Control Systems
Syllabus
1.0 Introduction to Control system
1.1 Scope of Control System Engineer
1.2 Classification of Control System
1.3 Historical development of Control system
1.4 Analogues systems
1.5 Transfer function of Systems
1.6 Block diagram representation
1.7 Signal Flow Graph(SFG)
3.4 Amplidyne
3.5 Hydralulic systems
3.6 Pneumatic systems
&
3.3 Tachometers
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Control Systems
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Control Systems
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MODULE#1
Control Systems
CHAPTER#1
1. Basic Concept of Control System
Control Engineering is concerned with techniques that are used to solve the following six
problems in the most efficient manner possible.
(a)The identification problem :to measure the variables and convert data for analysis.
(b)The representation problem:to describe a system by an analytical form or mathematical model
(c)The solution problem:to determine the above system model response.
(d)The stability problem:general qualitative analysis of the system
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The two basic approaches to solve these six problems are conventional and modern approach. The
electrical oriented conventional approach is based on complex function theory. The modern
approach has mechanical orientation and based on the state variable theory.
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Therefore, control engineering is not limited to any engineering discipline but is equally
applicable to aeronautical, chemical, mechanical, environmental, civil and electrical engineering.
For example, a control system often includes electrical, mechanical and chemical components.
Furthermore, as the understanding of the dynamics of business, social and political systems
increases; the ability to control these systems will also increase.
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Control Systems
Design: The process of conceiving or inventing the forms, parts, and details of system to
achieve a specified purpose.
Simulation: A model of a system that is used to investigate the behavior of a system by
utilizing actual input signals.
Optimization: The adjustment of the parameters to achieve the most favorable or
advantageous design.
Feedback Signal: A measure of the output of the system used for feedback to control the
system.
Negative feedback: The output signal is feedback so that it subtracts from the input signal.
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Block diagrams: Unidirectional, operational blocks that represent the transfer functions of
the elements of the system.
Signal Flow Graph (SFG): A diagram that consists of nodes connected by several directed
branches and that is a graphical representation of a set of linear relations.
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Specifications: Statements that explicitly state what the device or product is to be and to do.
It is also defined as a set of prescribed performance criteria.
Openloop control system: A system that utilizes a device to control the process without
using feedback. Thus the output has no effect upon the signal to the process.
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Closedloop feedback control system: A system that uses a measurement of the output and
compares it with the desired output.
Regulator: The control system where the desired values of the controlled outputs are more or
less fixed and the main problem is to reject disturbance effects.
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Servo system: The control system where the outputs are mechanical quantities like
acceleration, velocity or position.
Stability: It is a notion that describes whether the system will be able to follow the input
command. In a nonrigorous sense, a system is said to be unstable if its output is out of
control or increases without bound.
Multivariable Control System: A system with more than one input variable or more than
one output variable.
Tradeoff: The result of making a judgment about how much compromise must be made
between conflicting criteria.
1.2. Classification
1.2.1. Natural control system and Manmade control system:
Natural control system: It is a control system that is created by nature, i.e. solar
system, digestive system of any animal, etc.
Manmade control system: It is a control system that is created by humans, i.e.
automobile, power plants etc.
1.2.2.
Control Systems
Automatic control system: It is a control system that is made by using basic theories
from mathematics and engineering. This system mainly has sensors, actuators and
responders.
Combinational control system: It is a control system that is a combination of natural
and manmade control systems, i.e. driving a car etc.
1.2.3.
1.2.4.
Homogeneous property: f x y
Additive property: f
f x
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f y
1.2.5.
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Nonlinear control system: It is a control system that does not satisfy properties of
homogeneity and additive, i.e. f x x3
ContinuousTime control system and DiscreteTime control system:
ContinuousTime control system: It is a control system where performances of all
of its parameters are function of time, i.e. armature type speed control of motor.
1.2.6.
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1.2.7.
1.2.8.
1.2.9.
Control Systems
Closedloop control system:It is a control system where its control action depends
on both of its input signal and output response.
Advantages:
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Not accurate and reliable when input or system parameters are variable in
nature
Recalibration of the parameters are required time to time
Closedloop control system:
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1.3.2.
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It is a control system where its control action depends on both of its input signal and
output response as shown in Fig.1.2.
Examples: automatic electric iron, missile launcher, speed control of DC motor, etc.
Advantages:
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2
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7
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9
10
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Sl.
No.
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1.4. Servomechanism
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It is the feedback unit used in a control system. In this system, the control variable is
a mechanical signal such as position, velocity or acceleration. Here, the output signal
is directly fed to the comparator as the feedback signal, b(t) of the closedloop control
system. This type of system is used where both the command and output signals are
mechanical in nature. A position control system as shown in Fig.1.3 is a simple
example of this type mechanism. The block diagram of the servomechanism of an
automatic steering system is shown in Fig.1.4.
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Examples:
Missile launcher
Machine tool position control
Power steering for an automobile
Roll stabilization in ships, etc.
1.5. Regulators
It is also a feedback unit used in a control system like servomechanism. But, the
output is kept constant at its desired value. The schematic diagram of a regulating
Control Systems
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Examples:
Temperature regulator
Speed governor
Frequency regulators, etc.
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Control Systems
CHAPTER#2
2. Control System Dynamics
2.1. Definition: It is the study of characteristics behaviour of dynamic system, i.e.
(a) Differential equation
i. Firstorder systems
ii. Secondorder systems
(b) System transfer function: Laplace transform
2.2. Laplace Transform: Laplace transforms convert differential equations into algebraic
equations. They are related to frequency response.
L x t
x(t )e st dt
X s
(2.1)
L x t
x(t )e st dt
X s
Laplace domain
No.
Function
x(t)=
X(s)= {x(t)}
Delay
Unit impulse
Unit step
Ramp
Exponential
approach
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1
s2
Exponential
decay
1
s
u(t)
1 e
s2
Cosine
11
12
s(s
s
2
s2
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(2.2)
Sine
{X(s)}
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Timedomain
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Hyperbolic
sine
Hyperbolic
cosine
s
s2
Exponentiall
y decaying
sine wave
Exponentiall
y decaying
cosine wave
sin t
)2
(s
cos t
(s
)2
2.3. Solution of system dynamics in Laplace form: Laplace transforms can be solved using
partial fraction method.
A system is usually represented by following dynamic equation.
N s
A s
B s
(2.3)
Unrepeated factors
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Control Systems
s a s b
A( s b ) B ( s a )
( s a )( s b)
(2.4)
2s
( s 1)(s 2)
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Y (s )
A
B
2s
( s 1)( s 2) ( s 1) ( s 2)
A( s 2) B( s 1)
2s
( s 1)( s 2)
( s 1)( s 2)
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Solution:
The following equation in Laplacetransform is expandedwith its partial fractions as follows.
Y ( s)
(s 1)
(s 2)
2, B
4 . Therefore,
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2e
4e
2t
y (t )
N (s)
( s a)2
A
a )2
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A
(s
B
(s
A
a)
B(s a)
( s a )2
(2.5)
Y ( s)
2s
(s 1) 2 (s 2)
Solution:
The following equation in Laplacetransform is expandedwith its partial fractions as follows.
2s
( s 1) 2 ( s 2)
A
( s 1) 2
(s 1)
(s 2)
Y ( s)
2
(s 1) 2
(s 1)
( s 2)
2, B
4 . Therefore,
y( t )
2te
4e
4e
2t
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Control Systems
N ( s)
( s a)( s a )
As B
(s
)2
(2.6)
Example 2.3:
Expand the following equation of Laplacetransform in terms of its partial fractionsand obtain
its timedomain response.
Y ( s)
2s 1
( s 1 j)( s 1 j )
Y ( s)
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Solution:
The following equation in Laplacetransform is expandedwith its partial fractions as follows.
2s
1
2
(s 1) 1 (s 1)2 1
lim
y (t )
lim sY (s)
(2.7)
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Example 2.4:
Determine the initial value of the timedomain response of the following equation using the
initialvalue theorem.
Y ( s)
(s 1
2s 1
j )(s 1 j )
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Solution:
Solution of above equation,
lim ( s
s
s (2s 1)
1 j )( s 1 j)
lim
y (t )
lim sY (s)
s
(2.8)
Example 2.5:
Determine the initial value of the timedomain response of the following equation using the
initialvalue theorem.
Y ( s)
2s
(s 1) 2 (s 2)
Solution:
Solution of above equation,
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y( t )
Control Systems
2te
4e
4e
2t
lim ( s
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s (2s 1)
1 j )( s 1 j)
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Control Systems
CHAPTER#3
3. Transfer Function
3.1. Definition: It is the ratio of Laplace transform of output signal to Laplace transform of input
signal assuming all the initial conditions to be zero, i.e.
Let, there is a given system with input r(t) and output c(t) as shown in Fig.3.1 (a), then its
Laplace domain is shown in Fig.3.1 (b). Here, input and output are R(s) and C(s) respectively.
(b)
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(c)
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(a)
Fig.3.1. (a) A system in time domain, (b) a system in frequency domainand (c) transfer function with differential
operator
G(s) is the transfer function of the system. It can be mathematically represented as follows.
C s
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G s
R s
zero initial
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Example 3.1: Determine the transfer function of the system shown inFig.3.2.
Solution:
Fig.3.1 is redrawn in frequency domain as shown in Fig.3.2.
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Control Systems
1
I s
Cs
R Ls
(3.2)
(3.3)
1
Cs
(3.4)
Vo s
From eq (2.12),
Vo s /
I s
CsVo s
Vi s
R Ls
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Vo s
Vi s
1
R Ls
Cs
Cs
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LCs
(3.5)
RCs 1
G s
(3.6)
RCs 1
&
LCs
K s z1 s z2 ... s zm
s
p1 s
p2 ... s
pn
s zi
K
i 1
n
(3.7)
s zj
i 1
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G s
Where, z1 , z2 ...zm are called zeros and p1 , p2 ... pn are called poles.
Number of poles n will always be greater than the number of zeros m
Example 3.2:
Obtain the polezero map of the following transfer function.
( s 2)( s 2 j 4)( s 2 j 4)
G (s )
( s 3)( s 4)( s 5)( s 1 j 5)( s 1 j 5)
Solution:
The following equation in Laplacetransform is expandedwith its partial fractions as follows.
Zeros
Poles
s=2
s=3
s=2j4
s=4
s=2+j4
s=5
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Control Systems
s=1j5
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s=1+j5
d
in the transfer function, the differential equation can be obtained
dt
Replacing s by
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d
in the transfer function, the differential equation can be obtained
dt
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Control Systems
CHAPTER#4
4. Description of physical system
4.1. Components of a mechanical system: Mechanical systems are of two types, i.e. (i)
translational mechanical system and (ii) rotational mechanical system.
4.1.1. Translational mechanical system
There are three basic elements in a translational mechanical system, i.e. (a) mass, (b)
spring and (c) damper.
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If a force f is applied on a massM and it displays distance x1in the direction of f and
distance x2 in the opposite direction, then f
d 2 x1
dt 2
d 2 x2
dt 2
as shown in Fig.4.2.
X1
f
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X2
If a force f is applied on a springK and it displays distance x1in the direction of f and
distance x2 in the opposite direction, then f K x1 x2 as shown in Fig.4.4.
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Control Systems
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If a force f is applied on a damperD and it displays distance x1in the direction of f and
dx1 dx2
as shown in Fig.4.6.
distance x2 in the opposite direction, then f D
dt
dt
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4.1.2.
There are three basic elements in a Rotational mechanical system, i.e. (a) inertia, (b)
spring and (c) damper.
(a) Inertia: A body with aninertia is denoted by J. If a torqueT is applied on it and it
d2
displays distance , then T J 2 . If a torqueT is applied on a body with inertia
dt
J and it displays distance 1 in the direction of T and distance 2 in the opposite
d2 1 d2 2
.
dt 2
dt 2
(b) Spring: A spring is denoted by K. If a torqueT is applied on it and it displays
distance , then T K . If a torqueT is applied on a body with inertia J and it
displays distance 1 in the direction of T and distance 2 in the opposite
direction, then T K 1 2 .
(c) Damper: A damper is denoted by D. If a torqueT is applied on it and it displays
d
distance , then T D
. If a torqueT is applied on a body with inertia J and it
dt
direction, then T
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Control Systems
If i is the current through an inductor (Fig.4.7) and v is the voltage developed in it,
di
then v L .
dt
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4.2.2.
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R
If i is the current through a resistor and v is the voltage drop in it, then i
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If i is the current through an inductor and v is the voltage developed in it, then
1
i
vdt .
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If i is the current through a capacitor and v is the voltage developed in it, then
dv
i C .
dt
4.2.3.
Fig.4.8.
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Control Systems
Solution
Voltage across resistance, eR (t )
i (t ) R
1
Voltage across capacitance, eC (t )
i(t ) dt
C
Total voltage drop, ei
eR
eC
1
i(t ) dt
C
i (t ) R
I ( s) R
1
Cs
EC (s )
Ei ( s )
1
s 1
is the timeconstant
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where, RC
1
RCs 1
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voltage,
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Fig.4.9.
iR R
Total current, ia
iR iL
e (t )
R
diL
dt
iR
e( t )
R
1
iL
e(t ) dt
L
1
e(t ) dt
L
Ia (s)
E (s)
1
R
1
and I L ( s )
Ls
E
Ls
I L (s )
I a (s)
1
L
s 1
R
1
s 1
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Control Systems
L
is the timeconstant
R
where
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Fig.4.10.
iR
di
Voltage across the Inductance, eL (t ) L
dt
1
idt
Voltage across thecapacitance, eC (t )
C
Total voltage, e t
di
dt
1
idt
C
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iR L
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I ( s) R Ls
1
Cs
EC ( s )
E (s)
2
n
1
Cs
s2
2
n
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Cs R Ls
1
and
LC
R
L
2
C
Q.4.4.Find the transfer function of the following Springmassdamperas shown
in Fig.4.11.
where
Fig.4.11.
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Control Systems
Solution
X (s )
F ( s)
1
ms cs k
m s
2
n
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(a)
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4.3. Analogous system: Fig.4.12 shows a translational mechanical system, a rotational control
system and a voltagesource electrical system.
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(b)
(c)
Fig.4.12. (a) a voltagesource electrical system,(b) a translational mechanical system and (c) a rotational control
system
Where,
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Control Systems
idt
(4.2)
The solutions for all the above three equations given by eq (4.2) are same. Therefore, the
above shown three figures are analogous to each other. There are two important types of
analogous systems, i.e. forcevoltage (fv) analogy and forcecurrent analogy. From eq (4.2),
fv analogy can be drawn as follows.
Rotational
Torque (T)
Inertia (J)
Damper (D)
Spring (K)
Displacement (
Velocity (u) =
Electrical
Voltage (v)
Inductance (L)
Resistance (R)
Elastance (1/C)
Charge (q)
Current (i) = q
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Translational
Force (f)
Mass (M)
Damper (D)
Spring (K)
Displacement (x)
Velocity (u) = x
Similarly, fi analogy that can be obtainedfrom eq (4.1), can be drawn as follows.
Rotational
Torque (T)
Inertia (J)
Damper (D)
Spring (K)
Displacement (
Velocity (u) =
Electrical
Current (i)
Capacitance (C)
Conductance (1/R)
Reciprocal of Inductance (1/L)
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Translational
Force (f)
Mass (M)
Damper (D)
Spring (K)
Displacement (x)
Velocity (u) = x
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Voltage (v) =
4.4. Mathematical model of armature controlled DC motor: The armature control type speed
control system of a DC motor is shown in Fig.4.6. The following components are used in this
system.
Ra=resistance of armature
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Control Systems
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Fig.4.6. Schematic diagram of armature control type speed control system of a DC motor
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KfIf
(4.3)
The torque Tm developed by the motor is proportional to the product of armature current and
air gap flux i.e.
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Tm = k1 K f I f ia
(4.4)
In armaturecontrolled D.C. motor,the field current is kept constant,so that eq(4.4) can be
written as follows.
(4.5)
Tm =K t ia
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d
dt
(4.6)
dia
dt
Ra ia
Eb
Ea
(4.7)
d
dt
Tm
Kt Ia
(4.8)
d2
dt 2
Taking the Laplace transforms of equations (4.6), (4.7) and (4.8), assuming zero initial
conditions, we get
Eb s =sK b
(4.9)
sLa +Ra I a s
Ea s
Eb s
(4.10)
(s 2 J
Tm ( s )
Kt Ia
(4.11)
sf ) ( s )
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Control Systems
From eq(4.9) to (4.11) the transfer function of the system is obtained as,
Kt
(s )
Ea ( s )
G s
Ra
sLa
sJ
(4.12)
Kt K b
G s
Kt
sLa sJ f
Kt Kb
Ra sLa sJ f
Ra
(s)
Ea ( s )
1
s
(4.13)
1
s
s
s
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1
sL
Fig.4.7. Block diagram of armature control type speed control system of a DC motor
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The term
s2
Kt
J
Ra
s f
Kt Kb
Ra
(4.14)
(s )
Ea ( s)
Kt Kb
indicates that the back emf of the motor effectively increases the
Ra
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K t Kb
Ra
(4.15)
Where f be the effective viscous friction coefficient. The transfer function given by eq(4.15)
may be written in the following form.
s
Ea s
Here K m =
Kt
= motor gain constant, and
Ra f
Km
s s 1
(4.16)
J
= motor time constant.Therefore, the motor
f
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Control Systems
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f=equivalent viscous friction coefficient of motor and load referred to motor shaft
Ia
(constant)
Rf
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M
&
ef
Tm
Lf
If
Fig.4.8. Block diagram of field control type speed control system of a DC motor
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In field control motor the armature current is fed from a constant current source.The airgap
.
Kf If
(4.17)
The torque Tm developed by the motor is proportional to the product of armature current and
air gap flux i.e.
Tm =k1K f I f I a
Kt I f
(4.18)
Ef
(4.19)
dI f
dt
Rf I f
d2
dt 2
d
dt
Tm
Kt I f
(4.20)
Taking the Laplace transforms of equations (4.19) and (4.20) assuming zero initial conditions,
we get the following equations
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Control Systems
Rf I f s
Lf s
Ef s
(4.21)
and
Js 2
fs
Tm s
Kt I f s
(4.22)
From eq(4.21) and (4.22) the transfer function of the system is obtained as
G s
Kt
Ef s
s Rf
sL f
Js
(4.23)
The transfer function given by eq(4.23) may be written in the following form.
Kt
Ea s
Rf
Js
s s
Kt
= motor gain constant, and
Rf f
Lf
Rf
(4.24)
J
f
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Here K m
s Lf s
Km
1 s
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= mechanical time constant.For small size motors field control is advantageous.The block
diagram that is constructed from eq (4.24) is shown in Fig.4.9.
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Ef(s)
sL
K
s sJ f
t
(s)
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Fig.4.9. Block diagram of field control type speed control system of a DC motor
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Control Systems
CHAPTER#5
5. Block Diagram Algebra
5.1. Basic Definition in Block Diagram model:
Block diagram: It is the pictorial representation of the causeandresponse relationship
between input and output of a physical system.
(b)
(a)
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Fig.5.1. (a) A block diagram representation of a system and (b) A block diagram representation with gain of a
system
G s R s
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C s
(5.1)
Summing point: It is the component of a block diagram model at which two or more signals
can be added or subtracted. In Fig.15, inputs R(s) and B(s) have been given to a summing
point and its output signal is E(s). Here,
R s
B s
(5.2)
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E s
Takeoff point: It is the component of a block diagram model at which a signal can be taken
directly and supplied to one or more points as shown in Fig.5.2.
Forward path: It is the direction of signal flow from input towards output.
Feedback path: It is the direction of signal flow from output towards input.
x1
3x1
2 x2
5 x3
(5.3)
x2
x1
4 x2
3 x3
(5.4)
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Control Systems
x3
2 x1
x2
x3
(5.5)
Example: Eq (5.3), (5.4) and (5.5) are combiningly results in the following block diagram
model.
x3(s)
x2(s)
x2(s)
+
++
x s
1
1/s
x 1(s)
x s
++
+
2
4
3
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x3(s)
1/s
x2(s)
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x 1(s)
x3(s)
x2(s)
1/s
x3(s)
&
x1(s)
+ x s
++
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5.3.
Control Systems
Sl.
No.
Rule
No.
Rule 1
Cascade
Rule 2
Parallel
Rule 3
Rule 4
Rule 5
Configuration
Equivalent
Rule 6
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G(s)
1 G s H s
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Name
Loop
Associative
Law
Rule 7
Move
summingpoint point
after a block
Rule 8
Move
summingpoint point
before a
block
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10
Rule 9
Rule 10
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Step 4: Shift takeoff points towards right and summing points towards left.
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5.5. Procedure for finding output of Block Diagram model with multiple inputs:
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Step 1: Consider one input taking rest of the inputs zero, find output using the procedure
described in section 4.3.
Step 2: Follow step 1 for each inputs of the given Block Diagram model and find their
corresponding outputs.
Step 3: Find the resultant output by adding all individual outputs.
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Control Systems
CHAPTER#6
6. Signal Flow Graphs (SFGs)
It is a pictorial representation of a system that graphically displays the signal transmission in it.
6.1. Basic Definitions in SFGs:
Input or source node: It is a node that has only outgoing branches i.e. node r in Fig.6.1.
Output or sink node: It is a node that has only incoming branches i.e. node c in Fig.6.1.
Chain node: It is a node that has both incoming and outgoing branches i.e. nodes x1,
x2,x3,x4,x5 and x6 in Fig.6.1.
Gain or transmittance: It is the relationship between variables denoted by two nodes or
value of a branch. In Fig.6.1, transmittances are t1, t2,t3,t4,t5and t6.
IN
Forward path: It is a path from input node to output node without repeating any of the nodes
in between them. In Fig.6.1, there are two forward paths, i.e. path1:rx1x2x3x4x5x6c and
path2:rx1x3x4x5x6 c.
GA
Feedback path: It is a path from output node or a node near output node to a node near input
node without repeating any of the nodes in between them (Fig.6.1).
Loop: It is a closed path that starts from one node and reaches the same node after trading
through other nodes. In Fig.6.1, there are four loops, i.e. loop1:x2 x3x4x1, loop2:x5x6x5, loop3:x1x2x3x4x5x6 x1 and loop4:x1x3x4x5 x6x1.
&
Self Loop: It is a loop that starts from one node and reaches the same node without trading
through other nodes i.e. loop in node x4 with transmittance t55 in Fig.6.1.
Path gain: It is the product of gains or transmittances of all branches of a forward path. In
Fig.6.1, the path gains are P1 = t1t2t3 t4t5 (for path1) and P2 = t9t3t4t5 (for path2).
Loop gain: It is the product of gains or transmittances of all branches of a loop In Fig.6.1,
there are four loops, i.e. L1 = t2t3t6, L 2 = t5t7, L 3 = t1t2t3t4t5t8, and L4 = t9t3t4t5t8 .
BE
A
Dummy node: If the first node is not an input node and/or the last node is not an output node
than a node is connected before the existing first node and a node is connected after the
existing last node with unity transmittances. These nodes are called dummy nodes. In Fig.6.1,
r and c are the dummy nodes.
Nontouching Loops: Two or more loops are nontouching loops if they dont have any
common nodes between them. In Fig.6.1, L1 and L2 are nontouching loops
Example:
33
Control Systems
Ea(s)
1
sL
KT
IN
Lets find the SFG of following block diagram model shown in Fig.6.2.
sJ
1
s
s
s
GA
E b(s)
(s)
Kb
&
BE
A
Step3: Each ofgains is replaced by transmittances of the branches connected between two nodes
of the forward paths.
Step4: Each ofgains is replaced by transmittances multiplied with (1) of the branches connected
between two nodes of the forward paths.
1
sL
sJ
1
s
s
s
(a)
34
Control Systems
1
sL
sJ
1
s
(b)
IN
GA
C s
G s
Pk
k 1
R s
(6.1)
&
Where,
N= total number of forward paths
possible
touching
BE
A
=1(
two nontouching loops)  (
loops) +
k=
th
value of
forward path
Example:
Find the overall transfer function of the system given in Fig.6.1 using Masons gain
formula.
Solution:
In Fig.6.1,
No. of forward paths: N 2
Path gain of forward paths: P1
t 2t3t6 , L2
t6 t3t4 t5
t5t7 , L3
t9t3t 4t5t8
35
Control Systems
L1 L2
L3
1 0 1and
G s
G s
P2
L1 L2
0 1 L1 L2 L3 L4
L1L2
1 0 1
t1t2t3t 4t5 1
t1t2t3t 4t5t8
t6t3t 4t5 1
1 t 2 t 3t 6
t5 t7
t9t3t 4t5t8
t 2 t 3t 5t 6 t 7
1 t 2 t 3t 6
t1t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t3 t4 t5
t5 t7 t1t2 t3t 4t5 t8 t9 t3t 4t5 t8
t 2 t3 t5 t6 t7
BE
A
&
GA
IN
G s
P1
L4
36
Control Systems
CHAPTER#7
7. Feedback Characteristics of Control System
7.1. Feedback and Nonfeedback Control systems
Nonfeedback control system: It is a control system that does not have any feedback paths.
It is also known as openloop control system. It is shown in Fig.7.1 (a) and (b).
Feedback control system: It is a control system that has at least one feedback path. It is also
known as closedloop control system. It is shown in Fig.7.2 (a) and (b).
(a)
GA
IN
(b)
Fig.7.1. (a) Block diagram of a nonfeedback control system and (b) SFG of a nonfeedback control system
(a)
(b)
&
Fig.7.2. (a) Block diagram of a feedback control system and (b) SFG of a feedback control system
BE
A
Referring Fig.7.3,
E s
R s
B s
(7.1)
and
T1 s
G s
1 G s H s
(7.2)
37
7.2.2.
Control Systems
E s
R s
B s
(7.3)
and
G s
T2 s
(7.4)
GA
IN
1 G s H s
&
7.3. Effect of parameter variation on overall gain of a degenerative Feedback Control system
The overall gain or transfer function of a degenerative feedback control system depends upon
these parameters i.e. (i) variation in parameters of plant, and (ii) variation in parameter of
feedback system and (ii) disturbance signals.
BE
A
The term sensitivity is a measure of the effectiveness of feedback on reducing the influence of
any of the above described parameters. For an example, it is used to describe the relative
variations in the overall Transfer function of a system T(s) due to variation in G(s).
7.3.1.
( )
( )
In an openloop system,
C s
G s R s
C s
C s
C s
C s
G s
C s
G s R s
G s R s
G s R s
G s R s
(7.5)
In an closedloop system,
38
Control Systems
G s
C s
R s
1 G s H s
G s
G s
C s
G s
G s
G s
C s
C s
C s
Or
1 G s H s
R s
G s
1 G s H s
G s
1 G s H s
G s H s is
IN
G s
&
C s
G s
R s
G s
GA
C s
G s H s
G s H s . Therefore,
neglected. Now,
C s
R s
G s
1 G s H s
G s H s
H s
R s
1 G s H s
R s
(7.6)
R s
= (1 +
BE
A
This concept can be reproved using sensitivity. Sensitivity on T(s) due to variation in G(s) is
given by
SGT
T T
GG
T G
G T
(7.7)
SGT
T T
GG
G
G
G
1
G
(7.8)
T T
GG
1 GH
1 GH
(
GH
2
1
1 GH
G 1 GH
)
= (1 +
(7.9)
).
39
7.3.2.
Control Systems
This concept can be reproved using sensitivity. Sensitivity on T(s) due to variation in H(s) is
given by
SHT
H
T
T T
H H
T
H
H
G 1 GH
(7.10)
H
T
1 GH
GH
1 GH
(7.11)
IN
S HT
BE
A
&
GA
40
Control Systems
IN
BE
A
&
GA
MODULE#2
41
Control Systems
CHAPTER#8
8. Time Domain Analysis of Control Systems
BE
A
&
GA
IN
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
Laplace transforms convert differential equations into algebraic equations. They are related to
frequency response
L x t
x (t )e st dt
X s
(8.1)
42
No.
Control Systems
Function
Timedomain
1
x(t)=
Laplace domain
{X(s)}
X(s)= {x(t)}
e
Delay
Unit impulse
Unit step
u(t)
1
s
Ramp
1
s2
Exponential decay
e
IN
Exponential approach
1 e
GA
s (s
Sine
s2
10
12
s2
Hyperbolic cosine
s
s
BE
A
11
Hyperbolic sine
&
Cosine
sin t
)2
(s
t
cos t
(s
)2
C ( s) G ( s) R( s)
K ( s z1 )( s z2 ) ( s zm )
R(s)
( s p1 )( s p2 ) ( s pn )
(8.2)
undefined ; t
0
;t
(8.3)
0
0
43
Control Systems
(8.4)
(8.5)
GA
x (t )
IN
&
(t ) (t to )dt
(to )
(8.6)
X (s )
st
xi (t a) dt
xi e
sa
(8.7)
BE
A
;t
;t
(8.8)
U s
K
s
(8.9)
44
Control Systems
Kt ; t
r t
(8.10)
(8.11)
GA
IN
R s
8.4.4.
&
a t
Kt 2
2
;t
;t
(8.12)
BE
A
K
s3
(8.13)
8.4.5.
45
Control Systems
x t
(8.14)
sin t
st
sin t dt
s2
(8.15)
GA
IN
BE
A
&
Here,
E s
R s
B s
(8.16)
B s
C s H s
(8.17)
C s
E s G s
(8.18)
C s H s
(8.19)
E s G s H s
(8.20)
R s
R s
1 G s H s
E s
R s
(8.21)
46
Control Systems
R s
E s
(8.22)
1 G s H s
Steadystate error,
ess
lim e t
lim sE s
(8.23)
lim sE s
s
sR s
lim
s
G s H s
01
(8.24)
IN
GA
A
s
R s
A
s
lim
s 01 G s H s
s
KP
BE
A
01
A
1 lim G s H s
ess
Where,
lim
&
ess
A
G s H s
(8.26)
A
1 KP
(8.27)
lim G s H s
s
(8.25)
(8.28)
A
s2
R s
(8.29)
A
s2
lim
s 01 G s H s
s
ess
lim
ess
A
lim sG s H s
s
A
s 1 G s H s
A
s sG s H s
ess
lim
(8.30)
A
KV
Where,
47
Control Systems
lim sG s H s
KV
(8.31)
R s
(8.32)
lim
s
lim
ess
A
lim s 2G s H s
(8.33)
A
KA
Where,
IN
A
s 1 G s H s
2
A
s G s H s
ess
GA
ess
lim s 2G s H s
KA
(8.34)
Error Constant
&
BE
A
KP
lim G s H s
KV
lim sG s H s
KA
lim s 2G s H s
ess
A
1 KP
ess
A
KV
ess
A
KA
K 1 T1s 1 T2 s ... 1 Tn s
s j 1 Ta s 1 Tb s ... 1 Tm s
(8.35)
K 1 T1 s 1 T2 s ... 1 Tn s
1 Ta s 1 Tb s ... 1 Tm s
(8.36)
Here,
48
Control Systems
lim G s H s
KP
(8.37)
Therefore,
ess
A
1 K
(8.38)
8.7.1.2. Type 1
K 1 T1 s 1 T2 s ... 1 Tn s
G s H s
(8.39)
s 1 Ta s 1 Tb s ... 1 Tm s
Here,
lim sG s H s
s
Therefore,
8.7.1.3. Type 2
K 1 T1s 1 T2 s ... 1 Tn s
G s H s
KA
lim s 2G s H s
s
(8.41)
(8.42)
s 2 1 Ta s 1 Tb s ... 1 Tm s
&
Here,
A
K
(8.40)
GA
ess
IN
KV
(8.43)
BE
A
Therefore,
ess
A
K
(8.44)
Steadystate error and error constant for different types of input are summarized as follows.
Type
Step input
Ramp input
Parabolic input
KA
KP
ess
KV
A
1 K
Type 1
Type 2
Type 0
ess
ess
0
A
K
A
K
49
Control Systems
BE
A
&
GA
IN
50
Control Systems
E s
R s
So,
1
1 G s H s
Where, F1
and F2 s
(8.45)
F1 s F2 s
E s
R s
f2 t
f1
f1
r t
r t
r t f1
ess
f1
2!
r t d
r t d
r t f1
r t f1
2!
3!
r t f1
...
(8.48)
(8.49)
2!
r t f1
d
0
lim e t
r t f1
(8.47)
...
f1
lim
BE
A
lim e t
ess
3!
ess
Therefore,
2!
r t d
f1
r t
&
e t
(8.46)
GA
r t
IN
e t
3!
t f1
...
r t f1
d
0
3!
t f1
...
(8.50)
ess
C0 r t
C1r t
C2
r t
2!
C3
r
3!
...
(8.51)
Where, C0 , C1, C2, C3, etc. are dynamic error coefficients. These are given as
51
Control Systems
C0
f1
lim F1 s
s
C1
f1
lim
s
dF1 s
ds
C2
0
2!
f1
lim
s
3!
f1
lim
s
(8.52)
ds 2
C3
, and so on
d 2 F1 s
d 3 F1 s
ds 3
Kx (t )
IN
G (s)
(1
s)
(8.54)
BE
A
&
Y (s )
X (s)
GA
Normalized response
In this type of response
52
Control Systems
Static components are taken out leaving only the dynamic component
The dynamic components converge to the same value for different physical systems of
the same type or order
Helps in recognizing typical factors of a system
8.8.1. Impulse input to a firstorder system
Governing differential equation
y
y
Kxi (t )
(8.55)
Kxi
(1 s)
Kxi
1
s
Timedomain response
y (t )
Kxi
IN
Y (s )
GA
h (t )
By putting x =1 in the response
i
(8.56)
(8.57)
(8.58)
&
y (t )
e F (t
)d
(8.59)
BE
A
The above equation is called Duhamels integral. Normalized response of a firstorder system to
impulse input is shown below.
y (t )
Kxi
t/
8.8.2. Step input to a firstorder system
Governing differential equation
Kxiu (t )
(8.60)
53
Control Systems
Kxi
s (1 s )
Y (s )
Kxi
s
Kxi
1
s
(8.61)
Timedomain response
t
y (t )
(8.62)
Kxi 1 e
IN
&
GA
y (t )
Kxi
t/
BE
A
Kt
(8.63)
Y (s)
K
s 2 (1 s )
1
s2
(8.64)
Timedomain response
y (t )
K
(8.65)
54
Control Systems
y (t )
Kxi
IN
t/
K
(1
A
s) s
Timedomain response
(8.66)
s 1/
t/
cos t
sin t
1
s
(8.67)
(8.68)
y (t )
KA
KA sin t
&
Y ( s)
GA
BE
A
55
Control Systems
my cy ky
Kx (t )
(8.69)
K
m s
2
n
(8.70)
GA
IN
Y (s)
X ( s)
&
Polezero map
(8.71)
s1,2
BE
A
(b)
=1 critically damped
Poles are:
s1,2
(8.72)
56
Control Systems
s1,2
d
GA
Where,
j 1
IN
s1,2
(8.73)
(8.74)
BE
A
&
Here, tan
(d)
= 0 undamped
Poles are:
s1,2
(8.75)
57
Control Systems
Solved problems:
IN
1. A single degree of freedom springmassdamper system has the following data: spring stiffness 20
kN/m; mass 0.05 kg; damping coefficient 20 Ns/m. Determine
GA
632.46 rad/s
632.46
100.66 Hz
2
20
2 km
2 20 103 0.05
2
632.46 1 0.322
600 rad/s
BE
A
0.32
&
fn
20 103
0.05
k
m
fd
600
2
y (t )
95.37 Hz
nt
Ae
0.1e
0.32 632.46 t
2. A secondorder system has a damping factor of 0.3 (underdamped system) and an undamped
natural frequency of 10 rad/s. Keeping the damping factor the same, if the undamped natural
frequency is changed to 20 rad/s, locate the new poles of the system? What can you say about the
response of the new system?
Solution:
Given,
d1
n1
d2
n2
p1,2
10 rad/s and
n1
n1
d1
n2
20 rad/s
10 1 0.32
9.54 rad/s
20 1 0.32
19.08 rad/s
j 9.54
58
p3,4
n2
Control Systems
j19.08
d2
0.3
tan
17.45o
1 0.3
IN
y 2
Y (s)
Kxi
m s2
2
n
2
n
(8.77)
M
2
(8.76)
Kxi
2m
Kxi
(t )
m
&
GA
1
2
1 (s
(s
1)
BE
A
Timedomain response
Kxi
y(t )
2
n
nt
sinh
1 t
(8.78)
(b) Critically
General equation
2
n
Kxi
(t )
m
(8.79)
Y (s)
Kxi
1
2
m s
y (t )
Kxi
m n
(8.80)
2
n
Timedomain response
n
te
nt
(8.81)
(c) Under
59
Control Systems
General equation
y 2
2
n
Kxi
(t )
m
(8.82)
Y (s )
Kxi
m (s
1
j d )( s
(8.83)
Timedomain response
Kxi
e
m d
nt
sin
(8.84)
IN
y (t )
BE
A
Solved problems:
&
GA
Normalized impulseresponse of a secondorder system with different damping factors are shown
graphically as follows.
3. A secondorder system has an undamped natural frequency of 100 rad/s and a damping factor of
0.3. The value of the coefficient of the second time derivative (that is m) is 5. If the static
sensitivity is 10, write down the response (do not solve) for a force excitation shown in the figure
in terms of the Duhamels integral for the following periods of time: 0<t<t1, t1<t<t2 and t>t2.
Solution:
n =100
Damping factor
rad/s
=0.3
60
Control Systems
100 1 0.32
95.39 rad/s
Here,
F (t )
t
t1
;0 t
F (t )
t2 t1
t1
t2 t
; t1
t2
)e
sin
IN
K
F (t
m d 0
y (t )
y (t )
10F
e
5 95.39t1 0
0.3 100
(t
sin 95.39
)d
;0 t t1 ,
30
(t
)d
sin 95.39
(t
sin 95.39
GA
0.057 F
e
t1
0
y (t )
0.057 F 1
e
t1
0
30
)d
sin 95.39
(t
)d
sin 95.39
30
8.9.2.
;t
(t2 t
sin 95.39
BE
A
0.057 F 2
e
t2 t1 t1
30
)d
y (t )
0.057 F 1
e
t1
0
(t2 t
t2 and
&
30
; t1
0.057 F
e
t2 t1 t1
t2
)d
Y (s)
y (t )
Kxi
m s( s
Kxi
1 e
m n2
Y (s )
y (t )
nt
1
2
n
cosh
2
n
Kxi
m s (s
Kxi
1 e
m n2
nt
cos
1)( s
1 t
1
j d )(s
sinh
sin
(8.85)
1)
(8.86)
(8.87)
1 t
(8.88)
61
Control Systems
IN
BE
A
&
GA
y (t )
Kxi
1
m n2
nt
tan
sin(
(8.89)
(8.90)
62
Control Systems
1 0.7
wn
td
(8.91)
.
e
1 1
1
e
1
n tr
nt r
sin(
d tr
GA
y tr
IN
(ii) Rise time, tr:The time required by the system response to reach from 10% to 90% of the
final value for overdamped case, from 0% to 100% of the final value for underdamped case
and from 5% to 95% of the critically value for overdamped case.
sin(
d tr
) 0
d tr
wd
(8.92)
&
tr
d 1
(iii) Peak time, tp:The time required by the system response to reach the first maximum value.
dy t p
0
dt
nt p
sin(
dtp
BE
A
dt
nt p
sin(
dtp
dt
wd t p
tan
; where n 1, 2,3,...
For n=1,
wd t p
tp
n
n
wd
(8.93)
(iv) Peak overshoot, Mp: It is the time required to reach 50% of output.
y tp 1
M p % 100
1
63
Mp %
100
n tr
Mp %
100
Mp %
100
dtp
sin(
100
sin(
sin
100
100
sin(
100 e
(8.94)
GA
Mp %
dtp
sin(
) 1
nt p
100
d tr
sin(
IN
Mp %
Control Systems
For
&
(iv) Settling time, ts: It is the time taken by the system response to settle down and stay with in 2%
or 5% its final value.
For 2% error band,
4
ts
(8.95)
wn
5% error band,
ts
Sl. No.
3
wn
(8.96)
Time Specifications
Formula
BE
A
Type
1 0.7
wn
Delay time
td
Rise time
tr
Peak time
tp
Maximum overshoot
Mp %
Settling time
ts
wd
wd
100 e
4
wn
64
Control Systems
Solved Problems:
1. Consider the system shown in Figure 1. To improve the performance of the system a feedback is
added to this system, which results in Figure 2. Determine the value of K so that the damping
ratio of the new system is 0.4. Compare the overshoot, rise time, peak time and settling time and
the nominal value of the systems shown in Figures 1 and 2.
Figure 1
IN
Figure 2
Solution:
R s
Here,
G(s)
1 G (s )
2
n
20 and 2
c s
Here,
2
n
0.112
20
20
s ( s 1 20 K )
20
1
s( s 1 20 K )
BE
A
R s
G( s)
1 G( s)
For Figure 2,
20 rad/s and
20
s 20
&
c s
20
s s 1
20
1
s s 1
20 and 2
GA
For Figure 1,
20
1 20 K s 20
1 20K
20 rad/s
1 20 K
2 n
1 20 K
2 20
0.4
0.128
Figure 1
70%
0.38
0.71
8
1.0
Figure 2
25%
0.48
0.77
2.24
1.0
65
Control Systems
Solution:
>> num=[3 20]
num=
3
20
>> den=[1 5 36]
den=
1
5
36
>>sys=tf(num,den)
Transfer function:
3s+20
s^2+5s+36
>>step(sys)
C s
20
4 s 25
&
s2
25
R s
BE
A
Solution:
>> num=[20]
num=
20
>> den=[1 425]
den=
1
4
>>sys=tf(num,den)
Transfer function:
20
s^2+4s+25
>>step(sys)
R s
3s 20
s 5s 36
2
GA
C s
IN
66
Control Systems
2. Stability
2.1. Concept of stability
Stability is a very important characteristic of the transient performance of a system. Any working
system is designed considering its stability. Therefore, all instruments are stable with in a boundary of
parameter variations.
A linear time invariant (LTI) system is stable if the following two conditions are satisfied.
(i) Notion1: When the system is excited by a bounded input, output is also bounded.
Proof:
C s
b0 s m
a0 s n
G s
R s
b1s m
a1 s n
1
1
So,
1
(9.2)
(9.3)
(9.4)
&
r t
G s R s
(9.1)
GA
c t
... bm
... an
IN
c t
r t
BE
A
Since, the absolute value of integral is not greater than the integral of absolute value of the integrand
c t
r t
c t
r t
(9.5)
c t
r t
M1
c t
M2
(9.6)
Then,
67
Control Systems
c t
M1 g
M2
(9.7)
is finite or integrable.
(ii) Notion2: In the absence of the input, the output tends towards zero irrespective of initial
conditions. This type of stability is called asymptotic stability.
Normalized response
BE
A
Polezero map
&
GA
IN
Underdampedcloseloop poles
Polezero map
Normalized response
68
Control Systems
Undampedcloseloop poles
Normalized response
&
GA
IN
Polezero map
BE
A
Polezero map
69
Control Systems
IN
Example:
GA
1. Determine the closeloop poles on the imaginary axis of a system given below.
K
s ( s 1)
G ( s)
Solution:
s2
Replacing s
jw
(K
) j
B( j ) ( j )2 ( j ) K
s K
&
Characteristics equation, B ( s )
BE
A
Comparing real and imaginary terms of L.H.S. with real and imaginary terms of R.H.S., we get
K and
Solution:
Characteristics equation,
B( j ) ( j )3 6( j )2 8 j
(K 6 2 ) j(8
K 0
) 0
Comparing real and imaginary terms of L.H.S. with real and imaginary terms of R.H.S., we get
8 rad/s and K
48
70
Control Systems
a1s a0 0
IN
s3
3s 2 16s 130
GA
Characteristics equation, B ( s )
5 and r2,3 1
j5
&
Therefore, from the above example, the condition that coefficients of a polynomial should be positive
for all its roots to be in the left splane is only a necessary condition.
BE
A
an
an
an
an
an
an
an
an
(9.8)
Here, the determinant decreases by two along the row by one down the
column. For stability, the following conditions must satisfy.
an 1 an 3 an 5
an 1 an 3
(9.9)
an 1 0, 2
0, 3
an an 2 an 4 0
1
an an 2
0
an 1 an 3
71
Control Systems
sn
s
n 1
n 2
n 3
an
an
an
an
an
an
bn
bn
bn
cn
cn
cn
(9.10)
Where,
1
(an 1 )(an 2 ) an ( an 3 )
an 1
bn
( an 1 )( an 4 ) an ( an 5 )
an 1
cn
(9.11)
GA
IN
bn
&
K
and H ( s) 1 using Rouths ( s 1)
BE
A
Solution:
G (s)
1 G (s) H (s)
In the system, T s
K
s ( s 1)
K
1
s ( s 1)
K
s K
MethodI,
Characteristics equation, B s
1
Here,
2
s2
1
1 0
1 K
For stability,
72
Control Systems
Characteristics equation, B s
s2
s1 1
s0 K
There are no sign changes in first column elements of this array.Therefore, the system is always stable
for K>0.
5. Find stability of the following system given by G ( s )
K
and H ( s )
s( s 2)( s 4)
1 using
Solution:
C (s )
R s
G s
1 G s H s
MethodI,
General form of characteristics equation, B s
6s
8s K
GA
In the system,
K
s ( s 2)( s 4)
K
1
s ( s 2)( s 4)
IN
a3 s 3
s3
&
a2 s 2
6s2
a1s
8s
a0
6 K
2
6 K
48 K
0,
K 48 K
BE
A
8 0,
48 .
MethodII,
Characteristics equation is B s
s3
6s2
8s
andRouths array
s3
s2
48 K
6
s0
K
s1
73
Control Systems
s3 5s 2 10 s 3 using RouthHurwitz
stability criterion.
Solution:
In this problem, given Characteristics equation is B s
s3 1
s
10
5
s 9.4
s0 3
3
0
GA
Solution:
IN
There are no sign changes in first column elements of this array. Therefore, the system is always
stable.
s 3 2 s 2 3s 10
B s
0 and
s3 1
s2 2
10
s1
&
Rouths array is
s 10
There are two sign changes in first column elements of this array. Therefore, the system is unstable.
BE
A
8. Examine stability of the following system given by s5 2s4 4s3 8s2 3s 1 using RouthHurwitz
stability criterion.
Solution:
s 0
2.5
s1
s0
Here, the criterion fails. To remove the above difficulty, the following two methods can be used.
Method1
(i) Replace 0 by very small number) and complete the array with .
(ii) Examine the sign change by taking
0
Now, Rouths array becomes
74
s5
s
Control Systems
1
2
4
8
3
1
2.5 0
s3
5 8
s2
5 8
s1 2.5
5 8
1
Now putting
s5
2.5 0
s3
5 8
s2
GA
IN
s0
5 8
s1 2.5
5 8
&
s0
There are two sign changes in first column elements of this array. Therefore, the system is unstable.
Method2
1
Z
Replace s by
BE
A
1 2 4 8 3
1 0
Z5 Z4 Z3 Z2 Z
Z5
3Z 4
8Z 3
4Z 2
2Z 1 0
s4
4 1
3
s 3 6.67 1.67 0
1
0
s 2 3.25
0
s1 0.385 0
s0
There are two sign changes in first column elements of this array. Therefore, the system is unstable.
9. Examine stability of the following system given by s5 2s4 2s3 4s2 4s 8 using RouthHurwitz
stability criterion.
Solution:
In this problem, Rouths array is
75
Control Systems
s5 1 2 4
s4 2 4 8
s3 0 0 0
s2
s1
s0
Here, the criterion fails. To remove the above difficulty, the following two methods can be used.
The auxillary equation is
2s4 4s2 8
As
dA s
s5 1
s4 2
s2
s1
s0
2 4
4 8
8 8 0
2 8 0
24 0
GA
IN
8s3 8s
ds
Now, the array is rewritten as follows.
&
There are two sign changes in first column elements of this array. Therefore, the system is
unstable.
10. Examine stability of the following system given by s4 5s3 2s2 3s 1 0 using RouthHurwitz
stability criterion. Find the number of roots in the right half of the splane.
Solution:
In this problem, Rouths array is
s4
1 .4
4 .1 4
BE
A
s1
There are two sign changes in first column elements of this array. Therefore, the system is unstable.
There are two poles in the right half of the splane.
76
Control Systems
BE
A
&
GA
IN
77
Control Systems
IN
BE
A
&
GA
MODULE#3
78
Control Systems
CHAPTER#10
10. Root locus
10.1. Definition:
The locus of all the closedloop poles for various values of the openloop gain K is called root locus.
The rootlocus method is developed by W.R. Evans in 1954. It helps to visualize the various
possibilities of transient response of stable systems.
Closedloop response function
C ( s)
G ( s)
(10.1)
R(s) 1 G (s )H (s)
Characteristic equation
K ( s z1 )( s z2 )...( s zm )
( s p1 )( s p2 )...( s pn )
(10.2)
IN
1 G (s) H (s) 1
&
GA
BE
A
Exponential decay
Stable
Stable
Exponential increase
Unstable
Unstable
79
10.2.1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Control Systems
Construction steps
Determine the number of openloop poles and zeros
Mark openloop poles and zeros on the splane
Determine parts of the rootlocus on the real axis
Determine breakaway and breakin points
Draw asymptotes to the rootlocus
Determine angles of departure
Determine angles of arrival
Determine points on the rootlocus crossing imaginary axis
Obtain additional points and complete the rootlocus
K ( s z1 )( s z2 )...( s zm )
( s p1 )( s p2 )...( s pn )
For K=0,
p2 )...( s pn ) K ( s z1 )( s z2 )...( s zm )
( s p1 )( s p2 )...( s pn )
p1 )( s
GA
(s
(10.3)
IN
1 G (s) H (s) 1
(s
p1 )( s
p2 )...( s
pn ) 0
(10.4)
&
Openloop poles are also closedloop poles for K=0. A rootlocus starts from every openloop pole.
K ( s z1 )( s z2 )...( s zm )
( s p1 )( s p2 )...( s pn )
1 G (s) H (s) 1
BE
A
For K=
(10.5)
K ( s z1 )( s z 2 )...( s z m )
( s p1 )( s p2 )...( s pn )
(s
z1 )( s
z2 )...( s z m ) 0
(10.6)
G ( s ) H ( s) (cos
j sin )
(10.7)
Angle criterion:
n
m
i
1800
360k
(10.8)
j 1
i 1
Where,
Magnitude criterion:
80
Control Systems
G (s ) H ( s)
(10.9)
(s
pi )
i 1
m
(s z j )
 ( s p1 )  ( s p2 )  ...  ( s pn ) 
 ( s z1 )  s z 2 )  ...  ( s zm ) 
(10.10)
j 1
Solution:
6
0.85
5.15
8s
(10.11)
4.378
3.079
3.622
K3.079=0
&
6s 2
GA
S3
IN
Example:
Determine K of the characteristic equation for the root s=0.85.
BE
A
81
Control Systems
GA
IN
&
BE
A
f (s)
f (s )
df ( s )
ds
r ( s s1 ) r 1 ( s
(s
A( s)
B( s )
B ( s ) KA(s )
B(s)
As )
s1 ) r ( s
s 2 )...( s
s2 )...( s sn
r 1)
df ( s )
ds s
f ' (s)
(10.13)
(10.14)
sn
r 1)
(10.15)
( s s1 ) r .( s s3 )..( s sn
r 1)
...
(10.16)
(10.17)
s1
B ' ( s ) KA' ( s )
B ' ( s)
A' ( s )
(10.12)
(10.18)
(10.19)
Therefore,
B ' ( s ) A( s )
B ( s ) A' ( s )
(10.20)
82
Control Systems
B ' ( s ) A( s ) B ( s ) A' ( s )
A2 ( s )
dK
ds
(10.21)
GA
IN
&
Angle of asymptotes
1800 k 360
where, k=0, 1, 2, 3..
c
(n m )
Location of asymptotes
( s p1 )( s p2 )...( s pn )
( s z1 )( s z2 )...( s zm )
(10.22)
s n ( p1 p2 ... pn ) s n 1
s m ( z1 z 2 ...zm ) s m 1 ...
(10.23)
BE
A
sn
[( p1
p2
... pn ) ( z1
pi
( s zi )
n
c)
m
c)
(s
(s
( p1
sn
...
(10.24)
(10.25)
(10.26)
( n m)
p2 ... pn ) ( z1
(n m)
m 1
... zm )]s n
z2
cs
n m 1
z2 ...zm )
...
(10.27)
(10.28)
Angle of departure
d
180 (
2)
(10.29)
83
Control Systems
 angles of vectors to the complex openloop pole in question from other open  loop poles
+ angles of vectors to the complex openloop pole in question from all openloop zeros
Angle of arrival
180 (
) (
(10.30)
BE
A
&
GA
IN
d=180
a=180
 angles of vectors to the complex openloop zero in question from other open loop zeros
+ angles of vectors to the complex openloop zero in question from all openloop poles
Determine points on the rootlocus crossing imaginary axis
Re al[1 G ( j ) H ( j )] 0
imaginary[1 G ( j ) H ( j )] 0
(10.31)
(10.32)
Example
Problem1: Draw the rootlocus of the feedback system whose openloop transfer function is given
K
by G ( s) H ( s)
s( s 1)
Solution:
Step 1: Determine the number of openloop poles and zeros
Number of openloop poles n=2
Number of openloop zeros m=0
Openloop poles: s=0 and s=1
84
Control Systems
IN
BE
A
&
GA
85
Control Systems
1800 k 360
( n m)
900 k
180 360k
2
IN
270 k 1
z2 ... zm )
0 1
2
0.5
BE
A
&
Centroid of asymptotes
( p1 p2 ... pn ) ( z1
c
( n m)
GA
Steps 6 & 7: Since there are no complex openloop poles or zeros, angle of departure and arrival need
not be computed
Step 8: Determine points on the rootlocus crossing imaginary axis
K
s2 s K 0
1 GH 1
s ( s 1)
B( j )
( j )2 ( j ) K
(K
K
0
j
0
The rootlocus does not cross the imaginary axis for any value of K>0
86
Control Systems
Here,
1 4K
2
IN
&
GA
BE
A
Problem2: Draw the rootlocus of the feedback system whose openloop transfer function is given
K
by G ( s) H ( s)
s( s 2)( s 4)
Solution:
Step 1: Determine the number of openloop poles and zeros
Number of openloop poles n=3
Number of openloop zeros m=0
Openloop poles: s=0, s=2 and s=4
Step 2: Mark openloop poles and zeros on the splane
87
Control Systems
BE
A
&
GA
IN
88
Control Systems
0.85
4.378
3.079
5.15
3.622
K3.079=0
IN
1800 k 360
( n m)
600 k
180 k
0
180 360 k
3
300 k
1
2
Centroid of asymptotes
p2 ... pn ) ( z1
( n m)
z2 ...z m )
0 2 4
3
BE
A
( p1
c
&
GA
Steps 6 & 7: Since there are no complex openloop poles or zeros, angle of departure and arrival need
not be computed
Step 8: Determine points on the rootlocus crossing imaginary axis
K
1 GH 1
s 3 6s 2 8s K 0
s( s 2)( s 4)
B( j )
( j )3
6( j ) 2 8 j
(K
j (8
89
Control Systems
then K 6
48 .
The rootlocus does not cross the imaginary axis for any value of K>48.
6
48
+j2.828
8+j16.97
48
6+j2.828
J16.97
6+j2.828
J16.97
j2.828
j16.97
No.
Closedloop pole
on the real axis
4.309
3.07
4.50
5.625
5.00
5.50
6.00
48
6.5
73.125
0.85,0.85
Remarks
Already computed
0.75 j0.829
&
GA
IN
15
0.5 j1.6583
28.875
0.25 j2.2776
BE
A
Already computed
j2.8284
0.25 j3.448
4.5
6.75
5.625
1.5
1.25
K5.625=0
( s 2 1.5 s 1.25) 0
s2,3
0.75 j 0.829
90
Control Systems
IN
Problem3: Draw the rootlocus of the feedback system whose openloop transfer function is given
K
s ( s 1)
GA
by G ( s ) H ( s )
BE
A
&
Solution:
Step 1: Determine the number of openloop poles and zeros
Number of openloop poles n=3
Number of openloop zeros m=0
Openloop poles: s=0, s=0 and s=1
Step 2: Mark openloop poles and zeros on the splane
91
Control Systems
0
2 s ( s 1) s
2s 3
GA
dK
ds
IN
Breakaway point as
b= 2/3and 0
= 2/3is not on the rootlocus and therefore not a breakaway or breakin point.
Therefore b= 0 and the two loci start from the origin and breakaway at the origin itself.
b
1800 k 360
( n m)
180 360 k
3
600 k
&
180 k
3000 k
BE
A
Centroid of asymptotes
( p1
p2 ... pn ) ( z1
( n m)
z2 ... z m )
0 1
3
1
3
Steps 6 & 7: Since there are no complex openloop poles or zeros, angle of departure and arrival need
not be computed.
92
Control Systems
No.
1.5
1.125
0.25j0.82
2.0
0.50j1.32
2.5
9.375
3.0
18
1.125
1.5
0.75
1.125
0.5
0.75
BE
A
( s 2 1.5 s 1.25) 0
0.25 j 0.82
s2,3
1.00j2.23
0.75j1.78
GA
&
IN
93
Control Systems
IN
by G ( s ) H ( s)
K
s
5s
8s 2 6s
GA
Problem4: Draw the rootlocus of the feedback system whose openloop transfer function is given
Solution:
Step 1: Determine the number of openloop poles and zeros
s4
5s 3 8 s 2
6s
s(s2
2 s 2)( s 3)
(s 1
j )( s 1
j )( s 3) s
&
BE
A
94
Control Systems
IN
GA
sn
&
s 3 3.75s 2 4s 1.5 0
f ' ( s ) 3s 2 7.5 s 4
This equation is solved using NewtonRaphsons method
f ( sn )
f ' ( sn )
sn
No.
sn
3.75
BE
A
f ' ( sn )
f ( sn )
sn
13.5
18.0625
3.0026
3.0026
3.7721
8.5273
2.5602
2.5602
0.9421
4.4624
2.3491
2.3491
0.1658
2.9364
2.2926
2.2926
0.0103
2.5737
2.2886
2.2886
5
5.03x10
j )  2.3 ( 1
2.2886
6.2053
4.1073
4.3316
j)  4.33
95
Control Systems
2.7114
1.7947
1.8926
GA
IN
3,4
2.7114
1.7947
1.893
2.2886
0.9676
1.893
0.4228
0.8270
&
=0.2114j0.8814
BE
A
1800 k 360
( n m)
450 k
180 360 k
4
135 k 1
2250 k
0
315 k
Centroid of asymptotes
( p1
c
p2 ... pn ) ( z1
( n m)
z2 ...z m )
j 1
0 3 1
4
1.25
96
Control Systems
&
GA
IN
BE
A
1800
(1350
26.560
900 )
71.560
288.44 0
97
Control Systems
Step 7: As there are no complex openloop zeros, angle of arrival need not be computed.
Step 8: Determine points on the rootlocus crossing imaginary axis
B(s) s 4 5s3 8s 2 6s K
B ( j ) ( j ) 4 5( j )3 8( j ) 2
6j
6
5
6
5
6
5
K)
j (6
6
and when realpart is zero,
5
8.16 .
There are two closedloop poles on the imaginary axis for any value of K>0.
Additional closedloop poles
S1
S2
S3,4
0.25
2.9217
0.91420.7969j
1.0742
0.50
2.8804
0.80980.655j
1.5625
0.75
2.8593
1.0
2.8393
1.25
2.8055
1.75
2.0
GA
IN
No.
1.7930
0.58040.6063j
2.0000
0.47220.6631j
2.3242
2.6562
0.37630.7354j
2.8125
2.5214
0.23930.8579j
4.0
BE
A
&
0.69530.5938j
98
Control Systems
GM
20log
K2
K1
(10.33)
Where,
tan
&
GA
IN
BE
A
3. Percentage overshoot
Mp
/ tan
(10.34)
4. Settling time
ts
(10.35)
n
K s 2 10s 100
s 4 20 s 3 100 s 2 500 s 1500
,H s
(a) Determine the value of gain at which the system will be stable and as well have a maximum
overshoot of 5%.
(b) What is the gain margin at this point?
(c) What is the steadystate error for a unit step excitation at the above point?
Solution:
99
tan
Control Systems
ln M p
(a)
1.0487
460
1
0.690
(10.36)
BE
A
&
GA
IN
1 tan 2
(b) GM
20 log
192.2
261
2.65dB
Ks
lim s
s
K ( s 2 10 s 100)
20 s 3 100 s 2 500 s 1500
100 K
1500
Steadystate error,
1
1
1 K s 1 100 K / 1500
1500
5.4%
Se ( )
1500 100 261
Se ( )
1500
1500 100 K
100
Control Systems
Root locus
The locus of all the closedloop poles for various values of the openloop gain K is called root locus.
The rootlocus method is developed by W.R. Evans in 1954. It helps to visualize the various
possibilities of transient response of stable systems.
Closedloop response function
C ( s)
G ( s)
(10.37)
R(s) 1 G (s )H (s)
Characteristic equation
1 G (s) H (s) 1
K ( s z1 )( s z2 )...( s zm )
( s p1 )( s p2 )...( s pn )
(10.38)
&
GA
IN
BE
A
Exponential decay
Stable
Stable
Exponential increase
Unstable
Unstable
101
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
Control Systems
Starting points
Characteristics equation of a closedloop system
K ( s z1 )( s z2 )...( s zm )
( s p1 )( s p2 )...( s pn )
1 G (s) H (s) 1
p1 )( s
p2 )...( s pn ) K ( s z1 )( s z2 )...( s zm )
( s p1 )( s p2 )...( s pn )
GA
(s
(10.39)
IN
For K=0,
(s
p1 )( s
p2 )...( s
pn ) 0
(10.40)
Openloop poles are also closedloop poles for K=0. A rootlocus starts from every openloop pole.
&
Ending points
Characteristics equation of a closedloop system
K ( s z1 )( s z2 )...( s zm )
( s p1 )( s p2 )...( s pn )
(10.41)
1 G (s) H (s) 1
For K=
BE
A
K ( s z1 )( s z 2 )...( s z m )
( s p1 )( s p2 )...( s pn )
(s
z1 )( s
z2 )...( s z m ) 0
(10.42)
G ( s ) H ( s ) (cos
j sin )
(10.43)
Angle criterion:
n
m
i
1800
360k
(10.44)
j 1
i 1
Where,
Magnitude criterion:
G ( s ) H ( s)
(10.45)
102
Control Systems
Using the magnitude of vectors drawn from openloop poles and zeros to the rootlocus point, we get
n
(s
pi )
i 1
m
(s z j )
 ( s p1 )  ( s p2 )  ...  ( s pn ) 
 ( s z1 )  s z 2 )  ...  ( s zm ) 
(10.46)
j 1
8s
0.85
4.378
5.15
(10.47)
3.079
GA
6s 2
IN
S3
3.622
K3.079=0
BE
A
&
6. Start from openloop poles on the real axis, extend on the real axis for increasing
values of the gain and end at an openloop zero on the real axis.
7. Start from openloop poles on the real axis, extend on the real axis for increasing
values of the gain and end at an infinite value on the real axis.
8. Start from a pair of openloop poles on the real axis, extend on the real axis for
increasing values of gain, meet at a point and then leave the real axis and end at a
complex openloop zero or infinity.
9. Start from a pair of openloop poles on the real axis, extend on the real axis for
increasing values of gain, meet at a point and then leave the real axis. They may once
again enter the real axis and end at openloop zeros or at a large value on the real axis.
10. Start from a pair of complex openloop poles, enter the real axis and end at an openloop zero or an infinite value on the real axis. They could leave the real axis again and
end at a complex openloop zero or infinity.
103
Control Systems
B(s)
As )
df ( s )
ds
r ( s s1 ) r 1 ( s
(s
GA
K
f (s )
s1 ) r ( s
s2 )...( s sn
s 2 )...( s
r 1)
BE
A
Therefore,
B ' ( s ) A( s )
r 1)
(10.50)
(10.51)
(10.49)
r 1)
...
(10.52)
(10.53)
s1
B ' ( s ) KA' ( s )
K
sn
( s s1 ) r .( s s3 )..( s sn
&
df ( s )
ds s
f ' (s)
IN
f (s)
(10.48)
(10.54)
B ' ( s)
A' ( s )
B ( s ) A' ( s )
(10.55)
(10.56)
(10.57)
104
Control Systems
IN
GA
Angle of asymptotes
1800 k 360
where, k=0, 1, 2, 3..
c
(n m)
Location of asymptotes
( s p1 )( s p2 )...( s pn )
( s z1 )( s z2 )...( s zm )
(10.58)
s n ( p1 p2 ... pn ) s n 1
s m ( z1 z 2 ...zm ) s m 1 ...
(10.59)
&
K
sn
p2
[( p1
BE
A
( p1
pi
( s zi )
n
c)
m
c)
(s
(s
... pn ) ( z1
sn
...
(10.60)
(10.61)
(10.62)
( n m)
p2 ... pn ) ( z1
(n m)
m 1
... zm )]s n
z2
cs
n m 1
z2 ...zm )
...
(10.63)
(10.64)
Angle of departure
d
180 (
2)
(10.65)
105
Control Systems
 angles of vectors to the complex openloop pole in question from other open  loop poles
+ angles of vectors to the complex openloop pole in question from all openloop zeros
Angle of arrival
180 (
) (
(10.66)
BE
A
&
GA
IN
d=180
a=180
 angles of vectors to the complex openloop zero in question from other open loop zeros
+ angles of vectors to the complex openloop zero in question from all openloop poles
Determine points on the rootlocus crossing imaginary axis
Re al[1 G ( j ) H ( j )] 0
imaginary[1 G ( j ) H ( j )] 0
(10.67)
(10.68)
Example
Problem1: Draw the rootlocus of the feedback system whose openloop transfer function is given
K
by G ( s) H ( s)
s( s 1)
Solution:
Step 1: Determine the number of openloop poles and zeros
Number of openloop poles n=2
Number of openloop zeros m=0
Openloop poles: s=0 and s=1
106
Control Systems
IN
BE
A
&
GA
107
Control Systems
1800 k 360
( n m)
900 k
180 360k
2
IN
270 k 1
Centroid of asymptotes
( p1 p2 ... pn ) ( z1
c
( n m)
z2 ... zm )
0.5
BE
A
&
0 1
2
GA
Steps 6 & 7: Since there are no complex openloop poles or zeros, angle of departure and arrival need
not be computed
Step 8: Determine points on the rootlocus crossing imaginary axis
K
s2 s K 0
1 GH 1
s ( s 1)
B( j )
( j )2
(j )
(K
K
0
j
0
The rootlocus does not cross the imaginary axis for any value of K>0
108
Control Systems
Here,
1 4K
2
IN
&
GA
BE
A
Problem2: Draw the rootlocus of the feedback system whose openloop transfer function is given
K
by G ( s) H ( s)
s( s 2)( s 4)
Solution:
Step 1: Determine the number of openloop poles and zeros
Number of openloop poles n=3
Number of openloop zeros m=0
Openloop poles: s=0, s=2 and s=4
Step 2: Mark openloop poles and zeros on the splane
109
Control Systems
BE
A
&
GA
IN
110
Control Systems
0.85
4.378
3.079
5.15
3.622
K3.079=0
IN
600 k
1800 k 1
3000 k
180 360 k
3
0
2
Centroid of asymptotes
p2 ... pn ) ( z1
( n m)
z 2 ...z m )
0 2 4
3
BE
A
( p1
c
&
1800 k 360
(n m)
GA
Steps 6 & 7: Since there are no complex openloop poles or zeros, angle of departure and arrival need
not be computed
Step 8: Determine points on the rootlocus crossing imaginary axis
K
s 3 6 s 2 8s K 0
1 GH 1
s ( s 2)( s 4)
B( j )
( j ) 3 6( j ) 2 8 j
(K
j (8
111
Control Systems
then K 6
48 .
The rootlocus does not cross the imaginary axis for any value of K>48.
6
48
+j2.828
8+j16.97
48
6+j2.828
J16.97
6+j2.828
J16.97
j2.828
j16.97
No.
Closedloop pole
on the real axis
4.309
3.07
4.50
5.625
5.00
5.50
6.00
48
6.5
73.125
0.85,0.85
Remarks
Already computed
0.75 j0.829
&
GA
IN
15
0.5 j1.6583
28.875
0.25 j2.2776
BE
A
Already computed
j2.8284
0.25 j3.448
4.5
6.75
5.625
1.5
1.25
K5.625=0
( s 2 1.5 s 1.25) 0
s2,3
0.75 j 0.829
112
Control Systems
IN
Problem3: Draw the rootlocus of the feedback system whose openloop transfer function is given
K
s ( s 1)
GA
by G ( s ) H ( s )
BE
A
&
Solution:
Step 1: Determine the number of openloop poles and zeros
Number of openloop poles n=3
Number of openloop zeros m=0
Openloop poles: s=0, s=0 and s=1
Step 2: Mark openloop poles and zeros on the splane
113
Control Systems
0
2 s ( s 1) s
2s 3
GA
dK
ds
IN
b= 2/3and 0
= 2/3is not on the rootlocus and therefore not a breakaway or breakin point.
Therefore b = 0 and the two loci start from the origin and breakaway at the origin itself.
b
1800 k 360
(n m)
180 360 k
3
600 k
&
180 k 1
3000 k
BE
A
Centroid of asymptotes
( p1
p2 ... pn ) ( z1
( n m)
z2 ... z m )
0 1
3
1
3
Steps 6 & 7: Since there are no complex openloop poles or zeros, angle of departure and arrival need
not be computed.
114
Control Systems
No.
1.5
1.125
0.25j0.82
2.0
0.50j1.32
2.5
9.375
3.0
18
1.125
1.5
0.75
1.125
0.5
0.75
BE
A
( s 2 1.5 s 1.25) 0
0.25 j 0.82
s2,3
1.00j2.23
0.75j1.78
GA
&
IN
115
Control Systems
IN
by G ( s ) H ( s)
K
s
5s
8s 2 6s
GA
Problem4: Draw the rootlocus of the feedback system whose openloop transfer function is given
Solution:
Step 1: Determine the number of openloop poles and zeros
s4
5s 3 8 s 2
6s
s(s2
2 s 2)( s 3)
(s 1
j )( s 1
j )( s 3) s
&
BE
A
116
Control Systems
IN
GA
sn
&
s 3 3.75s 2 4s 1.5 0
f ' ( s ) 3s 2 7.5s 4
This equation is solved using NewtonRaphsons method
f ( sn )
f ' ( sn )
sn
No.
sn
3.75
BE
A
f ' ( sn )
f ( sn )
sn
13.5
18.0625
3.0026
3.0026
3.7721
8.5273
2.5602
2.5602
0.9421
4.4624
2.3491
2.3491
0.1658
2.9364
2.2926
2.2926
0.0103
2.5737
2.2886
2.2886
5
5.03x10
b= 2.3
Gain at the breakaway point, K  2.3 ( 3)  2.3 0  2.3 ( 1
j )  2.3 ( 1
2.2886
6.2053
4.1073
4.3316
j )  4.33
117
Control Systems
2.7114
1.7947
1.8926
1
s
3,4
2.7114
1.7947
2.2886
0.9676
1.893
1.893
GA
IN
0.8270
0.4228
=0.2114j0.8814
1800 k 360
( n m)
180 360 k
4
450 k
&
135 k 1
2250 k
BE
A
0
315 k
Centroid of asymptotes
( p1
p2 ... pn ) ( z1
( n m)
z2 ...z m )
j 1
0 3 1
4
1.25
118
Control Systems
&
GA
IN
BE
A
1800
(1350
26.560
900 )
71.560
288.44 0
119
Control Systems
Step 7: As there are no complex openloop zeros, angle of arrival need not be computed.
Step 8: Determine points on the rootlocus crossing imaginary axis
B(s) s 4 5s3 8s 2 6s K
B ( j ) ( j ) 4 5( j )3 8( j ) 2
6j
6
5
6
5
6
5
K)
j (6
6
and when realpart is zero,
5
8.16 .
There are two closedloop poles on the imaginary axis for any value of K>0.
Additional closedloop poles
S1
S2
S3,4
0.25
2.9217
0.91420.7969j
1.0742
0.50
2.8804
0.80980.655j
1.5625
0.75
2.8593
1.0
2.8393
1.25
2.8055
1.75
2.0
GA
IN
No.
1.7930
0.58040.6063j
2.0000
0.47220.6631j
2.3242
2.6562
0.37630.7354j
2.8125
2.5214
0.23930.8579j
4.0
BE
A
&
0.69530.5938j
120
Control Systems
GM
20log
K2
K1
(10.69)
Where,
tan
&
GA
IN
BE
A
8. Percentage overshoot
Mp
/ tan
(10.70)
9. Settling time
ts
(10.71)
n
K s 2 10s 100
s 4 20 s 3 100 s 2 500 s 1500
,H s
(a) Determine the value of gain at which the system will be stable and as well have a maximum
overshoot of 5%.
(b) What is the gain margin at this point?
(c) What is the steadystate error for a unit step excitation at the above point?
Solution:
121
tan
Control Systems
ln M p
(b)
1.0487
460
1
(10.72)
0.690
BE
A
&
GA
IN
1 tan 2
(b) GM
20 log
192.2
261
2.65dB
Ks
lim s
s
K ( s 2 10 s 100)
20 s 3 100 s 2 500 s 1500
100 K
1500
Steadystate error,
1
1
1500
1 K s 1 100 K / 1500 1500 100 K
1500
5.4%
Se ( )
1500 100 261
Equation Chapter (Next) Section 1
Se ( )
a.
C s
R s
K
s 1 s 2 s 4 s 5
Solution:
>> num=[01]
122
Control Systems
IN
40
BE
A
&
GA
num=
0
1
>>q1=[1 1];
>> q2=[1 2];
>> q3=[1 3];
>> q4=[1 4];
>>den=conv(q1,q2);
>> den=conv(den,q3);
>> den=conv(den,q4);
den=
1
12
49
78
>>sys=tf(num,den)
Transfer function:
1
s^4+12s^3+49s^2+78s+40
>>rlocus(sys)
123
Control Systems
Here,
C s
G s
N s
N s R s
s a s b s c ...
GA
C s
Let, r t
(11.1)
s a s b s c ...
IN
R s
A sin t , then
R s
&
s2
N s
C s
s a
s b
A1
C s
(11.3)
s a s b s c ... s
A1
(11.2)
(11.4)
A1
B1
...
s c
s j
B2
s j
BE
A
at
A1e
c t
A2 e
bt
A3e
ct
... B1e
j t
B2 e j
(11.5)
The term with Ai terms are decaying components. So, they tend to zero as time tends to infinity.
Css t
j t
B1e
B2e j
(11.6)
Where,
B1
B2
Since, G j
and
A G s
s
A G s
s
s j
A
G
2j
j G
(11.7)
A
G j
2j
j G j
G j
124
Control Systems
A
G j
2j
c t
c t
c t
A
G j
2j
AG j
c t
Where, B
AG j
j t
ej
(11.8)
(11.9)
(11.10)
sin
sin
e
2j
(11.11)
AG j
Therefore, the steadystate response of the system for a sinusoidal input of magnitude A and
is a sinusoidal output with a magnitude B
BE
A
&
GA
Polar plot
Bode plot
Magnitude versus phase angle plot
11.2. Definition of frequency domain specifications
, frequency
IN
frequency
when
is varied from 0 to
has a value
1
. It is the frequency
2
1
times of M r
2
125
Control Systems
(v) Phase crossover frequency: The frequency at which phase plot crosses 1800
(vi) Gain margin (GM): It is the increase in openloop gain in dB required to drive the closedloop
system to the verge of instability
(vii) Gain crossover frequency: The frequency at which gain or magnitude plot crosses 0dB line
(viii)
Phase margin (PM): It is the increase in openloop phase shift in degree required to
drive the closedloop system to the verge of instability
R s
Putting s
j
2
n
C j
C j
R j
1 u
BE
A
(11.13)
j2
2
n
C j
Now,
&
, then
n
j2
R j
Let, u
GA
2
n
R j
(11.12)
2
n
ns
IN
C s
M j
(11.14)
j2 u
M j
(11.15)
M j
Where,
M j
1 u2
1
tan
2 u
(11.16)
2 u
1 u2
Now,
Mr
1
2
n
1 2
(11.17)
(11.18)
126
Control Systems
1 2
PM
Where,
tan
1800
(11.19)
(11.20)
1 2
BE
A
&
GA
IN
11.4. Advantages
Good accuracy
Possible to test in lab
Can be used to obtain transfer function that is not possible with analytical techniques
Easy to design openloop transfer function from closedloop performance in frequency
domain
It is very easy to visualize the effect of disturbance and parameter variations.
11.5. Disadvantages
Applied only to linear systems
Frequency response for existing system is possible to obtain if the time constant is up to few
minutes
Time consuming procedure
Old and back dated method
127
Control Systems
20log  G ( j ) H ( j )  dB
BE
A
&
GA
IN
128
Control Systems
&
GA
IN
Laplace term
Frequency response
BE
A
No
Type of factor
Constant
Derivative factor
1/s
1/ j
Integral factor
(1+ j
s+1
1/( s+1)
s2
2
n
2
n
2
n
2
n
1
s
1/(1+ j
ns
j2
j2
1
ns
129
Control Systems
20 log j
j
20log
20log
dB
20log
(12.1)
900
(12.2)
2
20log
(12.3)
dB/decade
20log10
20 dB/decade
(12.4)
20 log 2 6 dB/octave
(12.5)
10
12
14
16
17
10
18
19
20
BE
A
&
M dB
GA
2
1
IN
Table 12.2 Magnitude variation of a derivative factor for various multiples of the initial
frequency
130
Control Systems
&
GA
IN
BE
A
Magnitude, dB
Phase, degrees
Frequency, rad/s
0.1
10
30
100
20
90
0
90
20
90
30
90
40
90
1
j
20log
j
20log
20log
20log
dB
(12.6)
270 0
(12.7)
20log
dB/decade
(12.8)
M
M
20log10
20 dB/decade
20log 2
6 dB/octave
(12.9)
(12.10)
131
Control Systems
GA
IN
Table 12.4Magnitude variation of an integral factor for various multiples of the initial frequency
2
16
17
18
19
10
M , dB
6
10
12
14
20
BE
A
&
132
Control Systems
10
20
100
Magnitude, dB
20
20
26
40
Phase, degrees
20 log 1
20log( 1
For << , M
c
For >> ,
c
20log
(12.11)
dB
GA
dB
IN
(12.12)
Here,
For >
c
20log
20log
&
20log10
20log
(12.13)
(12.14)
20 dB/decade
(12.15)
20 log 2 6 dB/octave
BE
A
Table 12.6Magnitude variation of a firstorder derivative factor for various multiples of the corner
frequency
10
10
12
14
16
17
18
19
20
M,
dB
;w
0
450 1 log
;
c
90
(12.16)
arctan
wc
10
wc
10
w 10 wc
(12.17)
; w 10 wc
133
Control Systems
Table 12.7Phase angles of a firstorder derivative factor around the corner frequency
10
45
59
66
72
76
80
83
86
88
90
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
10
14
18
24
31
45
, deg
c
, deg
0.1 1
Phase, degrees
10 20 100
14 20 26 40
GA
Magnitude, dB 0
IN
Frequency, rad/s
45 76 90 90 90
BE
A
&
134
Control Systems
&
GA
IN
1
j
20log
BE
A
20log
1
0,
dB
20log
wc
wc
dB
(12.18)
(12.19)
20log
20log
20log
dB/decade
(12.20)
20log 2
(12.21)
6 dB/octave
Table 12.9Magnitude variation of a firstorder integral factor for various multiples of the corner
frequency
10
10
12
14
16
17
18
19
20
M,
dB
6
135
Control Systems
Table 12.10Phase angles of a firstorder integral factor around the corner frequency
1
301
294
288
284
280
277
274
272
10
deg
315
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
270
1
360
358
356
353
350
342
336
329
315
/10
346
c/10<
<10
GA
=270, >10
IN
deg
&
0.01 0.1
0.7
10
20
100
2
3
17
20
26
40
Phase, degrees
Magnitude, dB 0
BE
A
360
136
Control Systems
IN
BE
A
&
GA
20 log 
2
n
20 log
2
n
j2
2
n
2
2
n
For w
wn
20log (2zwn ), w
M
40 logw, w
(12.22)
M 40logwn , w
2
wn
(12.23)
wn
wn
137
Control Systems
40log
40 log
40log
(12.24)
dB/decade
40log10
(12.25)
40 dB/decade
(12.26)
40log 2 12 dB/octave
Magnitude variation of a secondorder derivative factor for various multiples of the resonant
frequency
1
10
12
20
24
28
32
34
36
38
40
M dB
IN
2
n
j2
n
2
 arctan
00 ,
900 ,
(12.27)
2
n
GA
wn
10
w wn
(12.28)
&
180 , w 10 wn
0.01
0.1
0.7
10
100
Magnitude, dB
4
4
18
40
80
Phase, degrees
39
90
167
180
180
BE
A
Frequency, rad/s
138
Control Systems
BE
A
&
GA
IN
20 log
2
n
dB
j2
2
n
M  40log
n,
M=20log (2
<<
2
40log
40log
2
n
dB
(12.29)
2
n
), =
M=  40 log , >>
20 log
40log
dB / decade
(12.30)
139
Control Systems
40log10dB
40dB
(12.31)
Magnitude variation of a secondorder integral factor for various multiples of the resonant frequency
10
12
20
24
28
32
34
36
38
40
M
, dB
1
n
=0, <
=1800, >
2
n
0.1
0.7
10
100
18
40
80
360
360
321
270
193
180
180
BE
A
Magnitude plot
(12.32)
Phase, degrees
&
Magnitude, dB
0.01
=2700, =
Frequency, rad/s
n
2
360 arctan
j2
IN
GA
2
n
140
Control Systems
GA
IN
BE
A
&
Phase plot
Example 14.1
Draw the Bode magnitude and phase plot of the following openloop transfer function and determine
gain margin, phase margin and absolute stability?
G (s) H (s)
1
s( s 1)
Solution
Applying s
j ,
141
G( j )H ( j )
Control Systems
1
j (j
1)
The above frequency response function has two factors: (1) Integral factor and (2) First order integral
factor with a corner frequency of 1 rad/s
Bode magnitude of the transfer function
Frequency, radians/s
20log
1
dB
j
1
j
dB
10
100
40
20
20
40
3
20
40
40
20
3
40
80
= 100 rad/s
&
GA
Magnitude, dB
0.1
IN
20log
0.01
Frequency, rad/s
0.1
10
100
270
270
270
270
270
360
360
315
270
270
270
270
225
180
180
0.01
BE
A
1
degrees
j
1
degrees
142
Control Systems
BE
A
&
GA
IN
GM=80 dB
143
Control Systems
Example 14.2
Draw the Bode magnitude and phase plot of the following openloop transfer function and determine
gain margin, phase margin and absolute stability?
G (s) H (s)
1
s ( s 2) s
4)
Solution
1
j
j
8j
1
1
2
4
The corner frequencies corresponding to first order integral factors are 2 rad/s and 4 rad/s. Minimum
frequency is chosen as 0.01 rad/s and maximum frequency 100 rad/s.
G( j )H ( j )
IN
Table 14.1 Computation of Bode magnitude using asymptotic properties of the integral firstorder
1
2
x2
4
6
x1
2
0
Frequency, rad/s
Magnitude, dB
x1
2
0
x10
20
20
x2
20
20
x1
10
14
x1
20
20
GA
term
x2
40
26
x1
10
14
x10
100
34
Table 14.2 Computation of Bode magnitude using asymptotic properties of the integral firstorder
1
4
x1
4
0
Frequency, rad/s
Magnitude, dB
x10
40
20
x2
40
20
&
term
x1
20
14
x2
20
14
x1
10
8
x1
10
8
x10
100
28
Factor
0.1
BE
A
0.01
20 log
1
8
20 log
20 log
20log
1
j
j
2
Frequency, rad/s
0.2
0.4
10
20
40
100
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
40
20
14
6
12
20
26
32
40
1
3
6
14
20
26
34
1
3
8
14
20
28
22
4
10
18
28
39
60
78
96
120
1
j
4
Bode
magnitude,
144
Control Systems
dB
GA
IN
Bode magnitude
&
Bode phase
Frequency, rad/s
0.1
0.2
0.4
10
20
40
100
1
8
1
j
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
360
360
360
346
328
315
301
284
270
270
270
360
360
360
360
342
326
315
297
285
270
270
270
270
270
256
220
191
166
131
105
90
90
BE
A
0.01
Factor
j
2
j
4
Phase
degrees
Phase plot
145
Control Systems
BE
A
&
GA
IN
146
Control Systems
&
GA
IN
Bode plot
Example 12.1
Draw the Bode magnitude and phase plot of the following openloop transfer function and determine
gain margin, phase margin and absolute stability?
BE
A
G ( s) H ( s)
1
s ( s 1)
2
Solution
G ( j )H ( j )
1
( j )( j )( j
1)
There are two integral factors and an integral firstorder term with a corner frequency of 1 rad/s
Bode magnitude
Frequency, rad/s
0.01
0.1
10
100
20log
1
dB
j
40
20
20
40
20log
1
dB
j
40
20
20
40
147
Control Systems
20log
1
j
dB
Bode magnitude, dB
3
20
40
80
40
3
60
120
Example 12.2
Draw the Bode magnitude and phase plot of the following openloop transfer function and determine
gain margin, phase margin and absolute stability?
G (s) H (s)
1
s
5s
8s 2
IN
Solution
1
s(s
G( j )H ( j )
2s 2)(s 3)
1
( j )2
2( j ) 2 (( j ) 3)
1
3
G( j )H ( j )
j
2 and
&
j2
1
.
2
j2 ) 2 ( j
1)
3
Comparing the second order term with a standard second order term,
2
n
(2
GA
G (s )H (s)
6s
BE
A
c=3
rad/s
For > 0.5, the response at resonance is less than theresponse at frequencies less than the resonant
frequencies
Table Computation of Bode magnitude using asymptotic properties of the integral secondorder term
x1
x10
x1
x2
x3
x1
x1
x10
x3
x1
Frequency, rad/s
1.4
14
14
30
30
10
10
100
30
Magnitude, dB
6
46
46
58
58
38
38
78
58
18
Table Computation of Bode magnitude using asymptotic properties of the integral firstorder term
Frequency, rad/s
Magnitude, dB
x1
3
0
x3
30
20
x2
30
20
x1
14
14
x3
30
20
x1
10
10
x1
10
10
x10
100
30
148
Control Systems
Bode magnitude
Frequency, rad/s
n
0.1
0.14
0.3
10
14
30
100
20 log
1
3
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
20log
1
j
40
20
17
10
3
10
20
23
30
40
6
6
6
6
6
9
18
38
46
58
78
IN
0.01
1
3
10
14
20
30
24
23
93
118
158
1
(2
j (2 )
20log
j
GA
6
16
41
78
BE
A
Bode magnitude, dB
&
20log
149
Control Systems
Bode phase
Frequency, rad/s
n
0.1
0.14
0.3
1
3
1
degrees
j
270
270
270
270
360
360
360
360
360
360
270
270
250
1
2
(2
10
14
30
100
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
343
297
270
221
192
180
180
180
360
336
330
315
291
285
270
270
253
183
150
86
33
15
j (2 )
1
j
, degrees
BE
A
&
GA
degrees
IN
0.01
150
Control Systems
GA
IN
Nichols plot
&
Example 13.1
Draw a polar plot of the openloop transfer functionfor
Frequency response
G (s) H ( s)
G( j )H ( j )
BE
A
Magnitude
K
s ( s 1)
K
j (j
(14.33)
(14.34)
1)
G( j )H ( )
(14.35)
Angle
G( j ) H ( j )
270 0
tan
(14.36)
G ( j ) H ( j ) 180 0
(14.37)
No.
Frequency,
rad/s
Magnitude
Phase,
degrees
270
151
Control Systems
0.2
4.9029
259
0.4
2.3212
248
0.8
0.9761
231
0.7071
225
0.0606
194
10
0.01
186
50
0.0004
181
100
0.0001
10
200
GA
181
K
and K=1
s s 1
BE
A
&
IN
=0.2
Example 14.2
Draw a polar plot of the openloop transfer functionfor K=1, 10, 25, 55
K
GH
s ( s 2)( s 4)
Solution
Frequency response
G( j )H ( j )
j (j
K
2)( j
4)
152
Control Systems
Magnitude
G( j )H ( j )
16
Angle
G( j ) H ( j )
tan
tan
4
G( j )H ( j )
Magnitude
Phase,
degrees
0.1
1.2481
266
0.2
0.6211
261
0.4
0.3049
0.8
0.1423
10
50
IN
No.
253
GA
237
229
0.0099
162
0.0009
123
97
&
0.1085
K
for K=1, 10, 25, 55
s( s 2)( s 4)
BE
A
Example 14.3
Draw a polar plot of the openloop transfer function G ( s ) H ( s )
K
s ( s 1)
2
153
Control Systems
Solution
Frequency response
G( j )H ( j )
K
( j )2 ( j
1)
Magnitude
G( j )H ( j )
K
2
Angle
tan 1
The lies in II quadrant only as 90 0
G( j )H ( j )
180 0
G ( j ) H ( j ) 180 0
Magnitude and phase of the openloop frequency transfer function (K=1)
Frequency,
rad/s
Magnitude
Phase,
degrees
0.4
5.803
158
0.5
0.8
GA
153
1.2201
141
0.7071
135
0.1118
117
0.0351
108
3.5777
&
IN
No.
0.0152
104
0.0078
101
BE
A
K
for K=1, 10, 25, 55
s( s 2)( s 4)
154
Control Systems
&
GA
IN
C s
40
.
R s
s s 1 s 4
Determine the gain margin, phase margin, gain cross over frequency and phase cross over frequency.
Solution:
>> num=[0 40]
num=
0
40
>> q1=[1 0];
>> q2=[1 1];
>> q3=[1 4];
>> den=conv(q1,q2);
>> den=conv(den,q3);
den=
1
9
24
16
0
>>sys=tf(num,den)
Transfer function:
1
s^4+9s^3+24s^2+16s
>>bode(sys)
>>margin(sys)
BE
A
Program 1: Sketch the bode plot for the open loop transfer function
155
Control Systems
C ( s)
R(s)
G ( s)
1 G (s )H (s)
(14.1)
p1 )( s
p 2 )...( s pn ) K ( s z1 )( s z 2 )...( s zm )
( s p1 )( s p 2 )...( s pn )
IN
1 G (s) H (s)
(14.2)
(14.3)
zc1 )(s
zc2 )( s
z cn )
GA
1 G ( s ) H ( s)
(s
p1 )( s
p 2 )...( s
pn )
(14.4)
&
Angle
1 G( s) H (s )
(s
p1 ) ( s
p 2 ) ... ( s
pn ) .
p1 ) ( s
p 2 ) (s
pn )
(14.5)
(14.6)
BE
A
1 G ( s ) H (s )
The splane to 1+GH plane mappingphase angle of the 1+G(s)H(s) vector, corresponding to a point on
the splane is the difference between the sum of the phase of all vectors drawn from zeros of
1+GH(close loop poles) and open loops on the s plane. If this point s is moved along a closed contour
enclosing any or all of theabove zeros and poles, only the phase of the vector of each of the enclosed
zeros or openloop poles will change by 3600. The directionwill be in the same sense of the contour
enclosing zeros and in the opposite sense for the contour enclosing openloop poles.
156
Control Systems
&
GA
IN
BE
A
14.3.Principle of argument
When a closed contour in the splane encloses a certain number of poles and zeros of 1+G(s)H(s) in
the clockwise direction, the number ofencirclements of the origin by the corresponding contour in the
G(s)H(s)plane will encircle the point (1,0) a number of times given by thedifference between the
number of its zeros and poles of 1+G(s)H(s) it enclosed on the splane.
157
Control Systems
IN
ej
BE
A
&
GA
Magnitude of GH remains the same alongthe contourPhase of changes from 270 to 90 degrees
unit gain
Gain margin
20log G ( j
)H ( j
(14.7)
) 180o
(14.8)
Phase margin
G( j
)H ( j
158
Control Systems
BE
A
&
GA
IN
14.5.Procedure
(1) Locate openloop poles on the splane
(2) Draw the closed contour and avoid openloop poles on the imaginary axis
(3) Count the number of openloop poles enclosed in the above contour of step 2, say P
(4) Plot G(j )H(j ) and its reflection on the GH plane and map part of the small semicircle
detour on the splane around poles (if any) on the imaginary axis.
(5) Once the entire splane contour is mapped on to the GH plane, count the number of
encirclements of the point (1,0) and its direction. Clockwise encirclement is considered
positive, say N.
(6) The number of closedloop poles in the righthalf splane is given by Z=N+P. if Z >0, the
system is unstable.
(7) Determine gain margin, phase margin, and critical value of openloop gain.
159
Control Systems
Example 14.1
Using Nyquist criterion, determine the stability of a feedback systemwhose openloop transfer
function is given by
G (s) H ( s)
K
s ( s 1)
&
GA
IN
Solution
Step 1Locate openloop poles on the splane. Openloop poles are at s=0 and 1. Let K=1
Step 2 Draw the closed contour on the splane to check the existenceof closedloop poles in the righthalf splane.
Openloop poles and splane contour
G ( j )H ( )
tan
BE
A
G( j ) H ( j )
No.
Frequency,
rad/s
0.2
Magnitude
Phase,
degrees
4.9029
259
270
101
0.4
2.3212
248
280
91
0.8
0.9761
231
290
80
0.7071
225
300
69
0.0606
194
310
58
10
0.01
186
320
46
50
0.0004
181
330
35
100
0.0001
181
340
23
Positive
frequencies
, GH plane,
, splane, deg deg
160
Control Systems
1
200
10
200
11
180
350
12
180
100
0.0001
179
10
348
12
50
0.0004
179
20
337
13
10
0.01
174
30
325
14
4
0.0606
166
40
314
15
1
0.7071
135
50
302
16
0.8
0.9761
129
60
291
17
0.4
2.3212
112
70
280
18
0.2
4.9029
101
80
269
BE
A
&
GA
Negative
frequencies
IN
The above system is stable. Here, phase crossover frequency is very large (infinity) and gain
crossover frequency 0.786 rad/s. Phase angle corresponding to gain crossover frequency= 2320and
o
Phase margin is 52
Example 14.2.
Using Nyquist criterion, determine the stability of a feedback systemwhose openloop transfer
function is given by
G( s) H ( s)
55
s ( s 2)(s 4)
Solution
Step 1Locate openloop poles on the splane. Openloop poles are at s=0, 2 and 4. Let K=1
Step 2 Draw the closed contour on the splane to check the existenceof closedloop poles in the righthalf splane.
Openloop poles and splane contour
161
Control Systems
IN
G( j ) H ( j )
tan
16
tan
No.
Magnitude
, splane,
deg
213
270
2.1741
198
280
1.4568
187
290
2.83
1.1446
180
300
1.017
177
310
2.5
BE
A
1.5
Positive
frequencies
Phase,
degrees
3.4332
&
Frequency
GA
G( j )H ( j )
3.5
0.7334
169
320
4.5
0.4122
156
330
0.319
150
340
5.5
0.2513
146
350
10
0.201
142
11
0.1339
136
10
12
0.0932
131
20
13
0.0673
126
30
14
9
0.0673
234
40
15
8
0.0932
229
50
16
7
0.1339
224
60
Negative
frequencies
162
Control Systems
6
0.201
218
70
18
5.5
0.2513
214
80
19
5
0.319
210
90
20
4.5
0.4122
204
21
3.5
0.7334
191
343
22
3
1.017
183
326
23
2.83
1.1446
180
309
24
2.5
1.4568
173
292
25
2
2.1741
162
276
26
1.5
3.4332
147
259
BE
A
&
GA
IN
17
Here, Z=N+P=2.
Hence, the above system is unstable.
Again,
Phase crossover frequency 2.83 rad/s
The gain at which the system becomes marginally stable, K *
Gain margin
20 log G ( j
20log 1.1446
)H ( j
55 / 1.1446 48
1.17 dB
o
163
Control Systems
R s
40
.
s s 1 s 4
GA
IN
BE
A
&
Solution:
>> num=[040]
num=
0
40
>> q1=[1 0];
>> q2=[1 1];
>> q3=[1 4];
>> den=conv(q1,q2);
>> den=conv(den,q3);
den=
1
9
24
16
>>sys=tf(num,den)
Transfer function:
1
s^4+9s^3+24s^2+16s
>>nyquist(sys)
C s
164
Control Systems
IN
BE
A
&
GA
MODULE#4
165
Control Systems
Mr
20 log
C( j )
dB
R( j )
(16.1)
3 dB is considered good
15.2. Constant Mcircles for unity feedback systems
G( j )
M(j )
1 G( j )
x
x2
M(j )
y2
2M 2 x
M2
M2
M2
x
1 M2
1 M2
&
M2
Adding
1 M2
x2
y2
GA
M 2 y2
x 2 (1 M 2 ) (1 M 2 ) y 2
y2
y2
(1 x) 2
M 2 (1 x) 2
x2
(16.3)
jy
IN
G( j )
(16.2)
(16.4)
(16.5)
(16.6)
(16.7)
M2
x
1 M2
M
1 M2
BE
A
(16.8)
M
M2
,0 and radius
.
2
1 M2
1 M
Family of Mcircles corresponding to the closeloop magnitudes (M) of aunit feedback system
Constant Mcircles for unityfeedback systems
166
Control Systems
G( j )
1 G( j )
(16.9)
y
1 x
(16.10)
y
x
tan
&
tan
GA
IN
tan tan
BE
A
tan( A B )
N
1
2
y
x
y
1 x
(16.11)
tan A tan B
1 tan A tan B
(16.12)
1
2N
tan
y
x
(16.13)
y2
2
1
4
1
2N
1
4
1
2N
(16.14)
1 1
,
) and radius
2 2N
167
Control Systems
GA
IN
Example 15.1.
Determine the closedloop magnitude ratio and bandwidth of the feedback system whose forward
10
and H(s)=1, by (1) direct computation and (2)
s ( s 2)( s 4)
&
BE
A
Solution
168
Control Systems
Closedloop
Magnitude
ratio
Closedloop
Phase angle, deg
0.1
1.0
355
0.5
1.1
335
0.8
1.2
316
1.2
308
1.2
300
1.1
1.3
290
1.2
1.3
280
1.3
1.2
269
1.4
1.2
258
1.5
1.1
248
1.6
1.0
238
1.7
0.9
230
1.8
0.8
222
1.9
0.7
216
2.0
0.6
210
BE
A
1.0
&
0.9
GA
Frequency,
rad/s
IN
169
Control Systems
BE
A
&
GA
IN
C( j )
R( j )
Mr
G( j )
1 G( j )H ( j )
20 log
C( j )
dB
R( j )
C( j )
R( j )
(16.15)
(16.16)
(16.17)
170
Control Systems
BE
A
&
GA
IN
Example 15.2.
Determine the closedloop magnitude ratio and bandwidth of the feedback system whose forward
transfer function is given by G ( s )
10
and H(s)=1, by (1) direct computation and (2)
s ( s 2)( s 4)
171
Control Systems
GA
IN
Closedloop Phase
angle, deg
0.02
355
0.2
0.10
351
0.3
0.22
346
0.4
0.38
341
0.5
0.59
335
0.6
0.84
330
0.7
1.11
323
0.8
1.39
316
0.9
1.66
308
1.0
1.87
300
1.1
1.99
290
1.2
1.95
280
BE
A
0.1
&
Closedloop Magnitude
ratio, dB
Frequency, rad/s
172
Control Systems
1.72
269
1.4
1.27
258
1.5
0.62
248
1.6
0.19
238
1.7
1.12
230
1.8
2.11
222
1.9
3.13
216
2.0
4.15
210
IN
1.3
openloop phase
angle, deg
0.1
22
266
0.2
16
0.3
GA
Frequency,
rad/s
&
261
12
257
10
253
0.5
249
0.6
245
0.7
241
0.8
237
0.9
233
1.0
229
1.1
226
1.2
1
222
1.3
2
219
1.4
3
216
1.5
4
213
1.6
5
210
BE
A
0.4
173
Control Systems
6
207
1.8
7
204
1.9
7
201
2.0
8
198
2.1
9
196
2.2
10
193
2.3
10
191
2.4
11
189
IN
1.7
BE
A
&
GA
174
Control Systems
16. Controllers
16.1. Basic Control Action and response of Control systems
An automatic controller compares the actual value of the plant output with the reference input
(desired value), determines the deviation, and produces a control signal that will reduce the
deviation to zero or to a small value. The manner in which the automatic controller produces the
control signal is called the control action. Fig.1 is a block diagram of an industrial control
system, which consists of an automatic controller, an actuator, a plant and a sensor (measuring
element). The controller detects the actuating error signal, which is usually at a low power level,
and amplifies it to a sufficiently high level. The output of the controller is fed to an actuator
such as pneumatic motor or valve, hydraulic motor or electric motor. The actuator is the device
that produces the input to the plant according to the control signal so that the output signal will
approach the reference input signal.
GA
IN
The sensor or measuring element is device that converts the output variable into another
suitable variable such as a displacement, pressure or voltage that can be used to compare the
output to the reference input signal. This element is in the feedback path of the closedloop
system. The set point of the controller must be converted to a reference input with the same
units as feedback signal from sensor.
Error Detector
Amplifier
Actuator
Plant
Output
&
Ref I/P
Sensor
BE
A
175
Control Systems
Present
wages
Initial
wages
Product
cost
Industry
K1
K2
Cost of
living
Wages
increment
Dissatisfactionf
actor
IN
GA
To meet the emission standards for automobiles, Hydrocarbons (HC), Carbon monoxide (CO), and
Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions can be controlled by employing a three way catalyst in conjunction
with a closed loop engine control system as shown in Fig.2. The exhaust gas sensor gives an
indication of a rich or lean exhaust and compares it to a reference. The difference signal is processed
by the controller, and the output of the controller modulates the vacuum level in the carburetor to
achieve the best airfuel ratio for proper operation of the catalytic converter.
&
Reference
Controller
Carburetor
Engine
Sensor
Three
way
catalytic
converter
Exhaust
BE
A
Fig.16.3
Desired
blood
pressure
Body dynamics
Controller
2(s+5)
2e sT
s
Actual
blood
pressu
Sensor
2
s 2
Fig.16.4
16.6. Types of Controllers
176
Control Systems
(i) Pcontroller
(ii) PIcontroller
(iii) PDcontroller
(iv) PIDcontroller
Pcontroller
GA
IN
(a)
&
(b)
Fig.16.5
BE
A
Fig.16.6
177
Control Systems
Kp
C (s)
R( s )
Js 2
Kp
Kp
Js
Kp
Kp
J (s
2
n
(16.1)
Js 2
C ( s)
Kp
J (s
2
n
R(s )
(16.2)
1
s
For stepinput, R s
Step response becomes
Kp
n
(16.3)
BE
A
&
GA
Where,
IN
c ( t ) 1 cos
Fig.16.7
Solved problem
1. Consider the unity feedback system of Fig. 16.8. Let Kp=20 and J=50. Determine the equation of
response for a unit step input and determine the steadystate error.
178
Control Systems
Fig.16.8
Solution
KP
Js 2
Kp
1
Js 2
Kp
Kp
2
n
(1 cos
1 cos
t)
2
t
5
1 cos
2
t
5
cos
2
t
5
se ( t ) 1
GA
2
rad/s
5
J
Kp
2
n
IN
J s
c(t )
Js
Kp
C ( s)
R (s )
c(t )
Kp
2
&
C ( s)
R (s )
BE
A
Fig.16.9
Solution
G1
Kp
s 1
179
E1 ( s )
R( s)
1
1 G1 ( s )
E1 ( s )
Control Systems
s 1
s 2
1
R( s )
1 G1 ( s )
s 1
R(s)
s 2
Step response is
s 1
s s 2
E1 ( s )
U1 ( s )
R( s )
K p ( s 1)
C1 ( s )
R( s )
1
s 1 Kp
c1 (t )
1
1 e 2t
2
s 2
GA
1
1 e 2t
2
BE
A
&
e1 (t )
IN
( s 2)
Fig.16.10
Icontroller
180
Control Systems
(a)
C2
R1

eo
GA
IN
ei
(b)
Ki
s ( s 1)
E2 ( s )
R( s )
s( s 1)
s2 s 1
1
Ki
1
s ( s 1)
1
1 G2 (s )
BE
A
G2
&
Fig.16.11
K i ( s 1)
U 2 (s)
R(s )
s2
C2 ( s )
R( s )
e2 (t )
0.5 t
c2 (t ) 1 e
s 1
1
s Ki
cos
0.5t
1
s 1
3
t
2
3
3
t cos
t
2
2
sin
sin
3
t
2
181
Control Systems
IN
Fig.16.12
GA
PDcontroller
&
(a)
R2
ei
R1
BE
A
eo
(b)
Fig.16.13
Fig.16.14
182
Control Systems
K p (1 Td s)
C ( s)
R( s )
K p (1 Td s)
Js 2
K p (1 Td s)
Js
K p (1 Td s)
K pTd
Kp
J s2
s
J
J
K p (1 Td s)
Js 2
K p (1 Td s )
R( s )
K pTd
Kp
2
J s
s
J
J
C ( s)
Kp
2
n
1 e
K pTd
J
1
1
cos
t
1
sin
nt
sin
(16.6)
&
Kp
nt
GA
c (t )
IN
(16.5)
1
s
For stepinput, R s
Where,
(16.4)
Solved problem
BE
A
3. Consider the unity feedback system of Figure 3. Let K p=20 and J=50. Determine the equation of
response for a unit step input and determine the steadystate error. Here, Kp =20, Td =1 and J=50.
Fig.16.14
Solution
C ( s)
R( s)
20( s 1)
50 s 2 20 s 20
20(1 s)
50( s 2 n s
2
2
n
183
c(t )
Kp
nt
1 e
2
n
Control Systems
K pTd
J
c( )
1
1
Kp
2
n
cos
1
nt
sin
sin
Only PD control
No system damping
35.09
unsatisfactory
3.15
5.24
IN
Transient characteristic
Maximum overshoot, %
GA
(a)
BE
A
&
PIcontroller
15
(b)
Fig.16.15
184
Control Systems
Fig.16.16
E (s)
R( s )
u (t ) 1
e
s ( s 1)
s ( s 1)
s (1 K p ) K i
(s 1)( sK p
s
s (1 K p ) Ki
( sK p
Ki )
s (1 K p ) K i
&
Ki )
(s 1)
(16.7)
(16.8)
(16.9)
(16.10)
BE
A
e (t )
Ki
Step response
s 1
1
1 G1 ( s )
U (s)
R ( s)
C ( s)
R(s)
sK p
IN
Ki
s
Kp
GA
c (t )
1 e t
Fig.16.17
185
Control Systems
BE
A
PIDcontroller
&
GA
IN
Fig.16.18
Fig.16.19
(a)
(b)
Fig.16.20
186
Control Systems
Gc s
Kp
Gc s
K p 1 Td s
Ki
s
(16.11)
Ti
s
(16.12)
Where,
Ki
Kp
Td
Kd
Kp
GA
Tuning of PIDcontroller
(16.13)
IN
Ti
BE
A
&
Fig.16.21
C (s)
U (s )
C ( s)
Ke Ls
1 Ts
(16.14)
Ke Ls
U ( s)
1 Ts
(16.15)
187
Control Systems
Fig.16.22
IN
Type of controller
P
Kp
T
L
0.9T
L
T
1.2
L
&
PI
Ki
0
Kd
0
L
0.3
2L
0.5L
PID
1
Td s
Ti s
Kp 1
BE
A
Gc ( s )
GA
1.2T
1
1
2 Ls
L
s
Gc ( s)
0.6T
1
L
s
0.5 Ls
ZieglerNichols tuning rule based on critical gain Kcr and critical period Pcr.
Type of controller
P
PI
PID
Kp
0.5 Kcr
0.45 Kcr
0.6 Kcr
Ki
0
1/1.2 Pcr
1/0.5Pcr
Kd
0
0
0.125 Pcr
188
Control Systems
Where, Kcr proportional constant of a switchedoff integral and derivative controls at which sustained
oscillations of period P cr occur.
Second Method
Kp 1
Ti
s
0.6 K cr
1
1
0.5 Pcr s
Td s
(16.16)
s
0.075 K cr Pcr
4
Pcr
s
(16.17)
BE
A
&
GA
Gc ( s )
0.125 Pcr s
IN
Gc ( s )
189
Control Systems
17. Components
17.1. AC SERVOMOTORS
A two phase servomotor (Induction Motor) (A few watts to hundred watts) is commonly used
in feedback control systems. In servo applications, an induction motor is required to produce
rapid accelerations from standstill.
GA
IN
Schematic Diagram
&
Constructional features
Squirrel Cage rotor with Cu or Al conductor
High Rotor resistance
Small diameter to length ratio to minimize inertia
Two stator windings in space quadrature(One called reference winding and the other Control
winding)
The two voltages to stator windings must derived from same source(Or they must be in
synchronism)
BE
A
Principle of Operation
(i) The two applied AC voltage to stators with a phase difference produce a rotating flux.
(ii) As this moving flux sweeps over the rotor conductors, small emf is induced in rotor. Rotor being
short circuited, currents will flow and this current interacts with rotating flux to produce a torque
in the rotor. This torque causes the rotor to turn so that it chases the rotating magnetic flux.
190
Control Systems
GA
IN
Transfer Function
The torque developed is a function of shaft angular position ( ) and control voltage Ec.
s
Ec s
Js
Ds
Km
s Js D
K
s Tm s 1
Km
= motor gain constant, Tm
D
Where, K
Km
2
&
G s
J
= motor time constant
D
Merits of AC Servomotors
BE
A
Demerits of AC Servomotors
17.2. Synchros
It is also known as selsyn. It is a selfsynchronizing device widely used in servomechanisms as
a position indicator.
Important synchro systems are
Synchro system with transmitter and control transformer
Synchro system with synchro transmitter and motor
Synchro system with transmitter, differential and motor
191
Control Systems
&
GA
IN
Constructional features
BE
A
192
Control Systems
IN
GA
&
Synchro transmitter
It is not a three phase machine. It is a single phase machine. Here, input is angular position of
its rotor shaft.Output is a set of three stator coiltocoil voltages. Common connection
between the stator coils is not accessible.
BE
A
of receiver shaft
193
Control Systems
s=Displacement
of transmitter shaft
d=Displacement
of differential shaft
Then,
dt
If the phase sequence of stator and rotor windings of differential are reversed then
r
t
dt
IN
BE
A
&
GA
194
Control Systems
BE
A
&
GA
IN
17.3.2. AC Tachometer
Used in AC servomechanism. It resembles 2phase AC induction motor.
It comprises two stator windings arranged in space quadrature and a rotor which is
not conductively connected to external circuit.
One stator phase winding is excited by a suitable AC voltage of constant
magnitude and frequency. A voltage of the same frequency is generated across the
other winding known as control winding.
It is necessary that the voltage developed across the control winding is linearly
proportional to shaft speed and the phase of this voltage be fixed with respect to
voltage applied to reference winding.
The output voltage is connected to high impedance circuit of amplifier so that the
winding is considered open circuit.
An AC tacogenerator should have low inertia when rapid speed variations are
encountered. The drag cup construction gives low inertia and is used many times
195
17.5.1
Control Systems
Hydraulic linear actuator consists of pilot valve and a power cylinder. The piston inside
the power cylinder divides the cylinder into two chambers. The pilot valve is known as
spool valve because of its shape control the flow rate of the hydraulic fluid to the power
cylinder. It is a four port valves. It is connected to fluid supply at constant pressure. The
two ports connected to each chamber of power cylinder. One drain port is connected to
reservoir.
Principle of Operation
BE
A
&
GA
IN
If input x moves the pilot valve to the right, port II is uncovered, and so high pressure oil
enters the right side of the power piston. Since port I is connected to the drain port, the
oil in the left side of the power piston is returned to the drain. The oil flowing into the
power cylinder is at high pressure; the oil flowing out from the power cylinder into the
drain is at low pressure. The resulting difference in pressure on both sides of the power
piston will cause it to move to the left.
Transfer Function
Rate of flow of fluid Q(kg/sec) time dt(sec) is equal to the power piston displacement
dy(m) times the piston area A(sq.m) times the density of fluid P (kg/m3 ).Fluid flow rate
is proportional to pilot valve displacement x. So,
Q
x
Q
Kx
AP
AP
dy
dt
dy
dt
Kx
196
Control Systems
APsY s
Y s
X s
KX s
K
APs
Advantages
IN
Disadvantages
17.5.2
&
GA
The load may be massive (e.g. radar antenna) or light weight precision
instrument.
ii. The actuator should have
Desired dynamic response
Desired cost, size, and weight
iii. Electric power is readily available, cleaner and quieter and easier to transmit.
So electric motors is mostly preferable compared to hydraulic and pneumatic actuation)
BE
A
i.
Merits of DC motor
197
Control Systems
SUMMARY
CONTROL SYSTEM ENGINEERING
IN
GA
3.1 Potentiometers
&
BE
A
198
Control Systems
IN
GA
&
BE
A
199
Control Systems
BE
A
&
GA
IN
200