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INTRODUCTION
Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the natures most perfect and versatile foods. It is easy to
digest and replete with important nutrients essential for good health, especially in its whole grain
state.
Rice is rich in complex carbohydrates and offer a source of high quality protein,
providing 2 to 5 percent of the daily value per - cup serving. Rice is also a source of
antioxidant flavonoids ; the darker the color, the more it contains.
There are weathers and seasons when we prefer hot beverages rather than cold drinks.
There is more to these drinks than just the taste that they give to us and the relief of temperature.
With the right preparation and usage, they can be really beneficial if the healthier and organic
ones are used. Coffee, tea and hot drinks are really beneficial to our body and provide many
advantages which help in protection against disease. They generally provide antioxidants to the
body which fight against free radicals. Polyphones are the antioxidants which attack these free
radicals which cause diseases and aging. By combining with the free radicals, these antioxidants
reduce their activity to a great extent.
Coffee is a brewed beverage with strong flavor prepared from the roasted seed of the
coffee plant. The beans are found in coffee cherries which grow on trees cultivated in over 70
countries, primarily equatorial Latin America, Southeast Asia, south Asia and Africa. Green
(unroasted) coffee is one of the most trade agricultural commodities in the world. Coffee is
slightly acidic (5.0 5.0 ph) and can have a stimulating effect on humans due to its caffeine
content. It is one of the most costumed beverages in the world. The health effects of the coffee
have been studied to determine how coffee drinking affects humans. The importance of caffeine

on the human body, coffee can help people feel less tired and increase energy levels. This is
because it contains a stimulant called caffeine, which is actually the most commonly consumed
psychoactive substance in the world. Caffeine is a fat burning supplement it also helps to boost
metabolic rate by 3 to 11 percent and improve physical performance.
Coffee, tea and hot drinks are good options to choose when the weather is chilly or
refreshment is required is when the day is tiring. It provides refreshing benefits to the people.
Coffee is the morning savior and dispenser of energy, the thing about waking up is knowing you
have another cup of coffee to enjoy because coffee makes you happy.
Statement of the Problem
This study was conducted to determine the acceptability of red rice in making coffee in
particular to answering the following questions:
1. How may the coffee using red rice flavored with milk, chocolate, and caramel be
described in terms of:
a. Aroma;
b. Color;
c. Taste; and
d. Overall acceptability?
2. Are there significant differences among treatments in terms of:
a. Aroma;
b. Color;
c. Taste; and
d. General Acceptability?
Objectives of the Study
The general objective of the study is to develop coffee using red rice (oryza sativa).
Specifically, it aims:

1. To describe red rice coffee flavored with milk, chocolate and caramel in terms of aroma,
flavor, appearance and overall acceptability; and
2. To determine the relationship of aroma, flavor and appearance to the general acceptability
of coffee using red rice.
Importance of the Study
The finding of the study will have a great value in helping the different stakeholders such
as students, academicians, researchers, school, government, and etc. It would serve as their
future studies.
To the students the students would be able to use this study as their reference in school.
This will provide them a factual information about the benefits that they can get in coffee using
red rice.
To the researcher through this study, the researchers would be able to know the effect of
red rice in making coffee.
To the school the school will have a thesis book about red rice coffee and it will help
the students in their different researchers.
To the government this study will be used by the government and it will serve as their
guide in developing a product.
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This study was delimited in using only the red rice toasted and crushed into powdered
form. Only three (3) flavors were used; milk, chocolate and caramel flavors.

This study was further delimited in finding out the effect of using three (3) different
flavors (milk, chocolate and caramel) in the acceptability of coffee using red rice in terms of four
(4) parameters namely aroma, color, taste and overall acceptability.
Time and Place of the Study
This study was conducted on the first to second week of March at one of the authors
residence at Pob. Norte, Mayantoc, Tarlac. The finished product of the Red rice powdered coffee
was brought to Tarlac College of Agriculture - Laboratory School for further evaluation.
Definition of Terms:
For a better understanding of the study, the following words were operationally defined:
Appearance in this study, it refers to the color of the coffee samples that gave the coffee
distinct character.
Aroma A distinct, typically pleasant smell.
Coffee strong caffeine beverage made from water filtered through coffee beans.
Flavor - the sensory impression of a food or other substance, and is determined mainly by the
chemical senses of taste and smell.
General Acceptability this is the totally of characteristic of coffee made in red rice variants as
perceived by the panelist.
Red rice is a special variety of rice that is red in color because it contains anthocyanin before
using for cooking.

Powder - composed of a large number of very fine particles that may flow freely when shaken or
tilted.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


Rice
According to organic facts.net, the International Rice Research Institute in the
Philippines, the nutritional value of rice needs to be improved even more so that it benefits
mankind. Rice, being the most dominant cereal crop in most of the world can improve the lives
of millions of people who consume it. Efforts are currently being made to increase the micronutrient value of rice by combining traditional methods of growing crops with modern biotechnology. The institute further states that the development of rice with high iron and zinc
compounds could be possible through bio fortification. That can also induce high quality
yields, which could be eagerly accepted by farmers as well as rice consumers for healthier,
longer lives. The health benefits of rice include its ability to provide fast and instant energy,
regulate and improve bowel movement, stabilize blood sugar levels, and slow down the aging
process, while also providing an essential source of vitamin B1 to the human body. Other
benefits include its ability to boost skin health, increase the metabolism, aid in digestion, reduce
high blood pressure, help weight loss efforts, improve the immune system and provide protection
against dysentery, cancer, and heart disease. Rice is a fundamental food in many cultural cuisines
around the world, and it is an important cereal crop that feeds more than half of the worlds
population. Rice can also prevent chronic constipation. The insoluble fiber from rice acts like a
soft sponge that may be pushed through the intestinal tract quickly and easily. Brown rice and
whole grains are known to be rich in insoluble fiber. However, it is advisable to drink lots of
water for relieving youre your constipated condition, in addition to eating fibrous food. Diabetic
patients should include brown rice rather than white rice, which contains low level of glycemic
index. As little as one cup of brown rice on a daily basis provides a person with almost 100

percent of their daily manganese requirement, which help to produce energy from carbohydrates
and protein. Brown rice is also extremely beneficial for normal functioning of the nervous
system and the production of sex hormones.
Densie Webb, Ph.D., RD (2011), Good diet and good health go together like, well, white
on rice or black, red, or brown, for that matter. Gluten free, full of high-quality protein, and
considered one of the least allergenic foods you can serve, rice is an integral part of any healthful
diet.
Coffee
Coffee is a brewed beverage with strong flavor prepared from the roasted seed of the
coffee plant. The beans are found in coffee cherries which gro on trees cultivated in over 70
countries, primarily equatorial Latin America, Southeast Asia, south Asia and Africa. Green
(unroasted) coffee is one of the most trade agricultural commodities in the world. Coffee is
slightly acidic (5.0 5.0 ph) and can have a stimulating effect on humans due to its caffeine
content.

It

is

one

of

the

most

costumed

beverages

in

the

world.

(http://en.

Wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_coffee)
A study lead by a new England Journal of Medicine student named May found that,
during the course of their study, coffee drinker who drank at least two to three cups a day, were
about 10 percent or 15 percent less likely to die for any reason during the 13 years of the study.
The researchers who conducted the study said that this doesnt necessarily provides a cause and
effect relationship, but will help point other researchers in the right direction. For occasions
when one wants to enjoy the flavor of coffee (also called decaf) is available. This is coffee from
which most of the caffeine has been removed, by the Swiss water process (which involves the

soaking of raw beans to remove the caffeine) or the use of a chemical solvent such as
trichloroethylene (tri), or the more popular methylene chloride, in a similar process. Another
solvent used is ethyl acetate; the resultant decaffeinated coffee is naturally present in fruit.
Extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide has also been employed. (http://en. articles.org/
More about coffee)
Decaffeinated coffee usually loses some flavor compared to normal coffee. There are also
coffee alternatives that resemble coffee in taste but contained no caffeine. There are available
both in ground form for brewing and in instant form. Caffeine dependency and withdrawal
symptoms are well documented. Coffee can prevent or the benefits are: reduce risk alzheimers
disease and dementia, reduced risk of gallstone disease, reduced risk Parkinsons disease,
cognitive performance, cancer, cardio protective, Laxative/diuretic, Antioxidant, prevention of
dental carries, Gout and Blood pressure.
Walter Willett (2013) said that coffee is an amazingly potent collection of biologically
active compounds.
Caffeine, a mild stimulant, also provides benefits: Its been linked to lower risks of
Alzheimers disease, for example. But when it comes to caffeine, there can be too much of a good
thing. Those who study caffeines lesser know effects point to studies that indicate it can be
worrisome for people with high blood pressure, diabetes and osteoporosis. Plus, caffeine can
interact poorly with some common medications, and it can worsen insomnia, anxiety and
heartburn.
Moreover beneficial to human health, there will always be some disadvantage in drinking
coffee, some of which when caffeine is taken more than the normal or average volume. The

effects are counterproductive and can cause harm to people with all the negatives issues of coffee
particularly due to its caffeine content, potential products to substitute coffee in human diet had
surface in the market. Coffee substitute are non coffee products, usually without caffeine, that are
used to imitate coffee. The purpose of coffee substitute can be used for medical, economic and
religious reasons, or simple because coffee is not readily available. Roasted grain beverages are
common substitute for coffee are sometimes used in preparing food to children or to people who
avoid

caffeine,

or

in

the

belief

that

they

are

healthier

than

coffee

(http//en.

Wikipedia.org/wiki/coffee_substitute)
Hot Beverages
Clarke (2002) stated that there are weathers and season when we prefer hot beverages
rather than cold drinks. There is more to these drinks than just the taste that they give to us and
relief of temperature. With the right preparation and usage, they can be really beneficial if the
healthier ad organic ones are used. Coffee, tea and hot drinks are really benefial to our body and
provide many advantages which help in protection against diseases. The beverages like coffee,
tea and hot drinks which include chocolate and cocoa drinks are really beneficial for the body.
They provide antioxidants to the body which fight against free radicals. Polyphones are the
antioxidants which attack these free radicals which cause diseases and aging. By combining with
the free radicals, these antioxidants reduce their activity to a great extent. Coffee, tea and hot
drinks are available in organic options too which are least processed and have all the nutrients
intact. Also, there are numerous varieties too which are available in each category like honey
bush tea, traditional Indian tea, Moroccan mint tea, white tea

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Peppermint tea bags, chamomile tea, etc. in the category of tea. Coffee too has various
option that can be chosen like mild roasted coffee beans, deep roasted coffee, ground organic
coffee, decaffeinated organic ground coffee, whole bean coffee etc. Even the hot drinks other
than this have some option to choose from. Organic hot chocolate, cocoa powder and gluten free
cocoa powder are available to make a choice according to your taste and health benefits. All the
organic drinks which are available through these beverages are approved by various food and
agricultural agencies for their health benefits. Coffee, tea and hot drinks in themselves have great
benefits which are enhanced all the more by their organic nature and lower processing. As the
temperatures drop, theres nothing likt curling up with a warm beverage. And fortunately, many
of our favorite fall drinks also have nutritional benefits, with possible powers toward off cancer,
defeat free radicals and even help provide the days value of protein, says American Dietetic
spokesperson Debbi Beauvais, a registered dietician based on Rochester, N.Y. Just be mindful of
what you drinks some beverages are innocuous at the heart, but can become calorie bombs when
you add cream, sugar and flavorings, she said. Sugar and fat are what makes foods flavor foods
flavorful, Beauvais told Huff post. You really have to be mindful of nutrition that goes with
that, or a drinks can go from calorie-free to a calorie-laden treat.
Flavoring
Hausch (2010) stated that the use of flavorings in beverage to unsafe water prior to the
1900s, as observed by outbreaks of cholera, dysentery and other waterborne illnesses. The result
was the development of small beers beverages that were boiled and flavored with ingredients
such as herb and slightly fermented. Other early flavored beverages were barley waters (1320),
lemonade (1663) and orangeade (1660s). Carbonated beverages, on the other hand, first came
from natural sources, specifically effervescent mineral spring and yeast fermentation.

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Pea (2013), Development of Flavored Coffee from Malunggay (Moringa Oleifera)


Seeds, stated that using the three (3) flavors, with panda, with vanilla and with lemon, the
Malunggay with lemon obtained the highest mean score. This results indicate that Malunggay
coffee with lemon was highly preferred by the panelist in there aroma and flavor.
Qurratu (2012), stated nowadays in our industry flavor is concentrated preparation of
odorous and flavouring substances, with or without solvent or carriers, used exclusively to give
food a particular smells or taste. Flavors can also be used as masking agent, which is an
ingredients used for masking unpleasant odor or taste. In food stuff or a pharmaceutical product.
Flavor can also be used as a taste an enhancer, which is a substance using in such small amounts
as to produce little or no odor on its own, but which to increases the odor or taste effect of other
food components well above their normal level or at least enough to make them palatable.
There are two types of flavor products usually in the market which is in liquid flavor and
also in powder.
Milk
In many cultures of the world, especially the Western world, human continue to consume
milk beyond infancy, using the milk of other animals especially cattle, goats and sheep, as a food
product. Initially, the ability to digest milk was limited to children as adults did not produce
lactase, an enzyme necessary for digesting the lactose in milk. Milk was therefore converted to
curd, cheese and other products to reduce the levels of lactose. Thousands of years ago, a change
mutation spread in human population in Europe that enabled the production of lactase in
adulthood. This

allowed milk to use as

a new source of nutrition which could sustain

populations when other food sources failed. Milk processed into a variety of dairy products such

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as cream, butter, yogurt, kefir, ice cream, and cheese. Modern industrial processes use milk to
produce casein, whey protein, lactose, condensed milk, powdered milk, and many other food
additive and industrial products. (http://en. Wikipedia.org)
The sugar lactose is found only in milk, forsythia flowers, and a few tropical shrubs. The
enzyme needed to digest lactose, lactase, reaches its highest levels in the small intestines after
birth and then begins a slow decline unless milk is consumed regularly. On the other hand, those
group who do continue to tolerate milk often have exercised great creativity in using the milk of
domesticated ungulates, not only of cattle, but also sheep, goats, yaks, water buffalo milk in the
world in India.
The primary types of milk are, whole milk, reduced fat milk (2%), low-fat milk (1%), and
fat-free milk. The percentages include in the names of the milk indicate how much fat is in the
milk by weight. Whole milk fat and is the way it comes from the cow before processing.
Consumers that want to cut calories and fat have multiple options; reduced-fat milk contains 2%
milk fat and low-fat milk contains no more than 0.2% milk fat. (Healthyeating.org)
All of this milk contain the nine essential nutrients found in whole milk but less fat. The
United States government sets minimum standards for fluid milk that is produced and sold.
Reduced fat milks have all of the nutrients of full fat milk; no water is added to these types of
milk.

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Chocolate
Stibich (2014) Stated that chocolate is made from plants, which means it contains many
of the health benefits of dark vegetable as part of your anti aging diet. These benefits are from
flavonoids, which act as antioxidants. Antioxidants protect the body from aging cause by free
radicals, which can cause damage that leads to heart disease. Dark chocolate contains a large
number of antioxidants (nearly 8 times the number found in strawberries). Flavonoids also help
relax blood pressure through the production of nitric oxide, and balance certain hormones in the
body.
Rettner (2010) the dark chocolate contains certain antioxidants called polyphenols that
could help fight chronic inflammation of tissue in the circulatory system. moderate amounts of
dark chocolate might also play a role in cancer prevention.
Organicfact. Com (2008), study found that people who ate a small amount of dark
chocolate a day (about 6.7 grams) had lower levels of a protein that is associated with
inflammation in their blood. Eating chocolate may even help with math, or at least counting. A
study reported in 2009 showed that people did a better job of counting backwards in groups of
three after they had consumed a shot cocoa drink containing large amounts of a compound found
in chocolate. These compounds, called flavonoids, which well get to later, may increase blood
flow to the brain. chocolate may also have anti-cancer benefits because flavonoids may help
reduce the cell damage that can spur tumor growth. The other recent studies have found that
blood platelets clump together more slowly in chocolate eaters . clumping platelets can lead to
the formation of blood clots, which in turn can cause a heart attack. Chocolate consumption may
lower blood pressure, help prevent formation of artery plaques and improve blood flow.

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Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown, food preparation of Theobroma cacao


seeds, roasted and ground, often flavored, as with vanilla. It is made in the form of a liquid,
paste or in a block or used as a flavoring ingredient in other sweet foods. Chocolate has become
one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world, and a vast number of foodstuffs
involving chocolate have been created. Chocolate chip cookies have become very common, and
very popular, in most parts of Europe and North America, Gifts chocolate. (http://en.
Wikipedia.org)
Many women with PMS crave chocolate before their periods, and they often report that
indulging chocolate improves their mood, making them feel instantly better. This is may be the
result of the serotonin that is released when chocolate is consumed. However, experts suggest
that indulging in nutrient-rich foods particularly those containing calcium, vitamin D,
magnesium, vitamin B6, and manganese is actually more effective at relieving most PMS
symptoms. (http://www.joybaure.com/foodarticles/chocolate.aspx).
Caramel
Caramel is a beige to dark brown confectionery product made by heating any of a variety
of sugars. It is used as a flavoring in puddings and desserts. The process of caramelization
consist of heating sugar slowly to around 170 OC (340

OF).

As the sugar heats, the molecules

break down and re-form into compounds with a characteristic color and flavor. A variety of
candies, desserts, and confections are made with caramel: brittles, nougats, pralines, and caramel
apples.

Ice creams sometimes are flavored with or contain swirls of caramel. (http://en.

Wikipedia.org)

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16

METHODOLOGY
This chapter represents the method of research, the subject of the study, the method of
gathering data, the research instruments of the gathered data.
Research Design
Research design provides the glue that holds the research project together. A design is
used to structure the research, to show all of the major parts of the research project the samples
or group, measures, treatments or programs and methods of assignment-work together to try to
address the central research questions.
This study used was evaluated and described in terms of aroma, color, taste, and general
acceptability using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
Treatments of the Study
The study have the following treatments:
Treatment 1 (T1) Red rice coffee plain
Treatment 2 (T2) Red rice coffee with milk.
Treatment 3 (T3) Red rice coffee with chocolate
Treatment 4 (T4) Red rice coffee with caramel

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Materials
The materials that were used in the study are utensils, equipment, actual supplies and
other materials. The following were the utensils and equipment used in conducting the study:
measuring cup, measuring spoon, frying pan, sauce pan, glass jar, tray, drinking glass, wooden
ladle, blender, coffee maker gas stove and coffee filter paper.
Ingredients
The ingredients that are used were: red rice, water, sugar, fresh milk, chocolate syrup and
caramel syrup.
Methods
Preparation of utensils and equipment

All utensils and equipment will be thoroughly washed with detergent and water and
sterilized with boiling water for at least five (5) minutes.
Powdering Red Rice
The red rice was spread on a frying pan, the heat is medium level, mix until they are
totally toasted and become dark color. After it, the toasted red rice was put in a blender to turn it
into powder form.
Preparation of Coffee using Red Rice
In the preparation of flavored coffee using red rice, the following procedures were followed:

18

1. The red rice is placed in the bowl. The frying pan is preheated and the rice is placed
in the pan with continues mixing using the wooden ladle until the rice are became
dark colored and totally toasted.
2. After the toasting process, the toasted rice is turned into powdered form using a
blender.
3. Using coffee maker, fill the water at least 2 cups, put the powdered red rice coffee on
the filter basket holder (for every cup of water, 3 tsp. of powder coffee, 1 tsp. of
sugar.)
4. Place the carafe on the hotplate. Connect the coffee maker to the power outlet and
press the switch on.
After the brewing process, take air carafe and pour out coffee into cups. For every cup of
red rice coffee the flavored was added individually per cups, (1 tbsp. for milk, 2 tsp. for
chocolate and 2 tsp. for caramel syrup), the coffee and flavor will be mixed.
Sensory Evaluation
Data Gathering
The treatments were evaluated with a total of 20 people as evaluators and rated in terms
of aroma, color, taste and general acceptability. Each of the treatments is presented to the
evaluators using the Nine-point Hedonic Scorecard.
The verbal descriptions that are in the Scorecard are as follows:
9

liked extremely

liked very much

liked moderately

liked slightly

neither like nor dislike

19

disliked slightly

disliked moderately

disliked very much

disliked extremely

Data Analysis
For objective number one of this study, frequency distribution is determined and then the
mean, rank and verbal descriptions will be identified. To meet objective number two, the results
on the evaluation of the aroma, color, taste and general acceptability of the coffee are subjected
to statistical analysis using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of the Complete Randomized
Design (CRD). The Duncans Multiple Range Test was used in the comparison of the treatments
means.
The scores were be tabulated, computed and analyzed. The data are presented in
frequency distribution, mean average, rank and verbal description based on the following range
and descriptions:
8.5 9. 00

Liked extremely

7.5 8.50

Liked very much

6.5 7.50

Liked moderately

5.5 6.50

Liked slightly

4.5 5.50

Neither liked nor disliked

3.5 4.50

Disliked slightly

20

2.5 3.50

Disliked moderately

1.5 2.50

Disliked very much

0.5 1.50

Disliked extremely

21

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


This chapter reveals the data gathered from the results of the study followed by a discussion of
each result.
Table 1. Mean score for red rice coffee in terms of aroma.
TREATMENT
Treatment 1
Treatment 2
Treatment 3
Treatment 4

MEANS

RANK
c

6.95
7.75b
8.3a
7.9ab

VERBAL
4
3
1
2

DESCRIPTION
Liked moderately
Liked moderately
Liked very much
Liked very much

Note: Means with the same letter superscript are not significantly different at 5% level of
significance.
In terms of aroma, Table 1 shows that among the four treatments T3 (red rice coffee with
chocolate) obtained the highest mean score of 8.3 corresponding to a descriptive rating of Liked
Very Much. T1 (red rice coffee plain) got a score of 6.95 corresponding to a descriptive rating
of Liked Moderately. T2 (red rice coffee with milk) and T4 (red rice coffee with caramel)
obtained a mean score of 7.75 and 7.9 with a descriptive rating of Liked Very Much.
This result indicates that the red rice coffee with chocolate (T3) is the most preferred by
the panelists in terms of aroma followed by the red rice coffee with caramel (T4) and red rice
coffee with milk (T2), and the least preferred is the red rice coffee plain (T1). This result may be
explained by the face that chocolate has musky and sweet scent that attracts peoples smell.
The Analysis of Variance (Appendix C) showed that T3 and T4 are comparable but
different with T1 and T2. Also, T2 and T4 are comparable but different with T1.
Table 2. Mean score for red rice coffee in terms of color.

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TREATMENT

MEANS

RANK
c

Treatment 1
Treatment 2
Treatment 3
Treatment 4

7.05
7.25b
8.15a
7.25b

VERBAL
4
2.5
1
2.5

DESCRIPTION
Liked moderately
Liked moderately
Liked very much
Liked moderately

Note: Means with the same letter superscript are not significantly different at 5% level of
significance
Table 2 shows that in terms of color, T3 (red rice coffee with chocolate) obtained highest
mean score of 8.15 corresponding to a descriptive rating of Liked Very Much. T2 (red rice
coffee with milk) and T4(red rice coffee with caramel) obtained a mean score of 7.25 with a
descriptive rating of Liked Moderately. T1(red rice coffee plain) obtained the lowest mean
score of 7. 05.
The Analysis of Variance (Appendix C) presents that T2 and T4 are comparable but
different with T1 and T3.

Table 3. Mean score for red rice coffee in terms of taste.


TREATMENT
Treatment 1
Treatment 2
Treatment 3
Treatment 4

MEANS

RANK
b

6.95
7.2b
8.55a
8.3a

VERBAL
4
3
1
2

DESCRIPTION
Liked moderately
Liked moderately
Liked extremely
Liked very much

23

Note: Means with the same letter superscript are not significantly different at 5% level of
significance.
Table 2 shows that in terms of taste, T3 (red rice coffee with chocolate) obtained highest
mean score of 8.55 corresponding to a descriptive rating of Liked Extremely. T4 (red rice
coffee with caramel) obtained a mean score of 8.3 with a descriptive rating of Liked Very
Much. T2(red rice coffee with milk) and T1(red rice coffee plain) got a mean score of 7.2 and
6.95 respectively with the descriptive rating of Liked Moderately.
This indicates that among the treatments, the most acceptable is terms of taste is the red
coffee with chocolate (T3). This result may be explained by the fact that chocolate has a
sweetest taste which perfectly blended with the red rice coffee.
The Analysis of Variance (Appendix C) showed that T1 and T2 are comparable but
different with T3 and T4. Also, T3 and T4 are comparable.

Table 4. Mean score for red rice coffee in terms of general acceptability.
TREATMENT
Treatment 1
Treatment 2
Treatment 3
Treatment 4

MEANS

RANK
6.97b
7.38b
8.33a
7.83a

4
3
1
2

VERBAL
DESCRIPTION
Liked moderately
Liked moderately
Liked very much
Liked very much

Note: Means with the same letter superscript are not significantly different at 5% level of
significance
As for the general acceptability, T3 (red rice coffee with chocolate) obtained the highest mean
score of 8.33 and followed by T4 (red rice coffee with caramel) with mean score 7.83, both

24

corresponding to descriptive rating of Liked Very Much. T2 (red rice coffee with milk) and T1
(red rice coffee plain) with the descriptive rating Liked Moderately got a mean score of 7.38
and 6.97 respectively. From the results of the mean scores for aroma, flavor and appearance as
expected, the most acceptable red rice coffee was (T3) (with chocolate) that was rated by the
panelists.
The Analysis of Variance (Appendix C) showed that T1 and T2 are comparable but
different with T3 and T4. Also, T3 and T4 are comparable.

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


Summary
The general objective of the study is to develop coffee using red rice (Oryza sativa).
Specifically, (1) to find out the level acceptability of coffee using red rice flavor with milk, with
chocolate and with caramel in terms of aroma, flavor, appearance and overall acceptability; (2) to
determine the significant differences among treatments in terms of aroma, color and taste to the
general acceptability of coffee using red rice.

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Four treatments were included such as (T1) = Red rice coffee plain; (T2) = Red rice
coffee milk; (T3) = Red rice coffee with chocolate and (T4) = Red rice coffee with caramel. The
evaluators were composed of 20 students and teachers from the Tarlac College of Agriculture
Laboratory School. They evaluated the treatments prepared using the Nine-point Hedonic Scale
as a rating system in terms of aroma, color, taste and general acceptability.
After the evaluation, all scorecards were collected. The obtained data were tabulated and
computed. The frequency, mean, rank and verbal description were identified. These data were
subjected to statistical analysis using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).
Conclusions
Based from the findings of the study, it can be concluded that:
1. The null hypothesis which states that There is no significant difference in the
acceptability of coffee using red rice flavored with milk, chocolate, and with caramel in
terms of: aroma, flavor, appearance and overall acceptability is rejected.
2. Treatment 3 (red rice coffee with chocolate) is the most acceptable in terms of aroma,
color, flavor and general acceptability.
3. Treatment 1 (red rice coffee plain) is the least acceptable for the red rice coffee in terms
of aroma, color, taste and general acceptability.
Recommendation
In the light of the above findings, the recommendations are hereby presented:
1. The researchers recommend the use of red rice as a healthy substitute for the commercial
coffee.
2. The use of chocolate as flavoring is strongly recommended.

26

3. The researchers recommend adding more amount of red rice coffee to make the flavor
stronger.

LITERATURE CITED
PEA ALDIKIER

L. (2013). DEVELOPMENT OF FALOVRED COFFEE FROM

MALUNGGAY (Moringa oloeifera) SEEDS. PAMPANGA Densie Webb, PhD, RD


(2011),
WALTER MILLET (2013)
ERNA QUARRATU (2011), Chemosphere, STUDY ON EXTRACTION OF PANDAN
VOR FROM PANDAN LEAVES USING STEAM DISTILLATION
ImportFood.com 1999-2012
http://authoritynutrition.com/top-13-evidence-based-health-benfits-of-coffee/

FLA

27

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instant_coffee
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_coffee
http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/medical_examiner/2014/08/coffee_benefits_na
p_exercise_test_creativity_alertness_sex.html
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http://en.serotech.com.my/?page_id=305
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https://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/cereal/health-bnefits-of-rice.html
http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rice
http://www.livestrong.com/article/459259-is-red-rice-healthy/
http://www.freshstartorganic.com/rice.php
http://www.lotusfoods.com/health/vitamins.aspx
http://www.healthyeating.org/Milk-Diary/Dairy-Facts/Types-of-milk.aspx
http://www.peta.org/issues/animals-used-for-food/factory-farming/cows/dairy-industry/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flavor
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milk
http://www.oprah.com/food/The-Health-Benefits-of-Milk
http://healthyliving.msn.com/nutrition/7-legitimate-health-benefits-of-dark-chocolate
http://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/other/health-benefits-of-dark-chocolate.html
http://www.joybaurer.com/food-articles/chocolate.aspx
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chocolate

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http://www.exploratorium.edu/exploring/exploring_chocolate/
http://longevity.about.com/od/lifelongnutrition/p/chocolate.html
http://www.livestrong.com/article/143614-caramel-candy-nutrition/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caramel