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Important AQS for PCS interview

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VET Caress
(Veterinary Care Services)

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1. Which breed of goat is imported from Bangladesh?


Ans: Teddy Breed (black, brown, patched and white color) Milk production 65 liters/ 130 days lactation.
50 % of the population produces Twins and 15 % produce triplet kids.
2. Which breed of cattle in Pakistan is called Lola and why?
Ans: Sahiwal Breed of cattle because of its heavy body and loose skin.
3. Buffalo show more silent heat as compared to cattle, why?
Ans: Silent heat refers to the normal follicular development and ovulation without the pronounced
behavioral signs of heat. Most of Buffalo show heat at night and it has been observed at midnight and the
heat signs are also weaker especially in hot dry months of the year ( april to june) because due to
environmental stress the Corpus Luteum C.L in non-pregnant female does not regress or partially regress
which lead to silent heat. Researchers also correlate this with the lake of adequate management,
nutritional status and serum hormonal profile of an animal.
4. Why vaccine is not effective against protozoal diseases?
Ans: Vaccine against protozoal diseases is not effective because of the immunological different strains of
a single protozoan and development of the acquired immunity (both cell mediated and humoral) to the
specific strain of protozoan after exposure of animal to that strain of a protozoan but with the
development of the vaccine based on recombinant parasite component in the future the control of many
protozoal diseases will rely on vaccination.
5. How we can maximize the nutritive value of wheat straw?
Ans: For maximizing the Nutritive Value of straw following treatment can be done.
1) Soaking Straw: Paddy straw is soaked for few hours @ 1 kg Straw/ 1 liter of water before
feeding that will remove dust, silica, pebbles and oxalates and will increase the nutritive value of
straw by softening it.
2) Ammonia Treatment: Anhydrous Ammonia or solution of Ammonia in water as a Ammonium
Hydroxide treatment of Straw will increase the crude protein value of straw.
3) Urea Treatment: 100 kg straw is treated with urea solution @ 4 kg urea in 40 kg of water and
the straw stock is covered with polythene or banana leaves and fed after 3-4 weeks. It will
enhance the nitrogen content of the straw for protein production by Rumen micro-flora.
4) Alkali Treatment: 3.3 % of NaOH addition to straw improves palatability and digestibility. 1.25
% of NaOH solution in water @ 1 liter/ 1 kg of straw removes lignin and reduces oxalates
5) Silage Making: Make silage of straw with other succulent/green forages.
6. What is mastitis? How we can identify under microscope?
Ans: Mastitis refers to the inflammatory condition of udder due to infection. Somatic cells are the
epithelial cells and leukocytes coming down in the milk during udder infections. Somatic Cell Count (SCC)
of the milk of healthy cow is 200,000 / ml and 100,000 increases in the cells (300.000 cells / ml) means
that the milk is from mastitis cow. Health impact varies much on Somatic Cell Count, as increase of
100,000 SCC / ml in the milk, leads to SCC value from 400,000 to 500,000 that results in to 25 % less
cheese production.

Questions with Answers adopted from A Key Guide for PCS.


Compiled By
Dr Atiq Ullah Khan Sa'yem Marwat
(DVM, RVMP, Pakistan)

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Results interpretations for Somatic Cell Count / ml of milk


SCC /ml of milk
% of quarter affected
300,000
6.2
400,000
12.8
750,000
24.3

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Importance of Somatic Cell Count: Somatic Cell Count (SCC) provides three important functions:
1. Monitoring of prevalence of Mastitis in dairy cow.
2. Act as indicator of raw milk in all processes.
3. Act as indicator of hygienic condition of milk at a dairy farm.
Procedure of determination SCC / ml of milk:1. Take a clean slide and divide it in to two Squares of 1cm2 areas with the help of diamond pencil.
2. Put 10l (0.01ml) of milk on each area and allow for air dry.
3. Then put the slide in Xylene for 2-3 minutes for defatting.
4. After defatting allow the slide for air drying again and then fixation of smear by 95% ethanol for
5 minutes.
After fixation again allow slide for air drying and then stain by 10 % Giemsa solution for 30
minutes.
5. Now wash with tap water and observe under oil immersion (100X) lens of microscope and
counting of leukocytes is done.
6. Observe 10 fields on a square and count number of cells in each field. Then add all the number
of cells obtained from 10 fields and divide by 10 to get average number of cell in each field.
7. Than multiply the average number of cells with 5000 as 1cm2 area has 5000 fields. This is
number of cells in 0.01ml of milk, to convert it into ml multiply the number of cell in 0.01 ml
with 100, it will give number of cells per ml of milk ( This can directly be obtained by multiplying
the average no of cells with 500000).
8. 0-200,000 number of cells per ml of milk is considered normal and more than this is considered
positive. More than 500, 0000 cells per ml of milk is taken as +++ mastitis.

Important AQS for PCS interview


1000,000

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7. What are common names of BQ, PPR and Rinderpest?


Ans:
BQ = Black Leg / Chrey Mr (Urdu)
PPR = Goat Plague / Kt (Urdu)
Rinderpest = Cattle Plague / Mth (urdu)
8. Difference between fodder and forage?
Ans:
Fodder: It is the cultivated species of green forages.
Forage: It refer to the Natural growing grass species.
9. What is fat percentage of buffalo and cattle milk?
Ans: Buffalo Milk Fat % = 7.4-10.4 % & Cattle Milk Fat % = 3.5-5.5 %
10. Express the CP and TDN formulae and apparatus used for their determination?
Ans: CP (crude protein) = % N2 X 6.25 and Macro Kjeldahl Distillation Apparatus is used for it
determination.
TDN = % Digestible P + % Digestible NFE+ % Digestible CF + (% Digestible EE X 2.25)
11. What is meant by Punjkalian?
Ans: Punjkalian is referred to the Five White Marks (Fore head,Face, Muzzle, Leg switches, Around
bright eyes) which are liked by Breeders.
12. Why the colour of the buffalo is black?
Ans: It is due to the
13. What is difference between heat stroke and fever?
Ans: Fever is the elevation of body temperature (> 2F) caused by stimulation of the thermoregulatory
center (lies in Hypothalamus) under the influence of Pyrogens circulating in blood while Heat
Stroke/Hyperthermia is a remarkable elevation of body temperature either due to excessive heat
production or absorption, or deficient heat loss due to purely physical cause as high environmental
temperature and humidity in summer season.
14. Why antipyretics are not effective in case of heat stroke?
Ans: Antipyretic e.g NSAIDs reverse the inflammatory condition by stopping the inflammatory cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX1 and COX2 enzymes) pathway and release of inflammatory mediator that act
as a pyrogens but As the cause of heat stroke is purely physical and there is no inflammatory condition or
pyrogens are involved in elevation of temperature therefore Antipyretics are not effective in Heat Stroke.
15. What is meant by Black gold of Pakistan?
Ans: Buffaloes are known as a Black Gold of Pakistan e.g Kundi Breed produce 1700-220 liters
Milk/Lactation with 6 % Fat and NiliRavi Breed produce 1800-2500 liters Milk/Lactation with 6.5 % Fat.
16. Name the tick-borne diseases?
Ans: Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis, Trypnosomiasis, Ehrlicosis, Theleriosis, Tick payemia, Lyme disease in
man, Louping ill, Tick born fever etc .
17. What is the difference between feed efficiency and FCR?
Ans: Feed efficiency is the ratio between the weight gain and feed consumption while Feed Conversion
Ratio (FCR) is the opposite to feed efficiency. FCR of about 2 and below 2 is economical.
Feed efficiency = live weight gain / total feed intake
FCR = total feed intake/ total live weight gain

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19. Which feed should be used to increase fat contents of milk?


Ans: Fat % increases when Acetic Acid production in the rumen is increased. So feed animal such a feed
that increases Acetic Acid production, Concentrate ration, Low roughages and Finely ground hay lead to
high Propionic Acid and low Acetic Acids production and Feed ration with at least 17 % fiber, Unground
forage @ 1.5 kg/100 kg B.Wt, Vegetable oil increases Acetic Acids production similarly Na and K
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Important AQS for PCS interview


18. Name the summer and winter forages?
Ans:

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bicarbonates, Ca hydroxide, Mg oxide and carbonates, Na bentonite and partly delactosed Whey are also
used for increasing Fat % of the Milk some of them increase rumen pH and others increase Acetic Acids
and decrease Propionic Acids production but the one drawback is that by using them make the feed
unpalatable.
20. If Pakistan wants to import the semen, from which country it should be imported New
Zealand or Australia?
Ans:
21. Define hormone, enzyme and pheromone?
Ans:
Hormone: Hormone is a chemical substance that regulates certain activity of its target tissue
(target is specific tissue which has receptors for the effect of the hormone).
Enzyme: Enzyme is the chemical substance (Soluble Colloidal proteins in nature) that is
produced by cells of living organism in a less quantity that catalyzed the bio-chemical reactions
inside the tissues of the living organism.
Pheromone: It is the chemical secretions of the sebaceous glands, reproductive organs, urinary
tract ant some other glands that allow interspecies communication. Those pheromone that
effect sexual behaviors of the animal is known as sex pheromone.
22. If there is an outbreak of FMD in a herd, from where sample should be taken and medium
used?
Ans: During antemortem Vesicular fluid, Epithelial tags from the rapture vesicles and Esophageal and
pharyngeal fluid is taken and during Postmortem Lymph nodes, Kidneys, Adrenal glands, Heart and
Thyroid gland is taken as sample. In clinical case Saliva is collected and freeze as a laboratory sample
from the affected animal
23. Name the disease which is most prevalent in dairy industry?
Ans: Mastitis is the most prevailing disease in dairy industry. Other diseases are the Milk borne diseases
e.g Anthrax, Cholera, Diphtheria, Dysentery, Foot and Mouth Disease, Gastro-enteritis, Mastitis, Milk
sickness, Paratyphoid fever, Scarlet fever, Septic sore throat, Small pox, Tuberculosis, Typhoid fever,
Undulant fever.
24. What is difference between contagious and infectious disease?
Ans: Contagious diseases are those which spread from animal to another animal through direct or indirect
contact through other agencies while infectious diseases are those diseases which are caused by organism
infective in nature and which are capable to pass from effective animals to healthy one under favorable
conditions. All contagious diseases are infectious in nature but not all the infectious diseases are
contagious in nature.
25. What is difference between anthraponosis and zoonosis?
Ans: Anthraponosis is the transfer of diseases from Human to the Animals while zoonosis is the transfer
of diseases from Animals to the human.
26. What is difference between hematuria and hemoglobinuria?
Ans: Hematuria is the passing of whole Red Blood Cells (RBCs) in the urine but the Hemoglobinuria is
the passing out of the hemoglobin in the urine which make the urine Deep Red in color (in mild cases),
Dark Brown in color (moderate case) to black in color (sever case). In hematuria if urine is left still for
some time without disturbance the RBCs will be settled down and red deposits may be noted.
27. Why buffalo swim more than other animals like cattle?
Ans: This is due to the inherited predilection for water, Buffaloes love wallowing and swimming
efficiently in water.
28. What is difference between ewe and doe?
Ans: Ewe is the term referred to adult female of the sheep while doe referred to the adult female of goat,
Antelopes, Deer, Rodents and Kangaroo etc.

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29. Term triple P "PPP" stands for, in reproduction?
Ans: PPP = Post-parturient Paralysis (Milk Fever or Nerve Peralysis) or Puerpareal Period (Involution
Period which are 90 days).PPP is also referred to the Persistent Purposeless Proliferative growth which
is used for the Malignant Tumor/Cancer.
30. Is there any increase in temperature of an animal infected with rabies-virus?
Ans: In human there is mild rise in temperature occur in early complain of rabies but in animals some
time temperature is elevated in early stage but commonly the temperature remain normal in rabid animals.
31. What is speed of rabies virus to propagate during incubation period?
Ans: Rabies virus move centripetally to the central nervous system; nervous pathways @ 3mm/hr. virus
invade ganglion cells and then centrifugally to the peripheral nerves.
32. What is difference between bellowing and wallowing?
Ans: Bellowing refers to the vocal sound produced by cow or buffalo which is frequent during estrus
period/Heat and Wallowing refers to rolling and floundering in mud and water.
33. In which disease, mandibular edema is more pronounced and why it occurs?
Ans: In chronic Fasciolosis Mandibular edema/Bottle jaw is more pronounced because of liver damage
due to the metacercaria migration in the liver parenchyma and also blocking the bile duct.
34. What is flushing?
Ans: Flushing: This is the feeding of extra grain and lush pasture 2-3 weeks prior to the breeding season
for the purpose of increasing the number of ova shed from the ovary for yielding twins. Feeding of 250
gms grains or Wanda/ewe/day result an increase in the lamb crop up to 10-20 % as a whole.
35. How fumigation is done and what is the ratio in its composition?
Ans: Before fumigation the area which is to be fumigated should be made air tight and the fumigation
mixture is placed in sand/metaled/Pyrex Glass made pot in the center of the area/room. 35 cc/ml 37 %
Formalin plus 17.5 gms KMnO4 per cubic feet of room space (Animal Husbandry by Iqbal Shah) OR
50 cc/ml of 40 % formaldehyde to 25-30 gms of KMnO4 per 100 cubic feet of incubator capacity (
Animal Husbandry by G.C. Benerjee).
36. What is omphalitis?
Ans: Omphalitis is the inflammation of naval due to naval or yolk sac infection caused by Salmonella,
E.coli, Staphylococcus etc.
37. Why vaccine is not effective against mastitis?
Ans: Vaccine against Mastitis is not effective because of various causative agents including Bacteria
(Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus zooepidemics, Streptococcus faecalis,
Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Corynbacterium bovis, Corynbacterium pyogenes,
Klebsiella Spp;, Salmonella Spp;, Pseudotuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Eschricia coli, Brucella
abortus, Pasturella multocida, Leptospira Pomona, Pseudomonas pyocyaneus etc),Virus (Vesicular
stomatitis, Infectious rhinotrachitis, Foot and Mouth disease, Pox virus infection etc), Fungus
(Trichosporon Spp;, Aspergillus Spp;, Candida Spp;, Cryptococcus neoformans etc ), and Mycoplasma
(Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma bovigenetelium). It is difficult to prepare a single vaccine against them.
38. What is love hormone?
Ans: Oxytocin is known as Love Hormone.
39. What is the clinical use of oxytocin in male animals?
Ans:
40. Why postparturient hemoglobinuria occurs and what is its treatment?
Ans: Postparturient Hemoglobinurea occurs due to low phosphate and copper dietary intake
Treatment:
(i) 5 liter blood
(ii) Na-acid phosphate, IV 60gm+ 300 ml water for 5 days
(ii) Dicalcium phosphate orally
41. In international ranking, what is the position of Pakistan in milk producing countries?
Ans: Pakistan is on 4th position in the world with production of 45 billion liters milk per annum (11 th
August 2010).
42. What is meant by white revolution?
Ans: White Revolution is the term that refers to the increased in the production of milk per annum.
43. In case of BQ (black quarter) which muscle(s) is/are more affected?

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Ans: Heavy Muscles e.g Neck, Shoulder and Gluteal muscles are more affected in BQ/Black leg disease.
44. Where BQ occurrence is more, in hilly areas or plain areas?
Ans: Black Quarter is more in plain areas because the causative agent is a spore forming anaerobic gram
positive toxin producing bacterium Clostridium chauoei and the spore is present in the sands and flow
with water during rainy season.
45. Normal physiological body temperature of chicken?
Ans: Normal physiological body temperature of chicken is 107F.
46. How horse sleep? and what is stay apparatus?
Ans: Horse sleeps in standing position.
47. Enlist dairy breeds of Goat found in Punjab?
Ans: For answer see Page No 33 of PCS key guide.
48. Enlist dairy breeds of Cattle of Pakistan?
Ans: For answer see Page No 32 of PCS key guide
49. "Pak Angora" breed is developed by the cross of which breeds?
Ans: Angora: It has its origin from Turkey. It is a mohair producing breed. Pak Angora (Angora x

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50. What is mohair?


Ans: Mohair is the term referred to the wool of the Angora breed of goat which is soft white wool in great
demand of clothing.
51. How parasites harm the animal/host?
Ans: Parasites harm the Host in following ways
Physical trauma, Tissue damage, Nutritional diversion, Toxins release (anaphylaxis and
toxicities), Inflammation, Blood Loss, Edema and fibrosis
52. What are the side effects using overdose of different dewormers?
Ans: In-appetence, Impairment of intestinal feed absorption and diarrhea that lead to dehydration,
ankylosis and muscles stiffness.
53. What would happen if antibiotics are used long time?
Ans: For long time usage of antibiotics lead to the development of resistance against the antibiotics in
microbes and the sensitivity of the microbes will be decreased. Diseases caused by the resistive microbes
will be difficult to cure by the antibiotics.
54. What would happen if steroids are used long time?
Ans: Prolong Uses of Steroids lead to suppress both number of cells and actions of the immune system.
They suppress the cell mediated immunity because of lymphopenia and eosinopenia, that leads to
increase risk of infections, enhance spread of infections. Steroids also suppress the synthesis of collagen
fibers and leads to poor healing of wounds. Steroids also lead to excessive catabolism that causes reduce
growth, weakness and muscles atrophy.
55. In case of pneumonia, steroid show good result, what is the reason?
Ans: Steroids inhabits release of Arechidonic Acids and Platelets Aggregation Factor from lungs and
macrophages and also block the production of Induced Histamine which cannot be blocked by antihistaminic drugs. These effects of steroids lead to decrease inflammation and cause Bronchodilation.
56. Why tetracycline is contraindicated in cats?
Ans: Tetracyclin cause various side effects as cause irritation when administered intramuscularly (IM)
Chelation Ca when administered per oral and diminishes the blood Ca also produce GIT upsets and
Hepatotoxicity when used in large quantity. Chelation Blood Ca when administered intravenously (IV)
causes collapse of the animal. Tooth mottling (discoloration) is due to chelation of OTC with Ca.
57. How many serotypes of FMD are found? Which one is more common in Pakistan?
ANS: There are 7 serotypes of FMD Virus A, O, C, ASIA I, SAT I, SAT II, SAT III. ASIA I, A, O and C
are more common in Pakistan.
58. What is difference between cruncle and cotyledon?
Ans: Cruncle refer to the sinuses on endometrium and Cotyledon is the fetal villi that form a cup shaped
structure on chorion of Fetal Memmbranes. Cotyledons fit in Cruncle and make a structure known as
Placentome.
59. What is "Erythritol"?

Hairy goat).

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Ans: Erythritol is an Alcohol that is produced by foetus is capable of triggering the multiplication of
Brucella thus there is heavy concentration of this organism in foetal fluids and membranes (Placenta)
and sheds to the environment through vaginal discharges, aborted foetal fluids, foetal membranes and
aborted foetus that contaminate the environment
60. What is the internal temperature of AV?
Ans: Internal temperature of AV is 43-48C (ideal for large ruminants (bull) is 45C/42-46C in GC
Benerjee)
61. What is the difference between Flehman's and Ferguson's reflex?
Ans:
62. What are the side effects of oyxtocin use in reproduction of animals?
Ans: Oxytocin is commonly used for the Induction of parturition; Milk let down, Treatment of uterine
infections and also in the mastitis but it can lead to infertility and early embryonic death because of
uterine contraction caused by Oxytocin.
63. First heat of life or after parturition, in cattle/buffalo is always silent, why?
Ans: When puberty is around to occur then increased reproductive tract development is due to Estrogen
Hormone (E2). In sheep and cow specially seen that in brain there is center on which E2 works. Priming
of progesterone before E2 work on brain is necessary for behavioral estrus which is not present at the time
of first heat. That is why silent estrus is seen first time.
64. Why the color of the milk is white?
Ans: The color of milk looks white due to the reflection of light caused by fat globules.
65. What is difference between sterile and infertile?
Ans: Sterile is referred to absolute inability to reproduce while infertility is referred to reduction in
breeding potential of animal.
66. Overdose of steroids cause hardening of inflammation but normally it should be
antiinflammatory, why?
Ans:
67. What are the clinical uses of magnesium sulphate in veterinary practice?
Ans: The following are possible uses of magnesium sulfate:

68. What is the difference between trypanosomiasis and trypanosomiosis?


Ans: Trypanosomiasis (example of Parasitasis) is the term referred to the chronic trypanosomal disease
in which animal does not show sign and symptom but Trypanosomiosis (example of Parasitosis) is the
protozoan disease caused by trypanosoma in which the animal show signs and symptoms of the disease
(Intermittent fever, Sever petechial hemorrhages on serosa membrane and lymph nodes,Spleen is swollen,
Anorexia).
69. What is the mode of action of oxyclozanide and levamisole?
Ans: hey all are uncouplers of the oxidative phosphorylation in the cell mitochondria, which disturbs
the production of ATP, the cellular "fuel".Levamisol acts as an acetylcholinesterase (also known as AchE)
mimetic. AchE is an enzyme that hydrolyzes acetylcholine (Ach). Ach is a molecule involved in the
transmission of nervous signals from nerves to muscles (so-called neuromuscular junctions). Levamisole
causes a depolarisation of the ganglions and nervous cells of the worms. It also interferes with the
metabolism of carbohydrates (sugars) in the worm. Within 1 to 3 hours after administration the worms
are paralyzed and die or are expelled.
70. Which part of digestive tract of horse is absent?
Ans: Gall Bladder is absent in Horse.
71. Which part of ruminant stomach is absent in camel?
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Anticonvulsant
Electrolyte replacement in hypomagnesemia
Laxative (oral treatment)
Bronchodilator
Treatment of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias
Treatment of malignant hypothermia (especially. in swine)

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Ans: Gall bladder is absent in camel.
72. What is vaccination schedule of buffalo and cattle?
Ans: Referred to the Page no 30 of PCS guide.
73. Toxocara vitulorum what is signs and symptoms, and route of transmission?
Ans: Signs and Symptoms: Poor thriving, intermittent diarrhea, and fatalities in buffalo calves.
Transmission: Rout of transmission is by ingestion of larvae egg or paratenic host with larval
stage, Trans mammary is common (milk of dam).
74. Site of infection; Paramphistomiasis and fascioliasis?
Ans: Paramphistomiasis adult in rumen and reticulum and immature stages in the duodenum while in
Fasciolasis bile duct, Liver paranchyma.
75. What is Monday morning disease?
Ans: Azoturia is more commonly known as "monday morning disease", or "tying up". It was given the
nickname "monday morning disease"
76. Name the Milk-borne diseases?
Ans: Milk borne diseases e.g Anthrax, Cholera, Diphtheria, Dysentery, Foot and Mouth Disease, Gastroenteritis, Mastitis, Milk sickness, Paratyphoid fever, Scarlet fever, Septic sore throat, Small pox,
Tuberculosis, Typhoid fever, Undulant fever.
77. Enlist more pronounced signs of tetanus?
Ans: More pronounced sign of the tetanus is signs are third eyelid prolapse, body muscle stiffness, stiff
gait, lock jaw and generalized Muscular paralysis.
78. EPG stands for?
Ans: EPG (eggs per gram) used in the McMaster method of parasite eggs count.
79. PVMC stands for?
Ans: PVMC stands for Pakistan Veterinary Medical Council.
80. PCS stands for?
Ans: PCS stands for Provincial Civil Service.
81. Which part of the stomach of ruminant is called true stomach and why?
Ans; Abomasum/Glandular stomach is called true stomach due to secretion of digestive enzymes from
glands present in this portion of stomach.
82. Differentiate between secretion and excretion?
Ans: Secretions are the fluid substances formed or concentrated in a gland and passed in to the alimentary
tract, blood or to exterior while excretion is the elimination of waste material from the body e.g. urination
and defecation.
83. What are major causes of RFM (placental retention)?
Ans: Causes of RFP are Heriditery, Immature placentomes as in abortion, Hyperaemia of Placentomes,
Uterineinertia, Avitaminosis-A, Lack of iodine (Hypothyrodism), Lack of Oxytocin, Hormonal
disturbances, Presence of necrotic tissues/epithelium, Abortion and infectious diseases e.g Brucellosis,
TB, Vibriosis, Mold like aspergillosis etc.
84. Different period of fodder shortage in Pakistan?
Ans: Different period of fodder shortage is the months of January, July and December.
85. Different precautionary measures to control ticks on farm level?
Ans: Dipping of animals in Anti-parasitic/Insecticides drugs solution and spraying the farm area for
external parasites (Ticks, Lice, Fleas, Flies, Midges and Mites) is one of the most important routine
management operations to control ticks and destroying their breeding places (cracks and crevices) in the
building/farm area.
86. What you will suggest to improve dairy industry in Pakistan?
Ans: I suggest to raise pure milk breeds of cattle and buffalo (FS, JS, Jersey, Holstein, Gurensey,
Sahiwal, Redsindhi, Niliravi, Azakheli and Kundi), Mix farming of these two species (buffalo: cows) at
the ratio of 50:50 or 70:30 with effective and adequate manage mental practice and disease control
strategies, Reserving the purity of breed and Marketing of products of the farm in demand market with
good presentation of the product.
87. What is the breeding season of buffalo and cattle?
Ans: Majority of Buffaloes show heat from October-November and Cattles show heat from April-May.

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88. Define poultry?
Ans: Poultry refer to the different species of birds that are kept and raised to get economic benefits from
them.
89. What is meaning of FCR = 1.5?
Ans: FCR means Food Conversion Ratio which is estimated through following formula.
FCR = Total Feed Intake/Total Live Weight Gain. FCR = 1.5 means that it is economical farming as FCR
ratio of 2 and less than 2 is good and economical any FCR above 2 is poor and uneconomical.
90. Define medicine?
Ans: Medicine is simply defines as The Art of Healing.
91. What is bleating?
Ans: Bleating is the term which refers to the vocal sound produced by sheep.
92. What are causes of vaccine failure in field condition?
Ans:Some of the causes of vaccines failure are given below.
1. Using of Expired Vaccines.
2. Non storage of vaccines at the advocated low temperature.
3. Neglecting the use of thermos flask or an ice box for transportation.
4. Overlooking the use of chilled normal saline or special diluent supplied by the manufacturer.
5. Exposure of reconstituted vaccine to the heat, sun rays, etc. Place diluted vaccine in ice during
use.
6. Non utilization of proper quantity of vaccine.
7. Improper dis infection of syringes, needles and container for vaccination.
8. In appropriate method and rout of administration.
9. Exposure of vaccine to deleterious chemicals such as spirit, alcohol etc.
10. Stress due to mismanagement, environment and infectious diseases.
11. Latent infection in the animal.
12. High acquired passive innate immunity of the animal (High Antibodies titer).
13. Immunosuppressive infections or agents (Mycotoxins)
14. Toxic elements e.g Lead and Hg.
15. Free mixing of vaccinated animals with diseased and unvaccinated animals.
16. Administration of Booster dose after long interval.
93. How many types of vaccine available, on adjuvant?
Ans: On the base of adjuvant there are two types of vaccine Live vaccines and Killed vaccines. Oil
emulsion or aluminium hydroxide is used as an adjuvant in killed vaccine but not used in live vaccines
which only contain Antigen.
94. Name the few drugs that can be used to start/enhance the rumen motility?
Ans: Carbacol, Physostigmine and Neostigmine bromide are some drugs that enhance the rumen motility
95. Name the few lifesaving drugs?
Ans: Vit. K, Transaminic Acid, Adrenalin, Atropine sulfate, Steroid (Prednisolone, Dexamethasone),
Terpentine oil, Liquid parrafin, Mineral oil, NSAIDs, Stilbesterol, Oxytocin, Tincture Benzoin Co and
Spirit Ammonia.
96. Difference between anti-dote and agonist?
Ans: Anti-dote are referred to the remedy which counters acts or neutralizes the action of poison while
Agonist is referred to the drug which produce or mimic the effect of the other drug having same effects.
97. Difference between tympany and bloat?
Ans: Tympany/Froathy Bloat means of accumulation of fermentation gases along with foam (froathy
bloat) while the Bloat is the excessive production of fermentation gases and there accumulation in the
rumen.
98. Difference between fermentation and respiration?
Ans: Fermentation is the chemical changes that accomplished by liberation of heat and gases (CO2, CH4,
H2) while Respiration is the process of breathing in which exchange of gases occur between the body and
environment, air is inspired from environment through wind pipe up to the lungs alveoli and then expired
for providing O2 that mix with the blood RBCs and to get rid from CO2.
99. What is meant by F1 generation in breeding plan?

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Ans: F1: This stands for the first generation progeny from crossing of inbred lines.
100. Can we vaccinate a pregnant female?
Ans: In early gestation period we can vaccinate but in in advanced pregnancy we cant vaccinate because
of vaccination stress which can lead to cause abortion.
101. A calf is presented to you, showing excessive salivation and there is no temperature, what is
your diagnosis?
Ans: It is either due to Lesion of oral cavity or Toxicity due to nitrates, nitrites and organophosphates but
diagnosis rely on clinical examination and history.
102. BIPP stands for? And what is its use?
Ans: BIPP stands for bismuth iodoform paraffin paste and widely used for applying on deep wounds as
an antiseptic agent. Its preparation composition is Bismuth Sub-Nitrate 1 part, Iodoform 2 parts and
Liquid paraffin sufficient to make a paste
103. What is heifer?
Ans: Heifer: An adult cycling female cow which has recently attained puberty but not conceived still.
104. Apparently what are differences between cattle and buffalo?
Ans:
105. Common or vernacular names of Tetanus, Mastitis and Milk fever?
Ans: Tetanus = Lock Jaw
Mastitis = Mammitis / Inflammation of udder
Milk Fever = Parturient paresis
106. Why hemonchus contortus is called Barber pole worm?
Ans: Why hemonchus contortus is called Barber pole worm because of the white ovaries winding spirally
around the blood filled intestines produce a barbers pole appearance.
107. Why dog keep up one hind leg during act of urination? After the age of 1 year?
Ans: Dog keep one hind leg up during urination after 1 year age to urinate on vertical surfaces (wall and
Trees etc) to mark its territory by giving massage to other dogs that he is present there and to show other
dogs that he is taller and huge than him.
108. How tie is formed during copulation of in canine (in dog)?
Ans: Dog inserted its penis without full erection in the vagina of female during copulation because of
ospenis and it attains full erection inside the vagina the Glans Penis also swells that stick in the vagina
and penis cant be easily with drawn this leads to copulation tie.
109. TVT stands for? What is its effect on chromosomal number?

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110. Why camel always urinate with extended hind legs?


Ans: Camel urinate always with extended hind legs because his urethra is directed backward, when it
urinate then urine flow on hind limbs for regulation of temperature because when urine evaporate it cause
cooling effect on hind limbs.
111. Define puberty?
Ans: Puberty: The onset of reproductive life in both males and females. The most appropriate definition is
The time of first ovulation in females and time when male for the first time becomes able to ejaculate
enough numbers of sperm that can fertilize an ovum.
112. Difference between estrus cycle and estrus period?
Ans: Estrus Cycle is the time interval from one estrus to the next or from one ovulation to the next
ovulation while estrus period is the real time of desire to mate (real heat period).
113. Define; line breeding, inbreeding and cross breeding?
Ans: Line Breeding referred to the mating of animals more distantly related e.g cousin mating or Half
brother and sister mating, Inbreeding is referred to the mating of related individuals and Cross breeding is
referred to the mating of animals of different breeds.
114. Difference between hematoma and edema?
Ans: A hematoma or haematoma, is a localized collection of blood outside the blood vessels, usually in
liquid form within the tissue while edema abnormal infiltration of tissue with fluid.
115. Difference between abscess and pus?

11

Ans: Transmissible Venereal Tumor

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Ans: Abscess is the term referred to the localized collection of the pus and pus is the liquid fluid yellow
in color, composed of tissue fluid, bacteria and leucocytes formed due to certain infection by pyogenic
microbe.
116. Define the terms; veal, white meat, beef, mutton?
Ans: Veal: Referred to the meat of calf.
White meat: Referred to the meat having low myoglobin content e.g Fish meat and Poultry meat.
Beef: Referred to the meat of large animals e.g Cattles and Buffaloes
Mutton: Referred to the meat of small animals e.g Sheep and Goat.
(Mutton and Beef is the example of red meat having high myoglobin content).
117. Difference between cream, ointment and lotion?
Ans: Creams are a semi-solid emulsion, half oil and half water.Lotions are thinner than creams, and are
often packaged in a pump. They absorb very quickly and feel very light on the skin. Ointments are 80%
oil and 20% water. These products feel greasy, do not absorb well and are generally not easy to use on
large areas.
118. What are antibiotics?
Ans: Antibiotics are the chemical compounds antagonistic to some forms of life produced by fungi and
obtained from certain living cells.
119. What are losses due to external parasites?
Ans: Skin lesions, Alopecia, Dermatitis, Itching, Blood loss, transmission of diseases, Sensitivity of skin,
Parakeratosis of skin, Seborrhea, Pachyderma, Urticaria, Eczema, edema of the skin and Skin allergy.
120. If liver of animal is damaged; what would be the signs and symptoms?
Ans: Jaundice, Weakness, Digestive disturbances, Anorexia, Weakness, Mental disturbance,
Photosensitization, Alopecia, Local bottle jaw, Ascities and Anasarca
121. Difference between signs and symptoms?
Ans: Sign: Signs are abnormilities on physical examination, abnormal behaviour by animals as
exibited by them due to diseases e.g higher temperature, staggering gait, juandice etc.
Symptom: Symptoms are the patient subjective observations, the feelings, those are explained by
the patient about the illness e.g headache.
122. How you will differentiate between fungal diarrhea and diarrhea in Johne's disease?
Ans: In fungal diarrhea, diarrhea is Chronic and not responds to treatment in Johnes diseasethe diarrhea
is also chronic and not responds to treatment but the feces are dark in color and contain bubbles.
123. What is rigor mortis?
Ans: Rigor Mortis is referred to the stiffening of the body after death.
124. Why putrefaction occur in dead animals?
Ans: Putrefaction occur in dead animals because after death the body defense mechanism stops operating
and membrane properties are altered so muscles become highly susceptible to microbes invasion and due
to growth of microbes and action of autolytic lysosomal proteolytic enzymes (cathepsin capable of
collagen breaking) muscles are degraded that leads to putrefaction, beside this insects also contribute to
spoilage and putrefaction of animal body after death.
125. Define infection and infestation?
Ans: Infection is referred to the existence of the micro-organism (unicellular parasites) in or on the body
of the host animal while infestation is referred to the presence of animal multicellular parasite (lice, flea,
flies, ticks, mites, midges and worms) in or on the body of the host animal.
126. What is elective surgery?
Ans: Elective surgery is the type of surgery which can be postponed without endangering the life of the
patient e.g castration.
127. What is vaccination schedule for broiler (poultry)?
Ans: See Page No 31 of the PCS guide.
128. What are five freedoms of animal in welfare point of view?
Ans: 1. Freedom from Thirst, Hunger and Malnutrition.
2. Freedom from discomfort from environment (inclement weather stress).
3. Freedom from Pain, Injury and diseases.
4. Freedom to express normal behavior for specie.

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5. Freedom from Fear and Distress.
129. Define livestock?
Ans: Livestock is referred to the animal species that are kept and raised for economic benefits.
130. What are the main problems in development of dairy industry of Pakistan?
Ans: High cost of farm establishment, labor cost and maintenance cost, Lack of experience and literacy of
the farmers and labours about modern farming, Lack of Vet care services, High Cost of Veterinary
Diseases, unavailability of market.
131. Why exotic dairy breeds of cattle not perform well according to standard?
Ans: it is because of Environmental influences, Lack of farming experience, Diseases and draught
condition (feed deficiency season) leads to low production from their standard.
132. What are the problems faced by exotic dairy breeds in Pakistan?
Ans: Environmental influences, Diseases and Feed deficiency.
133. What is the reason that some people are not ready to adopt AI technique for animals?
Ans: Peoples are not ready to adopt AI technique for animals because they considered that fetus produced
in the result of AI is weak.
134. How we can stop the fungal growth in silage?
Ans: Fungal growth in the silage is stopped by adding preservatives before ensiling which includes NaCl,
Antibiotics, Na Meta bisulfate, Formalin and Formaldehyde.
135. The big problem in poultry is "Mycotoxins" Name the two mycotoxins?
Ans: Aflatoxin e.g B1, B2, G1 and G2, Ochratoxin e.g A, B, C, D and A is more toxic, Trihothecene e.g
T2, DON (Deoxynevalenol) DAS (Diacetoxyscirpenol), Zearalenone, Ergotism, Fumonisins,
Moniliformin and Critinin toxicosis.
136. What is the relation between pH and fungal growth and bacterial growth?
Ans: pH range for Bacterial growth lies between pH 7.2-7.6 and for fungus growth is between pH 5-7.
137. Why extremities are cool in case of fever?
Ans: In the early stage of fever (period of increment Temperature or Chill) the cutaneous vasoconstriction
because of the response of the organ involved in heat regulation that leads to coldness of extremities and
skin.
138. What is thawing? What is its effect on sperm life?
Ans: Thawing: Thawing means to melt or to become liquid.
Procedure and effect: 0.5 ml straw is thawed @ 37-40 C for 30 seconds and 0.25 ml straw is
thawed on same temperature for 15 seconds. Thawing of frozen semen should be done
immediately for getting the optimum survival of spermatozoa before its use and as quick as
possible to prevent re-crystallization of water into bigger crystal which leads to spermatozoa
death.
139. Define fever and hyperthermia?
Ans: Refer to the Answer of Q No 13.
140. What is mode of action of ivermectin and its dose?
Ans: Ivermectin is a macrocyclic lactones which increse the release of GABA (Gamma Amino Butyric
Acid) this in turn open GABA gated Chloride (Cl) channels which cause slight Hyperpolarization of
Resting Membrane Potential of postsynaptic cells that leads to flaccid paralysis of the affected parsites
and followed by there death or expulsion. Preparations of ivermectin e.g Endectin, Actimac, Wormec,
Ivoteck etc are available in market which is given @ 1ml / 50 kg B.Wt.
141. Why Ivermectin is not effective against liverfluke?
Ans: Ivermectin is not effective against liverfluke because liverflukes dont use GABA neurotransmitter.
142. Define Pathology?
Ans: Pathology is the science which deals with the cause and nature of diseases.
143. What is procedure of progeny testing?
Ans: Progeny Testing: Selection of an individual on the basis of the performance of its progeny
(offspring). This kind of selection is mostly practiced in the males for herd or flock (bulls or cocks).
Method: A number of bulls from elite mothers are selected for progeny testing. They are mated to fairly
large number of females in a herd. The female progeny of these bulls are raised and their performances
are recorded under similar management and environment conditions as for that bull testing stations. The

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average performance of the progeny of each bull is compared with the herd average or breed average to
estimate the breeding value of each young bull. Then a decision is made as to which male out of several
tested under a progeny testing programme will be kept for extensive future use in the breeding stock.
144. How you will differentiate between hematuria and hemoglobinuria?
Ans: In hematuria if urine is left still for some time without disturbance the RBCs will be settled down
and red deposits may be noted. Also refer to the answer of Q No. 26.
145. Different uses of KMNO4 in vet practice?
Ans: KMNO4 is used as an Oxidizing agent, Antiseptic agent (1:1000), Astringent, Irritant or caustic
agent and Deodorants.
146. Normal rumen motility per min in case of cattle and goat?
Ans: A healthy goat has rumen contractions (motility) from 1-4 times per minute and in case of cattle is
contractions occur 1 to 3 times per minute.
147. No antibiotic is recommended in ruminant orally, why?
Ans: Antibiotic kills the microflora especially Bacteria inside the rumen and disturb the Microfloral
fermentation which is the necessary part of feed digestion in ruminants.
148. What is major difference between large intestine of bovine and equine?
Ans: Difference between large intestine of bovine and equine
Bovine Large Intestine
Equine Large Intestine
Size 35 feet (10.5 meters) long, 3 inch diameter
Large colon is 10-12 feet long and 10 inch in
Tubular, no bands or succulation part is coiled in diameter while small colon same in length but 3
two directions. No differentiation into large and inch in diameter. Sacculated with longitudinal
small colon. Position in dorsal abdominal cavity bands vary in numbers from 1-4 on large colon and
right of the median plan with small intestine coiled up to 2 on small colon. Position is of large colon is
part in lower right flank. Caecum capacity is 1- mainly in ventral abdominal cavity as dorsal and
1.25 gal (4.5-3.5 liters). Size is 30 inch long 5 inch ventral coils. Extends from sternum to pelvic brim.
diameter (75 X 12 cm)
Small colon lies dorsal to the large colon and
Shape is tubular with rounded free extremity.
mingles with small intestine. Capacity is 4-5 gal
Position extends along right flank from near the (18-22 liters), size is 4 feet and 8-10 inch diameter
ventral end of the last rib to the pelvis inlet
(1.25 X 20 to 25 cm), comma shaped and
Openings colon and caecum continuous ilium joins succulated with 4 longitudinal bands, two
obliquely
extremities, one rounded base other pointed apex,
base extends from 15 rib to the tuber coxae on
right of the median plane, longitudinal axis extends
ventrally over right flank to xephoid region
generally, cranial border lies parallel. The illium
and large colon enter the lesser curvature of the
base openings is 2 inch apart.
149. What is colostrum and its composition?
Ans: Colostrum: Colostrum is the thick yellow color milk, rich source of immunoglobulin (Antibodies),
proteins and micronutrients produced by female just after parturition.
150. What are the causes of dystocia from fetal side?
Ans: Dystockia: It is the difficulty in the birth of fetus. Causes from fetal side is Over sized fetus, Dead
fetus,Twins fetus, Anasarca and Ascities of fetus, Hydropsy, Abnomal position, posture and presentation
of calf.
151. Define exocrine and endocrine gland with examples?
Ans: Exocrine glands are those glands which secrets their secretions through their ducts e.g Gall Bladder
while endocrine glands are those glands which secrets their secretions direct in the blood they does not
have ducts e.g Pitutrity gland.
152. What are the different types of placenta in animals?
Ans: Types of Placenta in animals are given below
Gross
Shape
Example
1 Epitheliochorial
Diffuse
Horse, Donkey, Pig
2 Syndesmochorial
Cotyledonary
Cattle, Sheep, Goat

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3 Endotheliochorial
Zonary or Discoid
Dog, Cat, Ferret
4 Hemochorial
Zonary or Discoid
Primates
5 Hemoendothelial
Shperoidal or Discoid Rat, Rabbit
153. Enlist five cardinal signs of inflammation?
Ans: Swelling (Tumor), Pain (Dolor), Redness (color), Heat (ruber) and loss of function (functio lata) of
tissues/ organ.
154. What is Os-cardis and Os-penis?
Ans: Os-Cardis = Bone in Heart (Ox) and Os-penis = Bone in the penis (Dog)
155. Define architis and salpingitis?
Ans: Architis/Orchitis is the Inflamation of testis and Salpiginitis is the Inflammation of
Oviduct/Fillopian tube
156. Name the hormone which starts reproduction (mother hormone)?
Ans: GnRH (Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone) is the mother reproductive hormone.
157. Apparently what is the difference between sheep and goat?
Ans: Goats are energetic, inquisitive and versatile in the art of searching feed. They have a greater
tendency than sheep to easily change their diet, with changing seasons. Goats spend over half of
their total grazing time eating leaves and shoots of trees and bushes. The small size, large surface
area relative to their body weight and limited subcutaneous fat cover, adapt them poorly to cold
climates, but make them relatively better adapted to areas of high temperature. Goats have the
ability to conserve water, travel well, and graze selectively and to take willingly a wide variety of
vegetation. Areas with sparse vegetation, bushes and shrubs cannot support buffalo or cattle but
suit the browsing taste of goats even more than sheep. Mountainous areas with steep slopes
cannot be used safely by cattle or sheep, but goats can have easy access there. Sheep by nature are
gregarious animals and unlike goats they are generally uniparous. Sheep play an important role in
the animal production and rural economy in arid and semi-arid regions and largely in marginal
and sub-marginal holdings. Role of sheep rearing in improving the rural economy is well
established. In the event of failure of seasonal rains, the rearing of sheep gives a helping hand to
the farmers at the time of crisis arising from crop failure. Sheep farming by small and marginal
farmers and landless agricultural labourers will provide employment opportunities for most of the
unemployed or under-employed in the rural areas. Sheep raising can be recommended as a
subsidiary occupation. When mixed farming is practised, sheep form an effective complementary
component in improving the economy of the farm. Sheep can thrive well in all agro-climatic
conditions except in rainfall areas. Sheep can subsist on low set and sparse vegetation because of
their inherent capacity to graze very close to the roots of herbage. Sheep manure excels cattle
manure and penning of sheep in harvested fields enhances the fertility of the soil by the richness
of nutrients in their droppings. Sheep rearing under the extensive system does not warrant any
large investment in buildings and equipments. Sheep have carved a niche in the agricultural
economy of the country by effective utilization of the uncultivable wastelands and unwanted
shrubs and weeds from the fields.
158. What is gestation period in camel?
Ans: Gestation period of Camel is 370-410 days.
159. Define cloning?
Ans: Cloning is referred to the production of genetically identical copy of an individual.
160. In case of tetanus, what is the major issue for death of animal?
Ans: Asphyxia (Suffocation, cessation of breathing) is the major issue for death of animal due to the
paralysis of respiration muscles.
161. From where prostaglandin is secreted in buffalo/cattle?
Ans: prostaglandin is secreted in buffalo/cattle from uterine endometrium, Feto-placental unit during
parturition, Myometrium (parturition) and Grafian follicle (during ovulation)
162. Name the reservoir hosts of rabies virus (Lyssavirus). How it comes in dog?
Ans: Bats and Vampires are the reservoir host of the Rabies virus and come to dog by their bite.
163. In case of insecticide poisoning, is there any increase in body temperature?

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Pathology: Referred to the study, structural, functional and biochemical changes in cells, tissues,
organs, body and body fluids due to diseases.
A. Branches of Pathology
i. Medical pathology: Deals with the study of human diseases.
ii. Veterinary pathology: Deals with the study of animal diseases.
iii. General pathology: Deals with the study of common denominators (lesions) of diseases and
mechanism of production of these.
iv. Systemic pathology: Deals with the study of diseases with reference to the body systems.
v. Diagnostic pathology: Deals with the identification of the nature of diseases.
vi. Gross/Macroscopic pathology: Deals with the study of diseases with necked eye.
vii. Microscopic/Histo pathology: Deals with the study of diseases by using microscopes.
viii. Forensic pathology: Deals with the study of medico legal issues.
ix. Surgical pathology: Deals with the study of biopsy materials.

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Ans: No there is not any increase in body temperature in case of insecticide poisoning.
164. What is gross tetany and how it occurs?
Ans: Grass tetany is the disease which is caused by magnesium deficiency due to grazing on lush green
pastures which is low in Mg and the disease is aggravated by high milk yield.
165. What is difference between regurgitation and rumination?
Ans: Regurgitation is the process of casting up undigested feed from stomach to the mouth while
Rumination is the regurgitating and re-chewing and then re-swallowing of that feed.
166. What would be the result (side effects) of overdose of different dewormers?
Ans: In-appetence, Impairment of intestinal absorption and motility, Diarrhea and Dehydration,
Incoordination and Paralysis (Spasmodic paralysis due to muscles stiffness and ankylosis of joints or
flaccid Paralysis due to loss of essential ions in severe diarrhea).
167. What is difference between serum and plasma?
Ans: Plasma is a liquid light yellow color portion of a whole Un-Clotted blood make about 55 % of the
whole blood. It contain clotting factors, Proteins, Enzymes, Hormones, Minerals, Electrolytes,
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Cholesterol, Phospholipids, Urea, Uric acid, NPN, Amino acids and serum while
Serum is the light straw color fluid portion of clotted blood which does not contain the clotting factor.
168. Does rabbit do regurgitation?
Ans: No rabbit does not regurgitate because it is non-ruminant animal specie. It share with rodents the
unique habit of Caecotrophy (the habit of passing food twice through GIT) or Coprophagy (ingestion of
own feces).Rodents including rabbit pass dried fecal pellet in the day, at Night soft fecal pellets is passed
and is immediately taken from the anus by lip. If the animal is prevented from reaching the anus will die
in 2-3 weeks.
169. Why antipyretics are not effective against hyperthermia or heat stroke?
Ans: Refer to the Answer of Q No 14.
170. Drugs contraindicated in Cat?
Ans: Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol, Aminoglycosides, Gresiofulvin, Amphotericin B, Aspirin, Dipyron,
Phenylbutazone, Acetominophen and Opiate derivatives.
Tenets of Surgery (principles of surgery):
These are the fundamentals of modern surgery first laid by Halstead (1852-1922), which
includes following principles.
1. Gentle handling of tissues
2. Aseptic surgery
3. Anatomical dissection
4. Control of hemorrhages
5. Use of minimum quantity of suture material
6. Avoid suture tension
7. Immobilization

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x. Environmental pathology: Deals with the study of effects of environment in the causation of
diseases.
xi. Toxicological pathology: Deals with the study of toxic substances in the causation of
diseases.
xii. Zoo and Wildlife pathology: Deals with the study of diseases in zoo and wild animals and
birds.
xiii. Immuno pathology: Deals with the study of diseases of immune system.
xiv. Oncology: Deals with the study of tumors/cancers (benign and malignant).
xv. Clinical Pathology: Deals with the laboratory analysis of diseases.
xvi. Experimental pathology: Deals with the experimental study of diseases.
B. Language of Pathology:
i. Lesion: Refers to any structural abnormality due to diseases in tissues.
ii. Pathognomonic lesion: Particular structural abnormality found only in specific disease.
iii. Biopsy: Tissue or piece of tissue removed during life for diagnostic purpose.
iv. Open Biopsy: When incision is made to obtain larger mass of tissue.
v. Closed biopsy: When needles are used for biopsy.
vi. Excision biopsy: When whole diseased tissue or whole organ is removed for diagnosis as in
tumors and cancers.
vii. Autopsy/Necropsy/Postmortem: When part of body or whole body is study for diagnosis
after death is known as Autopsy. In Animals it is known as Necropsy while in human
Postmortem.
viii. Pathogenesis: It is the mechanism of development or step-by-step progression of diseases.
ix. Prognosis: This term used to designate the possible outcome of the disease weather favorable
or un-favorable in other words good or poor.
x. Etiology: Refers to the causes of diseases.
xi. Syndrome: Refers to the cluster of symptoms/signs.
xii. Diathesis: Refers to a condition which interferes with the normal response to minor hazards
of daily living.
xiii. Incidence rate: Refers to the number of new cases of disease per unit time in a known
population.
xiv. Morbidity rate: Refers to the number of diseased animal in a population.
xv. Moratality rate: Refers to the number of died animals in the diseased animals.
xvi. Case fatality rate: Refers to the number of died animals per unit time in a known population
from a specific disease.
xvii. Death rate: Refers to the number of died animals per unit time in a known population
from all the diseases.
xviii. Prevalence: Refers to how many animals are affected at any one time.
xix. Risk: Refers to how much an unusual situation increases the chance of getting the disease.
xx. Epidemic: Refers to the disease that is widespread in a community of human or animals.
xxi. Pandemic: Refers to the widespread epidemic that usually affect the large proportion of the
population or simply a worldwide epidemic.
xxii. Endemic: Refers to a never ending epidemic or Constant presence of a disease.
xxiii. Zoonosis: discussed later
xxiv. Anthraponosis: discussed later
xxv.
Vector: Refers to an organism usually insect that carries a disease from person to person.
xxvi. Carrier: Animal that harbours the infectious agent but show no sign and symptoms.
xxvii. Reservoir: Refers to the place where an infectious agent lives between epidemics, like
soil, etc.
xxviii. Disease: Breaking the word in two words Dis Ease is self explanatory as Dis=away and
Ease=comfort. It means sickness with an apparent discomfort.
Infectious Diseases (caused by micro organisms infectious in nature e.g bacterial,
Viral, Fungal and Protozoal), Infestation Diseases (caused by organism that cause
disturbances e.g Worms, Lice,Flies,Leach, Flea, Mites. Midges, and Ticks) and Non-

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1. Diseases Transmission:
A. Routes by which causative organism leave the animal.
i.
Oral, Nasal and Ocular discharges
ii.
Urine, Feces and Vomits
iii.
Blood
iv.
Skin
v.
Milk
vi.
Venereal contact and discharges from genital organs
vii.
Dead bodies of animal
B. Routes of transmission:
i.
Direct contact
ii.
Indirect contact
iii.
Aerosol Transmission
iv.
Contaminated food ,water and utensils
v.
Vector (biological or mechanical)
Modes of transmission through vector:
i.
Cyclic transmission
ii.
Non-cyclic transmission
Types of vectors:
I. Biological Vector
II. Non biological Vector
a.
Transport vector
b.
Paratenic vector/ Reservoir Vector
C. Routes of entry into new host:
i.
Ingestion
ii.
Through Skin
iii.
Via mucous membranes
iv.
Congenital rout
D. Modes of transmission of etiological organisms:
i.
Viruses (Through secretions and Excretions)
ii.
Bacteria ( Commensally and Obligate pathogen)
iii.
Ectoparasite (Skin)
iv.
Endo parasites (Ingestion and Penetration of skin)
E. Methods of diseases control:
i.
Veterinary care services and Client education facility
ii.
Quarantine facility
iii.
Isolation of diseased animals from flock/herd.
iv.
Dipping/ spraying/ Dusting/ Bathing/ Washing
v.
Sanitation and Disinfection
vi.
Dietary advices
vii.
Vaccination Programme
viii.
Proper disposal of animals dead bodies (Burning or Burring)
F. Zoonosis: Diseases that are transmitted to human population from animal population and those
diseases which transmitted to animals from Human population are known as Antheraponosis.
i.
Direct Zoonosis: A zoonosis transmitted between humans and other animals
from an infected to a susceptible host by contact, by airborne droplets or

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infectious Diseases (when cause of disease is non- infectious e.g Nutritional and
Congenital anomalies)
Contagious Diseases: Diseases that spread from one animal to other by direct or
indirect contact method. All contagious diseases are infectious but not all the
infectious diseases are contagious.

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droplet nuclei, or by some vehicle of transmission; the agent requires a single
vertebrate host for completion of its life cycle and does not develop or show
significant change during transmission; may include anthropozoonoses (rabies),
zooanthroponoses (amebiasis), and amphixenoses (certain staphylococcoses)
ii.
Meta Zoonosis: A zoonosis that requires both a vertebrate and an
invertebrate host for completion of its life cycle.
iii.
Cyclo Zoonosis: A zoonotic disease that requires at least two species of
vertebrates as definitive and intermediate hosts. Examples are hydatid disease
(Echinococcus granulosus) and trichinosis (Trichinella spiralis).
iv.
Sapro Zoonosis: A zoonosis whose causative agent requires both a vertebrate
host and a nonanimal reservoir or developmental site for completion of its life
cycle. zoonosis which uses soil, water or decaying organic matter as a reservoir,
e.g. coccidioidomycosis, tetanus.
G. Control of Zoonosis:
i.
Always wash hands thorough after handling animals with any disease. It might turn out to
be zoonotic even if it appears unlikely at first.
ii.
Do not allow pet animals to lick human faces, hands and mouths. This is especially
important when children are playing with animals.
iii.
Never let animals to drink off utensils used for serving food to human.
iv.
Wash all dishes and prepare all feed for animals in a separate area those intended for
human use.
v.
Those who are pregnant must take special care if handling animals.
vi.
Keep garden and Kennel runs clear of feces and prevent dogs and cats from
contaminating children sand pits with feces.
vii.
Ensure that the very young and very old human should not be exposed to animals with
possible zoonotic infections.
viii.
Wear the protecting clothing according to the degree of risk anticipated.
ix.
Seek medical advice quickly if you think that you have been exposed to zoonotic
diseases.
Diseases Diagnosis: (Dia = thorough; gnosis = knowledge) Diagnosis is an art of precisely Knowing the
cause of a particular disease. The diagnosis is based on accurate history, careful examination of animal,
collection of material for laboratory examination and correlation and interpretation of findings.
The diagnosis can be classified into six types.
1. Snap diagnosis
2. Tentative diagnosis
3. Symptomatic diagnosis
4. Confirmatory diagnosis
5. Differential diagnosis
6. Test therapy diagnosis
1. Snap diagnosis: This is to give an opinion about the cause of disease by merely looking at the
animal. It is often erroneous unless the animal is showing pathognomonic (peculiar) symptoms.
2. Tentative diagnosis: The tentative diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms and physical
examination. It is to give an approximate cause of disease.
3. Symptomatic diagnosis: The symptomatic diagnosis is based on a few important symptoms
without knowing the cause of disease.
4. Confirmatory diagnosis: it is based on clinical, physical and laboratory findings. It includes the
exact cause of disease and determination of which one several diseases may be producing the
symptoms. Confirmatory diagnosis are of following types
A. Clinical diagnosis
B. Physical diagnosis
C. Laboratory diagnosis

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A. Clinical diagnosis: This diagnosis is based on the inspection of animal by looking the
clinical symptoms.
B. Physical diagnosis: This diagnosis is based on examination of animal by physical methods
like palpation, percussion and auscultation.Close Physical Examination of the patient is
one the most important practice in the Veterinary Medicine to detect the disease that is
reported and affected the patient for accurate diagnosis and treatment strategy. Some of the
techniques that are used in making Close Physical Examination of the patient are set out
below.
i.
Palpation
ii.
Percussion
iii.
Ballottement
iv.
Auscultation
v.
Succussion
vi.
Other techniques i.e Biopsy, Autopsy, Paracentesis, Radiography,
Ultrasonography, CAT Scan(Computerized Axial Tomographic System/ CT
Scan), MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging),and Echocardiography
i.
Palpation:
In palpation the diagnosis is made by touching, manipulation and putting pressure on the body
surface directly with fingers or indirectly with a probe, to determine the size, consistency,
temperature and sensitivity of a lesion or organ. Terms used to describe palpation findings
include the following:
Doughy When the structure pits on pressure as in edema.
Firm When the structure has the consistency of normal liver.
Hard When the consistency is bone like.
Fluctuating When the structure is soft, elastic, and undulates on pressure but does not
imprint of the fingers.
Tense When the structure feels like a viscous distended with gas or fluid under some
considerable pressure.
Emphysematous When the structure is puffy and swollen, and moves and crackles
under pressure because of the presence of gas in the tissue.
ii.
Percussion:
In percussion, the body surface is struck with fingers, percussion hammer, or percussion stick so
as to set deep parts in vibration and cause them to emit audible sounds. The sounds vary with the
density of the part set in vibration and may be classified as follows:
Resonant The sound emitted by organs containing air e.g normal lung.
Tympanitic A drum like note emitted by organ containing gas under pressure such as
tympanitic rumen or cecum.
Dull The sound emitted by solid organs such as heart and liver.
Percussion can be performed with the fingers using one hand as a plexor and one as a pleximeter. In
large animals a pleximeter hammer on a pleximeter disk is recommended for consistency.The quality
of the sound elicited is governed by a number of factors. The strength of the percussion blow must be kept
constant as the sound volume increases with stronger percussion. Allowances must be made for the
thickness and consistency of overlying tissues. For example, the thinner the thoracic wall, the more
resonant will be the lung. The size and scores of the body conditions are also important considerations.
The technique may be relatively in effective in a fat animal. Percussion is a valuable aid in the diagnosis
of diseases of the lungs and abdominal viscera of all large animals. Increased dullness over the thorax
indicates consolidation of the lung, a pleural effusion or space occupying lesion such as tumor or abscess.
Increased resonance over thorax suggests emphysema or pneumo-thorax.
iii.
Ballottement:
Ballottement is a technique used to detect the floating viscera or masses in the abdominal cavity.
Using the extended fingers or the clenched fist the abdominal wall is palpated vigorously with a firm push
to move the organ or mass away and then allow it to rebound on to the fingertips. Ballottement of a fetus

Succussion:

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is a typical example; the fetal prominences can be easily felt by pushing the gravid uterus through the
abdominal wall over the right flank in pregnant cattle. Impaction of the abomasums, large tumor and
abscess of the abdominal cavity may also be detected by ballottement. Ballottement and Auscultation of
the flanks of cattle is also useful to detect fluid-splashing sounds. Their present on the left side suggests
carbohydrate engorgement and excessive quantity of fluid in the rumen, or left side displacement of the
abomasums. Over the right side fluid splashing indicate intestinal obstruction, abomasal volvulus, cecal
dilation, torsion and paralytic ileus.
Ballottement and Auscultation of the abdomen of the horse with colic may elicit fluid-splashing sounds
indicative of intestines filled with fluid, as in intestinal obstruction or paralytic ileus. A modification of
the method is tactile percussion when a fluid containing cavity is percussed sharply on one side and the
fluid wave thus set up is palpated on the other. The sensation created by the fluid wave is called a fluid
thrill. It is filled more acutely by the palm of the hand at the base of the fingers. Diseases which cause
ascites and accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity are examples where this technique is useful.
iv.
Auscultation:
Direct listening of the sound produced by organ movement is performed by placing ear to the body
surface over the organ. Indirect auscultation by a stethoscope is the preferred technique. Auscultation is
routinely practices to assess the heart sound, lung sound and gastrointestinal sounds.
a) Auscultation and Percussion area of the lungs and heart:
The technique of Auscultation and Percussion of the thorax are used to determine the
state of health of heart and lungs. The veterinarian must realize the anatomical areas
involved with these techniques. The area for this is the same but land marks differ among
species. The area of auscultation and percussion are delineated by three border lines e.g
cranial limit, dorsal border and basal border. In all animals the cranial and dorsal border
of the percussion area are the same.
Cranial limit: Cranial limit is the caudal border of the triceps, from the caudal
angle of the scapula to the olecranon of the radius bone in standing animals.
Dorsal border: Dorsal border is on the line, which runs from caudal angle of the
scapula to the tuber coxae of os coxae bone.
Basal border: Basal border is from olecranon of the radius to the last intercostal
space at the dorsal border. The basal border line is straight in cattle but is
concave in horse and dog.
In case of ox, the basal border of the lungs runs in almost straight line from the sterna end of the 6th rib to
11th intercostals space at dorsal border. In horse, the basal border of the lungs runs in a strong curve from
the sterna end of the 6th rib through the middle of the 11th or 12th intercostals space and onto the vertebral
end of the 16th intercostals space. In dog, the basal border of the lungs runs in a strong curve from the
sterna end of the 6th rib to the 11th intercostals space.
b) Topographic location of the heart:
Ox: The heart extends from 3rd to the 5th or 6th rib. Five seventh of the heart lies
to the left of the median plane and it is in contact with the left thoracic wall
between the 4th and 5th intercostals spaces. Heart auscultation is restricted to a
small area near the olecranon.
Horse: Three fifth of the heart lies to the left of the median plane and in direct
contact with the left thoracic wall in the region of 4th and 5th rib, auscultation and
percussion can be done on the left side between the 3rd and 5th intercostals space.
Dog: About fourth seventh of the heart lies on the left side of the midline. It
occupies the thoracic space between the 3rd and the 7th rib and between the
sternum and half the height of thoracic cavity. For clinical observation, it is
necessary to pull forward the fore limb, by doing so the heart is felt in the lower
third of the chest between 4th and 6th ribs, especially the 5th intercostals space.

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This technique, which involves moving the body of animal from side to side to detect the
presence of fluid, is an adaptation of above method. By careful auscultation while the body is moved, free
fluids in the intestines or stomach will result in fluid splashing or tinkling sounds.
vi.
Other techniques:
Other techniques that has been practices are
a) Biopsy:
It is the observation of living excision of tissue from a living body for microscopic
examination to establish diagnosis.
b) Autopsy or Postmortem:
The examination of a dead body for diagnostic purpose is known as autopsy. It is also
known as postmortem examination
c) Paracentesis/Laparocentesis/Taping:
It is the surgical procedure by which the trocar and canula (one eighth of an inch
diameter and 6 inches long) is inserted in the abdominal cavity behind and laterally to the
umbilicus to drain the peritoneal fluid by withdrawing the trocar and leaving the canula
insitu.
d) Radiography:
It is a science which deals with the use of X-rays to get a radiograph (X-ray picture) of an
organ or a tissue for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes.
e) Ultrasonography:
It is a diagnostic procedure in which the sound waves having frequency above the audible
sound waves (20-20K.Hertz).
f) CAT Scanner or CT Scan(Computerized Axial Tomographic System):
The CT scanner equipment has an array of circularly detector for measurement of the
penetrating X-Rays absorbed by the exposed part of the patient in multiple directions.
These transmission readings are then converted to electrical signals which are processed
and constructed by a computer.
g) MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging):
In MRI the part to be imaged is exposed to very high magnetic field which is about
10,000 times over that of the earths magnetic field.
h) Echocardiography:
It is ultrasonography as applied to the heart. It enables heart sounds to be seen on a
special photographic paper or ultraviolet paper called echocardiograph rather than heard
that too much more distinctly than heard with stethoscope.
C. Laboratory diagnosis: The laboratory diagnosis is based on laboratory findings like
examination of clinical samples such as serum, feces, blood, skin scraping etc. Laboratory
diagnosis is based on following tests.
I.
Serological Tests
II.
Morphological Tests
III.
Biological Tests
IV.
Molecular Tests
V.
Allergic Tests
I.
Serological tests: Based upon the Ag-Ab reaction e.g HAT, HAIT, FAT, SPAT,
CFT, and ELISA etc.
II.
Morphological tests: Based upon the study of Morphology of causative
organism e.g Gram Staining, Giemsa Staining and Microscopy etc.
III.
Biological tests: Based upon the detection of causative organism from their
toxins and proteins that is produced by them.
IV.
Molecular tests: Based upon detection of Causative agent from there nucleic
acid which is either DNA or RNA e.g PCR, BLOTTING Techniques etc.
V.
Allergic tests: Based upon the detection of diseases and causative agent from
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causative agent e.g Tuberculin test for TB, Johnin test for Para-TB, Mallien test
for Glander etc.
5. Differential diagnosis: This is the process of exclusion for differentiating among diseases having
similar symptoms or closely related diseases e.g diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus.
6. Test therapy diagnosis: The diagnosis of disease depends on the response of the animal to
particular drug and medicine.
Proximate Analysis of Feed
1. Dry matter and Ash:
For the estimation of dry matter (DM) and ash, about 2g samples will be taken in clean and preweighed crucibles in duplicate. The crucibles will be then placed in laboratory oven for 18h at
100C. After drying in an oven the samples will be cooled in desiccator for 30 minutes and
reweighed. The DM% will be determined by using the following formula.
DM (%) = C-A x100
B-A
A = weight of empty crucible
B = weight of crucible + sample (pre drying)
C = weight of crucible + sample (post drying).
The samples will be incinerated in a muffle furnace at 550C for 6h to estimate its ash content.
After incineration the samples will be cooled again in a dessicator and will be re-weighed. Ash
will be calculated as under:
Ash (%) = D-A x100
C-A
A = weight of empty crucible
C = weight of crucible + sample (post drying)
D = weight of crucible + ash
Organic matter (OM) will be calculated after subtracting ash from DM
OM = (100-Ash % in DM)
2. Crude Protein (CP):

The titration of distillate will be carried out with 0.5 N sulfuric acid solutions. To
determine the blank values duplicate tubes containing 15 ml distilled water and 5 ml NaoH will
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About 15 ml distill water will be added with the tubes containing digested samples.
After dispensing required amount of sodium hydroxide (NaoH) solution (40% W/V) in the tubes
to alkaline the sample and the contents will be distilled for about seven minutes. The resulting
ammonia will be collected in conical flask containing 10 ml boric acid (2%) and 3-4 drops of
methylene red indicator.

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Crude Protein in the representative sample of feed and will be determined with
Kjeldhal Method (AOAC, 1990). In this method samples will be digested with
concentrated Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and will be followed by distillation and titration.
Samples (about 0.3 gm) in duplicate will be taken in the Tecator digestion tubes and will
be added with 5 gm of catalyst (Potassium Sulphate 93%, Copper Sulphate 7%) and 10
ml concentrated sulfuric acid. Acetanilide (0.1 gm) will be processed as standard for
recovery of nitrogen. The digestion tubes will be heated in Tecator digestion block. The
tubes will be then allowed to cool at room temperature.

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be also processed for distillation and titration. The percentage of nitrogen will be calculated as
under:
(N %) = (V1-V2) 14.01 0.5 100
(Sample in mg)
V1= Titration reading of sample
V2= Titration reading of blank
14.01= Atomic weight of Nitrogen (N)
Crude protein will be determined for feed sample, by multiplying the nitrogen content of the
sample by 6.25.
The results will be corrected for dry matter in the following manner.
N (%) in DM = N% in sample x 100/ DM % in sample
3. Ether Extract (EE):
Dried sample (2-4 gm) in a clean previously dried extraction thimble (Whatman) will be
taken and plugged it with absorbent cotton wool. This will be kept in an extractor and fixed
under the condenser of the Soxhlet extraction apparatus. 150ml of the solvent will be added to
the receiving flask and connected it to the apparatus. Then the water and heater will be on.
Extraction will be continued for 10 hours at a rate of condensation at 3-4 drops/sec. then the
thimble will be removed from the extractor. Just before the solvent drying in the flask, the
extraction will be stopped and the flask will be removed. The extract will be transferred into
clean evaporating basin with ether will behings. The dryness will be evaporated on water bath.
Then the basin will be placed in oven at 105C for 2 hours. Further cooled in dessicator for 30
minutes and reweighed. The percentage of EE will be calculated as under:
% EE (DM) =

Weight of ether extract 100


(Sample weight)

Converting to as fed basis:


% EE as fed = Weight of ether extract (100-% moisture)
(Sample weight)

4. Crude Fiber (CF):

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Moisture free sample (1-2 gm) will be taken in a tall from beaker. Two hundred ml
boiling dilute H2SO4 will be added and will be digested for 30 minutes on crude fiber extraction
apparatus. Then will be filtered through glass buchner funnel with an aid of suction air pump.
Then will be will behed with hot water until it became acid free (15 ml filtrate is collected and 1
drop N/10 NaoH and 1 drop Phenolphthalein indicator is added. Pink color is an indicator of
being acid free). Transferred again to tall beaker and 200ml boiling dilute NaoH will be added.
Then will be filtered through glass buchner funnel with an aid of suction air pump. Then will be
will behed with 10ml hot dilute H2SO4 and then with hot water until it became acid free. It will
be transferred to a prepared gooch crucible, and then with 10ml ethanol crucible will be will
behed. Then sample will be dried it in an oven at 135C for 2 hours. Then will be cooled in
dessicator for 30 minutes and weighed. Samples will be further ignited in muffle furnace at

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It is the organic residues that remain when a moisture free sample is digested first with
weak acid solution (H2SO4) and then with a weak alkaline solution (NaoH). The residues collected
after digestion is ignited and the loss in weight on burning is registered as crude fiber.

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600C for 30 minutes. Ignition residues will be cooled in dessicator for 1 hour and reweighed.
The percentage of CF will be calculated as under:
%CF (sample) = (crucible wt. + dried residue) - (crucible wt. + ash residue) 100
(Crucible wt. + sample) - empty crucible weight)
% EE (DM) = CF % in sample 100
DM % in sample
5. Nitrogen Free Extracts (NFE) :
It will be found by the difference after the analyses of all other items mentioned in
proximate analysis. It is as under:
(% Moisture + % C. protein + % Ether Extract + % Crude Fiber + % ash + % NFE) = 100
Therefore, % NFE = 100 - (Sum of other 5 items)

6. Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF):


Acid detergent fiber (ligno-cellulose) in the representative sample of straw and
supplement will be determined according to Goering & Van Soest method (1991).
According to the standard procedure, about 2 gm of air-dried ground sample will be taken
in duplicate in tall form beaker (600 ml capacity). 100 ml of cold (room temperature) acid
detergent solution will be added to it. ADF solution will be prepared by dissolving 20 gm
of acetyl-tri-methyl ammonium bromide one normal H2SO4 to make one liter. The
mixture will be heated to boiling within 10 minutes. Boiling will be maintained at a slow
even level for 60 minutes. Foaming will be avoided by adjusting heating. After
completion of digestion of sample, the hot mixture will be filtered through pre weighed
scintered glass crucibles, first the crucible will be filled and then suction will be applied.
The mat will be break with glass rod and then hot water will behing will be applied twice.
Then it will be will behed twice with acetone and lumps will be broken with glass rod.
Finally the crucibles containing the residue will be dried in an oven for 3 hours at 100C.
After drying these will be cooled in dessicator for 30 minutes and will be weight.
Calculation:

ADF % in sample = C-A


B-A

A= Weight of empty crucible


B= Weight of crucible plus sample before digestion.
C= Weight of crucible plus residue after digestion and drying.
Results will be corrected for dry matter as given below.

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7. Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF):


Neutral detergent fiber in the representative sample of straw and supplement will
be determined according to Goering & Van Soest method (1991) with some modification
in this laboratory. According to the standard procedure, about 2 gm of air-dried ground
sample will be taken in duplicate in tall beakers (600 ml capacity). NDF solution will be
made by:

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ADF % = ADF % in sample x 100


DM % in sample

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(a) Placing 13 g EDTA and 6.81 g Na2B4O7. 10 H2O in a large beaker and small quantity of distill
water will be added for dissolving it. 30 g of sodium lauryl- sulphate, 10 ml of 2ethoxyethamol and 4 g NaOH will be added.
(b) Di-sodium Hydrogen phosphate, 4.56g will be taken in a beaker; small quantity of distilled
water will be mixed while heating until dissolved.
(c) Solution (a) and (b) will be transferred to one liter volumetric flask, mix finally distill water
will be added to make a volume on liter.
Hundred ml of NDF solution will be added to the tall beaker and will be brought to
boiling within 10 minutes. It will be boiled for 60 minutes in crude fiber apparatus. After
completion of digestion of sample, the hot mixture will be filtered through pre weighed
scintered glass crucibles. The mat will be break with glass rod and then hot water will behing will
be applied twice. Then it will be will behed twice with acetone and lumps will be broken with
glass rod. Finally the crucibles containing the residue will be dried in an oven for 5 hours at
100C. After drying these will be cooled in dessicator for 30 minutes and will be weighed.
%NDF in sample =
C-A
B-A
A= Weight of empty crucible
B= Weight of crucible plus sample before digestion.

C= Weight of crucible plus residue after digestion and drying.


NDF % in DM = NDF % in sample x 100
DM % in sample
8. Nutrients digestibility:
Digestibility of DM, OM and ADF will be calculated by the difference between the
nutrients consumed and voided in feaces by the calves using the following equation.
Digestibility % = A-B x 100
A
Where
A=
Quantity of nutrients consumed by the Animal (g/d) i.e. DM, OM and ADF.
B=
Quantity of the above nutrients excreted by the animal in feaces (g/d)

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