in order to prove that it is true.
2
More commonly an M.Sc. or a Ph.D. degree. Undergraduate research work may also be termed as term
paper, project paper, etc.

to be accurate in following style rules in all aspects from the organization of the
contents and use of references to spacing, punctuation and capitalisation.

Your thesis may be your first encounter with such prescriptive rules. Therefore,
preparation of your thesis following a set of guidelines can be an important learning
experience to prepare yourself for participation in professional activities to fuller extent.

A good work can sometimes be almost destroyed by an inadequate attention to


its presentation, such as style, grammar or spelling. In this regard, you should strive for
both accuracy and consistency. A carelessly prepared thesis may very well negatively
influence the readers perception about the quality of the total work.

This guide sets forth the specifications as to the style and formatting of
undergraduate thesis to be submitted to the College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga
Nasional. However, for guidance on the elements of good writing students have to
depend on knowledge gained from the relevant specialised courses offered at UNITEN
or elsewhere. They are also advised to attend seminars and read books on the subject
(key words: presentation skills, technical writing, effective writing, public speaking).

For style issues not addressed specifically in this guide, the comprehensive
references that can be consulted are: The Chicago Manual of Style (published by the
University of Chicago, USA), and the Publication Manual of the American
Psychological Association (APA Manual), in that order.

CHAPTER 2

APPEARANCE OF THE THESIS

2.1 General
Thesis must be prepared using computer. Any word processor program, such as
Microsoft Word can generally be sufficient. However, thesis with complex equations
can be prepared using any scientific typesetting package such as LATEX and TEX
available free on the Web.

2.2 Length
Thesis should be normally between 80 and 120 pages long, exclusive of front matter
and appendices.

2.3 Paper
All copies of the thesis to be submitted must be printed on ISO A4 size (210 297 mm)
80-gram plain paper, or bond paper. Text must be printed on one side of the paper only.

2.4 Printing
A laser quality printer should be used in producing the final copy. Dot matrix printouts
are not acceptable. Additional copies may be reproduced by high quality photocopying.
All signatures appearing on all copies must be original photocopy of signatures are
not acceptable on any copy.

2.5 Binding
Only standard hard binding is acceptable. Slide binding, two- or four-hole punching,
spiral binding or comb binding are not acceptable for final copies.

2.6 Margins
Set margins according to the distances specified in Table 2.1. These margins are
necessary to allow for binding and trimming.

TABLE 2.1 Text margins from the edges of untrimmed paper


Page orientation

Margins
Portrait

Landscape

Top margin

30 mm

38 mm

Bottom margin

25 mm

25 mm

Left margin

38 mm

25 mm

Right margin

25 mm

25 mm

Chapter titles should be typed 50 mm (= 30 mm common margin plus 56.7


points1) from the top edge of the paper. Other titles, except in cover and title page,
should be typed 30 mm from the top edge.

Header (here, for page numbers) should be set 12.7 mm from the top margin for
pages in portrait and 25 mm for pages in landscape, aligning right margin. Footer (for
footnotes) should be set at 12.7 mm from bottom margin for both the portrait and
landscape pages.

See Figure A.1 for a sample page margin setup.

See Figure A.2 for a sample chapter heading.

1 point = 1/72 inch = 0.352778 mm, in the US system.

2.7 Font and Spacing


Use only the Times New Roman font for the entire thesis. Except for the cover and
spine, use only the black colour font.

All materials (except the cover, footnotes, endnotes and long offset quotations)
must be typed using 12-point font size. Footnotes, endnotes, and long offset
quotations should be typed in 10-point font size. Contents of a table may
optionally be typed in 10-point font size to accommodate large contents. Fonts
used in illustrations and drawings should not be smaller than 8 points. Use
consistent fonts on all your figures. See respective sections for more details.

The use of excessive italic or bold font for the purpose of emphasis within the
text is discouraged.

Underlining of text, titles or headings should be avoided. On a typewriter,


underlining was the only way to emphasise words. It should rarely be used in a
word processed document; bold type is much more effective.

Main body of the text must be typed using one and a half (1.5) lines or 21 point
(preferable

) space. Text of the title page, Declaration, Dedication,

Acknowledgment, Abstract, Table of Contents, List of Tables, List of Figures,


Footnotes, chapter title, table and figure captions, legends, headings and
subheadings, long quotations and list of References should use single (or
preferably, 14-point) space. However, there should be 6-point additional space
between entries in all the lists and References.

There should be 6-point space between the items in a bulleted or numbered list
and also between the top of the list and the preceding text.

Leave at least 24-point blank spaces before and after tables and figures except
at the very top or bottom of pages.

Unless specified explicitly, general purpose word processor programs, e.g. MS Word, use variable
spaces between lines as a visual aid. E.g. for single line spacing, actual line spacing varies between 1.1
and 1.2 times the font size, depending on the font type and the tallest letter appearing on a line.

Space once:
-

Between words

After commas, colons, semicolons, punctuation marks at the end of


sentences, and periods that separate parts of a reference citation.

Between a number and its unit (12 mm, 127 J, etc.)

Use no space after the beginning parenthesis and before the ending parenthesis.
Example: Use (John & Curie 2001) instead of (John & Curie 2001).

2.8 Page Numbers


Page numbers should be in 12-point Times New Roman font placed at the top right
corner of the page. Page numbers should be placed 12.7 mm and 25 mm from the top
margin for pages in portrait and landscape respectively, aligning right margin.

All pages of the thesis (including blank pages, if any) should be accounted for.

Front matter (all the pages before Chapter I) pages are numbered consecutively
using small Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, ). Although the title page and approval
page count as pages i and ii, respectively, numbers should not appear on these
pages.

Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, ) begin with the first page of Chapter I. The
numbering begins here at 1 and continues to the end of the thesis, including
Appendices and References. Page number should not appear on the opening
pages of chapter, References and Appendices, but these pages should be
counted.

2.9 Paragraphs
All paragraphs in the main text should be justified between margins.

First paragraph is not indented. First line of the second and subsequent
paragraphs are indented by 12.7 mm1.

The purpose is to visually emphasise the change of paragraph, by making the first line appear
different. In typewriter, this was done by leaving only one or two blank lines, but no indent.

There should be 12-point space between a paragraph heading and the following
first paragraph, and also between paragraphs. There should be a 24-point space
between a last paragraph and the following heading.

A paragraph spanning between two pages should leave at least two lines of text
on both the pages. A single line of text appearing as widow or orphan1 is not
permitted.

A heading or sub-heading cannot appear alone at the bottom of a page. It must


appear together with at least two lines of text of the following paragraph.
See Figures A.1A.2 for examples.

2.10

Footnotes

Textual notes that provide supplementary information such as explanations, opinions,


definition or suggestions on the item of the text, but that are not part of the text, should
appear at the bottom of the page as a footnote. Footnotes are numbered consecutively
for each page separately. The line separator between the text and the footnote must not
be less than 40 mm. If there are many pages containing footnotes total length of which
is more than half a page, they may be gathered together at the end of the chapter as
endnotes. Endnotes are marked consecutively for each chapter separately.
All footnotes and endnotes should be single-spaced, typed in 10-point font and
justified between margins. There should be 3-point space between entries. Footnotes
and endnotes are not indented.

A widow is the last line of a paragraph printed by itself at the top of a page. An orphan is the first line
of a paragraph printed by itself at the bottom of a page.

References are sometimes listed as footnotes or endnotes. However, such


practice is uncommon in engineering disciplines and is not recommended.
Example 1
Footnote(s):
The cloud chamber experiment laid down the foundation for understanding the
phenomenon of supersaturation1 where it was found that condensation was delayed if
air saturated with water vapour

The footnote 1 will appear at the bottom of the respective page as:
1

Many believe that the phenomenon was first observed by T.R. Wilson in 1897, long before it was
formally published by Westergrad (1905).

2.11

Thesis Cover

2.11.1 Front Cover


The cover page must contain the thesis title, student name, the phrases College of
Engineering and Universiti Tenaga Nasional and the year submitted.
Title should be typed forming a reverse pyramid paragraph. All contents on
cover page should be in 16-point, single spacing, all caps, bold and in golden colour
typeface.
See Figure A.3 for example of arrangement of text on front cover.
2.11.2 Spine
Spine should contain the student name, name of the degree and the year submitted, typed
in 16-point, single spacing, all caps, bold and in golden colour typeface.
See Figure A.4 for example of arrangement of text on spine.
2.11.3 Other Covers
Other cover pages (inside front cover and back covers) should not contain any
information or advertisement, and should be left completely blank.

2.11.4 Colour of Thesis Covers


The colour of thesis covers for all academic departments of College of Engineering
should be Black. Cover colour should be strictly adhered to. In order to avoid any
variation in shades of colour, students are advised to consult the respective departments
for sample cover.

2.12

Language

The thesis should be written in English. Spelling convention should generally follow
the British Commonwealth practice.
Text should be written in third person and in indirect speech. Use the terms
author, authors, etc. instead of I, we, us, or phrases like personally speaking....
Use past tense in abstract, introduction and methodology, and present tense for results
and discussion sections.

CHAPTER 3

ARRANGEMENT OF CONTENTS

3.1 Introduction
Every thesis is composed of three physical content divisions:

Front matter or preliminary pages

Text pages

References and Appendices (if any).


Each content division has several sections, which should be arranged in the

following sequence:
Front Matter
Title Page
Declaration
Dedication (Optional)
Acknowledgment (Optional)
Abstract
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
Symbols and/or Abbreviations
Main Body of the Work Text
Chapters (Introduction, sections and sub-sections and a concluding
section).
References
Appendix or Appendices (Optional)

11

3.2 Title Page


This page should contain thesis title, students name, supervisors name, the intended
degree, name of the college and the University, and the year of submission in exact
wording and styles as shown in the example.

A long thesis title should be avoided. As a guide, title should not be more than
100 characters long including spaces between words.

Common symbols, such as scientific fonts, should not be used in the title. Thesis
titles containing formulas, symbols, superscripts, Greek letters, or other nonalphabetical symbols should use word substitutes for those symbols. For
example, Gamma Ferric Oxide Dispersion instead of Fe2O3 Dispersion
; Alpha- and Beta-Globulin instead of - & -Globulin ,
The Neodymium-Barium-Copper Oxide System instead of Nd-Ba-Cu2O
System .

Title should be typed forming a reverse pyramid paragraph.


See Figure A.5 for example.

3.3 Declaration
This page should contain the signed declaration from the student on the authenticity of
the thesis. The title DECLARATION in all caps, bold, centre-aligned should be typed
30 mm from top edge, followed by 36-point space below before the text. The exact
wording and format of the declaration should be that shown in the example.
See Figure A.6 for example.
3.4 Dedication
The dedication should honour those who inspired or encouraged the work of the thesis.
Names of persons whom the author hopes to inspire through his/her writing may also
be mentioned. The title DEDICATION in all caps, bold, centre-aligned should be typed
30 mm from the top edge, followed by 36-point space below before the text. Dedication
text must be in single space, with 12-point space between paragraphs; may be in any
number of paragraphs but should not exceed one page.

12

3.5 Acknowledgements
Any form of substantial professional assistance or financial support extended or granted
by an individual or organization that was critical for the project or in the preparation of
the thesis are recorded on this page. Typically, your acknowledgments should include
specific references to the following:

The aid and support given by your supervisor(s).

Any help received from various other members of the University faculty or other
researchers in the preparation of the thesis.

Support of any type, particularly financial and materials, from a company,


foundation, or a government agency; this applies not only to grants made
directly to you but also to those made to your supervisor which have helped you
in your research.

You may extend thanks to those friends and family members who have provided
personal support throughout the thesis process.
The title ACKNOWLEDGEMENT in all caps, bold, centre-aligned should be

typed 30 mm from the top edge, followed by 36-point space below before the text.
Acknowledgement text must be in single space, 12-point space between paragraphs;
may be in any number of paragraphs but should not exceed one page.

3.6 Abstract
This page contains the synopsis of the thesis. Abstract should be between 150 and 250
words long. It must contain the following information:

The objectives and scope of the research project.

The rationale to pursue research.

Methodology such as methods, process, techniques and their application details.

New findings or results such as improved solutions, invention, new theory,


interpretation or accurate re-evaluation of old ideas or concepts and their
implications.

13

An abstract should not contain technical jargon and should be written in plain
language for a general engineering audience. Do not include mathematics, direct quotes
or references to other literature in an abstract. As a general guide, use past tense for
procedures and present tense for results.

The title ABSTRACT in all caps, bold, centre-aligned format should be typed
30 mm from the top edge followed by 36-point space below before the text.
Abstract text should be typed in a single paragraph, on single line spacing.
See Figure A.7 for example.
3.7 Table of Contents
Table of contents is used to locate the contents of the thesis. Every chapter and main
titles, and all numbered headings and sub-headings within the text, along with the page
on which they appear, should be listed verbatim in the table of contents.

The title CONTENTS in all caps, bold, centre-aligned format should be typed
30 mm from the top edge, followed by 36-point space below before any text.

For entries follow the following indentation pattern:


4.1

First Level
First Level Text, Indented 12.7 mm (Half Inch)
4.1.1

Second Level
Second Level Text, Indented 25.4 mm (One Inch)
4.1.1.1 Third level
Third level text, indented 38 mm (one and a half inches)

Headings and sub-headings appearing as entries in the Table of Contents do not


have to have the same formatting in which they appear in text.

Use 6-point additional space between entries. Any wrap-around text in entries
should be in single space.

14

Entries should be left-aligned. Page numbers should line up flush right. For
example, the 2 in page number 92 should line up with the 7 in page
number 117. Page numbers should not be in italic or bold.
See Figure A.8 for example.

3.8 List of Tables


List all the tables in text and appendices along with the page number on which they
appear.

The title LIST OF TABLES in all caps, bold, centre-aligned format should be
typed 30 mm from the top edge, followed by 36-point space below before any text.
Entries should be left-aligned. Page numbers should line up flush right. There
should be 6-point additional space between entries.
See Figure A.9 for example.
3.9 List of Figures
This list should include all diagrams, graphs, maps, photographs, and all other
illustrations.
The title LIST OF FIGURES in all caps, bold, centre-aligned format should be
typed 30 mm from the top edge, followed by 36-point space below before any text.
Entries should be left-aligned. Page numbers should line up flush right. Use 6point additional space between entries.
See Figure A.10 for example.
3.10

List of Symbols or Abbreviations

List all symbols (except units), major abbreviations or terminology (as the case may be)
in an alphabetical order. In determining alphabetical order, the Roman letters (capital
letter first) should be listed first, followed by Greek letters or symbols.

15

The

title

LIST

OF

SYMBOLS,

LIST

OF

ABBREVIATIONS,

or

NOMENCLATURE in all caps, bold, centre-aligned format should be typed 30 mm


from the top edge, followed by 36-point space below before any text.

Use 6-point additional space between entries.

See Figure A.11 for example.

3.11

Text Technical Contents of the Thesis

The main technical contents start after the front matter or preliminary pages described
above. The main technical contents should be between 80 and 120 pages long.
Every part of the thesis should be set down in a logical pattern so that readers
are never unsure about what the author is trying to prove and how a particular fact or
point fits into the development of the work. A carefully organised outline can make
writing of a thesis much easier.

The organisation of the contents of a thesis varies considerably depending on


the type of the project carried out such as pure research, software/hardware
development, pure design, technology review, or case study. As a guide, the following
is an example of the contents of a thesis.
(i) Introduction
This part introduces the topic with general background, identify the problem,
and defines the objectives and the scope of the work. Brief description of the
general organisation of the presentation of the thesis may also be included.
(ii) Literature Survey
This part contains the summary of the literature survey and state-of-the-art on
the topic. It discusses all the theoretical and logical bases, based on which
subsequent work will be done and decisions are to be made.

16

(iii) Methodology
This part contains the details of the methods, means or procedures adopted for
the work/research, along with their advantages, limitations, etc., and the bases
of their selection. Provide sufficient information about your methods or
procedures so that it is possible for someone who reads the thesis to replicate
the work.
(iv) Observation and results
This part contains the details of results of observations, results of analysis or
design, and behaviour or characteristics of a design.
(v) Analysis of results and general discussions
The purpose of this section is to evaluate and interpret the results, especially
with respect to the original research question. This part contains the detail
analysis of all results and comparison of results with theoretical expectation and
results of other researchers. This part may also contain the discussion on
characteristics or behaviours of a design as compared to a fixed decision.
(vi) Conclusions and recommendations
The overall outcomes of the project are summarized clearly. All findings, results
and invention must be summarised irrespective of whether they are expected or
otherwise. You might (or might not) also mention any limitations of the study,
and any suggestions for future research in this section.

3.11.1 Chapters
All contents of the text should be divided into chapters. Each chapter will start on a new
page. Chapters do not have preceding title pages. After typing the chapter heading, leave
36-point space between chapter number and title and starting text.

3.11.2 Headings and Sub-headings


Chapters are customarily divided into sections and sub-sections with headings that have
slightly differing font styles and are designated first-, second-, and third-level. The firstlevel title should have greater attention value than the lower levels.

17

Capitalisation, bold- or italic-face types have more attention value than plain
text. Attention value is also enhanced by blank spaces above and below.
Each primary heading (Level 1 headings) of section in the text should be
numbered consecutively and according to the chapter number. Primary headings should
be typed bold with the first letter of all the major words capitalised, and aligned left.
Example, correct heading style: The Algorithm of the Ant Colony System-Based
Constrained Load Flow (non-major words or articles not capitalised); incorrect style:
The Algorithm Of The Ant Colony System-Based Constrained Load Flow (all
words capitalised).
Secondary section headings (Level 2 headings) should be numbered following
the primary headings. Secondary headings should be typed bold, italicised with the first
letters of all major words capitalised, and left-aligned.
Tertiary headings (Level 3 headings) should be numbered following the
secondary headings. Tertiary headings should be typed bold, with only the first letter of
the title capitalised, and aligned left.
Quaternary section headings are rarely necessary but can be used, if necessary.
They should be formatted same as the tertiary headings but italicised and not numbered,
and placed at the beginning of a paragraph (see an example in Section 4.3).

3.11.3 Quotations
Quoting someone is using their exact words. Quotations are sparingly used in
engineering text. Frequent or long quotations should be avoided. Paraphrasing is
preferable to quotations. Use quotation when it is necessary (e.g. the passage loses
something when paraphrased or summed up in your words). Page numbers should be
cited for direct quotes.
A quotation which is not more than 40 words long should be inserted as part of
a sentence and must always be written within quotation marks. However, use smart
quotes, or instead of straight quotes, "" or ''.
Quotations, which are more than 40 words long, must be typed as a separate
block of text (a separate paragraph), left indented by 12.7 mm, typed in 10-point font,

18

single-spaced, and with 6-point space from the text above and between quoted
paragraphs. Note that no quotation marks are required. Include the page number in
parentheses after the last period.

Example 1
Short quotation embedded as part of a sentence:
These nightmares and revelations marked, in the words of mathematicians Davis and
Hersh (1986), the beginning of the modern world, our world of triumphant rationality
(p. 25).

Example 2
Long quotation (more than 40 words):
The overall situation in developing countries has, possibly, been best described by
Coutts (1992), an authority in this field. He writes:
The tendency in developing countries was to neglect the research of natural fibres for use in
composites, that is until the explosion of interest, as evidenced by the scientific and patent
literature, which occurred in the mid 1980s and is expanding to the present time.
Having stated the above I now hope to convince you of the great potential of natural plant
fibres as a source of reinforcement for fibre cement products. (pp. 93-941)

Despite the said explosion of interest, there is still

3.11.4 Equations
Simple equations can be typed within the line of text, e.g. From the above we note
that sin = (x + y) z, and . However, relatively complex ones and all referred
equations should be typed on separate lines using an equation editor found in most word
processing programs. Equations should be centre-aligned. Number referred equations
consecutively following chapter number, and place the number within parentheses at
the end of the line, aligning right margin and with no leader.
Within body of text, always refer to equations as Eq. 4.1, Eqs. 4.74.9, etc.

Singular, p. (page) and plural, pp. (pages).

19

See Figure A.12 for example.


3.11.5 Lists and Bullets
Lists are used to introduce parts or a series of related items or conditions. Use numbered
list ((i), (ii), (iii), ; or (a), (b), (c), ) when it is necessary to identify each item, or
indicate total number of parts, items, or their sequence. If you do not need to identify
the individual items or their particular order, use bullets rather than numbers in lists.
Bulleted items may be words, short phrases or of paragraph length and they
should be tied together under a general heading. If the numbered or bulleted items are
short phrases, then the first letter of each item may or may not be capitalised, but use a
full stop only at the end of the last item. However, in lists of items with one or more full
sentences, always capitalize the first letter and terminate each item with a full stop.
Use only small filled circular standard bullets () in lists. Indent bullets by 6.3
mm and text or paragraph by 12.7 mm from left margin. There should be 6-point
additional space between the items in a bulleted or numbered list within a paragraph
and also between the top of the list and the preceding text.
See lists and bulleted items in this guide for example.
3.12

End Pages

3.12.1 References
Any thesis that makes use of other works, either in direct quotation or by reference,
must contain a reference listing of these sources.

Type the heading REFERENCES in bold, all caps and centre-aligned at the top
of the page. Leave 36-point space before the first entry.

Each entry should be typed single-spaced, with 6-point additional space between
individual entries. Use 12.7 mm left indent for the second and subsequent lines
of individual entry.

20

List only the sources, which have been cited in the text1.

Number all pages consecutively continuing from preceding chapters.


See Figure A.13 for example.

3.12.2 Appendix or Appendices


Appendices contain those materials, which are very important to help understand or
workout the materials of the thesis, but are too big and detailed so that cannot be
accommodated in the body of the main text. These usually includes typical excerpts
from references, long tables and huge raw data, computer print-outs, listing of computer
codes, plans, maps, detailed sample calculations, detailed work programme, etc. The
materials on one issue or topic should be grouped together and put in separate
appendices. Appendices should not be listed as chapters in the thesis.

If there are more than one appendix then they should be marked APPENDIX
A, APPENDIX B, etc. and a cover sheet should be used before them. On the
centre of the cover sheet, type APPENDICES, centre-aligned, in 12-point bold
font. The cover sheet should be counted, but page number is not printed on it.

An appendix should start on a new page if it is half-page or more long. However,


shorter appendices can be placed one after another on a single page.

Each appendix must have its own title.


-

Type APPENDIX A, APPENDIX B, etc., centre-aligned at the top of the


page.

Leave 12-point space and type the title of the material in all caps and bold
font. Allow 24-point space below the title.

Number all pages consecutively continuing from preceding chapters and


References.

A list which contains items not necessarily directly quoted in the text but consulted or relevant is
called bibliography.

21

Each appendix and its title should be listed separately in the Table of Contents.

Tables and figures in the appendices must be numbered consecutively following


the appendix number; captioned and listed in the List of Tables and List of
Figures. The figures or tables in the appendices will be numbered A.1, C.1, B.5,
etc.

All materials used in the appendices must be distinct, legible, and of professional
quality.

Contents should strictly conform to margin requirements.

22

CHAPTER 4

FIGURES AND TABLES

4.1 General
All photographs, diagrams, drawings, graphs, maps and all other non-verbal materials
used in the body and appendices should be classified as figures. The word table
designates tabulated numerical data used in the body and appendices of the thesis.
A set of data should be either presented in table form or as graph based on the
suitability and purpose. The same set of data should not be repeated as both table and
graph, to avoid unnecessary duplication.

4.2 Captions of Figures and Tables


Every table and figure must bear a caption. Captions of figures and tables should be
typed on single spacing, centre-aligned and in the same font as text (12-point Times
New Roman). Only first letter of the captions of figures and tables should be capitalised.
A caption should not be wider than the width of the table or figure it represents, and
type in multiple lines, if necessary (see Table 5.3).

Caption of a figure should be placed below the figure. The caption should start
with the word FIGURE (in all caps, no bold), a single space, followed by the
figure number (e.g. 4.6), a space and the title of the figure. There should be a
12-point space between a figure and its caption.

Caption of a table should be placed above the table itself. The caption should
start with the word TABLE (in all caps, no bold), a single space, followed by
the table number (e.g. 6.7), a space and the title of the table. There should be a
6-point space between the caption and the table.

23

Captions as they appear with the tables and figures must be the same as their
listing in the List of Tables or List of Figures. Long captions may be abbreviated
in the list if the identification is not impaired.

For long tables broken between pages, the phrase Contd should be placed
on the right side, just below the first part. The full caption should be repeated
for the second part appended with the word (Contd.) including the parentheses.

4.3 Placement
All figures (i.e. diagrams, graphs, maps, photographs, and all other illustrations) and
tables must be placed within the text body as near (before or after) as possible to the
location they are first referred. They should be centre-aligned.
Figures or tables (together with captions) should be offset 24-point from the text
body above and below (if any).
See Figure A.14 for example of a figure in portrait orientation.
Landscape tables and figures. Tables and figures may be in landscape orientation. In
such case, they should be placed on a separate page of their own, with no main text
running above or below them. The captions and legends for rotated tables and figures
must have the same orientation as the table or figure. Thus for a landscape figure (or
table), the top of the figure should be nearest to the binding edge. Remember that any
text or legend should be readable either from front or right hand side only.
See Figure A.16 for example of a figure in landscape orientation.
4.4 Numbering
Figures should be numbered consecutively in the order in which reference is made to
them in the text and according to chapters and appendices, restarting a separate series
for each chapter or appendix (e.g. Figure 1.2, Figure 2.2, Figure A.2, etc.). Tables
should also be numbered in the same fashion but in separate series of their own.
24

24

4.5 Citation of Tables and Figures in Text


Figures or tables should be referred in text as Figure 4.5 (first letter capitalised and not
preceded by the), Figures 6.26.5, Table 3.2, Tables 1.31.5, etc. For figures, when
used in parentheses the abbreviation should be used, e.g. (see Fig. 4.5), (Figs. 6.26.5),
etc.

4.6 Formats and Quality of Tables and Figures


All tables and figures, including the caption, must meet the same margin requirements
as the text.

Tables and figures should preferably be in electronic format and must be of


professional quality.

If photographs are used, they must be high resolution. Both color (minimum 400
dpi, 8 bit per pixel, uncompressed) and grayscale images (minimum 220 dpi, 8
bit per pixel) may be used. Low resolution highly compressed images used in
Web or taken by certain mobile phones are not acceptable.

Any diagrams or plots in the thesis should be prepared electronically, with


programs such as MS Office Drawing Tools, AutoCAD, Adobe Illustrator, xfig,
xmgr, Grace, Maple, Matlab or Mathematica. Hand-drawn diagrams are not
acceptable.

Diagrams, drawings, figures, etc. must be sufficiently clear, sharp and large to
be easily readable. Images output by engineering analysis and design software
should be carefully checked whether they meet this requirement.

Text in graphs, diagrams, drawings, figures, etc. should not be smaller than 8point or larger than 12-point size.

Graphs should not use any colour or shaded background. Only major gridlines
can be used when they are necessary. Graphs should not have any border, except
uniform chart area border.

25

Contents in a row of a table should have equal space (min. 3-point) above and
below. Contents of a table may be typed in 10-point font if required for space
reasons, but different font sizes cannot be mixed together.

Borders above and below the heading row of a table, and the bottom border
should be 1-point thick. Remaining grid/border should be -point thick. Left
and right borders are not used.
Make tables only as wide as they need to be. A table in portrait orientation does

not always have to cover full width of a page (see Table 2.1).
Small photographs on photographic paper, if used, should be mounted with
white casein (e.g. Elmers brand), glue stick (e.g. UHU, Scotch brand), or dry mounting
tissue. Do not use any gummed or cellophane tapes or rubber cement for mounting,
since these materials deteriorate rapidly.

26

CHAPTER 5

UNITS, NUMBERS AND SYMBOLS

5.1 Units of Measurement


The use of Systme International (SI) units, approved by the International General
Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM), is mandatory 1 as primary units of
measure. Other units may be given in parentheses after the SI unit, if the original
measure is in different system of units. An exception is when English units are used as
identifiers in trade, such as 3 in disk drive.
SI units are constructed from seven base units for independent physical
quantities (A, cd, K, kg, m, mol, and s), and two supplementary units for plane angle
(rad) and solid angle (sr), as shown in Table 5.1. Other common derived units, approved
by CGPM, are given in Table 5.2. Degree () can still be used for angles.
A wide range of SI unit sizes is available through the use of prefixes to form
decimal multiples and sub-multiples of units. Prefixes generally applicable to
engineering are listed in Table 5.3.
In engineering applications there is preference for use of prefixes representing
only the ternary powers of 10 (103, 106, 109, etc.). For example, statements of pressure,
stress, and elastic modulus are preferably given in kPa, MPa, and GPa. The prefixes
hecto, deka, deci, and centi are avoided except in the special cases of the hectare, ha
(the more common alternative symbol for hm2), which is used in expressing large land
areas, and the litre, L (the more common symbol for dm3, cubic decimetre), which is
used in expressing fluid or particulate volumes.

Malaysia is a signatory to Metre Convention since 2001.

27

TABLE 5.1 Base and Supplementary units in SI system


Unit type

Base units

Quantity

Unit name

Unit symbola

Amount of substance

mole

mol

Electric current

Ampere

Length

Metre

Luminous intensity

Candela

cd

Mass

Kilogram

kg

Thermodynamic
temperature

Kelvin

Time

Second

Radian

rad

Steradian

sr

Plane angle
Supplementary
units
Solid angle
a

Unit symbol to be used only when preceded by a numeral

Prefixes are applied directly to unit symbols (e.g. millimetre, mm; megawatt,
MW; kilonewton, kN; gigapascal, GPa) except in the case of the kilogram, for which
all prefixes are applied directly to the gram; thus, for example, Mg (megagram) is 103
kg.

Precise use of uppercase and lowercase letters is essential. There should be a


space between numerals and SI units (e.g. 201 Nm, 79 MW instead of 206m, 79MW).
However, use 201632SW instead of 20 16 32 SW (no spaces between units and
direction). Do not use bold face or italicise or use period after SI units (e.g. 302 mm/
200 J instead of 302 mm./ 302 mm/ 302 mm/ 79 J./ 79 J etc.).

28

TABLE 5.2 Derived SI units approved by the International General Conference on


Weights and Measures (CGPM)
Quantity

Unit name

Unit symbola

Formula

Absorbed dose

Gray

Gy

J/kg

Activity (of a radionuclide)

Becquerel

Bq

1/s

Celsius temperature

Degree Celsius

Dose equivalent

Sievert

Sv

J/kg

Electric capacitance

Farad

C/V

Electric conductance

Siemens

A/V

Electric resistance

Ohm

V/A

difference, electromotive
force
Energy, work, quantity of
heat

Volt

W/A

Joule

Nm

Force

Newton

kgm/s2

Frequency (of a periodic


phenomenon)

Hertz

Hz

1/s

Illuminance

Lux

lx

lm/m2

Inductance

Henry

Wb/A

Luminous flux

Lumen

lm

cdsr

Magnetic flux

Weber

Wb

Vs

Magnetic flux density

Tesla

Wb/m2

Power, radiant flux

Watt

J/s

Pressure, stress

Pascal

Pa

N/m2

Quantity of electric, electric


charge

Coulomb

As

Electric potential, potential

Symbol to be used only when preceded by a numeral

Note: Avoid using cm for length and F (Fahrenheit) for temperature.

29

TABLE 5.3 SI prefixes applicable to engineering

Factor

Prefix

Symbola

109

Giga

106

Mega

103

Kilo

102

Hecto

101

Deka

da

101

Deci

102

Centi

103

Milli

106

Micro

109

Nano

Unit symbol to be used only when preceded by a numeral

5.2 Use of Numbers


The general rule of thumb for number use is to use words to express numbers less than
10 and figures to express numbers 10 and above (e.g. three cables, not 3 cables; and 25
samples, not twenty five samples, generally). However, use figures for percentages,
scores, dates, ages, and numbers before a unit of measurement (e.g. 5 mm, not five mm).
Use words for a number that begins a sentence, title or heading (when possible, re-word
to avoid beginning with a number) and common fractions (e.g. two-thirds).
Use a, one, two, 10, several, etc. million (or billion) without a final s on
million. Millions (of ) can be used if there is no number or quantity before it. Always
use a plural verb with million or millions, except when an amount of money is
mentioned. Example: Two million people were affected but two million dollars was
spent .

30

Use consistent number formats. A series of related numbers should all be


presented with the same number of decimal places. Number of decimal places used
should be consistent with the actual accuracy of measurement of the quantity.
Use 0.50 (decimal point) instead of 0,50 (comma, used in French text); 9000
instead of 9,000 but if more than 10,000: 10,000 instead of 10000.
Use 20 (multiplication symbol, with space after and before required) instead
of 20 (space missing)/ X20 (letter X, space missing)/ x 20 (letter x). Use 4 + 5 > 7
(spaces between operators and numbers or variables are required) instead of 4+5>7
(spaces missing) but 8 / +8 (when used as separate instance, no space required) instead
of 8 / + 8 (unnecessary spaces). Use (minus sign, available as symbol) instead of
- (minus-hyphen sign available on keyboard).
Numeral 0 (zero) is not interchangeable with the alphabet O and numeral
1 (one) is not interchangeable with small letter l (el) or letter I. Be sure to use
letters in roman numerals where intended: Part I, Part II instead of Part 1, Part 11, etc.
Also use World War II instead of World War 2; Henry VIII instead of Henry 8,
following conventional practice.
When use the word number to describe quantity of thing, system, people, etc.,
use the appropriate singular or plural form of verb. Examples: A large number of
machines have used this system. The number of people using PDA has increased
dramatically. Huge numbers of (= very many) systems have been affected.

5.3 Use of Dates


Dates can be written in either of the following alternative styles:
20 May 2005

May 20, 2005

the 20th May 2005

2005, May the 20th (archaic style)

2005-05-20 (ISO system, preferred for computer usage)


the twentieth of April 2005 (only when it is necessary to write in words)

31

However, a single style should be followed throughout the entire thesis. Writing
dates entirely in figures such as 17/5/93 (day/month/year, UK style) or 5/17/93
(month/day/year, US style) can create confusion and therefore, should be avoided.

5.4 Hyphen, Dashes and Ellipsis


Hyphen joins many compound nouns, all compound adjectives, and, when they are
spelled out, the elements of two-digit numbers and fractions. Common dashes include
em dash, en dash, and figure dash.

Use hyphen-minus (-) on keyboard or a hyphen symbol as hyphen. Examples:


high-pressure boiler, low-voltage line, cement-based binder, two-thirds of the
amount, 24-pin connector, state-of-the-art, etc.

Use en dash (), with no spaces before and after, for a compound adjective.
Examples: BoseEinstein condensate, antiAmerican sentiment, preWorld
War II system, high-strengthhigh-ductility metal, etc.

To indicate a closed range or a connection between two things of almost any


kind numbers, people, places, etc., use en dash. Examples: JulyAugust
2004, 4:008:00 p.m., for ages 35, pp. 3855, Kuala LumpurLondon flight,
etc.

Use em dash () for an open range.


Example: (Mahathir Mohamad, 1925) .

Use en dash (), with a single space before and after, or an em dash () with
no spaces, for a parenthetical statement which indicates a sudden break in
thought. Example: Demec gauge commonly used for measuring small
strains was found not suitable for .

Use figure dash (in absence, use en dash) to write a number with dash in it.
Example: Phone no. +60389212020.
Ellipsis () is used to indicate one or more omitted words. When the omission

occurs at the end of a sentence, the ellipsis appears together with a period.

32

5.5 Notations, Symbols and Abbreviations


Use the standard and universal notations. All Roman letters or English text representing
variables must always be italicised following scholarly convention. Notations for
matrices, tensors, and vectors should be typed in boldface. Greek letters should not be
italicised or bold. A list of Greek alphabets, which are commonly used as mathematical
symbols, is given in Appendix B.
Acronyms and abbreviations should be defined the first time they are used in
text. However, abbreviations and acronyms which are universally used in a particular
discipline and which will not create any ambiguity need not be defined.

5.5.1

Commonly Used Abbreviations


i.e.

(id est) means that is; introduces an explanation. Use no comma


after second the period.

e.g.

(exempli gratia) means for example; introduces example(s). Use no


comma after second the period.

viz.

(videlicet) means namely; introduces a list.

et al.

(et alia) means and others; replaces a list of names of persons. Note
no period after et.

etc.

(et cetera) means and so forth; ends a list. Not preceded by and
and always preceded by a comma. Example: grease, wax, tar, etc.
instead of grease, wax, and tar, etc./ grease, wax, tar, and etc. Do not
use with a list of people.

vs.

(versus) means against

ed./eds.

edition(s) or editor(s)

fig./figs.

figure(s)

eq./eqs.

equation(s)

Do not italicise the above terms.

33

Never use short forms like dont, its, theres, etc.


An extended list of other common abbreviations, though many of them are rarely
used in engineering disciplines, is given in Appendix D.

5.5.2

Common Acronyms

Use UK, USA, UNHCR instead of U.K., U.S.A., U.N.H.C.R. Do not use
periods1.

Use M.Sc., Ph.D. for degrees instead of MSc or PhD2.

As the style chosen here.

Sometimes permitted but not in strictly formal writing.

34

CHAPTER 6

REFERENCE STYLES

6.1 Introduction
When you quote or paraphrase or summarize information, or use an idea or method from
a source, you need to give them credit with a citation or in-text reference of the source.
An in-text reference briefly identifies source of your information and allow readers to
locate the full reference from the list of References. Enough information should be
included, so that if someone interested, can precisely retrieve the source materials.
References cited in text must appear in the list of References (with the exception of
personal communication, well-known encyclopaedia, dictionary, etc.); conversely, each
entry in the list of References must be cited in text. Arrange entries in the list in
alphabetical order.
Reference and citation styles vary considerably with the type of source. Various
categories of references and their styles are listed with examples in the following
sections. Note carefully every space, punctuation, period, capitalisation, italicisation
and abbreviation used with them.
Note that entries in the list of References are single spaced, left-indented by 12.7
mm except the first line, and there should be 6-point additional space between entries.

6.2 Category of Sources and Reference Styles


6.2.1

Books

Generally:
Author, A. A., Author, B.B. & Author, C.C. Year. Title of Work. City [or the first of the
cities]: Publisher.
Anders, G.J. 2005. Rating of Electric Power Cables in Unfavourable Thermal
Environment. New York: Wiley-IEEE.

35

Ahmad, Z., Yusoff, M.Z. & Aziz, K.A. 2003. Engineering Graphics with AutoCAD
2002. Petaling Jaya: Prentice Hall.
New edition and reprint:
Brndlein, J., Eschmann, P., Hasbargen, L. & Weigand, K. 1999. Ball and Roller
Bearings: Theory, Design and Application. 3rd Ed. New York: Wiley.
Publication identified by title:
Hand Book of Cocoa, Coconut and Tea Statistics 1993: 14. Department of Statistics,
Malaysia.
Encyclopaedia of Polymer Science and Engineering. c.19851989. 2nd Ed. New York:
Wiley.
Texas Almanac: 2004-2005. 2004. Dallas, Texas: Dallas Morning News.
Book with editor(s):
Dongarra, J., Madsen, K. & Wasniewski, J. (Eds.). 1995. Applied Parallel Computing.
Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Chapter in a book:
Used when a book has separate author(s) for each chapter and editor(s).
Author, A. A. & Author, B. B. Year. Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.),
Title of Book, Nth Ed., xxxxxx. City: Publisher.
Halin, H.J. & Strebel, R. 1995. Transient response of a two-phase half-wave rectifier.
In W. Gander & J. Hrebicek1 (Eds.), Solving Problems in Scientific Computing
Using Maple and MATLAB, 2nd Ed., 285297. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Multiple volumes:
Crisfield, M.A. 1997. Non-linear Finite Element Analysis of Solids and Structures. Vol.
1. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Unlike authors names (Last Name, First Name initial), name of editors are not reversed.

36

Monograph:
Stephanopoulos, G. 1987. Knowledge-Based Systems in Process Engineering: An
Overview. Series of Monographs on AI in Chemical Engineering. Cambridge:
MIT Press.
6.2.2

Encyclopaedia and Dictionaries

Well-known general reference books, such as major encyclopaedias and dictionaries are
normally cited in text but not shown in the list of References. Example:
In the fifteenth edition of the New Encyclopaedia Britannica, Guido Gergorietti notes
about ...

6.2.3

Academic Papers in Journals

Author, A. A., Author, B. B. & Author, C. C. Year. Title of article: Subtitle if there is
one. Title of Journal xx[= volume number in bold](x[= issue number in
parenthesis]): xxxxxx[= range of pages].
Peng, G. 2005. A practical combined computation method of mean through-flow for 3D
inverse design of hydraulic turbomachinery blades. Journal of Fluids
Engineering 127(6): 11831190.
Vlachogiannis, J.G., Hatziargyriou, N.D. & Lee, K.Y. 2005. Ant colony system-based
algorithm for constrained load flow problem. IEEE Transactions on Power
Systems 20(3): 12411249.
6.2.4

Academic Papers in Proceedings

Judkins, T.N., Narazaki, K., Oleynikov, D. & Stergiou, N. 2005. Electromyographic


frequency response of robotic laparoscopic training. Proc. IEEE 9th Int. Conf.
Rehabilitation Robotics: Frontiers of the Human-Machine Interface (ICORR
2005), Chicago, 28 June1 July, 418421.
Jappelli, R. & Marconi, N. 1997. Recommendations and prejudices in the realm of
foundation engineering in Italy: A historical review. In C. Viggiani (Ed.),
Geotechnical Engineering for the Preservation of Monuments and Historical
Sites, Proc. Int. Symp., Napoli, 34 October 1996. Rotterdam: Balkema.

37

6.2.5

Thesis and Dissertation1

Jin, H. 2005. Scalable sensor localization algorithms for wireless sensor networks.
Ph.D. dissertation. University of Toronto.
Zamri, M.Y. 1997. An improved treatment of two-dimensional two-phase flows of
steam by a Runge-Kutta method. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.
6.2.6

Reports

Strazdins, P. 1998. Optimal load balancing techniques for block-cyclic decompositions


for matrix factorization. Technical Report TR-CS-98-10, Department of
Computer Science, Australian National University.
Kimberly-Clark. 2002. Annual Report. Dallas: Author.
FAO Production Year Book 1994, vol. 48: 120121. Rome: Food and Agricultural
Organization of the United Nations.
6.2.7

Standards and Codes of Practice

ASTM A210. 1998. Standard specification for seamless medium-carbon steel boiler and
superheater tubes. Annual Book of ASTM Standards 1998, 01.01: 102105.
Pennsylvania: American Society for Testing and Materials.
BS EN 60885 Part 2. 2003. Electrical test methods for electric cables: Partial discharge
tests. London: British Standards Institution.
AISI Specification. 1996. Specification for the design of cold formed steel structural
members. 1996 Ed. Washington: American Iron and Steel Institute.
6.2.8

Electronic and Internet Sources Website (or part of a website):

University of Georgia. Points of Pride. University of Georgia. Retrieved 10 April 2005,


from http://www.uga.edu/profile/pride.html
Selected encyclopaedias and major reference works in polymer science and technology
at Stanford University. 2005. Retrieved 12 December 2005, from http://wwwsul.stanford.edu/depts/swain/polymer/encyc.html
Note: Do not leave a hyperlink underlined in blue. Do not use period at the end of the
electronic address.

The terms dissertation and thesis are more commonly used for Ph.D. and M.Sc. research work
respectively, or vice versa. Their use varies from country to country and amongst universities.

38

Web page with private organization as author:


Midwest League. 2003. Green Steel. Retrieved 1 October 2003, from
http://www.midwestleague.com/indivpitching.html Web page, government
author:
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 2001. Glacial habitat restoration areas.
Retrieved
18
September
2001,
from
http://www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/land/wildlife/ hunt/hra.htm
A journal article from a subscription data base:
Teel, A.R., Zaccarian, L. & Marcinkowski, J.J. 2006. An anti-windup strategy for active
vibration isolation system. Control Engineering Practice 14(1): 198.
ScienceDirect. Retrieved 9 January 2006, from http://www.sciencedirect.com
Article in a journal published only online:
Gupta, M. & Gupta, L.M. 2004. Evaluation of stress distribution in bolted steel angles
under tension. Electronic Journal of Structural Engineering, 4: 1727.
Retrieved 16 August 2005, from http://www.ejse.org
Newspaper article from Internet:
Kornblum, J. 2005. It's online, but is it true? USA Today, 6 December, final edition,
http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/techpolicy/2005-12-06-wikipediatruth_x.htm
E-book:
Bloom, H. 1996. Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: Bloom's Notes.
Broomall, Pennsylvania: Chelsea. NetLibrary. Uniten Lib., Malaysia 1 . Retrieved 23
May 2003, from http://www.netlibrary.com CD ROM: Genetic Engineering.
1994. Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia. Version 2.0. CDROM. Compton's
NewMedia, Inc.

Location from where the site was accessed.

39

6.2.9

Articles in Magazines

Idris, M.A. 1999. Virtual classroom: A focus on interactive and collaborative learning.
Berita UNITEN 3(4).
Nicholson, P. 2005. Hurricane Katrina: Why did the levees fail? ASCE News 25(10):
1012.
6.2.10 News or Features in Newspapers
News or feature with name of author provided:
Othman, Z. 2005. Scrap metal thieves costing TNB millions. Malay Mail, 18 December:
1.
Lipton, E. 2004. Ground zero: Before the fall. New York Times, 27 June.
News or feature with name of author not provided:
Petronas Towers declared the world's tallest. 1996. New Straits Times, 14 April: 1.
Letters to the editor:
Harpaz, R. 2006. Scientists and Stardom. Letter to editor. New York Times, 2 January.
6.2.11 Film or Video Recording
Alternative energy. 1998. DVD. Indiana: Grant Wood AEA Mediagraphy.
6.2.12 Maps
Geological Map of Peninsular Malaysia. 1985. 8th Ed. Two sheets. Scale 1: 500,000.
Kuala Lumpur. Geological Survey of Malaysia.
Mineral Distribution Map of Peninsular Malaysia. 1988. 8th Ed. Two sheets. 1120 mm
760 mm. Scale 1 : 500,000. Kuala Lumpur. Geological Survey of Malaysia.
6.2.13 Personal Communications
Personal communications may be things such as email messages, interviews, speeches,
and telephone conversations. Because the information is not retrievable they should not
appear in the list of References. They should be cited in text as shown in Section 6.3.
See Figure A.13 for an example of list of References.

40

6.3 Citing References in Text


To refer to an item in the list of References from the text, an author-date style should be
used. Use the surname of the author (without suffixes) and the year of the publication
in the text at appropriate points. Page number(s) should also be cited for direct quotes
and to indicate specific location.
Single author:
John (1989) proved that
as was investigated by Bakar (1999)
Many (e.g. Estes & Skinner 1990; Zulkipli 2001) suggested that
In Chin (1999), the governing equation is
In the landmark study of the electromagnetic radiation (Chin 1999), it was
In the year 1996, Clifford discovered that
Zaki (1999) stresses the Zaki justifies the need for
Note: Do not use Mr. John, Ms. Jen, Encik Zaki, Datin Rozita, etc. in any citation.

Joint authors (two persons):


When work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs.
Jack and Richard (1987) defined entropy as
the new method proves to be more accurate than the existing methods (Rembold &
Storr 1998)
For joint authors more than two persons:
For works with three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference
occurs. In subsequent citations, include only the last name of the first author followed
by et al.
the model was first proposed by Gupta, Satish, Deva and Joshi (1999) Gupta et
al. (1999) also argued that if

Name of author not provided:


(ASTM C192 1992); (BS 5950: Part 1 2001); (AISI Specifications 1996);
(Ministry of Finance 1992); (Committee on the Eradication of Poverty (CEP) 1997);
(CIDB 2005); (Petronas Towers declared 1996).

41

Note: In case the publication can only be identified with a long title, use a few words
from the beginning of the title for citation in text.
Authors with the same last name:
Evans, D.J. (1992) and Evans, J.R. (1992)
Multiple references:
Multiple citations in parentheses are placed alphabetically and are separated by a
semicolon and a space. More than one references by the same author(s) with year are
separated by a comma.
(Bamkole 1987; Curle 1967; Henson 1995, 1996; Reiss 1967)
(Rembold et al. 1989a, 1989b, 1993)
Personal communications:
Personal communications such as email messages, interviews, speeches, and telephone
conversations, should be cited as follows:
J.L. Meyers (personal communication, 18 April 2003) indicated that
. In a recent interview (J. Burnitz, personal communication, September 20, 2000) it
was learned that .
As mentioned earlier, personal communications do not appear in the list of References.
Citation of a work that is cited in another reference:
According to Curtis (1998), the system does not work unless coupled with another
DSC device (as cited in Smith & McClelland 2000).
Note: The reference Curtis (1998) will not be listed in the list of References. The best
thing to do is to collect the Curtis article.

42

APPENDICES

43

APPENDIX A
SAMPLE PAGES

FIGURE A.1 Example of page margins


(Original text in 12-point font)

44

FIGURE A.2 Example of chapter heading


(Original text in 12-point font)

45

FIGURE A.3 Example of contents of front cover


(Original text in 16-point, bold font)

46

FIGURE A.4 Example of spine of thesis


(Original text in 16-point, bold font)

47

FIGURE A.5 Example of title page


(Original text in 12-point font)

48

FIGURE A.6 Example of Declaration page


(Original text in 12-point font)

49

FIGURE A.7 Example of Abstract page


(Original text in 12-point font)

50

FIGURE A.8 Example of Table of Contents


(Original text in 12-point font)

51

FIGURE A.9 Example of List of Tables


(Original text in 12-point font)

52

FIGURE A.10 Example List of Figures


(Original text in 12-point font)

53

FIGURE A.11 Example List of Symbols


(Original text in 12-point font)

54

FIGURE A.12 Example of placement of equations


(Original text in 12-point font)

55

FIGURE A.13 Example of List of References


(Original text in 12-point font)

56

FIGURE A.14 Example of figure in portrait orientation


(Original text in 12-point font)

57

FIGURE A.15 Example of figure in landscape orientation


(Original text in 12-point font)

58

APPENDIX B
ROMAN NUMERALS

Capital letters

Small letters

Corresponding Arabic
numerals

II

ii

III

iii

IV

iv

VI

vi

VII

vii

VIII

viii

IX

ix

10

50

100

500

1000

Examples:
XXXIV

34

DLXXIX

579

MCMXCVIII

1998

59

APPENDIX C

GREEK ALPHABETS

Capital letters
A

Small letters

Names
alpha

beta

gamma

delta

epsilon

zeta

eta

theta

iota

kappa

lambda

mu

nu

xi

omicron

pi

rho

sigma

tau

upsilon

phi

chi

psi

omega

60

APPENDIX D
LIST OF STANDARD ABBREVIATIONS
Abbreviation

Meaning

app.

appendix

art./arts.

article(s)

b.

born

bk./bks.

book(s)

c.

copyright

ca.

(circa): about, approximately

cf.

compare

chap./chaps.

chapter(s)

col./cols.

column(s)

comp./comps.

compiler(s);compiled by

dept./depts.

department(s)

d.

died

div./divs.

division(s)

e.g.

(exempli gratia): for example

ed./eds.

edition(s); editor, edited by

et al.

(et alia): and others

et seq.

(et sequers): and the following

etc.

(et cetera): and so forth

fig./figs.

figure(s)

ibid.

(ibidem): in the same place

id.

(idem): the same

i.e.

(id est); that is

infra.

below

l.v.

(locus variis): various places (of


publication)

61

ms./mss.
Abbreviation

manuscript(s)
Meaning

n/nn

footnote(s)

n.d.
no./nos.
n.s.
o.s.
p./pp.
par./pars.
passim
pt./pts.
q.v.
sc.
sec./secs.
sic.
supp./supps.
s.l.

no date
number(s)
new series
old series
page (p.)/pages(pp.)
paragraph(s)
here and there
part(s)
(quod vide): which see (refer to)
scene
section(s)
so, thus
supplement(s)
(sinoloco): place of publication not
mentioned
(sine nomine): details of publication
not mentioned in the referred material
(sub-verbo, sub-voce): under the word
or heading
translator; translated by
verse(s)
(videlicet): namely
volume(s)
(versus): against

s.n.
s.v.
trans.
v./vv.
viz.
vol./vols.
vs.