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Ch23HW
Due:11:59pmonTuesday,November10,2015
Youwillreceivenocreditforitemsyoucompleteaftertheassignmentisdue.GradingPolicy

ElectricPotentialEnergyversusElectricPotential
LearningGoal:
Tounderstandtherelationshipanddifferencesbetweenelectricpotentialandelectricpotentialenergy.
InthisproblemwewilllearnabouttherelationshipsbetweenelectricforceF ,electricfieldE,potentialenergyU ,and
electricpotentialV .Tounderstandtheseconcepts,wewillfirststudyasystemwithwhichyouarealreadyfamiliar:the
uniformgravitationalfield.

GravitationalForceandPotentialEnergy
Firstwereviewtheforceandpotentialenergyofanobjectofmassminauniformgravitationalfieldthatpoints
^
downward(inthek
direction),likethegravitationalfieldneartheearth'ssurface.

PartA

FindtheforceF (z)
onanobjectofmassmintheuniformgravitationalfieldwhenitisatheightz

= 0

^
ExpressF (z)
intermsofm,z ,k
,andg .

ANSWER:

F (z)

^
mgk

Correct
Becauseweareinauniformfield,theforcedoesnotdependontheobject'slocation.Therefore,thevariablez
doesnotappearinthecorrectanswer.

PartB
NowfindthegravitationalpotentialenergyU (z) oftheobjectwhenitisatanarbitraryheightz .Takezeropotential
tobeatpositionz = 0 .Keepinmindthatthepotentialenergyisascalar,notavector.
ExpressU (z) intermsofm,z ,andg .
ANSWER:
U (z)

mgz

Correct

PartC
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Inwhatdirectiondoestheobjectacceleratewhenreleasedwithinitialvelocityupward?
ANSWER:
upward
downward
upwardordownwarddependingonitsmass
downwardonlyiftheratioofg toinitialvelocityislargeenough

Correct

ElectricForceandPotentialEnergy
Nowconsidertheanalogouscaseofaparticlewithchargeq placedinauniformelectricfieldofstrengthE ,pointing
^
downward(inthek
direction)

PartD

FindF (z)
,theelectricforceonthechargedparticleatheightz .

^
ExpressF (z)
intermsofq ,E ,z ,andk
.

Hint1.Relationshipbetweenforceandelectricfield
Theforceonaparticleofchargeq inanelectricfieldE

^
= E k

isgivenbyF =

qE

ANSWER:

F (z)

^
qEk

Correct

PartE
NowfindthepotentialenergyU (z) ofthischargedparticlewhenitisatheightz .Takezeropotentialtobeat
positionz = 0 .
ExpressU (z) intermsofq ,E ,andz .
ANSWER:
U (z)

qEz

Correct
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PartF
Inwhatdirectiondoesthechargedparticleacceleratewhenreleasedwithupwardinitialvelocity?
ANSWER:
upward
downward
upwardordownwarddependingonitscharge
downwardonlyiftheratioofqE toinitialvelocityislargeenough

Correct

ElectricFieldandElectricPotential
TheelectricpotentialV isdefinedbytherelationshipU
withchargeq .

= qV ,

whereU istheelectricpotentialenergyofaparticle

PartG
^
FindtheelectricpotentialV oftheuniformelectricfieldE = Ek
.Notethatthisfieldisnotpointinginthesame
directionasthefieldintheprevioussectionofthisproblem.Takezeropotentialtobeatpositionz = 0 .

ExpressV intermsofq ,E ,andz .


ANSWER:
V

Ez

Correct
TheSIunitforelectricpotentialisthevolt(V).Thevoltisaderivedunit,whichmeansthatitcanbewrittenin
termsofotherSIunits.Intermsofthefundamentalunitsoflength,mass,timeandcharge,thevoltcanbe
expressedasfollows:
1V =

kg m

s2 C

PartH
Theelectricfieldcanbederivedfromtheelectricpotential,justastheelectrostaticforcecanbedeterminedfrom
theelectricpotentialenergy.TherelationshipbetweenelectricfieldandelectricpotentialisE
isthegradientoperator:

V =

Thepartialderivative

V
x

V
x

^
i +

V
y

^
j+

V
z

= V

,where

^
k.

meansthederivativeofV withrespecttox,holdingallothervariablesconstant.

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ConsideragaintheelectricpotentialV
zcoordinateonly,so

V
x

V
y

= Ez

= 0 and

V
z

correspondingtothefieldE
=

dV
dz

^
= Ek

.Thispotentialdependsonthe

FindanexpressionfortheelectricfieldEintermsofthederivativeofV .
^
^
Expressyouranswerasavectorintermsoftheunitvectors^
i , j ,and/or k .Use dV /dz forthederivativeof
V withrespectto z .

ANSWER:

dV
dz

^
k

Correct

PartI
Apositivetestchargewillacceleratetowardregionsof________electricpotentialand________electricpotential
energy.
Choosetheappropriateanswercombinationtofillintheblankscorrectly.

Hint1.Directionoftheelectricfield
Inwhatdirectiondoelectricfieldspoint?
ANSWER:
fromregionsofhigherelectricpotentialtolowerelectricpotential
fromregionsoflowerelectricpotentialtohigherelectricpotential

Hint2.Formulafortheforceonachargeinanelectricfield
TheforceF onachargeq inanelectricfieldEisgivenby

F = qE

ThisissimilartotheequationF

.
mgfortheforceonamassinauniformgravitationalfield.

Hint3.Formulaforelectricpotentialenergy
TheelectricpotentialenergyU ofachargeq atelectricpotentialV isgivenby
.
,forthegravitationalpotentialenergyofaparticlewith

U = qV

ThisissimilartotheequationUg
massm.

= mVg = mgh

ANSWER:

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higherhigher
higherlower
lowerhigher
lowerlower

Correct

PartJ
Anegativetestchargewillacceleratetowardregionsof________electricpotentialand________electricpotential
energy.
Choosetheappropriateanswercombinationtofillintheblankscorrectly.

Hint1.Directionoftheelectricfield
Inwhatdirectiondoelectricfieldspoint?
ANSWER:
fromregionsofhigherelectricpotentialtolowerelectricpotential
fromregionsoflowerelectricpotentialtohigherelectricpotential

Hint2.Formulafortheforceonachargeinanelectricfield
TheforceF onachargeq inanelectricfieldEisgivenby

F = qE

ThisissimilartotheequationF

= mg

.
fortheforceonamassinauniformgravitationalfield.

Hint3.Formulaforelectricpotentialenergy
TheelectricpotentialenergyU ofachargeq atelectricpotentialV isgivenby
.
ThisissimilartotheequationUg = mVg = mgh forthegravitationalpotentialenergyofaparticlewith
massm.Itworksevenfornegativecharges.Negativemassesarenotknowntoexist.
U = qV

ANSWER:
higherhigher
higherlower
lowerhigher
lowerlower

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Correct
Achargeinanelectricfieldwillexperienceaforceinthedirectionofdecreasingpotentialenergy.Sincethe
electricpotentialenergyofanegativechargeisequaltothechargetimestheelectricpotential(U = qV ),the
directionofdecreasingelectricpotentialenergyisthedirectionofincreasingelectricpotential.

ElectricPotential,PotentialEnergy,andForce
LearningGoal:
Toreviewrelationshipsamongelectricpotential,electricpotentialenergy,andforceonatestcharge
ThisproblemisareviewoftherelationshipbetweenanelectricfieldE,itsassociatedelectricpotentialV ,theelectric
potentialenergyU ,andthedirectionofforceonatestcharge.

PartA
Electricfieldlinesalwaysbeginat_______charges(oratinfinity)andendat_______charges(oratinfinity).One
couldalsosaythatthelinesweusetorepresentanelectricfieldindicatethedirectioninwhicha_______test
chargewouldinitiallymovewhenreleasedfromrest.Whichofthefollowingfillsinthethreemissingwords
correctly?
ANSWER:
(positivenegativenegative)
(positivenegativepositive)
(negativepositivenegative)
(negativepositivepositive)

Correct
NotethattheelectricfieldvectorEiseverywheretangenttotheelectricfieldlines.Likeelectricfieldlines,
theelectricfieldvectorgenerallypointsawayfrompositivechargesandtowardnegativecharges.

PartB
Wouldapositivetestchargereleasedfromrestmovetowardaregionofhigherorlowerelectricpotential
(comparedtotheelectricpotentialatthepointwhereitisreleased)?

Hint1.Potential,field,andforce
TheequationrelatinganelectricfieldtoelectricpotentialisE

= V

.Bydefinition,V pointsinthe

directioninwhichV ismostrapidlyincreasing.ThusV (ortheelectricfield)pointsinthedirectionin


whichV ismostrapidlydecreasing.Theforceonachargeq inanelectricfieldisgivenbyF =
positivechargewillexperienceaforceinthesamedirectionastheelectricfield.

qE

,soa

ANSWER:
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higherelectricpotential
lowerelectricpotential

Correct

PartC
Nowimaginethatthesignofourtestparticleischangedfrompositivetonegative,buttheelectricpotential
remainsthesame.Whichofthefollowingstatementsiscorrect?

Hint1.Directionoffieldandforce
Theproblemstatesthattheelectricpotentialdoesnotchange.Theelectricfieldisdeterminedfrom

E = V

,andtheforcefromF = qE ,whereq isthecharge.Whenthesignofthetestcharge


changes,buttheelectricpotentialremainsthesame,whathappenstothedirectionoftheelectricfieldand
thedirectionoftheforceonthecharge?
ANSWER:
Boththeelectricfieldandforceareunchanged.
Theforceisunchangedbuttheelectricfieldisreversed.
Boththeelectricfieldandforcearereversed.
Theelectricfieldisunchangedbuttheforceisreversed.

Hint2.Directionofforceandpotentialenergygradient
Likeotherformsofpotentialenergy,theelectricpotentialenergyU isalwaysintimatelyrelatedtothe
electricforcebytheequationF =

.Notethatthisrelationshipdoesnotdependonthesignofthe

testcharge.Bydefinition,
pointsinthedirectioninwhichU ismostrapidlyincreasing.ThusU (or
theforce)pointsinthedirectioninwhichU ismostrapidlydecreasing.
ANSWER:
Thedirectionoftheforcewillchangeanditwillpointtoregionsofhigherpotentialenergy.
Thedirectionoftheforcewillnotchangeanditwillpointtoregionsofhigherpotentialenergy.
Thedirectionoftheforcewillnotchangeanditwillpointtoregionsoflowerpotentialenergy.
Thedirectionoftheforcewillchangeanditwillpointtoregionsoflowerpotentialenergy.

Correct

PhETTutorial:ChargesandElectricPotential
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LearningGoal:
Tounderstandthespatialdistributionoftheelectricpotentialforavarietyofsimplechargeconfigurations,andto
understandhowtheelectricfieldandelectricpotential(voltage)arerelated.
Forthisproblem,usethePhETsimulationChargesandFields.Thissimulationallowsyoutoplacemultiplepositive
andnegativepointchargesinanyconfigurationandlookattheresultingelectricfieldandcorrespondingelectric
potential.

Startthesimulation.Youcanclickanddragpositivecharges(red)ornegativecharges(blue)intothemainscreen.If
youselectShowEfieldinthegreenmenu,redarrowswillappear,showingthedirectionoftheelectricfield.Faintred
arrowsindicatethattheelectricfieldisweakerthanatlocationswherethearrowsarebrighter(thissimulationdoesnot
usearrowlengthasameasureoffieldmagnitude).
Youcandragapositivechargeintothemainscreenandplacethecrosshairsoftheelectricpotential(voltage)
measurementtoolontopofanypointforwhichyouwouldliketoseethevoltage(forthistutorial,voltagewillbetaken
tobethesameaselectricpotential).Clickingplotonthisdeviceshowsanequipotentialline.Allpointsalongan
equipotentiallinehavethesamepotential.
ClickClearAllbeforebeginningPartA.

PartA
Theelectricpotential(voltage)ataspecificlocationisequaltothepotentialenergyperunitchargeacharged
objectwouldhaveifitwereatthatlocation.Ifthezeropointofthevoltageisatinfinity,thenumericalvalueofthe
voltageisequaltothenumericalvalueofworkdonetobringinaunitchargefrominfinitytothatlocation.
SelectShownumbersandgridinthegreenmenu,anddragonepositivechargetothemiddleofthescreen,right
ontopoftwointersectingboldgridlines.
Usingthevoltagemeter,youshouldfindthat1mawayfromthecharge,thevoltageis9V.Whatisthevoltage
2mawayfromthecharge?
Expressyouranswernumericallyinvoltstotwosignificantfigures.
ANSWER:
4.5 V

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Correct
Unlikethemagnitudeoftheelectricfield,theelectricpotential(voltage)isnotproportionaltotheinverseofthe
distancesquared.

PartB
Whatisthevoltage3mawayfromthecharge?
ANSWER:
1V
3V
9V

Correct
Basedonthisresult,andthepreviousquestion,theelectricpotential(voltage)isinverselyproportionaltothe
distancer fromthecharge:V 1/r.RecallthatthemagnitudeoftheelectricfieldE 1/r 2 .

PartC
Anotherwaytostudyvoltageanditsrelationshiptoelectricfieldisbyproducingequipotentiallines.Justlikeevery
pointonacontourlinehasthesameelevationinatopographicalmap,everypointonanequipotentiallinehasthe
samevoltage.
Clickplotonthevoltagetooltoproduceanequipotentialline.Producemanyequipotentiallinesbyclickingplotas
youmovethetoolaround.Youshouldproduceagraphthatlookssimilartotheoneshownbelow.

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PlaceseveralEFieldSensorsatafewpointsondifferentequipotentiallines,andlookattherelationshipbetween
theelectricfieldandtheequipotentiallines.Whichstatementistrue?
ANSWER:
Atanypoint,theelectricfieldisparalleltotheequipotentiallineatthatpoint.
Atanypoint,theelectricfieldisperpendiculartotheequipotentiallineatthatpoint,anditisdirected
towardlinesoflowervoltages.
Atanypoint,theelectricfieldisperpendiculartotheequipotentiallineatthatpoint,anditisdirected
towardlinesofhighervoltages.

Correct
Allpointsonanequipotentiallinehavethesamevoltagethus,noworkwouldbedoneinmovingatest
chargealonganequipotentialline.Noworkisdonebecausetheelectricfield,andthustheforceonthetest
charge,isperpendiculartothedisplacementofthetestchargebeingmovedalongtheequipotentialline.

PartD
Equipotentiallinesareusuallyshowninamannersimilartotopographicalcontourlines,inwhichthedifferencein
thevalueofconsecutivelinesisconstant.CleartheequipotentiallinesusingtheClearbuttononthevoltagetool.
Placethefirstequipotentialline1mawayfromthecharge.Itshouldhaveavalueofroughly9V.Now,produce
severaladditionalequipotentiallines,increasinganddecreasingbyanintervalof3V(e.g.,onewith12V,one
with15V,andonewith6V).Dontworryaboutgettingtheseexactvalues.Youcanbeoffbyafewtenthsofa
volt.
Whichstatementbestdescribesthedistributionoftheequipotentiallines?
ANSWER:
Theequipotentiallinesareequallyspaced.Thedistancebetweeneachlineisthesameforalladjacent
lines.
Theequipotentiallinesareclosertogetherinregionswheretheelectricfieldisweaker.
Theequipotentiallinesareclosertogetherinregionswheretheelectricfieldisstronger.

Correct
Nearthepositivecharge,wheretheelectricfieldisstrong,thevoltagelinesareclosetoeachother.Farther
fromthecharge,theelectricfieldisweakerandthelinesarefartherapart.

PartE
Now,removethepositivechargebydraggingitbacktothebasket,anddragonenegativechargetowardthe
middleofthescreen.Determinehowthevoltageisdifferentfromthatofthepositivecharge.
Howdoesthevoltagedifferfromthatofthepositivecharge?
ANSWER:

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Thevoltagesbecomenegativeinsteadofpositiveandkeepthesamemagnitudes.
Thevoltagedistributiondoesnotchange.
Thevoltagesarepositive,butthemagnitudeincreaseswithincreasingdistance.

Correct
Thevoltageisstillinverselyproportionaltothedistancefromthecharge,butthevoltageisnegative
everywhereratherthanpositive.

PartF
Now,removethenegativecharge,anddragtwopositivecharges,placingthem1mapart,asshownbelow.

Whatisthevoltageatthemidpointofthetwocharges?
ANSWER:
Exactlytwicethevoltageproducedbyonlyoneofthechargesatthesamepoint
Zero
Greaterthanzero,butlessthantwicethevoltageproducedbyonlyoneofthechargesatthesamepoint

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Correct
Becausevoltageisascalarquantity,therearenovectorcomponentswithoppositedirectionscancelingout,
asforelectricfields.Thevoltageissimplythesumofthevoltagesduetoeachoftheindividualcharges.
Sincebothchargesarepositive,thevoltageduetoeachcharge(atalllocations)ispositive.

PartG
Now,makeanelectricdipolebyreplacingoneofthepositivechargeswithanegativecharge,sothefinal
configurationlookslikethefigureshownbelow.

Whatisthevoltageatthemidpointofthedipole?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Thetotalvoltageisequaltothesumofthevoltagesduetoeachofthecharges.Thevoltageduetoeach
chargesimplydependsonthedistancefromthechargeandthechargesvalue.Voltageisascalar
quantity,soitdoesnotaddlikeavector.
ANSWER:

Thevoltageatthemidpointofthedipoleis

positive.
zero.
negative.

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Correct
Becausethevoltageduetothenegativechargehastheoppositesignofthevoltageduetothepositive
chargeatthemidpoint,thenetvoltageiszero.Theelectricfield,however,isnotzerohere!

PartH
Makeseveralequipotentiallinessimilartothefigurebelow.

Trytohavetheequipotentiallinesequallyspacedinvoltage.Then,useanEFieldSensortomeasuretheelectric
fieldatafewpointswhilelookingattherelationshipbetweentheelectricfieldandtheequipotentiallines.
Whichofthefollowingstatementsistrue?
ANSWER:
Theelectricfieldstrengthisgreatestwherethevoltageisthegreatest.
Theelectricfieldstrengthisgreatestwherethevoltageisthesmallest.
Theelectricfieldstrengthisgreatestwheretheequipotentiallinesareveryclosetoeachother.

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Correct
Locationswherethevoltageischangingsteeplyarelocationswithastrongelectricfield.Themagnitudeofthe
electricfieldisequaltotheratethevoltageischangingwithdistance.Mathematically,thisideaisconveyed
by|Es | = dV /ds,whereEs isthecomponentoftheelectricfieldinthedirectionofasmalldisplacement
ds .(Asyoulearnedearlier,theelectricfieldisdirectedinthedirectionwherethevoltagedecreases.)

PhETInteractiveSimulations
UniversityofColorado
http://phet.colorado.edu

VideoTutor:ChargedConductorwithTeardropShape
First,launchthevideobelow.Youwillbeaskedtouseyourknowledgeofphysicstopredicttheoutcomeofan
experiment.Then,closethevideowindowandanswerthequestionatright.Youcanwatchthevideoagainatany
point.

PartA
TwoconductingspheresareeachgivenachargeQ .Theradiusofthelargersphereisthreetimesgreaterthan
thatofthesmallersphere.IftheelectricfieldjustoutsideofthesmallersphereisE0 ,thentheelectricfieldjust
outsideofthelargersphereis

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem.
Theelectricfieldjustoutsideofaconductorisproportionaltotheconductor'ssurfacechargedensity.The
surfacechargedensityofasphereiscalculatedbydividingthetotalchargeonthespherebythesphere's
surfacearea.
Thinkabouthowchangingtheradiusofaspherechangesthesphere'ssurfacearea.
ANSWER:

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1/3E0
3E0
9E0
1/9E0
E0

Correct
Thelargerspherehasninetimesthesurfaceareaofthesmallerone,andthisreducesthesurfacecharge
densitybyafactorofnine.

BouncingElectrons
Twoelectrons,eachwithmassmandchargeq ,arereleasedfrompositionsveryfarfromeachother.Withrespecttoa
certainreferenceframe,electronAhasinitialnonzerospeedv towardelectronBinthepositivexdirection,and
electronBhasinitialspeed3v towardelectronAinthenegativexdirection.Theelectronsmovedirectlytowardeach
otheralongthexaxis(veryhardtodowithrealelectrons).Astheelectronsapproacheachother,theyslowduetotheir
electricrepulsion.Thisrepulsioneventuallypushesthemawayfromeachother.

PartA
Whichofthefollowingstatementsaboutthemotionoftheelectronsinthegivenreferenceframewillbetrueatthe
instantthetwoelectronsreachtheirminimumseparation?
ANSWER:
ElectronAismovingfasterthanelectronB.
ElectronBismovingfasterthanelectronA.
Bothelectronsaremovingatthesame(nonzero)speedinoppositedirections.
Bothelectronsaremovingatthesame(nonzero)speedinthesamedirection.
Bothelectronsaremomentarilystationary.

Correct
Ifatagivenmomenttheelectronsarestillmovingtowardeachother,thentheywillbecloserinthenext
instant.Ifatagivenmomenttheelectronsaremovingawayfromeachother,thentheywerecloserinthe
previousinstant.Theelectronswillbetravelinginthesamedirectionatthesamespeedatthemomentthey
reachtheirminimumseparation.Onlyinareferenceframeinwhichthetotalmomentumiszero(thecenterof
momentumframe)wouldtheelectronsbestationaryattheirminimumseparation.

PartB
Whatistheminimumseparationr min thattheelectronsreach?
Expressyouranswerintermofq ,m,v ,andk (wherek =

1
4 0

).

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Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Sincenoexternalornonconservativeforcesactonthesystemofthetwoelectrons,bothmomentumand
totalenergy(kineticpluspotential)areconserved.Findoneexpressionfortheenergywhentheelectrons
arefarapart,andanotherwhentheyreachtheirminimumseparationr min .Thiswillgiveyouanequationin
whichtheonlyunknownisthespeedoftheelectronsatthemomentoftheirminimumseparation.Apply
conservationofmomentum,usingthesameinitialandfinalstates,toobtainasecondequationinvolving
thespeedoftheelectrons.Solvethesimultaneousenergyandmomentumequationstoobtainr min .

Hint2.Findtheinitialenergy
WhatisthetotalenergyEinitial ofthetwoelectronswhentheyareinitiallyreleased?Assumethatthe
electronsaresofarapartthattheirpotentialenergyiszero.
Expressyouranswerintermsofmandv .
ANSWER:
Einitial

5mv

Hint3.Findthefinalenergy
WhatisthetotalenergyEf inal oftheelectronswhentheyreachtheirminimumseparationr min ?Assume
thatthe(identical)speedofthetwoelectronsisu.
Expressyouranswerintermsofm,u,q ,r min ,andk (wherek =

1
4 0

).

Hint1.Findthefinalkineticenergy
Whatisthefinalkineticenergy(bothelectrons)?
Expressyouranswerintermsofu,andm.
ANSWER:
Kf inal

mu

Hint2.Findthefinalpotentialenergy
Whatisthefinalpotentialenergyofthis2electronsystem?
Expressyouranswerintermsofk ,q ,andr min .
ANSWER:

Uf inal

kq

rmin

ANSWER:

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Ef inal

mu

kq

rmin

Hint4.Findtheinitialmomentum

Whatisthetotalmomentump initial
ofthetwoelectronswhentheyareinitiallyreleased?

Expressyouranswerasavectorintermsofm,v ,and^
i.
ANSWER:
p

initial

^
2mv i

Hint5.Findthefinalmomentum
Whatisthetotalmomentump f inal ofthetwoelectronswhentheyreachtheirminimumseparationr min ?
Assumethatthe(identical)velocityofthetwoelectronsisu.
Expressyouranswerasavectorintermsofmandu.
ANSWER:
p

f inal

2mu

Hint6.Somemathhelp
Fromthemomentumequations,u
equationtofindr min .

= v

thatis,u

= v

.Substituteforuintheenergyconservation

ANSWER:

r min

kq

4mv 2

Correct
Anexperiencedphysicistmightapproachthisproblembyconsideringthesystemofelectronsinareference
frameinwhichtheinitialmomentumiszero.Inthisframetheinitialspeedofeachelectronis2v .Trysolving
theproblemthisway.Makesurethatyouobtainthesameresultforr min ,anddecideforyourselfwhich
approachiseasier.

EnergyStoredinaChargeConfiguration
Fourpointcharges,A,B,C,andD,areplacedatthecornersofasquarewithsidelengthL.ChargesA,B,andChave
charge+ q ,andDhascharge q .
Throughoutthisproblem,usek inplaceof

1
4 0

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PartA
IfyoucalculateW ,theamountofworkittooktoassemblethischargeconfigurationifthepointchargeswere
initiallyinfinitelyfarapart,youwillfindthatthecontributionforeachchargeisproportionalto
provided,enterthenumericvaluethatmultipliestheabovefactor,inW .

kq
L

.Inthespace

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
TheCoulombforceisconservative.Ifwedefinethepotentialenergyofthesystemtobezerowhenthe
chargesareinfinitelyfarapart,theamountofworkneededtoplaceanyonechargeinaconfigurationis
equaltoitselectricpotentialenergy.ImaginemovingchargeA,thenB,thenC,andfinallyDintoplace.
Findtheworkrequiredtoaddeachchargetotheconfigurationbycalculatingthepotentialenergyofeach
justafteritisadded.Addtheworkrequiredforeachchargetofindthetotalworkrequired.

Hint2.Electricpotentialandpotentialenergy
Recallthattheelectricpotentialatapointatdistancer fromachargeq isV

=k

q
r

,wherek =

1
4 0

Notethatthisequationimplicitlydefinestheelectricpotentialtobezeroatr = .Theelectricpotential
energyofachargeq isequaltoqV ,whereV istheelectricpotentialatthepositionofthechargebefore
thechargeisplacedthere.Tofindthepotentialatapointduetomultiplecharges,sumthepotentialsatthat
pointduetoeachcharge.

Hint3.WorkrequiredtoplacechargeA
WhatisW A ,theworkrequiredtoassemblethechargedistributionshowninthefigure?
Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesk ,q ,andL.

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Hint1.FindthepotentialatthelocationofchargeA
WhatisVA ,theelectricpotentialattheupperleftcornerofthesquarebeforechargeAisplaced
there?
Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesk ,q ,andL.
ANSWER:
VA

= 0

ANSWER:
WA

= 0

Hint4.WorkrequiredtoplacechargeB
WhatisW B ,theamountofworkrequiredtoaddchargeBtotheconfiguration,asshowninthefigure?
Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallof
thevariablesk ,q ,andL.

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Hint1.FindthepotentialatthelocationofchargeB
WhatisVB ,thepotentialattheupperrightcornerduetochargeA,beforechargeBisplacedthere?
Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesk ,q ,andL.
ANSWER:

VB

kq

ANSWER:

WB

kq

Hint5.WorkrequiredtoplacechargeC
WhatisW C ,theamountofworkrequiredtoaddchargeCtotheconfiguration,asshowninthefigure?
Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallof
thevariablesk ,q ,andL.

Hint1.FindthepotentialatthelocationofchargeC
WhatisVC ,thepotentialatthelowerrightcornerofthesquarebeforechargeCisplacedthere?

Hint1.Howtoapproachthispart
ThepotentialatCisthesumoftheindividualpotentialsduetothechargesatBandA.

Hint2.FindthepotentialatCduetothechargeatB
WhatisthepotentialatCduetothechargeatB?
Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesk ,q ,andL.
ANSWER:
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VCB

kq
L

Hint3.FindthepotentialatCduetothechargeatA
WhatisthepotentialatCduetothechargeatA?
Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesk ,q ,andL.
ANSWER:
=

VCA

kq
2 L

ANSWER:

VC

kq

(1 +

1
2

ANSWER:

WC

kq
L

(1 +

1
2

Hint6.FindtheworkrequiredtoplacechargeD
WhatisW D ,theamountofworkrequiredtoaddchargeDtotheconfiguration?
Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallof
thevariablesk ,q ,andL.

Hint1.FindthepotentialatthepositionofchargeD
WhatisVD ,thepotentialatthelowerleftcornerofthesquarebeforechargeDisplacedthere?
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Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesk ,q ,andL.
ANSWER:

VD

kq
L

(2 +

1
2

ANSWER:

WD

kq

(2 +

1
2

ANSWER:

= 0 (

kq
L

Correct
Thehintsledyouthroughtheproblembyaddingonechargeatatime.Alittlethoughtshowsthatthisis
equivalenttosimplyaddingtheenergiesofallpossiblepairs:
W =

4 0

1
R BA

1
R BC

1
R CA

1
R DA

1
R DB

1
R DC

).

Notethatthisisnotequivalenttoaddingthepotentialenergiesofeachcharge.Addingthepotentialenergies
willgiveyoudoublethecorrectanswerbecauseyouwillbecountingeachchargetwice.

PartB
Whichofthefollowingfiguresdepictsachargeconfigurationthatrequireslessworktoassemblethanthe
configurationintheproblemintroduction?Assumethatallchargeshavethesamemagnitudeq .

ANSWER:
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figurea
figureb
figurec

Correct

ElectricForceandPotential:SphericalSymmetry
LearningGoal:
Tounderstandtheelectricpotentialandelectricfieldofapointchargeinthreedimensions
Considerapositivepointchargeq ,locatedattheoriginofthreedimensionalspace.
Throughoutthisproblem,usek inplaceof

1
4 0

PartA
Duetosymmetry,theelectricfieldofapointchargeattheoriginmustpoint_____fromtheorigin.
Answerinoneword.
ANSWER:
radial

Correct

PartB
FindE(r) ,themagnitudeoftheelectricfieldatdistancer fromthepointchargeq .
Expressyouranswerintermsofr ,k ,andq .
ANSWER:

E(r)

kq
r2

Correct

PartC
FindV (r) ,theelectricpotentialatdistancer fromthepointchargeq .
Expressyouranswerintermsofr ,k ,andq .
ANSWER:
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V (r)

kq
r

Correct

PartD
WhichofthefollowingisthecorrectrelationshipbetweenthemagnitudeofaradialelectricfieldE(r) andits
associatedelectricpotentialV (r) ?Morethanoneanswermaybecorrectfortheparticularcaseofapointcharge
attheorigin,butyoushouldchoosethecorrectgeneralrelationship.
ANSWER:

E(r) =
E(r) =

dV (r)
dr
V (r)
r

E(r) =
E(r) =

dV (r)
dr

V (r)
r

Correct
Nowconsiderthefigure,whichshowsseveralfunctionsofthevariabler .

PartE
Whichcurvecouldindicatethemagnitudeoftheelectricfieldduetoachargeq locatedattheorigin(r

= 0

)?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Lookatthegeneralexpressionfortheelectricfielddeterminedearlier.Whatsortofrdependencedoesit
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have?
ANSWER:
A
B
C
D
E
F

Correct

PartF
Whichcurvecouldindicatetheelectricpotentialduetoapositivechargeq locatedattheorigin(r

= 0

)?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Lookatthegeneralexpressionfortheelectricpotentialdeterminedearlier.Whatsortofrdependencedoes
ithave?Howdoesitssigndependonq ?
ANSWER:
A
B
C
D
E
F

Correct

PartG
Whichcurvecouldindicatetheelectricpotentialduetoanegativechargeq locatedattheorigin(r

= 0

)?

ANSWER:

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A
B
C
D
E
F

Correct

PartH
Foreitherapositiveoranegativecharge,theelectricfieldpointsfromregionsof______electricpotential.
ANSWER:
highertolower
lowertohigher

Correct

PotentialofaChargedRing
AringwithradiusRandauniformlydistributedtotalchargeQ liesinthexyplane,centeredattheorigin.

PartA
WhatisthepotentialV (z) duetotheringonthezaxisasafunctionofz ?
1
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ExpressyouranswerintermsofQ ,z ,R,and 0 ork =

1
4 0

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Theformulafortheelectricpotentialproducedbyastaticchargedistributioninvolvestheamountofcharge
andthedistancefromthechargetothepositionwherethepotentialismeasured.Allpointsontheringare
equidistantfromagivenpointonthezaxis.Thisenablesyoutocalculatetheelectricpotentialsimply,
withoutdoinganintegral.

Hint2.Thepotentialduetoapointcharge
Ifyouincorporatethesymmetryoftheproblem,youwillneedonlytoknowtheformulaforpotentialofa
q
pointcharge:V (r) =
,whereV (r) isthepotentialatdistancer fromthepointcharge,q isthe
4 0 r

magnitudeofthecharge,and 0 isthepermittivityoffreespace.
ANSWER:

V (z)

4 0 R

+z

Correct

PartB
WhatisthemagnitudeoftheelectricfieldEonthezaxisasafunctionofz ,forz

> 0

ExpressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthequantitiesQ ,z ,R,and 0 ork =

1
4 0

Hint1.Determinethedirectionofthefield
Bysymmetry,theelectricfieldhasonlyoneCartesiancomponent.Inwhatdirectiondoestheelectricfield
point?
ANSWER:
^
i

^
j

^
k

Hint2.Therelationshipbetweenelectricfieldandpotential
Youcanobtaintheelectricfieldfromapotentialbythefollowingexpression:

E = V =

V
x

^
i

V
y

^
j

V
z

^
k,

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whereEistheelectricfieldvector,V istheelectricpotential,isthegradientoperator,and
thepartialderivativeoff withrespecttot.

f
t

means

ANSWER:
kQz
3

|E(z) |=
(R

+z

Correct
Noticethatwhilethepotentialisastrictlydecreasingfunctionofz ,theelectricfieldfirstincreasestill
z=

andthenstartstodecrease.

Whydoestheelectricfieldexhibitsuchabehavior?
Thoughthecontributiontotheelectricfieldfromeachpointontheringstrictlydecreasesasafunctionofz ,
thevectorcancellationfrompointsonoppositesidesoftheringbecomesverystrongforsmallz .

E (z = 0) = 0

onaccountofthesevectorcancellations.OntheotherhandE(z)0,eventhoughall

theindividualdE 'spointin(almost)thesamedirectionthere,becausethecontributiontotheelectricfield,per
unitlengthofthering

dE
dr

0as z .

EquipotentialSurfacesinaCapacitor

PartA
Istheelectricpotentialenergyofaparticlewithchargeq thesameatallpointsonanequipotentialsurface?

Hint1.Formulaforelectricpotentialenergy
Foraparticlewithchargeq atpotentialV ,theelectricpotentialenergyisqV .
ANSWER:
Yes
No

Correct
Foraparticlewithchargeq onanequipotentialsurfaceatpotentialV ,theelectricpotentialenergyhasa
constantvalueqV .

PartB
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WhatistheworkrequiredtomoveachargearoundonanequipotentialsurfaceatpotentialV withconstantspeed?

Hint1.Aformulaforwork
Thetotalworkdoneonanobjectisequaltothechangeinitsenergy(potential+kinetic).
ANSWER:
Work= 0

Correct
Sincethespeedofthechargeisconstantasitmovesalongtheequipotentialsurface,andtheelectric
potentialenergyisconstantonthatsurface,thereisnochangeinthetotalenergyofthecharge.Thisalso
meansthatnoworkisdonebythechargeasitmovesalongtheequipotentialsurface.

PartC
WhatistheworkdonebytheelectricfieldonachargeasitmovesalonganequipotentialsurfaceatpotentialV ?

Hint1.Workdonebyanelectricfieldonachargedparticle
Theforceduetoanelectricfieldisaconservativeforce.Assuch,theworkdonebysuchaforceisequalto
thechangeinthepotentialenergyoftheparticleitisactingon.
ANSWER:
Workdonebytheelectricfield= 0

Correct
JustasinPartB,sincethereisnochangeintheelectricpotentialenergy,noworkisdonebytheelectricfield
asthechargemovesalongtheequipotentialsurface.

PartD

TheworkW E donebytheuniformelectricfieldEindisplacingaparticlewithchargeq alongthepathd isgiven


by

W E = qE d = q|E ||d | cos

where istheanglebetweenEandd .Sinceingeneral,


E isnotequaltozero,forpointsonanequipotential
surface,whatmust beforW E toequal0?

Expressyouranswerinradians.
ANSWER:

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= 1.57 rad

Correct
Youhaveshownthatequipotentialsurfacesarealwaysperpendiculartotheelectricfieldattheirsurface.

Nowassumethataparallelplatecapacitorisattachedacrosstheterminalsofabatteryasshownin.Theelectricfield

intheregionbetweentheplatespointsinthenegativez
direction,fromhighertolowervoltage.
E

PartE
FindtheelectricpotentialV (x, y, z)atapointX
systemO = (0, 0, 0) isatpotential0.

= (x, y, z)

insidethecapacitoriftheoriginofthecoordinate

ExpressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesE ,x,y,andz .

Hint1.Therelationbetweenelectricpotentialandtheelectricfield
ieldEinaregionofspaceis

V = E d ,

wherethelineintegralmaybetakenalonganypath .

Hint2.Expressinganinfinitesimallengthelement
Ingeneral,asmalllengthvectoralongthepathofchoicecanbewrittenas

^
d = dx ^
+ dy ^
+ dz k

SubstitutethisexpressionintotheintegralforV .

Hint3.Analysisoftheequation
^ areperpendicular(where w
^ isoneoftheCartesiancoordinateaxes),then
RecallthatifEandw

^ = 0
E w

^
,since = /2.Accordingtothesetupofthispart,onlyoneofthedirections(^
, ^
, k )willnot
beperpendiculartotheelectricfieldasdefined.

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ANSWER:
V (x, y, z)

Ez

Correct
Therefore,theequationofanequipotentialsurfaceatapotenialV0 isgivenby
z=

V0
E

Thisistheequationofaplanethatisparalleltotheplatesofthecapacitorandperpendiculartotheelectric
field.Inparticular,thelowerplate,whichisatzeropotential,correspondstothesurfacez = 0 .

PartF
Whatisthedistancez betweentwosurfacesseparatedbyapotentialdifferenceV ?
ExpressyouranswerintermsofE andV .

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
UsetheequationyoufoundinPartEtofindequationsthatrepresentthepotentialsV1 andV2 oftheplanes
locatedatz 1 andz 2 .Usetheseexpressionstofindanequationforz .
ANSWER:
z

V
E

Correct

Exercise23.6
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ThetwosidesoftheDNAdoublehelixareconnectedbypairsofbases(adenine,thymine,cytosine,andguanine).
Becauseofthegeometricshapeofthesemolecules,adeninebondswiththymineandcytosinebondswithguanine.
Thefigureshowsthethymineadeninebond.Eachchargeshownise andtheH N distanceis0.110nm.

PartA
Calculatetheelectricpotentialenergyoftheadeninethyminebond,usingcombinationsofmoleculesO H N
andN H N .
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
Uadeninethymine

= 9.711019J

Correct

PartB
Comparethisenergywiththepotentialenergyoftheprotonelectronpairinthehydrogenatom.Theelectroninthe
hydrogenatomis0.0529nmfromtheproton.
ANSWER:
U adeninethymine
UH

= 0.223

Correct

Exercise23.24
Atacertaindistancefromapointcharge,thepotentialandelectricfieldmagnitudeduetothatchargeare4.98Vand
V/m
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12.0V/m ,respectively.(Takethepotentialtobezeroatinfinity.)

PartA
Whatisthedistancetothepointcharge?
ANSWER:
d

= 0.415 m

Correct

PartB
Whatisthemagnitudeofthecharge?
ANSWER:
q

= 2.301010 C

Correct

PartC
Istheelectricfielddirectedtowardorawayfromthepointcharge?
ANSWER:
Toward
Away

Correct

Exercise23.23

PartA
Anelectronistobeacceleratedfromavelocityof2.50106m/stoavelocityof9.00106m/s.Throughwhat
potentialdifferencemusttheelectronpasstoaccomplishthis?
ANSWER:
V1 V2

= 213 V

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Correct

PartB
Throughwhatpotentialdifferencemusttheelectronpassifitistobeslowedfrom9.00106m/stoahalt?
ANSWER:
V1 V2

= 231 V

Correct

Exercise23.32
Averylonginsulatingcylinderofchargeofradius3.00cmcarriesauniformlineardensityof13.0nC/m.

PartA
Ifyouputoneprobeofavoltmeteratthesurface,howfarfromthesurfacemusttheotherprobebeplacedsothat
thevoltmeterreads155V?
ANSWER:
d

= 2.82 cm

Correct

Exercise23.48
Ametalspherewithradiusr a =1.30cmissupportedonaninsulatingstandatthecenterofahollow,metal,spherical
shellwithradiusr b =9.60cm.Charge+q isputontheinnersphereandchargeq ontheoutersphericalshell.The
magnitudeofq ischosentomakethepotentialdifferencebetweenthespheres440V,withtheinnersphereathigher
potential.

PartA
Calculateq .
ANSWER:
q

= 7.361010 C

Correct
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PartB
Aretheelectricfieldlinesandequipotentialsurfacesmutuallyperpendicular?
ANSWER:
Yes
No

Correct

PartC
AretheequipotentialsurfacesclosertogetherwhenthemagnitudeofEislargest?
ANSWER:
EquipotentialsurfacesclosertogetherwhenthemagnitudeofEislargest.
EquipotentialsurfacesclosertogetherwhenthemagnitudeofEissmallest.

Correct

Problem23.89
Analphaparticlewithkineticenergy14.5MeVmakesacollisionwithleadnucleus,butitisnot"aimed"atthecenter
oftheleadnucleus,andhasaninitialnonzeroangularmomentum(withrespecttothestationaryleadnucleus)of
magnitudeL = p0 b,wherep0 isthemagnitudeoftheinitialmomentumofthealphaparticleandb=1.401012m.
(Assumethattheleadnucleusremainsstationaryandthatitmaybetreatedasapointcharge.Theatomicnumberof
leadis82.Thealphaparticleisaheliumnucleus,withatomicnumber2.)

PartA
Whatisthedistanceofclosestapproach?
ANSWER:
r

= 1.411012 m

AnswerRequested

PartB
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Repeatforb=1.001013m.
ANSWER:
r

= 1.081013 m

AnswerRequested

PartC
Repeatforb=1.301014m.
ANSWER:
r

= 2.351014 m

AnswerRequested
ScoreSummary:
Yourscoreonthisassignmentis92.9%.
Youreceived13.93outofapossibletotalof15points.

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