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938 Aurora Blvd., Cubao, Quezon City

College of Engineering and Architecture
Department of Electronics Engineering


Experiment No. 1

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

for the completion of the subject
Electromechanical Energy Conversion (EEC423L1)

Submitted by:
Submitted to:
Engr. A. Dela Cruz
June 27, 2012

At the end of the experiment, the students shall be able to:
1. Identify the different energy conversion equipment used in
the operation of electrical machines.
2. Classify the parts and components of dc and ac electrical
3. Differentiate dc and ac rotors according to type of motor
and application.

Open-Lab Machine with Base plate

Supports with bearing
Coupling joints
Flexible coupling
Electronic speed transducer
Assembling screws
DC Stator
Ac Stator
Rotor with commutator
Brush holder with 2 brushes
Squirrel cage rotor
Split-ring rotor
Power Supply Module
Computer with Printer
Data Acquisition Module
Power Measurement Module
Phase Detector
Frequency Meter
Digital VOM
Connecting Wires (Banana Type)
Rubber Hammer

Electro-mechanical energy conversion utilizes the principles of
transformation of electrical energy into mechanical energy or vice versa which
practically involves the operation of DC and AC electrical machines. The
operation involving electrical to mechanical energy conversion utilizes the
principles of DC and AC generator. AC generators are usually called alternators
aside from transformer. Majority of power plant station utilizes AC generator
that are mechanically attached to the prime mover, also known as turbine.
Categorically, there are two general types of power plant where energy
conversion equipment and facilities are present. These are renewable and nonrenewable energy sources. Among the general types of renewable energybased power plant stations are water-power, wind energy, wave energy, and
solar energy while non-renewable power plants are coal-fired thermal energy,
nuclear thermal energy, diesel power and bio-gas energy. These are practically
fossil-based fuel power plants. All power station designed and constructed with
solar PV modules do not utilize generator since energy conversion process
takes from the radiant energy of the sun and convert into electrical energy. The
energy conversions between electrical and mechanical forms with
electromechanical devices are developed and utilized for efficient operation of
electrical machines. Generally, electromechanical energy conversion devices
can be divided into three categories.
1. Transducer intended for measurement and control: Transducers
transform the signals of different forms like microphone, pickups
and speakers.
2. Force producing devices or linear motion devices such as relays,
solenoids and electromagnets.
3. Continuous energy conversion equipment: These devices operate
in rotating mode as electro-mechanical energy conversion.


50 V, 9.99 A
60 V, 9.99 A
999 W
220 V, 50/60 Hz

For dc voltage and

current measurement.
For ac voltage, current
and power

6000 rpm
300 W
36 V, 2 A
220 V, 50/60 Hz

Digital readout of the

measured quantities
and their conditioning to
voltage levels.

220 V, 10 A
50/60 Hz

Suitable for supplying

fixed and variable ac
and fixed and variable
rectified dc.

220 V, 50/60 Hz
3 x 80 uF, 150 V
0 80 Ohm, 1 A

Step variable three

phase rheostat for the
half torque starting of
the slip ring motors.

220 V, 50/60 Hz

Starting rheostat for the

three phase slip ring
induction motors and
excitation device for the
synchronization of the
motor with the mains

-10/+10 V
A/D converter 12 bit
D/A converter 8 bit
Max speed conversion:
10 KHz

Acquire continuous
signals or slowly
variable up to 100Hz

220 V, 50/60 Hz

Suitable to measure the

motor output torque
through a load cell
arranged on the braking

6000 rpm
300 W
36 V, 2 A
220 V, 50/60 Hz

Digital readout of the

measured quantities
and their conditioning to
voltage levels.

6000 rpm
300 W
36 V, 2 A
220 V, 50/60 Hz

Digital readout of the

measured quantities
and their conditioning to
voltage levels.

3 x 110 W

Single or three phase

resistive variable load

3 x 85 VAr

Single or three phase

capacitive step variable

6000 rpm
300 W
36 V, 2 A
220 V, 50/60 Hz

Digital read out of the

measured quantities
and their conditioning to
voltage levels.

220 V, 50/60 Hz

Suitable to measure the

motor output torque
through a load cell
arranged on the braking

Table 1.2 - Identifying the Model Parts and Components of

DC and AC Electrical Machines
Code No.

Description of Item

Brush Holder with 2 Carbon Brushes

Rotor with Commutator

DC Machine field windings

Electronic Speed Transducer

DC Stator

Speed tape sensor

Base plate

Rotor with Slip Rings

Carbon Brush for Slip Rings


Rotor Shaft Bearing Support


Slip Ring Terminal


Terminal Block for AC machine


Coupling Joints


Cage Rotor


AC Rotor Shaft


Carbon brush holder for slip ring rotor


Flexible Coupling


AC Stator


Terminal Block for DC machine


AC Machine field windings

Table 1.3 - Differentiate the DC and AC Machine

Type of Rotor

Rotor with




Industrial Application

We conclude that it is important for us (students) to be familiarized to the
machine that we are going to use in the future. The different purpose of the
parts of the machine is for us to know what will its use while we are getting the
data. We should also be careful enough to handle the materials because it
might deform the metal on every part of the machine. The data will not be
accurate if that happens. We should also be familiarized to their industrial
application because when the time comes that we are in the field, we are not
ignorant to the machine that they are going to use.

1. What is the main purpose commutator in DC machine?
Commutator are used to get unidirectional current Flow through the
external circuits in DC generator system. A commutator is an electrical
switch that periodically reverses the current direction in an electric motor
or electrical generator. It also enables to convert the dc voltage coming
from a DC source to run the motor.
2. Differentiate the operating principles of DC motors and DC generators.
A DC generator converts mechanical energy into direct current electrical
A DC motor converts direct current electrical energy into mechanical
3. What type of rotor designed for squirrel-cage and wound-rotor motor?
For the squirrel-cage the motor takes its name from the shape of its rotor
"windings"- a ring at either end of the rotor, with bars connecting the
rings running the length of the rotor. It is typically cast aluminum or
copper poured between the iron laminates of the rotor, and usually only
the end rings will be visible. The vast majority of the rotor currents will
flow through the bars rather than the higher-resistance and usually
varnished laminates. Very low voltages at very high currents are typical
in the bars and end rings; high efficiency motors will often use cast
copper to reduce the resistance in the rotor.

An alternate design, called the wound rotor, is used when variable

speed is required. In this case, the rotor has the same number of poles
as the stator and the windings are made of wire, connected to slip rings
on the shaft. Carbon brushes connect the slip rings to an external
controller such as a variable resistor that allows changing the motor's
slip rate. In certain high-power variable speed wound-rotor drives, the
slip-frequency energy is captured, rectified and returned to the power
supply through an inverter. With bidirectionally controlled power, the
wound-rotor becomes an active participant in the energy conversion
process with the wound-rotor doubly fed configuration showing twice the
power density Enumerate and describe the different types of DC motor
according to field winding connection.
4. In operation of DC motor, why back EMF is produces when the rotor is
running? What is its major significance?
During operation the conductors that make up the coils of a motor will
see external varying magnetic fields, either due to their own motion, or
the movement or varying of other magnets, and these generate electrical
potentials across the coils called 'back EMF' that are in the opposite
direction to the power supply, and are proportional to the running speed
of the motor.
Since the difference in voltage of the power supply and the back EMF
determine the current in the coils, this also determines the torque
generated by the motor at any instant in time as well as the heat
generated in the resistance of the windings.
Thus motor running speeds can often be reasonably well controlled in
many motors by simply applying a fixed voltage- the speed will tend to
increase until the back-EMF cancels out most of the applied voltage.