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EXPERIMENT 7

THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMER BANK


I.

OBJECTIVE

To study the different methods of connecting three single-phase transformers to form a 3


transformer bank that can be used for 3 voltage transformation.
II.

THEORETICAL CONSIDERATION

By using two or three single-phase transformers, voltage transformation in three-phase could be


accomplished. Similarly, using specifically designed single three-phase transformer could be used. This
connection of three single-phase transformers is called a 3 transformer bank. Single three-phase
transformers have smaller dimension, lighter and cost lesser as compared to a transformer bank. The
downside that is of a single three-phase transformer when one phase fails, the whole is needed to be repaired.
Hence, reliability is an issue, and an additional cost for storing a backup unit. With this, three single-phase
transformers a preferable. In connection three-single phase transformers for the operation of three-phase,
polarity should always be considered. Moreover, impedance and voltage must satisfy needed characteristic
for operation.
Commonly used three-phase connections of three 1 transformers to form a 3 transformer bank
are:

wye to wye
wye to delta
delta to delta
delta to wye
The schematic diagrams of the connections using three 1 transformers are shown below.

The ratio in which the voltage is transformed depends on two factors:


a. the ratio of transformation of each single-phase transformer
b. the manner of connection
It is worth noting that the voltage transformed is dependent only on the transformation ratio of the
transformers when the connection of the primary is the same as the connection of the secondar y, i.e. wyewye and delta-delta. For example, using Figure 7.1, given 100 volts between line terminals on the High
tension side, a primary voltage of 100/100/3 = 57.7 volts for each transformer results to a low tension
voltage of (5.77)(3) = 10 volts. A 100 volts in the high tension lines in figure 7.3 gives also a primary
voltage of 100 volts.
Given a transformation ratio of 10, the secondary winding voltage would be 10 volts, and this would
also be the voltage in the low tension lines. As there is 100 volts between high-tension lines in figure 7.2,
whereas the primary winding and secondary winding has a voltage of 57.7 volts and 5.77 volts respectively.
With the low-tension line to have 5.77 volts, the transformation ratio then of the whole 3 system is simply
3 times the ratio of each transformer.
With 100 volts between the high-tension lines in figure 7.4, each primary winding also have 100
volts. The secondary winding voltage is 100/10 = 10 volts. Where the line voltage is just (10)( 3) = 17.3
volts, thus resulting to a transformation ratio of 0.577 for each 1 transformer.
Open Delta to V-Connection
With only two 1 transformers utilized, this connection provides balanced 3 voltage. When this
connection is connected to an existing delta-delta connection with same transformer load, the current in each
transformer will increase from previous current to the line current existing before the delta-delta connection
is opened. The secondary current in the open delta connection is 3 times the secondary current in a
complete delta-delta connection. With the transformers fully loaded in a complete delta-delta connection, the
load must undergo a reduction by a factor of 1/3 in the open delta or risk overloading of the transformer.

This connection is only preferable if one transformer of the delta-delta connection is faulty, or supplying a
small amount of 3 power.

Scott or T-Connection
Scott or T-Connection is similar to open delta connection whereas only requires 1 transformer.
However, it do need specific transformers with a mid-tap point and another one with 0.866 tap. The
transformer with the mid-tap point is connected across two lines, and this is called main. The second
transformer, called teaser is connected with the mid-tap point of the first transformer and the third line.
Generally, identical transformers are used for this connection and the transformers may be interchanged if
both have mid-taps and 0.866 taps. Usually, electrical companies avail the service of the main transformer
which is used as a teaser transformer which supplies customers needing thre-phase supply. Moreover, the
scott connection also allows the transformation of 3 voltage into 2 voltage.
called main transformer connection across two lines, while the second transformer, called teaser
transformer is connected to the mid-tap point of the first transformer and the third line.

III.

MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT


3 ------------------------------ 1 Transformers (must be similar)
1 ------------------------------ Digital AC Voltmeter (0-300 VAC)
15 ----------------------------- Connecting Wires

IV.

PROCEDURE:

CAUTION:

High voltages are present in this Laboratory Experiment. Do not make any connections with
power on. The power should be turned off after completing each individual measurement.

With due regard to the polarity marks of the transformers, do the following connections:
Run 1. Wye to Wye Connection
1. Connect the circuit as shown in Figure 7.7.

2. Before Turning ON the switch, place the meters on the right range and switch ON SW1 in the power
supply module.
3. Measure the line and phase voltages on both sides of the 3 transformer bank and record them in Table
7.1.
4. Turn OFF the switch sw1 of the power supply module.
5. Using the measured line and phase voltages on the primary side of the transformer bank, calculate the
expected values of line and phase voltages on the secondary side of the transformer bank. Record the
calculated values in Table 7.1.
6. Compute for the percent difference between the measure and computed values of the line and phase
voltages on the secondary side of the 3 transformer bank. Record them in Table 7.1.
Run 2. Wye to Delta Connection

7. Possible errors in performing the experiment:


a) There is a wrong connection in the circuit
b) There is a damaged wire
c) There is unbalanced source in the power supply module
d) Checked the connection of the ammeter and voltmeters
8. Without changing the connection of the primaries of the three 1 transformers in Run 1, with reference to
Figure 7.8, reconnect their secondaries in delta.
9. Turn ON the switch SW1 of the power supply module.
10. Measure the line and phase voltages on both sides of the transformer bank and record them in Table 7.2.
11. Turn OFF the switch SW1 of the power supply module.
12. Using the measured lines and phase voltages on the primary side of the transformer bank, calculate the
expected values of the line and phase voltages on the secondary side of the transformer bank. Record them in
Table 7.2.
13. Compute for the percent difference between the measure and calculated values of the line and phase
voltages on the secondary side of the transformer bank. Record them in Table 7.2.
Run 3. Delta to Delta Connection
14. Without changing the connection of the secondaries of the three 1 transformers in Run 2, with
reference to Figure 7.9, reconnect the primaries of the three 1 transformers in delta.
15. Turn ON the switch SW1 of the power supply module.
16. Measure the line and phase voltages on both sides of the transformer bank and record them in Table 7.3.
17. Turn OFF the switch SW1 of the power supply module.
18. Using the measure line and phase voltages on the primary side of the transformer bank, calculate the
expected values of the line and phase voltages on the secondary side of the transformer bank. Record them in
Table 7.3.

19. Compute for the percent difference between the measured and calculated values of the line and phase
voltages on the secondary side of the transformer bank, Record them in Table 7.3.
Run 4 Delta to Wye Connection
20. Without anymore changin the connection of the primaries ot the three 1 transformers in Run 3, with
reference to Figure 7.10 as shown below, reconnect the secondaries of the three 1 transformers in Y.

21. Turn ON the switch SW1 of the power supply module.


22. Measure the line and phase voltages in both sides of the transformer bank and record them in Table 7.4.
23. Turn OFF the switch SW1 of the power supply module.
24. Using the measured line and phase voltages on the primary side of the transformer bank, calculate the
expected values of the line and phase voltages on the secondary side of the transformer bank. Record them in
Table 7.4.
25. Compute for the percent difference between the measured and calculated values of the line and phase
voltages on the secondary side of the transformer bank. Record them in Table 7.4.
Run 5. Open Delta Connection (V-V Connection)

26. Referring to Figure 7.11 as shown below, connect the primaries and secondaries of the two 1
transformers to form an open delta connection.

27. Turn ON the switch SW1 of the power supply module.


28. Measure the line and phase voltages on both sides of the transformer bank and record them in Table 7.5.
29. Turn OFF the switch SW1 of the power supply module.
V.

DATA AND RESULTS

Table 7.1. Y to Y Connection


PRIMARY
Measured Values

SECONDARY
Measured Values

SECONDARY
Computed Values

% Difference

VAB
223.5V

= VAN
136.1V

= Vab
113.3V

= Van
68.7V

= Vab = 115V Van


66.4V

= Vab
1.48%

= Van
3.46%

VBC
221.3V

= VBN
126.8V

= Vbc
110.9V

= Vbn
63.6V

= Vbc = 115V Vbn


66.4V

= Vbc
3.57%

= Vbn
4.22%

VCA
224.5V

= VCN
136.8V

= Vca
113.0V

= Vcn
64.9V

= Vca = 115V Vcn


66.4V

= Vca
1.74%

= Vcn
5.87%

Table 7.2. Y to Connection


PRIMARY
Measured Values

SECONDARY
Measured Values

SECONDARY
Computed Values

% Difference

VAB
222.6V

= VAN
130.1V

= Vab = 65.4V Van = 65.7V Vab = 66.4V Van = 66.4V Vab = 1.51% Van = 1.05%

VBC
222.3V

= VBN
128.2V

= Vbc = 64.8V Vbn = 64.8V Vbc = 66.4V Vbn = 66.4V Vbc = 2.41% Vbn = 2.41%

VCA
225.4V

= VCN
128.9V

= Vca = 64.3V Vcn = 64.3V Vca = 66.4V Vcn = 66.4V Vca = 3.16% Vcn = 2.26%

Table 7.3. to Connection


PRIMARY
Measured Values
VAB

= VAN

SECONDARY
Measured Values
= Vab

= Van

SECONDARY
Computed Values
= Vab = 115V

Van = 115V

% Difference
Vab = 2.52% Van = 2.61%

223.1V

222.6V

112.1V

112.0V

VBC
219.9V

= VBN
221.4V

= Vbc
112.2V

= Vbn
111.6V

= Vbc = 115V

Vbn = 115V

Vbc = 2.43% Vbn = 2.96%

VCA
223.2V

= VCN
223.8V

= Vca
113.4V

= Vcn
113.2V

= Vca = 115V

Vcn = 115V

Vca = 1.39% Vcn = 1.57%

Table 7.4. to Y Connection


PRIMARY
Measured Values

SECONDARY
Measured Values

SECONDARY
Computed Values

% Difference

VAB
223.8V

= VAN
223.6V

= Vab
193.3V

= Van
112.3V

= Vab = 200V

Van = 115V

Vab = 3.35% Van = 2.35%

VBC
221.1V

= VBN
221.0V

= Vbc
193.0V

= Vbn
110.6V

= Vbc = 200V

Vbn = 115V

Vbc = 3.50% Vbn = 3.83%

VCA
225.1V

= VCN
224.7V

= Vca
196.1V

= Vcn
112.6V

= Vca = 200V

Vcn = 115V

Vca = 1.95% Vcn = 2.09%

Table 7.5. Open Delta (V-V) Connection


PRIMARY
Measured Values

SECONDARY
Measured Values

VAB = 223.1V

Vab = 112.1V

VBC = 59.2V

Vbc = 30.1V

VCA = 60.2V

Vca = 9.6V

VI.

COMPUTATIONS AND GRAPHS

V P =230 V V S=115 V
V
230V
a= P =
=2
V S 115 V
For Table 7.1. Y to Y Connection

V L =230 V
V L 230 V
V =
=
=132.79V
3 3
V L 230V
VL =
=
=115 V =V ab =V bc =V ca
a
2
V 132.79V
V =
=
=66.4 V =V an =V bn =V cn
a
2
113.3 V 115 V =1.48
115 V
%Diff ab =
110.9 V 115 V =3.57
115 V
%Diff bc =
|113 V 115 V |
%Diff ca =
=1.74
115 V
P

comp

comp

comp

comp

comp

comp

%Diff an =

|68.7 V 66.4 V |

=3.46
66.4 V
|63.6 V 66.4 V |
%Diff bn =
=4.22
66.4
70.3V 66.4 V =5.87
66.4
%Diff cn =
S

For Table 7.2. Y to Connection

V L =230 V
V L 230 V
V =
=
=132.79V
3 3
V 132.79V
V =
=
=66.4 V =V an =V bn =V cn
a
2
V L =V =66.4 V =V ab =V bc =V ca
|65.4 V 66.4 V |
%Diff ab =
=1.51
66.4 V
|64.8V 66.4 V |
%Diff bc =
=2.41
66.4 V
|64.3V 66.4 V |
%D iff ca =
=3.16
66.4 V
|65.7 V 66.4 V |
%Diff an =
=1.05
66.4 V
|64.8 V 66.4 V |
%Diff bn =
=2.41
66.4
64.9V 66.4 V =2.26
66.4
%Diff cn =
P

comp

comp

comp

comp

comp

comp

For Table 7.3. to Connection

V L =230 V
V =V L =230 V
V 230V
V =
=
=115 V =V an =V bn =V cn
a
2
V L =V =115 V =V ab =V bc =V ca
|112.1 V 115 V |
%Diff ab =
=2.52
115 V
|112.2 V 115 V |
%Diff bc =
=2.43
115 V
|113.4 V 115 V |
%Diff ca =
=1.39
115 V
|112.0 V 115 V|
%Diff an =
=2.61
115 V
|111.6V 115V |
%Dif f bn =
=2.96
115 V
|113.2 V 115 V |
%Diff cn =
=1.57
115 V
P

comp

comp

For Table 7.4. to Y Connection

comp

comp

comp

comp

V L =230 V
V =V L =230 V
V 230V
V =
=
=115 V =V an =V bn =V cn
a
2
V L = 3 V = 3 ( 115 V )=200 V =V ab =V bc =V ca
|193.3 V 200 V |
%Diff ab =
=3.35
200V
|193.0 V 200V |
%Diff bc =
=3.50
200 V
|196.1 V 200 V |
%Diff ca =
=1.95
200 V
|112.3 V 115 V|
%Diff an =
=2.35
115 V
|110.6 V 115 V |
%Diff bn =
=3.83
115 V
|112.6 V 115 V |
%Diff cn =
=2.09
115 V
P

comp

comp

comp

comp

comp

comp

VII.

CONCLUSION

In the experiment, the objective is to accomplish a three-phase transformation of voltages using a


three-phase transformer bank or a three single-phase transformers in order to perform similarly as a single
three-phase transformer. As mentioned before, there are four common three-phase connections that will be
used and these are: wye to wye, wye to delta, delta to delta, and delta to wye. Based from the results, the
percent differences for wye to wye connection between the measured and computed voltages on the
secondary winding are ranging from 1.48% to 9.22%. Moreover, the percent differences for the wye to delta
connection are ranging from 1.51% to 3.16%. Likewise, the percent differences for the delta to delta
connection are ranging from 1.39% to 2.96%. Further, the percent differences for the delta to wye connection
are ranging from 1.95% to 3.83%. Consequently, given these small values for the percent differences, it
shows that the voltage transformation using the three-phase transformer bank with different types of
connections is similar to the performance of a single three-phase transformer. Thus, the objective to use three
single-phase transformers as alternative for a single three-phase transformer is met. In conclusion, three
single-phase transformers can be used to perform three-phase transformation of voltages to avoid the
disadvantages of using a single three-phase transformer.
VIII.

QUESTIONS

1. Compare the results of the delta-delta and open-delta connections. Is there a difference
between line and phase voltages of the two systems?
Yes there is a difference, the line voltages are different, except for the first value
which is Vab and VAB they have the same values from delta-delta and open-delta.
The rest of the values are not same, this is because of the nature of the open delta
which is basically open circuited which is very different from the delta-delta
connection.
2. Is the VA rating of the delta-delta configuration the same as the VA rating of the opendelta configuration? Explain.
No it is not the same because V and I are proportional which means if V is less than
means I is less and since the V in the delta-delta is higher means it has a higher VA
rating than that of the open-delta configuration.

3.

The power of the ope-delta connection is equal to the 58% of the power of the deltadelta connection connected with 3 transformers. Thus, as the current rating in each
winding is increased the power difference between the two will almost be negligible.
When this happens then it can be said that the open-delta connection will work as well as
the delta-delta connection.

4.
In a wye-wye connection the total 3phase power can be obtained by adding the
power capacity of the 3 transformers. Further, since the power capacity of the three are
the same then the total power will be,
P = 60(3) = 180 kva
In the same way, for a wye-delta connection the total power will just be the
summation of the power capacity of the three transformers.
P = 60(3) = 180 kva
In the same way, for a delta-delta connection the total power will just be the
summation of the power capacity of the three transformers.
P = 60(3) = 180 kva
In the same way, for a delta-wye connection the total power will just be the
summation of the power capacity of the three transformers.
P = 60(3) = 180 kva
On the other hand, for an open-delta connection the total power will only be 58%
that of the power capacity of the three transformers