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archives of civil and mechanical engineering xxx (2014) xxxxxx

ScienceDirect

journal homepage: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/acme

machining process

P. Niesony a,*, W. Grzesik a, R. Chudy a, W. Habrat b

a

b

Rzeszw University of Technology, 12 Powstacw Warszawy Str., 35-959 Rzeszw, Poland

article info

abstract

Article history:

This paper presents some methods of mesh smoothing when using cutting tool inserts with

complex geometry of the cutting edge and the rake face. Several sets of meshing parameters

are proposed and their inuences on the performance of FEM simulation of the cutting

process are presented. In addition, both mechanical and thermal characteristics of the

Keywords:

carried out for a Ti6Al4V alloy using TiAlN coated carbide commercial cutting tool insert. It

Turning

was documented that accurate representation of the tool micro-geometry inuences the

Titanium alloy

simulation results.

cutting process are compared for four groups of meshing parameters. The simulations were

FEM simulation

# 2014 Politechnika Wrocawska. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All

rights reserved.

Cutting forces

Heat generation

1.

Meshing problems in FEM modeling of

machining process

Modeling of technological processes is an important part of the

implementation of new technology into production process

and in the case of machining processes a dominant role is

played by FEM-based numerical simulation. Its wider and

successful application is now limited by inaccurate constitutive material models and, in particular by the lack of the

relevant input data [6,10]. These data include both geometrical

and physical properties of the machined workpiece and the

cutting tool insert used. The rst group includes geometrical,

predominantly 3D CAD models of these elements with

particular emphasis on the cutting edge radius [1]. The second

group aggregates the choice of constitutive laws and their

thermophysical properties of the workpiece and tool materials

[3,9,11].

In this paper the focus was made on the denition of

geometrical input data and, in particular, on the numerical

models of cutting tool inserts including active parts performing

the machining process. It is obviously known that in this area

the most important is the meshing procedure of a CAD model

generated. Its goal is to generate a nite solid element dened by

the nodal points represented by the nodes of basic nite

elements whose structure and localization should be adequate

to the simulated cutting process using FEM technique [2,5].

Simulation of the cutting process using cutting tools with

geometrically complex rake faces requires the boundary

minimum and maximum dimensions/scales of basic nite

elements to be dened in order to guarantee the correct

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +48 77 449 8460; fax: +48 77 449 8460.

E-mail address: p.nieslony@po.opole.pl (P. Niesony).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acme.2014.03.009

1644-9665/# 2014 Politechnika Wrocawska. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

Please cite this article in press as: P. Niesony et al., Meshing strategies in FEM simulation of the machining process, Archives of Civil and

Mechanical Engineering (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acme.2014.03.009

obtain a CAD model with satisfactory accuracy both the

cutting edge micro geometry (its roundness with the radius rn)

and the grooved chip breaker should be modeled properly.

Taking this fact into consideration the modeling procedure

was essentially focused on the quantication of meshing of

tool wedge CAD model on the results and quality of 3DFEM

simulation of a turning process representing a non-orthogonal

model of the cutting process. The CAD model of a commercial

cutting tool insert was used in this investigation. A Ti6Al4V

titanium alloy, which is one of the most popular aerospace

materials, was selected as the workpiece material. The FEM

simulation undertaken in this study is strongly oriented on the

optimization of technological processes of such difcult-tomachine materials.

2.

Investigation methodology

In the FEM simulations carried out the special focus was on the

accurate cutting tool model as well as adequate constitutive

material model. The tool wedge model was implemented as

the CAD model of a cutting tool insert applied (in the case

study it was CNMG 120412-UP insert produced by Kennametal). The visualization of the complete CAD model implemented is shown in Fig. 1a, whereas the magnied fragment of the

corner with the cutting edge and grooved chip breaker is

depicted in Fig. 1b.

In order to compare the 3D CAD model with the real

conguration of the cutting tool insert used, the insert shape

was measured using an ALICONA IFM optical microscope.

Exemplary dimensioned prole of the cutting wedge of CNMG

120412-UP insert including the cutting edge (detail A) and the

groove (chip breaker) on the rake face is shown in Fig. 2. The

optical image of the insert generated is presented in Fig. 3a. In

addition, Fig. 3b illustrates the localization of cross-sections 1

3 in which the wedge proles were separated and magnied

using MountainsMap and Geomagic Design software.

The comparison of the model and real shape of the insert

gives good shape and dimensional agreement. In particular,

dimensional errors were not higher than 7 mm. It should also

be noted that the thickness of deposited TiAlN coating was

about 3 mm which also inuences the model accuracy.

In these investigations FEM simulations were performed for

standard constitutive model named Power Law (PL). It should

be noted that the ow stress in the cutting zone is predicted

using equations incorporating the material behavior under

high strain rate and temperature [7]. As a result, the

constitutive PL model is mathematically expressed by the

power equation, as follows

ep

s f e p s o QT 1 0

ep

!1=n

(1)

the reference plastic strain, 1/n is the strain hardening

exponent and Q(T) is thermal softening index (factor) dened

as a function of temperature according to (2). In Eq. (2) the c0

through c5 are coefcients for the polynomial t, T is the

temperature, Tcut is the linear cut off temperature, and Tmelt is

(a) Kennametal and (b) tool rake model used in FEM

simulation.

the melting temperature. The Eq. (2a) is dened for T < Tcut,

where Eq. (2b) for T Tcut.

QT c0 c1 T c2 T2 c3 T3 c4 T4 c5 T5

(2a)

T Tcut

QT QTcut 1

Tmelt Tcut

(2b)

excess of 104 s1 may be attained within the primary and

secondary shear zones, while the remainder of the workpiece

deforms at moderate or low strain rates. In order to account for

a variation in the strain rate sensitivity at low and high strain

rates, AdvantEdge software incorporates a stepwise variation

Please cite this article in press as: P. Niesony et al., Meshing strategies in FEM simulation of the machining process, Archives of Civil and

Mechanical Engineering (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acme.2014.03.009

archives of civil and mechanical engineering xxx (2014) xxxxxx

Fig. 2 Dimensioned profile of the cutting edge for CNMG 120412-UP insert based on the 3DCAD model.

s s f e p 1

e_ p

e_ 0p

!1=m2

1

e_ t

e_ 0p

!1=m1

(3)

by means of ALICONA IFM and (b) localizations of crosssections illustrated by means of MountainsMap software.

plastic strain rate, m1 and m2 are low and high strain-rate

sensitivity exponents, respectively, and e_ t is the threshold

strain rate which separates the two regimes. The friction

coefcient between the tool and workpiece corresponding to

Coulomb's friction was equal to 0.5.

The parameters for the Power Law model used in these

simulations for the Ti6Al4V titanium alloy are specied in

Table 1. It was not possible of compare these values with those

proposed by Sima [13] and Calamaz [4] because they are for the

JohnsonCook model not available for users in AdvantEdge

package.

One of the important steps in performing FEM simulation is

the denition behind technological parameters, workpiece

and cutting tool material grades, machining operation and

cutting tool conguration as well as meshing criteria for solid

models of the workpiece and the tool insert used.

The accuracy of a FEM simulation is directly related to the

quality of the discretization used. In this sense, structured

meshes are still preferred in a wide range of simulations where

a strict alignment of elements is required by the analysis [8,12].

In this study special attention was made on the cutting tool

model and the workpiece was meshed using a commercial

meshing procedure.

All simulations were performed using commercial FEM

package AdvantEdge FEM [14]. As a result, the meshing

procedure includes a set of boundary, dimensional and

parametric criteria, as well as adaptive criteria.

Several groups of meshing parameters are selected and

described in Table 2.

FEM simulations were performed for the four different

groups of meshing parameters selected in Table 2 for turning

operations of a Ti6Al4V alloy using carbide tools with the

cutting edge radius of rn = 10 mm coated with TiAlN monolayer.

Group A was selected as a reference group in which all

meshing parameters were selected automatically by the

AdvantEdge package. As a result, it was not possible to

decrease the cutting edge radius to be lower than the

minimum meshing size. Three other groups B, C and D

were created by modication of the mesh size and quantitative

parameters. In particular, the minimum mesh size was

Please cite this article in press as: P. Niesony et al., Meshing strategies in FEM simulation of the machining process, Archives of Civil and

Mechanical Engineering (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acme.2014.03.009

Code

PL

s0, MPa

952

Q(T)

e0p

ecut

22.19

0.035

0.12

c0 = 1.822

c1 = 0.00571

c2 = 1.7 105

c3 = 2.164 108

c4 = 6.48 1012

1655 8C

110 GPa

0.3

9.4 106 1/K

Melting temperature

Young modulus

Poisson ratio

Coefcient of thermal

expansion

Density

4430 kg/m3

in such a way that mesh density was decreased from 0.5 to 0.1

and the number of segments per edge unit was increased from

1 to 5 (group C). In the last case, the mesh nose was performed

only within the cutting edge in contrast to group D for which

the mesh renement (concentration) covers the entire volume

of the meshed model. The visualization effects of the cutting

edge region of the tool model resulting from meshing using

different mesh smoothing procedures (meshing parameters) is

presented in Fig. 4.

In Fig. 4, rectangles of 0.277 mm 0.018 mm within which

numbers of nite element edges and nodes were computed for

different meshing groups are marked in red. It can be observed

that the change of the minimum mesh size for group B does

not inuence the number of edges and nodes in relation to the

reference meshing group A. In these cases the meshing area

includes 50 edges and 22 nodes (see Fig. 4a and b). On the other

hand, the representation of the cutting edge for meshing group

B is more accurate, as indicated in Fig. 5.

The change of the number of segments per edge unit for

group c results in increasing the number of nodes (from 22 to

27) and, as a result, the edges of nite elements from 50 to 60.

The most important factor which determines the number of

nodes is mesh grading. For this variant, the meshing area

includes 209 nodes and 81 edges (Fig. 4d).

It is evident from Fig. 4 that the meshing smoothing/

coarsening is reected visibly in the representation of the

crucial/key fragments of cutting tool model, predominantly

the rounded cutting edge and complex rake angle with grooved

chip breaker.

tested in FEM simulations.

Group

A

Maximum tool element

size, mm

Minimum tool element

size, mm

Minimum edge length,

mm

Mesh grading [range:

0.11]

Curvature safety [range:

0.25]

Segments per edge [range:

0.25]

Group

B

Group

C

Group

D

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.01

0.005

0.005

0.005

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.1

model using different meshing parameters selected in

Table 2: (a) group A, (b) group B, (c) group C, (d) group D.

Mechanical Engineering (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acme.2014.03.009

archives of civil and mechanical engineering xxx (2014) xxxxxx

predictions for different meshing parameters including

standard deviations.

meshing using parameters A and B generated in the (a)

vicinity of tool corner and (b) straight part of the cutting

edge.

cutting edge according to the meshing variant A causes that its

radius is about 0, i.e. sharp cutting edge is generated. Better

results were obtained for cases B, C and D but they result in

relevant groups of meshing parameters.

model), kB

STL le size (model

after meshing), kB

Number of edges STL

model

Number of triangles

(STL model coverage)

Average distance of

nodes close to the

edge, mm

Average time of the

3D simulation of

the 30 mm cutting

path

Group

A

Group

B

Group

C

Group

D

9116

20582

20,958

45,925

4196

8874

9067

19,874

22,383

47,328

48,360

105,999

14,922

31,552

32,240

70,666

0.009

0.005

0.005

0.005

91,240 s

66,254 s

75,936 s

518,400 s

cases A and (b) B.

Mechanical Engineering (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acme.2014.03.009

computation time also increases. Especially, for group D the

computation time increases about four times in comparison

for a standard FEM procedure. These effects are summarized in

Table 3.

It is obviously known that the cutting edge micro-geometry

substantially inuences the decohesion of the workpiece

material and its accurate model seems to be very important in

process simulation. It is observed based on the effects of the

meshing of the cutting edge area that the worst result was

obtained for meshing parameters selected in group A. On the

other hand, the quality of cutting edge representation

improves when using other meshing cases, i.e. group B, C

and D from Table 2. In particular, the maximum difference of

the model dimensions in the cross-section perpendicular to

cutting edge was equal to 1.027 mm and 1.046 mm in the corner

and straight part of the cutting insert, as shown in Fig. 5.

3.

the tool wedge inuences mechanical and thermal characteristics of the cutting process of a Ti6Al4V alloy. Simulations

were carried out with various meshing parameters (all groups

selected in Table 2) using constant values of machining

parameters cutting speed vc = 90 m/min, feed rate f = 0.1 mm/

rev and depth of cut ap = 2 mm).

21 h when meshing cases B and C were selected. On the other

hand, for meshing parameters recommended for users in

AdvantEdge package the computation time increases to 25 h

as indicated in Table 3. Moreover, the longer computation time

of about 144 h is required for meshing variant D. It should be

noticed that the computation time depends on the number of

meshing nodes; for the case D meshing density was two times

higher than for other groups. It is clear that such a long time of

simulation will not be recommended for practical applications. In contrast, the resolution of the simulation images is

excellent.

The mechanical characteristics of the turning process were

assessed based on the components of the resultant cutting

force. Their average values corresponding to the four meshing

cases and experimental tests are presented in Fig. 6.

It is shown in Fig. 6 that meshing parameters inuence the

values of the forces simulated. In general, the highest forces

were generated for meshing case A for which the numerical

representation of the cutting edge was not accurate. As a

result, the comparable values of Fy and Fz components were

obtained for other meshing cases and the difference between

them and basic meshing A are in the range of 1117%. This fact

can be easily observed in Fig. 6. Their changes are characterized by means of standard deviations as shown in Fig. 7. It can

be seen in Fig. 7 that standard deviation 3s is distinctly

narrower for simulations with meshing parameters B and the

simulation process is more stable.

Fig. 8 Distributions of heat flux in the cutting zone in 3D arrangements for relevant meshing groups.

Please cite this article in press as: P. Niesony et al., Meshing strategies in FEM simulation of the machining process, Archives of Civil and

Mechanical Engineering (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acme.2014.03.009

archives of civil and mechanical engineering xxx (2014) xxxxxx

the cutting edge.

differ from FEM simulation results. It can be seen in Fig. 6

that the measured values of the Fy and Fz forces are only

slightly higher than predicted values. On the other hand, the

Fx force values were lower than measured ones. In addition,

standard deviations for measurements are very small. It can

be assumed on the base of Fig. 6 that the inappropriate

meshing of cutting tool model causes visible uctuations of

in improving the compliance of simulation and experiment

results.

The inuence of the meshing of cutting tool model on the

performance of the cutting process related to the cutting zone

is presented in Fig. 8. Some advanced functions allowing in the

FEM package used were used to make the cross-section across

the cutting zone and simulate the process characteristics for

all meshing groups selected.

It was proven that differences in model meshing inuence

the heat transfer in the cutting zone due to different shapes of

heat uxes. Fundamental difference causes the concentration

of the maximum heat uxes. For meshing scheme A this

concentration is localized in the workpiece, in the vicinity of

the cutting edge. On the other hand, for cases B and C the

generated heat is mainly concentrated in the primary shear

zone and its intensity increases for C meshing model. A similar

heat distribution was obtained for case D but it seems to be the

rst stage of the material removal process.

Similar trends were revealed for temperature distribution, stresses and strain rates in the cutting zone. It is

possible to visualize in 3D space the distribution of the heat

ux in the material decohesion zone adjacent to the active

part of the cutting edge. The rule used in export data line is

shown in Fig. 9. The nal effect of heat ux distribution

obtained for relevant groups of meshing parameters is

presented in Fig. 10. In order to visualize the thermal

behavior of the decohesion zone, the heat ux distribution is

presented in the plane containing the cutting edge itself. It

Fig. 10 Distributions of heat flux in the plane containing cutting edge for different meshing schemes.

Please cite this article in press as: P. Niesony et al., Meshing strategies in FEM simulation of the machining process, Archives of Civil and

Mechanical Engineering (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acme.2014.03.009

heat ux corresponds to group C. This effect results from the

fact that for this meshing case the segments per edge was

selected to be equal 5, i.e. the maximum possible value (see

Table 3).

As the next step to make quantitative analyses of the cutting

edge segmentation, special numerical procedure including data

export along the line equidistant to the cutting edge within the

material decohesion zone was performed, as shown in Fig. 9.

The nal result regarding both the heat ux and temperature

distributions is shown in Fig. 11.

It was revealed that the most important factor inuencing

the heat ux value is the node density (number of segments

per edge) which was specied as maximum in group C. For this

case of meshing the heat ux predicted was four times higher

than for other groups of meshing parameters. It should also be

noted that the cumulated heat is just before its ow to the tool

body. On the other hand, the average temperature distribution

(computed form the cloud of points shown in Fig. 11b) was

extrapolating temperature data from the central part of

decohesion region.

In can be stated, based on FEM simulations performed,

that meshing of the cutting tool model is crucial for

estimation of heat ux, temperature and stresses in the

material decohesion zone. As a result, such analyses should

be carried out as an integral part of FEM based simulations

of machining processes using cutting tools with dened

geometries.

4.

Summary

results of FEM simulation related to both mechanical and

thermal behavior of the cutting process. In addition, it

inuences computation time which is specially important for

3D process representation. Some conclusions are as follows:

- During meshing of CAD model of the cutting tool insert

special focus should be put on the appropriate representation of the cutting edge and curvilinear rake face with

grooved chip breaker.

- The quality of the representation of all critical areas of the

model was improved by minimizing tool element size.

- Acceptable representation of the tool geometry was

achieved by STL model with increased meshing density

(nodal elements) related to the cutting edge unit.

- It is not necessary to increase the meshing density in the

entire volume of the tool model.

- Modication of the tool model meshing inuences the force

signals and for a certain set of meshing parameters it is

possible to reduce force oscillations.

- Meshing of the cutting tool model seems to a decisive factor

for the simulation of the heat ux, temperature and stresses

in the material decohesion/deformation zone.

Acknowledgment

This study was supported by Polish National Center of

Research and Development (NCBiR)-Project No. PBS1-178595.

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Mechanical Engineering (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acme.2014.03.009

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