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25/11/2003 Issued for construction Issued for construction

E.
Latreille

B.
Beauchesne

B.
Beauchesne

I.
Lozach

16/06/2003 Issued for approval

E.
Latreille

B.
Beauchesne

B.
Beauchesne

I.
Lozach

Originator/
Visa

Checker/
Visa

Lead/
Visa

PEM/
Visa

Rev.

Date
DD-MM-YY

Description of revision

Company :

Contractor :

Project name :

ROD INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT


Contractor's document identification :
Codes :

T 0 3 0 1 2 7 8 2 4 0 2 2 0 0 3

Type of document :

Company's contract No.:

Rev.

0
A

CALCULATION NOTE

ROD-D-028

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FLARE AND BURN PITS RADIATION CALCULATION NOTE

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CHANGE RECORD PAGE


REVISIONS

ISSUED FOR APPROVAL

ISSUED FOR CONSTRUCTION

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................4
2. REFERENCE DOCUMENTS...........................................................................................4
2.1. Algerian Codes.........................................................................................................4
2.2. Company Standards..................................................................................................4
2.3. International codes and standards.............................................................................5
2.4. Engineering documents............................................................................................5
2.5. Order of precedence..................................................................................................5
3. BASIS ASSUMPTIONS...................................................................................................6
3.1. Radiation criteria basis.............................................................................................6
3.2. ROD radiation criteria..............................................................................................7
3.3. Dispersion criteria.....................................................................................................9
3.4. Environmental data...................................................................................................10
4. FLARES AND BURN PITS DESCRIPTION...................................................................11
4.1. Existing facilities......................................................................................................11
4.2. New facilities............................................................................................................14
5. DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY....................................................................................17
5.1. Calculation assumptions...........................................................................................17
5.2. Case description........................................................................................................18
5.3. Simulation criteria....................................................................................................18
6. RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS........................................................................19
6.1. Flares implantation...................................................................................................19
6.2. Radiation results.......................................................................................................20
6.3. Flare design and implantation...................................................................................22
6.4. Burn pits....................................................................................................................33
1. INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................4
2. REFERENCE DOCUMENTS...........................................................................................4
2.1. Algerian Codes.........................................................................................................4
2.2. Company Standards..................................................................................................4
2.3. International codes and standards.............................................................................5
2.4. Engineering documents............................................................................................5
2.5. Order of precedence..................................................................................................5
3. BASIS ASSUMPTIONS...................................................................................................6
3.1. Radiation criteria basis.............................................................................................6
3.2. ROD radiation criteria..............................................................................................7
3.3. Dispersion criteria.....................................................................................................9

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3.4. Environmental data...................................................................................................10


4. FLARES AND BURN PITS DESCRIPTION...................................................................11
4.1. Existing facilities......................................................................................................11
4.2. New facilities............................................................................................................14
5. DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY....................................................................................17
5.1. Calculation assumptions...........................................................................................17
5.2. Case description........................................................................................................18
5.3. Simulation criteria....................................................................................................18
6. RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS........................................................................19
6.1. Flares implantation...................................................................................................19
6.2. Radiation results.......................................................................................................20
6.3. Flare design and implantation...................................................................................22
6.4. Burn pits....................................................................................................................34
APPENDIX 1
Radiation isopleths for each flares at design case
APPENDIX 2
Radiation isopleths for ROD flares and existing cold flare emergency
blowdown case
APPENDIX 3
Fence location
APPENDIX 4
Radiation isopleths from Burn pits
APPENDIX 5
Dispersion from Burn pits
HOLD1 : Query T030127-82-504-00027 - Parameters and radiation levels used for FEED Plot Plan
to be confirmed

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1.

INTRODUCTION
ROD Integrated Development Project shall be provided with three flare systems at CPF
and burn pits for each production and gas injection wellheads, Intermediate field manifolds
(IFMs) and at the Field gasering station (FGS). The aim of the present document is to
present the radiation and the dispersion characteristics associated with the operation of the
ROD flare systems and burn pits.
The calculation note shall verify that the radiation and dispersion levels respect the
maximum allowable levels and will permit to determine the ROD Integrated Development
Project flare and burn pit system design and implantation.
Existing flares and burn pit have been considered in the study. A reevaluation of radiation
levels from the cold existing flares and burn pit has been performed based on the existing
flares/bourbier specifications and the answer to query T030127-82-504-00010 Rev.A.
The radiation calculation have been performed using FLARESIM. For dispersion
characteristics, these have been carried out using PHAST 6.0.
The results have to be confirmed by flare vendors.
Recommendations for the construction phase have been proposed. But for the definition of
protection measures refer to the document Risk assessment - T030127-83-103-2035 .

2.

REFERENCE DOCUMENTS

2.1.

Algerian Codes

For Algerian Codes, refer to the document T030127-82-455-2001 Safety philosophy .

2.2.

Company Standards
Code No.
Prescription n 25
20243.VON.SAF.SDS

Title
SONATRACH HSE Design Basis
AGIP Standard - Design Layout and Safety spacing

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2.3.

International codes and standards


Code No.

Title

API RP 520

Sizing, selection and installation of pressure relieving devices in refineries


Part I and II
Guide of pressure relieving and depressuring systems

API RP 521

2.4.

Engineering documents
Existing facilities
ZA-E-85200
230-ZA-E-86053 rev.2
230-ZA-E-86054 rev.2
230-ZA-E-86055 rev.2
540-ZA-E-86177 rev.3

Project
T030127-82-456-2001
T030127-31-455-2001
T030127-37-552-2005
T030127-37-552-2006
T030127-37-552-2007
T030127-30-551-2029
T030127-30-551-2030
T030127-30-551-2031
T030127-37-551-3006
T030127-IS-551-0340
T030127-IS-551-0341
T030127-32-202-2012

2.5.

Title
Critres gnraux de scurit
Spcification de procd pour torche chaude 230-FH-01
Spcification de procd pour torche froide 230-FH-02
Spcification de procd pour torche basse pression 230-FH-03
Spcification de procd pour bourbier 540-X-01

Title
Safety Philosophy
Relief & Flare load summary
Warm flare package process datasheet
Cold flare package process datasheet
LP flare package process datasheet
LP flare package mechanical datasheet
Warm flare package mechanical datasheet
Cold flare package mechanical datasheet
Datasheet for burn pits
Heat radiation map Warm/Cold flare packages 230-XX-311/321
Heat radiation map LP flare package 230-XX-301
Site plan based on existing plot plan

Order of precedence

In case discrepancies are found between reference documents, codes and standards or/and
regulations, the following order of precedence shall apply, listed in decreasing ranking of
precedence:
- Algerian statutory requirements,
- Project specifications and standards,
- Company (AGIP) codes, standards and specifications

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- International codes, standards and specifications.

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3.

BASIS ASSUMPTIONS

3.1.

Radiation criteria basis

The radiation criteria considered for the ROD flare design and implantation are based on :
- The FEED Safety Philosophy
- The API RP 521 : Guide of pressure relieving and depressuring systems

3.1.1. FEED Safety Philosophy


A security zone will be defined around the flares. The location of the security zone will be
determined by the need to protect site personnel or public from the radiation from the flare
systems. During an emergency blowdown following total loss of electrical power, the flare
radiation will reach a peak for a few minutes and then decay as the pressure in the system
decays. This allows the maximum radiation from the flare under these conditions to exceed
the maximum steady state radiation level.
The radiation level at the edge of the security zone during normal operations shall not
exceed 500 BTU/hr/ft2 (1.58kW/m2).
In an emergency, the peak radiation at the edge of the security zone may reach a peak
of 1500 BTU/hr/ft2 (4.7kW/m2).

3.1.2. API RP 521 recommendations


API RP 521 indicates the following pain threshold times for different radiation levels:
Radiation Intensity
kW/m

Time to pain threshold


Seconds

550

1.74

60

740

2.33

40

920

2.90

30

1500

4.73

16

2200

6.94

3000

9.46

3700

11.67

6300

19.87

BTU/hr/ft

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Burns are stated to follow the pain threshold fairly quickly. API RP 521 recommends the
following design flare radiation levels, excluding solar radiation:

Permissible Design Level (K)


BTU/hr/ft2

kW/m2

Conditions

5000

15.77

Heat intensity on structures and in area where operators are not likely to be
performing duties and where shelter from radiant heat is available (for
example behind equipment)

3000

9.46

Value of K at design flare release at any location to which people have


access (for example at grade below the flare or a service platform of a
nearby tower); exposure should be limited to a few seconds, sufficient for
escape only.

2000

6.31

Heat intensity in areas where emergency actions lasting up to 1 minute may


be required by persons without shielding but with appropriate clothing

1500

4.73

Heat intensity in areas where emergency actions lasting several minutes


may be required by persons without shielding but with appropriate clothing

500

1.58

Value of K at design flare release at any location where personnel are


continuously present.

3.2.

ROD radiation criteria

During normal operation, the ROD flare systems are only purged by gas. The other cases
of operation are emergency cases.
Accordingly, the following radiation criteria for ROD flare design and implantation has
been applied :
According to the API RP 521 recommendations, the permissible design radiation level
at any location where personnel are continuously present is 500BTU/hr/ft2
(1.58kW/m2) at design flare flowrate, without solar radiation. This radiation level will
define the fence location around flare areas.
This criteria is compliante with the radiation criteria applied on the existing facilities
and based on a radiation level, on the units of the installation and considering
simultaneous maximum flowrates, not superior of 500BTU/s/ft2 (refer to the document
ZA-E-85200 Critre gnraux de scurit ).

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According to the API RP 521 recommendations, the permissible design radiation level
at design flare release at any location to which people have access, especially at grade
below the flare is 3000BTU/hr/ft2 (9.5kW/m2). Exposure should be limited to a few
seconds, sufficient for escape only.
It has to be noted that the radiation level of the Existing cold flare at grade level is
estimated superior than 3000BTU/hr/ft2 (9.5kW/m2).
The permissible design radiation level at other location where personnel can be present
is 1500BTU/hr/ft2 (4.7kW/m2) without solar radiation. This radiation level allows
several minutes to seek the protection or escape. This radiation level will give the
radiation limit for secutity zone and for flare panel implantation.
This criteria is compliante with the Prescription n 25 of SONATRACH H.S.E. Design
Basis which recommend that the maximum radiation level for other area than restricted
area where personnel can be located (especially on tank platform) is 1500BTU/hr/m2.
For depressurisation on the burn pits, as for the flare ,the peak radiation at the edge of
the security zone may reach a peak of 1500 BTU/hr/ft 2 without solar radiation
(4.7kW/m2). This radiation level will give the minimum distance to personnel or public
location and accordingly will define the criteria for location of the main roads around
burn pits.

FLARE DESIGN CASES

At grade level

EMERGENCY
BLOWDOWN CASE

At flare panels location


At fence location

BURN PIT
DEPRESSURISATION

On main roads

3000BTU/hr/ft2
(9.5kW/m2)
1500BTU/hr/ft2
(4.7kW/m2)
500BTU/hr/ft2
(1.58kW/m2)
1500BTU/hr/ft2
(4.7kW/m2)

Table 3.12.1 : Radiation criteria

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3.3.

Dispersion criteria

The flare systems are provided with pilots to maintain a permanent ignition of the flare.
Moreover no toxic gas as H2S is contained in the fluid. Accordingly, no dispersion
calculation will be performed for the ROD flares.
For the burn pits, it has to be considered that no ignition systems are provided. The ignition
is done by operator.
During the necessary time to go to the wellhead and to ignite the burn pit, a gas cloud will
be developped.
To limit the consequence of gas cloud around the burn pit, a dispersion calculation has
been realised. The criteria of dispersion is the LFL level corresponding on the risk of flash
fire resulting on gas ignition.
The dispersion levels of LFL will define the minimum distance to personnel or public
location and accordingly will define the criteria for location of the main roads around burn
pits.

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3.4.

Environmental data

Altitude

200m to 250m above sea level

Prevailing Wind

Variable: primarily from the SE to NE direction

Design Wind Philosophy

180 km/h @ 10m elevation

Design Air Temperature


Design Ground Temperature
(1.5m below surface)
Sand Thermal Conductivity

Maximum 45C (note 1)


Minimum -5C
Winter 15C
Summer 25C
0.434 W/mC (dry)

Storage Tank Temperature

Maximum 55C

Air relative humidity


Rainfall

Maximum 50%
Average 20%
Maximum 45mm per day

Earthquake

Unknown (note 2)

Sand storms

Frequent

Lightning

Yes, frequent during storms

Note 1
This is the maximum summer temperature for design purposes (including air coolers), it is higher
than the average monthly daytime temperature expected for blocks 401a/402a location, but lower
than the highest absolute maximum day-time temperature expected, which is 50C. Exceptions
shall be lube oil systems and air compressors which shall be designed based on a maximum
temperature of 50C.
Note 2
Sonatrach have advised that Blocks 401/402 are not subject to any quantifiable earthquake activity.
The Algerian Ministry of Public Works for Construction shall be consulted during the design phase
for conformation.

The following climatic conditions have been used for the calculation :
Design Wind conditions
Radiation
Dispersion
Design Air Temperature
Design Ground Temperature
Air relative humidity

10m/s for burn pits


20m/s and 10m/s for flares
2m/s F
35C
35C
20%

Table 3.43.1 : Climatic conditions

For dispersion calculation a wind characteristic of 2F (2m/s with stability F : very stable
wind condition) corresponding to very conservative parameter has been used.

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4.

FLARES AND BURN PITS DESCRIPTION

4.1.

Existing facilities
4.1.1. Flare systems

There is four separate flare systems on the existing facilities :


1. A warm flare system Torche chaude : 230-FH-01,
2. A cold flare system Torche froide : 230-FH-02,
3. A LP flare system Torche Basse Pression with two flares : a LP flare : 230-FH-03
and a LLP flare,
4. A Hot flare (Phase 2).
The flare systems area located on two different flare areas : Flare area south for the
cold/warm/hot flares and Flare area north for the LP flares.
The flares are located at a minimum distance of 150m from the external perimeter of the
installation.
The existing flares are self supporting type excepted the Hot flare (Phase 2).

4.1.2. Flare charactericstics


The flare characteristics of the existing facilities are based on the specifications 230-ZAE-86053/54/55 Spcifications de procd pour torche chaude/froide/basse pression and
540-ZA-E-86177 Spcification pour bourbier 540X01 and from the answer to query
T030127-82-504-0010 for the hot flare (phase 2) and the burn pit.

Warm flare Torche chaude :


Process conditions :
Stream
Molecular mass
Fluid temperature
Flowrate

Fire inside air cooler area


90.18g/mol.
250C
248400kg/hr

Design flowrate : 248400kg/hr

Trip of compressor train


24.7g/mol.
45C
187100kg/hr

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Flare characteristics :
Tip type
Number of burners
Tip length
Seal
Tip diameter
Collector size
Stack length
Angle to horizontal

Subsonic
1
NA
fluidic
28 (700mm)
28
40m
90

Cold flare Torche froide :


Process conditions :
Stream
Molecular mass
Fluid temperature
Flowrate

Depressurisation of reinjection
units 380 & 390
24.5g/mol.
-22C
557400kg/hr

Depressurisation of one reinjection unit + opening of


PSV005 of the other unit
24.5g/mol.
-24.5C
472700kg/hr

Design flowrate : 600000kg/hr


Flare characteristics :
Tip type
Number of burners
Tip length
Tip diameter
Seal
Collector size
Stack length
Angle to horizontal

Subsonic
1
NA
40 (1000mm)
fluidic
40
40m
90

LP flare Torche basse pression :


Process conditions :
Stream
Molecular mass
Fluid temperature
Flowrate

NA
45-50g/mol.
5-50C
14700kg/hr

Design flowrate : 14700kg/hr


Flare characteristics :
Tip type
Number of burners
Tip length
Tip diameter
Seal
Collector size
Stack length
Angle to horizontal

Subsonic
1
NA
18 (450mm)
fluidic
18
14m
90

LLP flare :
No data on the LLP flare are actually available.

Depressurisation of one
re-injection unit
24.5g/mol.
-25C
298700kg/hr

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Hot flare (phase 2) :


Process conditions :
Stream
Molecular mass
Fluid temperature
Design flow rate

NA
26-30g/mol.
40C
4000000Smc/d
(211380kg/hr)*

* Considering that no specification is available a margin of 10% has been


considered.

Design flowrate : 232518kg/hr (211380kg/hr +10%)

For radiation levels from HOT flare refer to 6.2.2.

4.1.3. Burn pit


On the flare area south is located the burn pit bourbier of the existing facilities.
Burn pit characteristics :
Stream

Temperature
Design flowrate
Tip diameter

Water/gas/condensates from
boosting compressors scrubbers and
from dehydration inlet scrubber.
Warm
Cold
-29 /150C
-46/150C
30m3/hr liquid
10kg/hr
500kg/hr gas
4

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4.2.

New facilities
4.2.1. Flare systems

There is three separate ROD flare systems :


1. The warm flare system (230-FC-311) will have a collection system which will route
release into the warm flare drum. Gas will be flared via an open pipe riser and flare tip.
2. The cold flare system (230-FC-321) will collect cold and dry releases from the glycol
contactor and gas re-injection compression system, and routes them into the cold flare
drum. Gas will be flared via an open pipe riser and flare tip.
3. The LP flare system (230-FC-301) will have a collection system which route gas from
the off-spec system to the open pipe type LP flare riser and tip, via a heated drain boot
and gas from blanketing of water treatment.
The ignition systems of ROD flare will be flame front ignition systems (refer to answer to
query T030127-82-504-00025).
FEED general requirement was that a flare system consisting of an elevated flare together
with flare stack, guyed ropes, deadmen and associated ancillaries was required for safe
disposal of vapour reliefs. Accordingly, the ROD Warm and Cold flares have been
provided of guyed rope type. Only the LP flare have been provided self supporting.

4.2.2. Flare characteristics


Warm flare characteristics for calculation :
Process conditions :
Stream
Molecular mass
Fluid temperature
Flowrate

Total blowdown
(manual activated)
23.11g/mol.
-15.1C
219583+10%=241541kg/hr

Fire case on 210PSV307


to 311
82g/mol.
231.5C
270000kg/hr

Design flowrate : 270000kg/hr


Flare characteristics :
Tip type
Number of burners
Tip length
Tip diameter
Seal
Collector size
Stack length
Angle to horizontal

* FEED requirement

Subsonic
1
3
30 (762mm)
fluidic
30
420m*
90

Gas re-injection compressor


trip
24.99g/mol.
47C
212100+10%=233310kg/hr

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Cold flare characteristics :


Process conditions :
Stream

Total Blowdown
of the 2 trains

Molecular mass
Fluid temperature
Flowrate

24.99g/mol.
-74.9
220140+10%=242154kg/hr

Blocked outlet
(360PSV317A/B) =
Blowndown (1 train)
24.99g/mol.
101.5C
341418kg/hr

Blowdown of
one train

Blocked outlet
(360PSV317A/B)

24.99g/mol.
-74.9
121100kg/hr

24.99g/mol.
101.5C
320000kg/hr

Design flowrate : 341418kg/hr


Flare characteristics :
Tip type
Number of burners
Tip length
Tip diameter
Seal
Collector size
Stack length
Angle to horizontal

Subsonic
1
3
36 (914mm)
fluidic
36

420m*
90

* FEED requirement

LP flare characteristics :
Process conditions :
Stream
Molecular mass
Fluid temperature
Design flow rate

Steady/gas from
200VD304 and 200TA301
47.67g/mol.
26.2C
46000kg/hr

Transient/gas from
200VD304
52.54g/mol.
47.07C
24830kg/hr

Design flowrate : 46000kg/hr


Flare characteristics :
Tip type
Number of burners
Tip length
Tip diameter
Seal
Collector size
Stack length
Angle to horizontal

* FEED requirement

Subsonic
1
3
24 (600mm)
fluidic
24
2240m*
90

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4.2.3. Wellhead burn pits


Burn pits are located at each production and gas injection wellhead, Intermediate Field
Manifolds (IFMs) and at the Field Gasering Station (FGS).
The burn pits consist in an open pipe ending by a stainless pipe discharging into an open
pit. There is no automatic ignition systems.
The burn pit have to be located at a recommended minimum distances of 100m from the
wellheads and 150m from eruptive wells.

4.2.4. Burn pits characteristics


The characteristics of the burn pits are given in the table below.
Wells

Design Flowrate

Velocity (m/s)

Diameter
(inch)

58,23

66,6

12

35,03

102,5

12

33,8

58,23

66,6

12

128036

35,6

52,42

72,3

12

RDB

47806

13,3

64,98

61,6

RERN

93854

26,1

124,02

62

10

IFM1

22531

6,3

58,23

42,7

IFM2

16264

4,5

58,23

69,9

IFM3-Y5

9411

2,6

35,03

55,2

IFM4

20802

5,8

58,23

89,5

IFM5

54322

15,1

52,42

69,2

FGS

240762

66,9

84,48

67,3

16

GAS

50000

13.88

24.7

(kg/hr)

(kg/s)

ROD

121702

33,8

BSF

119314

33,1

BSFN

121702

SFNE

MW
(g/mol)

Table 4.2.4 : Cases for burn pit implantation and design

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5.

DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY

5.1.

Calculation assumptions

Radiation and dispersion calculations have been performed for the ROD flares and burn
pits.

According to the document ZA-E-85200 - Critre gnraux de scurit , it has to


be noted that the depressurisation of the Existing BRN gas re-injection compression
units is designed to be performed in 5 minutes. The design flowrate of 600000kg/hr
is the peak of the depressurisation and will decrease very quikly.

During normal operation, the ROD flare systems are only purged by gas to prevent
air ingress and risk of burn back.

The depressurisation of ROD Warm flare (Oil system) is manual activated and then
decided by operator but has been considered for emergency case calculation as
simultaneous with the Cold flare. It has to be noted that generally the time to activate
the blowdown by an operator in Control Room is estimated at 2 minutes.

Simultaneous depressurisation of ROD Warm, Cold flares (2 ROD trains of reinjection operating) and Existing cold flare due to a total loss of electrical power
conducting to an emergency blowdwon case of the three flares has been considered.
However, the probability of this event is very low and will not be considerd on the
design. The calculation is based on emergency blowdown case with the 2 ROD trains
of re-injection operating.

The distance to the flare panel and the fences location around the flre areas will be
based on the emergency blowdown case of the thow flares and with 2 ROD trains of
re-injection compression operating. and the fences of flare areas have been estimated
based on the emergency blowdown case of the three flare and with 2 ROD trains of
re-injection compression operating.

Radiation from existing cold flare has been evaluated to estimate the radiation level
on construction areas
evaporation pond.

of the ROD flares, pipoerack and the line to the ROD

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Radiation from existing LP flare has been evaluated to estimate the radiation level on
pipeline manifold area.

Radiation area from existing Hot flare (Phase 2) flare has been evaluated to estimate
the radiation level on ROD evaporation pond.

Radiation and dispersion calculations have been performed for the ROD burn pits.
An evaluation has been performed from the existing burn pit.

5.2.

Case description

The following cases considered for implantation and design are listed on the table below :
Cases description
Existing Cold flare max. flowrate
ROD Cold flare max. flowrate
ROD Warm flare max. flowrate
ROD LP flare max. flowrate
ROD Cold flare (2 trains)
+ Warm flare
+ Existing Cold flare emergency blowdown flowrates

Flowrates
600000kg/hr
341418kg/hr
270000kg/hr
46000kg/hr
242154kg/hr
+ 241541kg/hr
+ 600000kg/hr

Table 5.2.1: Cases for ROD flare implantation and design

5.3.

Simulation criteria

The radiation calculation have been performed using FLARESIM. For dispersion
characteristics, these have been carried out using PHAST 6.0.

The API Point Source Method has been used for the calculation of the burn pit and
the Mixed Method (50 points) for the calculation of the flare.

A parametric study on the wind direction has been conducted to determinate if the
location of the flare systems is adequate.

For the radiation calculation, an emissivity of 0.22 is assumed for Cold and Hot
flares and 0.24 for Warm flares fire case and LP flares.

The height of burn pit tip with grade has been taken at 1m for flame calculation.

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6.

RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


The results are only estimated and have to be confirmed by vendor.

6.1.

Flares implantation
90m appr.
Cold flare of
existing facilities

ROD Cold flare

215m appr.
233m appr.
Flare panel location

40m appr.
WEST

Prevailing wing
direction

EAST
ROD Warm flare

Based on FEED requirement, the ROD Warm and Cold flares have been provided of guyed
rope type.

For isopleths from flare systems at design case refer to appendix 1.


For isopleths from ROD flare systems (2 trains) + Existing cold flare emergency
blowdown refer to appendix 2.

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6.2.

Radiation results
6.2.1. Radiation levels for each flare at design case

An evaluation of the radiation levels from each flare has been performed.
For the existing cold flares, data coming from the existing flare specifications and the
answer to the query T030127-82-504-00010Rev. A has been used.

Cases description
Existing Cold flare max. flowrate
ROD Cold flare max. flowrate
ROD Warm flare max. flowrate
ROD LP flare max. flowrate

Flowrates
600000kg/hr
341418kg/hr
270000kg/hr
46000kg/hr

Radiation levels at grade


Wind : 10m/s
Wind : 20m/s
4.7kW/m2
155m
90m
100m
39m

1.58kW/m2
290m
206m
200m
85m

4.7kW/m2
187m
112m
124m
51m

1.58kW/m2
302m
219m
210m
88m

Table 6.2.1 : Radiation levels at grade

6.2.2. Radiation levels on BRN FEED Plot Plan (00-GB-3B-62030 rev. 2)


The BRN Plot plan (00-GB-3B-62030 rev. 2) including flare radiation circles as calculated
and set during Train 2 has been provided for information and is given next page.
The radiation levels indicated on the FEED Plot Plan are given in the table below.
It has been assumed that the radiation levels indicated on Plot plan correspond to the
radiation at grade level.

Table 6.2.1 : Radiation levels at grade from FEED Plot Plan

Discrepancies exist between this radiation levels on the evaluation of FEED Plot Plan and
the result of the calculations, especially for the Hot flare and ROD cold flare (Hold1).
The calculation for the HOT flare is based on the information coming from the answer to
the query T030127-82-504-00010 Rev A.

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The result of the radiation calculation shows that the radiation level of 4.7kW/m2 is never
reached at grade level by the HOT flare. However, on the FEED Plot Plan this radiation
level is indicated with a radius of 125m around the flare.

However, the radiation levels from the Existing cold flare indicated on the FEED Plot Plan
have been considered for the implantation and design of the ROD flares.
The results of the radiation calculation have been used for validation and confirmation of
the implantation and design, and especially when data was not available as for the radiation
level on the ROD warm flare platform.
The evaluation from FEED Plot Plan and the radiation calculation are presented in the
document.
Cases description
Existing Cold flare max. flowrate
Existing Warm flare max. flowrate
Existing HOT flare
Existing LP flare max. flowrate
* 280m on FEED plot plan

Flowrates
600000kg/hr
248400kg/hr
4000000Smc/d
14700kg/hr

Radiation levels at
grade
4.7kW/m2
210m
125m
110m
-

1.58kW/m2
325m*
185m
210m
65m

Table 6.2.2 : Radiation levels on BRN Plot plan

It has to be noted that for existing cold flare only radiation distance to 1.58kW/m2 has
been modified. Distance to 4.7kW/m2 is unchanged.

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6.3.

Flare design and implantation


6.3.1. Radiation from existing Cold flare

6.3.1.1.

Construction phase

During the construction phase of the ROD flare systems, personnel will have to work
inside the flares area.
It has to be noted that during normal operation, the Existing flare systems are only purged
by gas. Accordingly, in normal operation, the radiation levels in construction area will
never exceed 500BTU/hr/ft2 (1.58kW/m2), excluded solar radiation.
In an emergency case on BRN, the permissible design radiation level of 4.73kW/m2
applied where personnel can be present will be considered for construction area. This
radiation level allows several minutes to seek the protection or escape.
Higher levels can be considered as acceptable but associated with specific measures of
protection as presence of appropriate clothings, temporary protection shelter,
Moreover the depressurisation of the existing gas re-injection compression units is
designed to be performed in 5 minutes. The design flowrate of 600000kg/hr is the peak of
the depressurisation and will decrease very quickly and accordingly the radiation levels.
Flare construction phase :
The distance between Existing cold flare and ROD Warm flare is approximatively 233m.
The guyed rope have been estimated by vendor at 25m from the flare and will be located as
follow :
Existing Cold flare

ROD Warm flare


25m

90m appr.
215m appr.

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Evaluation from FEED Plot Plan

EXISTING COLD FLARE

1.58 kW/m2 (500BTU)

4.7 kW/m2 (1500BTU)

ROD COLD FLARE

ROD WARM FLARE

It has to be noted that, in an emergency case, the construction area including implantation
of guyed ropes anchors of the ROD warm flare is not reached by the radiation level of
4.7kW/m2 (1500Btu/ft2/hr) indicated in the FEED Plot Plan.
Radiation calculation for Existing cold flare

EXISTING COLD FLARE

WARM FLARE

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EXISTING COLD FLARE

WARM FLARE

The radiation calculation results are lower than the distance given in the FEED Plot Plan.
As on the FEED Plot Plan, these results show that, in an emergency case, the construction
area including implantation of guyed ropes anchors of the ROD flare is not reached by the
radiation level of 4.7kW/m2 (1500Btu/ft2/hr).
Moreover, the radiation level obtained for the area of flare construction is less than 3.155
kW/m2 (1000Btu/ft2/hr) except for one guyed rope anchor in a case of 20m/s wind
velocity.

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Piperacks construction phase :


The distance between Existing cold flare and ROD flare piperack is approximatively 210m
and is located at approximatively 8m from grade on the concerned area.
Evaluation from FEED Plot Plan

EXISTING COLD FLARE

1.58 kW/m2 (500BTU)


190m approx.

THERMAL EXPANSION LOOPS

4.7 kW/m2 (1500BTU)

ROD COLD FLARE


ROD WARM FLARE

It has to be noted that, in an emergency case, the ROD flare piperack is at the limit of the
radiation level of 4.7kW/m2 (1500Btu/ft2/hr) indicated in the FEED Plot Plan.
Two thermal expansion loops are reached by the radiation level of 4.7kW/m2
(1500Btu/ft2/hr) indicated in the FEED Plot Plan.
It has to be noted that according to API RP 521 recommendations, persons without
shielding but with appropriate clothing could be present for emergency actions lasting up
to 1 minute in area where heat intensity reached the radiation level of 6.3kW/m2.

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Radiation calculation for Existing cold flare

EXISTING COLD FLARE

ROD FLARE PIPERACK


210m

EXISTING COLD FLARE

ROD FLARE PIPERACK


210m

The radiation calculation results are lower than the distance given in the FEED Plot Plan.

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In an emergency case, these results show that the construction area of the ROD flare
piperack is not reached by the radiation level of 4.7kW/m2 (1500Btu/ft2/hr) and the 2
ROD flare loops are at the limit of the radiation level of 4.7kW/m2 (1500Btu/ft2/hr).

Recommendations :
Particular attention during the construction phase of the flare piperack has to be

performed to evacuation and escape from the potential exposed part of the
piperack (stair tower,),
Specific measures of protection as presence of appropriate clothings, temporary
protection can be envisaged.

Construction of the line to the evaporation pond :

1.58 kW/m2 (500BTU)


4.7 kW/m2 (1500BTU)

In an emergency case, part of the line leading to the evaporation pond is located in the
4.7kW/m2 area.

Recommendations :
To limit the risk during the construction phase of the line to the evaporation pond,
temporary protection have to be considered (shelter,).

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6.3.1.2.

During ROD Plant shutdown

Presence of personnel on the higher platform of the flare is envisageable.


It has to be noted that during normal operation, the Existing flare systems are only purged
by gas. Accordingly, in normal operation, the radiation levels on the higher platform of the
flare will never exceed 500BTU/hr/ft2 (1.58kW/m2), excluded solar radiation.
In an emergency case on BRN, the permissible design radiation level of 4.73kW/m2
applied where personnel can be present (4.73kW/m2) will be considered on the flare
platform.
The radiation levels indicated on the FEED Plot Plan are assumed to be at grade level. No
estimation of the radiation level on the platform of the ROD warm flare has been
performed during FEED phase.

Radiation calculation for Existing cold flare

EXISTING COLD FLARE

ROD WARM FLARE

233m

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EXISTING COLD FLARE

ROD WARM FLARE

233m

The radiation calculation results show that, in an emergency case, the ROD warm flare
higher platform located at approximatively 40m high is not reached by the radiation level
of 4.7kW/m2.
The radiation level on the platform is less than 3.155 kW/m2 (1000Btu/ft2/hr) in case of a
wind velocity of 10m/s.

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6.3.1.3.

ROD flares design

The FEED requirement for the height of the flares was 40m overall. Considering the
radiation criteria of 9.5kW/m2 at grade level (without solar radiation) recommended by the
API RP 521, the heights of the flares have been increased for the Cold and Warm flares.
The values have been confirmed by the vendor (Heat radiation map T030127-IS-551-0341).
The height of the flare have been estimated as flollow :
- Cold flare : 45m
- Warm flare : 45m
- LP flare : 25m
These values are only estimated and have to be confirmed by vendor.
ROD flare panels location :
The pemissible design radiation level on ROD flare panel area is 4.7kW/m2. The distance for
emergency blowdown flowrate (242154kg/hr-241541kg/hr-600000kg/hr) at the radiation
level of 4.7kW/m2 from the ROD Warm flare has been estimated as follow:

EXISTING COLD FLARE

ROD COLD FLARE


ROD WARM FLARE
FLARE PANELS

150m

Recommendations:
According to the radiation calculation, the distance to 4.7kW/m2 for the three flares
operating simultenaously is approximatively 150m.

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The pemissible design radiation level on ROD flare panels is based on 4.7kW/m2 for
the thow ROD flares operating simultenaously. According to the vendor data (Heat
radiation map T030127-IS-551-0341), the recommended distance to the flare
panels is 130m from the warm flare.from the flare panels to the Warm flare has been
estimated to approximatively 150m.

6.3.1.4.

Fence location

The pemissible design radiation level on the fence is 1.58kW/m2. The distance for emergency
blowdown flowrate (242154kg/hr-241541kg/hr-600000kg/hr) at the radiation level of
1.58kW/m2 from the ROD Warm flare has been estimated as follow:

EXISTING COLD FLARE

ROD COLD FLARE

ROD WARM FLARE

420m

This distance is compliante with the existing fence (located at 425m from warm flare) which
limit the flare area to the Plant units.

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EXISTING COLD FLARE

ROD COLD FLARE

ROD WARM FLARE

460m

EXISTING COLD FLARE

ROD COLD FLARE


ROD WARM FLARE

255m

For fence location refer to appendix 3.

6.3.1.5.

Pipeline manifold

Radiation distances to 1.58kW/m2 from the existing LLP and LP flares are indicated on
the BRN Plot plan (00-GB-3B-62030 rev. 2) at respectively 50m and 65m. The calculation
result shows that the radiation at grade level on the pipeline manifold does not reach the
4.7kW/m2.

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Accordingly, no impact has to be envisaged on the pipeline manifold from eExisting LLP
and LP flares radiation.

6.3.1.6.

Evaporation pond

Radiation distance to 4.7kW/m2 from the existing HOT flare is indicated on the BRN Plot
plan (00-GB-3B-62030 rev. 2) at 110m.
The level of radiation 4.7kW/m2 is not reached on the ROD evaporation pond.
Accordingly, no major impact has to be envisaged from the existing HOT flare on the ROD
evaporation pond.An estimate of radiation level has been realised (Hold 1).
The calculation shows that radiation level estimated on the evaporation pond from the HOT flare
(phase 2) is inferior to 4.7kW/m2.

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6.4.

Burn pits
6.4.1. ROD burn pits

The radiation isopleths and the dispersion drawings are presented in Appendixes 4 & 5 of
this document.
Wells

Design Flowrate
(kg/s)

MW
(g/mol)

Velocity (m/s)

Diameter
(inch)

Flame length
(m)
(FLARESIM)

Distance to
4.7kW/m2 (m)
(FLARESIM)*

Dispersion to LFL (m)


(PHAST)*
length
width

ROD

121702

33,8

58,23

66,6

12

80.4

110

125

BSF

119314

33,1

35,03

102,5

12

79.6

110

85

52
4

BSFN

121702

33,8

58,23

66,6

12

80.4

110

125

52

SFNE

128036

35,6

52,42

72,3

12

82.3

110

130

40

RDB

47806

13,3

64,98

61,6

51.4

65

65

16

RERN

93854

26,1

124,02

62

10

71

95

95

42

IFM1

22531

6,3

58,23

42,7

35.9

50

60

26
26

IFM2

16264

4,5

58,23

69,9

30.7

40

60

IFM3Y5

9411

2,6

35,03

55,2

23.7

30

30

IFM4

20802

5,8

58,23

89,5

34.6

44

60

IFM5

54322

15,1

52,42

69,2

54.7

70

95

26

FGS

240762

66,9

84,48

67,3

16

111.3

148

175

110

GAS

50000

13.88

24.7

52.5

65

45

26

* from tip

Table 6.3.1 : Flame length, radiation and dispersion from the burn pits

6.4.1.1.

Design of the burn pit

The design of the burn pits depends on the oil capacity which can be rejected, on the flame
length and on the combustion rate.
For the evaluation of the minimum capacity, it has to be considered that the ignition of the
burn pit is manual and not automatic.
It has been assumed that a time before ignition of 12 hours has to be taken into account,
except for FGS (only 6 hours).
According to the flame lenghts results and the minimum capacity obtained for 12 hours of
release duration (6hr for FGS), an estimate of the burn pits dimensions are given in the
following table.

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Wells
ROD*
BSF
SFNE
BSFN/BRSE
RDB
RERN
IFM1/2/3/4/5 *
FGS
GAS

MINIMUM BURN PIT DIMENSIONS


length (m) x max width (m)
minimum capacity (given by process)
50x*30
989m3 (40mx*30mx*1m)
50x*30
1023m3 (40mx*30mx*1m)
50x*30
1057m3 (40mx*30mx*1m)
50x*30
as ROD (40mx*30mx*1m)
40x*20
352m3 (40mx*10mx*1m)
50x*30
650m3 (40mx*20mx*1m)
40x*20
for IFM 36 to 208 (40mx*10mx*1m)
60x*30
708m3 (40mx*20mx*1m)
50x*20
no liquid

* It has to be noted that the burn pit is commun for IFM2 and ROD PT. The burn pit design is accordingly based on
simultaneous release and corresponds to 50mx30m dimensions.

Table 6.3.2 : Minimum burn pit dimensions

Recommendations :
The location of the burn pit has to take into account the prevailing wind direction

as far as possible.
The following representation is only schematic and indicative. It will be adapted in
function of the environmental dune arrangement case by case.
50M

20M

BURN PIT

30M

5M

1.5 2M

2 2.5M

50M

Tip and piping protection against the return of the flame has to be considered.
Approximatively 5m of tuf on the tip and piping will be provided.

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6.4.1.2.

Safety distances from the ROD burn pits

The safety distances depend on the dispersion calculation at LFL for the burn pits and of
the radiation level of 15kW/m2 for the pipelines.
Minimum safety distances for burn pits (m)
Distances to road or public location
In the direction of the
Perpendicular to the
release (1)
release (2)
150
100
100
100
150
100
150
100
100
100
150
100
100
100
200
150
100
100

Wells
ROD
BSF
SFNE
BSFN/BRSE
RDB
RERN
IFM1/2/3/4/5
FGS
GAS

Distance to pipelines
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
35
30

1- from tip
2- from burn pit boundaries

Table 6.43.13 : Minimum safety distances for burn pits

Recommendations :
No fences are requested around the burn pits. Warning indication could be

provided to alert people of the risk.


Minimum distance recommended from a burn pit to an eruptive well is 150m
Minimum distance recommended from the fence of the wellheads/IFM/FGS areas

to a burn pit is 100m.


The following representation is only schematic and indicative. It is to give an
indication of safety distances. It will be adapted in function of the wellheads case by
case.

100m

Wellhead fence

ERUPTIVE WELLS

BURN PIT
150m

100m

150
m

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For specific cases, distances can be not respected especially considering


environmental constraints. Accordingly, mitigation measures are necessary. A sand
separation stabilised with TUF has to be foreseen with 1.5m elevation minimum
(location and design will be done case by case).

6.4.2. Existing burn pit


A calculation of radiation and dispersion levels from the existing burn pit ( bourbier )
located at CPF have been performed based on the existing specification ( 540-ZA-E86177 Spcification pour bourbier 540X01 ).

Radiation calculation for Existing burn pit

WIND
DIRECTION

56m

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WIND
DIRECTION

18m

105m appr.

The distance corresponding to the radiation level of 4.7kW/M2 is at maximum 56m from the
tip of the burn pit. In case of a wind direction perpandicular to the release, the distance is 18m
at 4.7kW/m2.

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Dispersion calculation for existing burn pit

In case of no ignition of the release, a gas dispersion will be developed. The distance to the
LFL is at maximum 24m from the tip of the burn pit.

Recommendations:
To limit the risk during the construction phase of the line to the evaporation pond,
temporary protection could be envisaged (hoarding,).

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APPENDIX 1
Radiation isopleths for each flares separatly
At design flowrate
Existing Warm flare

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Existing Cold flare

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Existing LP flare

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Existing HOT flare

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ROD Warm flare

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ROD Cold flare

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ROD LP flare

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APPENDIX 2 :
Radiation isopleths for ROD flares simultaneously (2 trains) + Existing cold flare
Emergency blowdown

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APPENDIX 3
Fence location

125m
185m

210m
280m

219m23
8m*
112m12
0m*

124m13
0m*
210m223m
*

255m
112m*
data

vendor

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APPENDIX 4
Radiation isopleths from Burn pits
Rod wells :

BSF wells :

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SFNE wells :

RDB wells :

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RERN wells :

IFM1:

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IFM2 :

IFM3 :

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IFM4 :

IFM5 :

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FGS :

GAS wells :

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APPENDIX 5
Dispersion from Burn pits

ROD wells :

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BSF wells :

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SFNE wells :

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RDB wells :

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RERN wells :

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IFM1/2/4 :

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IFM3 wells :

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IFM5 wells :

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GAS wells :

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