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1. Define statistics. Do not give me the definition presented in the VLE but research at least three
(3) authors.
Statistics is defined as the process of collecting, analyzing, interpreting, and presenting data. A
distinction should be made between statistics as a science or course of study and the term
statistic which we are accustomed to hearing when listening to the sports news broadcast or the
weather report, for example. The term statistic is the final outcome (number) which is derived
from the science of statistics or statistical methods.( Clark, Louise, The Essential of Business
Statistics I, 2007)
Statistics is defined as the art and science of collecting, analyzing, presenting, and interpreting
data. Particularly in business and economics, the information provided by collecting, analyzing,
presenting, and interpreting data gives managers and decision makers a better understanding of
the business and economic environment and thus enables them to make more informed and better
decisions. (Anderson et al., Statistics for Business and Economics 2011)
Statistics is regarded as the aggregate of facts affected to a marked extent by multiplicity of
causes, numerically expressed or estimated according to a reasonable standard of accuracy,
collected in a systematic manner for predetermined purpose and placed in relation to each other.
(Horace Secrist)
2. How can you relate your initial understanding about research in your organization?
I am currently working as Sales and Marketing officer of a pharmaceutical company. By
collating data, we can come up on a good and effective planning on what to project sales quota
per month and on what to do to make our sales grow.
Statistics really plays and important role in our field. For example, by forecasting sales
performance monthly, by knowing the trends of the usage of the vaccines and also on how to
make market on products and sell it up to them.
Exercise 2:
Determine if the following is descriptive or inferential
1. Descriptive - suppose a pet shop sells 100 pets composed of cats, dogs, birds
and fish and sold 40
2. Descriptive - suppose you want to know the average height of all the men in a
city with a population of so many million residents.
3.Descriptive-the manager of a fast food restaurant tracks the wait times for
customers during the lunch hour for a week and summarizes the data.
4.Inferential - the manager wants to know the difference of the quality of worklife of employees based on their marital status.
5.Descriptive- the research wants to know the demographics of the respondents in
terms of sex, age, birth order, ethnic background, and religious affiliation.
6.Inferential- the researcher wanted to know the relationship between the level of
willingness to enroll in Davao City and their demographic background.

Exercise 3:
Give at least three (3) example of each descriptive and inferential statistics.
Eighty-two percent of the employees from a small local company attended the annual company
This year, the net income of MARK Company increased by 20%.
The average number of absences of employees in a company was 14 per year.

In, 2017, the sales volume of DOREMI Company will increase by 15%.
According to our recent poll, 43% of Americans brush their teeth incorrectly.
Our research indicates that only 33% of people like purple cars.

Suppose you are the General Manager of a Big Company with a total of 10,000 employees
distributed in the four functional departments namely: Operations, Finance, Marketing, and
Human Resource. You want to study on the factors that contribute to the job satisfaction of your
employees because you believe that a higher job satisfaction could lead to better performance. A
sample of 385 employees will be considered for the study. Describe the manner of selecting the
samples using:
a. simple random sampling
Out of 10,000 employees, the researcher will extract 385 randomly by using draw lots or
random digits. The disadvantage of using this sampling method is that, there is unequal in
each department like for example there are 30 employees represent in Finance
department, 100 in operations, 160 in Marketing and 95 in HR department. Thus, each
department represents unequally.
b. stratified random sampling;
This is the best method by extracting samples from each department because from each
department, there will be an equal representation. For example,









It says that there is an equal representation of each department according to their

c. systematic sampling
This is somehow same as the simple random sampling but there is a system in extracting
the sample. Ex. All employees were listed in the master list alphabetically. In order to
extract 385 sample, the researcher decides to use 1 to k, where the value of k is
10,000/385= 25. The researcher now will extract every 25th of employees according to the
master list.
d. cluster sampling
Cluster sampling may be done over a wide geographical area. But in this case, this
sampling method is not applicable that much. But for the benefit of hassle-free in the
researchers part, he may extract samples in the subgroup in Operations department and
same as to all departments.