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## AMPLITUDE MODULATION AND DEMODULATION

DSB-SC MODULATION AND DETECTION
SSB-SC MODULATION AND DETECTION
FREQUENCY MODULATION AND DETECTION
PRE-EMPHASIS AND DE-EMPHASIS
FREQUENCY SYNTHESIZER

## 1. AMPLITUDE MODULATION AND DEMODULATION

AIM: 1) To study the process of amplitude modulation and demodulation and calculate
depth of modulation.

## 2) To study the process of over modulation.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:
1) Amplitude modulation and demodulation trainer kit
2) CRO with probes
3) Patch cords
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

A.M MODULATOR

A.M DEMODULATOR
PROCEDURE:
a) MODULATION
1. Connect the circuit as shown in diagram1.
2. Switch on the power supply.
3. Output of modulating signal generator from TP2 to modulating signal input TP4
and keep the frequency selector switch in 500Hz position.
4. Output of carrier signal generator from TP1 to carrier input TP3 in modulation
block and calculate the carrier signal frequency.
5. Observe the amplitude modulated output at TP5 , by varying the modulating
signal amplitude from 1V to 10V and calculate the Vmax and Vmin from the
output.
6. Now change the switch position in modulating signal generator to 1KHz and
repeat the above steps.
7. Switch off the power supply.
b) DEMODULATION:

## 1) Connect the circuit as shown in diagram 2.

2) Switch on the power supply.
3) Output of modulating signal generator from TP2 to modulating signal input TP4
and keep the frequency selector switch in 500Hz position.
4) Output of carrier signal generator from TP1 to carrier input TP3 in modulation
block and calculate the carrier signal frequency.
5) Amplitude modulation output from TP5 to input of LPF TP6 and LPF output
from TP7 to amplifier input TP8 (set the gain pot in amplitude circuit to max.
position)
6) Observe the demodulated output at TP9 (by varying the amplitude pot) , the
output will be the replica of the input signal of modulating signal and note down
the amplitude and frequency.
7) Now change the position of switch in modulating signal generator to 1KHz and
repeat the above steps.
8) Switch off the power supply.
PRECAUTIONS:
1.Avoid loose connections.
2.Avoid parallax error while taking observations.
CALCULATIONS & OBSERVATIONS:
ModulationIndex( ma )

## Modulating Signal Generator:

a) Amplitude =
b) Time Period =
c) Frequency =
Carrier Signal Generator:
a) Amplitude =
b) Time Period =
c) Frequency =

Vmax Vmin
Vmax Vmin

Demodulated Output:
a) Amplitude =
b) Time Period =
c) Frequency =
Observations:
Modulating
signal
amplitude
(V)

Vmax

Modulation index
V Vmin
ma max
Vmax Vmin

Vmin

Graph:

m(t)

RESULT:

## The Process of Amplitude Modulation and Demodulation is observed and

Calculated the depth of Modulation

## 2. DSB SC MODULATOR AND DETECTOR

AIM: To study the process of DSB-SC using balanced modulator and its demodulation.
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:
1) Balanced modulator and demodulator trainer kit
2) CRO with probes
3) Patch cards
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

DSB SC MODULATION

DSB SC DEMODULATION

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
a) MODULATION:
1) Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram
2) Switch on the power supply.
3) Output of modulating signal generator from TP1 to modulating signal input
TP3 and keep the switch in 500Hz position.
4) Carrier signal output from TP2 to carrier input TP4 whose frequency is 50KHz
constant.
5) Observe the balance modulator output TP5 by varying the modulating signal
amplitude from 5V to 10V.
6) Now vary the switch position in the modulating signal generator to 1KHz and
observe the output at TP5 (by varying amplitude pot)
7) Switch off the power supply.
b) DEMODULATION:
1) Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram
2) Switch on the power supply.
3) Output of modulating signal generator from TP1 to modulating signal TP3 and
keep the switch is in 500Hz position.
4) Carrier output signal from TP2 to carrier input TP4 whose frequency is 100
KHz constant
5) Output of the detector TP7 to input of AC amplifier TP8 (Adjust the gain pot
to max. position)
6) Observe the demodulated output TP9 which is the replica of input signal of
modulating signal ( by varying the amplitude pot)
7) Switch off the power supply.
PRECAUTIONS:
1) Avoid loose connections
2) Avoid parallax error while taking observations.

OBSERVATIONS:
Message Signal:
a) Amplitude:
b) Time Period:
Carrier Signal:
a) Amplitude:
b) Time Period:
Modulated Signal:
a) Amplitude:
b) Time Period:
Demodulated Signal:
a) Amplitude:
b) Time Period:
IDEAL WAVE FORMS:

RESULT:

## The process of DSB SC Modulation and Demodulation is

observed using balanced Modulation

## 3. SSB SC MODULATOR AND DETECTOR

AIM.: To study the process of single side band signal generation using phase shift
method and to demodulate the modulated signal using synchronous detector.
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:
1) SSB Trainer kit
2) CRO with probes
3) Frequency counter
4) Patch cords

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

## BASIC BLOCKS OF SSB MODULATION

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SSB MODULATION
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
a) MODULATION:
1) Study the circuit operation of SSB system thoroughly.
2) Observe the Output of the RF generator using CRO. There are 2 outputs from the
RF generator one is direct output and the another is 90 phase shift with the direct
output and adjust the output signal amplitude is 0.5Vp-p and measure and record
the RF signal frequency by using frequency counter.
3) Observe the output of the AF generator using CRO. There are 2 outputs from the
AF generator. One is direct output and the another is 90 phase shift with the
direct output by using variable frequency and AGC knobs adjust the frequency to
2KHz. AGC Potentiometer is provided to adjust the gain of the oscillator (or to set
the output to good shape) and the amplitude is 10Vp-p.
4) Connect the RF generator direct output (0 o) and AF generator indirect (90) output
to the balanced modulator (X) and similarly RF generator indirect input (90) and
AF generator direct output (0) to the balance modulator (Y).

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5) Observe the outputs of both the balance modulators simultaneously using dual
trace oscilloscope and adjust the balance control until you get the output
waveforms. (DSB-SC) as shown.
6) To get SSB Lower Side Band (LSB) signal, connect the balanced modulator
output (DSB-SC) to subtract.
7) Measure and record the LSB signal frequency using frequency counter.
8) Calculate theoretical frequency of LSB and compare it with the practical value.
LSB = RF - AF
9) Ex. If RF is 100 KHz and AF is 2 KHz then LSB = 100 KHz 2 KHz.
10) To get SSB Upper Side Band (USB) signal, connect the output of the balanced
modulator to the summer.
11) Measure and record the USB signal frequency using frequency counter.
12) Calculate the theoretical value of USB frequency and compare it with the practical
value. USB = RF + AF
13) Ex. If RF is 100 KHz and AF is 2 KHz then USB = 100 KHz + 2 KHz.
DEMODULATION:
1) Connect SSB signal from the summer or subtractor to the SSB signal input of the
SSB demodulator.
2) Observe the demodulator output using CRO and compare it with the modulation
signal, the output will be the replica of the input signal of modulating signal and
note down the amplitude and frequency.
PRECAUTIONS:
1) Avoid loose connections.
2) Avoid parallax error while taking observations.
CALCULATIONS & OBSERVATIONS:
a) Theoretical frequency of LSB = RF AF
b) Theoretical frequency of USB = RF + AF
RF Generator (Carrier Waveform):
a) Amplitude =
b) Time Period =
c) Frequency =

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## AF Generator (Message Waveform):

a) Amplitude =
b) Time Period =
c) Frequency =
DSB-SC Signal:
d) Amplitude =
e) Time Period =
f) Frequency =
SUBTRACTOR: fc - fm
LSB Output:
a) Amplitude =
b) Time Period =
c) Frequency =
USB Output:
a) Amplitude =
b) Time Period =
c) Frequency =
Demodulated Output:
a) Amplitude =
b) Time Period =
c) Frequency =

IDEAL GRAPHS:
AF signal with 0 phase shift

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CARRIER SIGNAL

DSB SC SIGNAL

SSB SC SIGNAL
RESULT:

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## 4. FREQUENCY MODULATION AND DEMODULATION

AIM: To study the process of frequency modulation and demodulation and calculate
depth of modulation.
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:
1) Frequency modulation and demodulation trainer kit
2) CRO with probes
3) Patch cords
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

FREQUENCY MODULATION

FREQUENCY DEMODULATION

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EXPERIMENTALPROCEDURE:
a) MODULATION
1. Connect the circuit as shown in diagram 1.
2. The sine wave from the modulating signal generator TP4 to modulating signal
input TP5.
3. Calculate the modulating signal frequency and amplitude (min and max).
4. Calculate the carrier signal frequency from TP6 by adjusting modulating signal
amplitude to minimum.
5. Adjust the amplitude of modulating signal in modulating signal generator to 5V
and frequency of the modulating signal frequency to 3KHz by varying the
respective pots.
6. Observe the frequency modulator output from TP6 and calculate Tmin and Tmax.
7. Same procedure is repeated for different modulating signal frequencies and
amplitudes.
b) DEMODULATION
1. Connect the circuit as shown in diagram 2.
2. Switch on the power supply.
3. The sine wave from the modulating signal generator TP4 to modulating signal
input TP5.
4. Adjust the amplitude of the modulating signal in modulating signal generator to
5V and frequency of the modulating signal to 3KHz by varying the respective
pots.
5. Frequency modulator output from TP6 to LPF input TP8.
6. Output of LPF TP9 to amplifier input TP10.
7. Observe the demodulated output from TP11 and the output is the exact replica of
the input signal of the modulating signal.
8. Switch off the power supply.
PRECAUTIONS:
1. Avoid loose connections.
2. Avoid parallax error while taking observations.

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CALCULATIONS:
a) Modulation index (mf) = f
fm
b) Frequency deviation (f) =

1 - 1
Tmin Tmax

## Modulating Signal Generator:

a) Amplitude =
b) Time Period =
c) Frequency =
Carrier Signal Generator:
a) Amplitude =
b) Time Period =
c) Frequency =
Demodulated Output:
a) Amplitude =
b) Time Period =
c) Frequency =
OBSERVATIONS:
Modulating
signal
frequency(fm)

Modulating
signal
amplitude
(V)

Tmin

Tmax

Graph:

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Frequency
deviation
(f)

Modulation
index
mf=f/fm

RESULT:

## The process of frequency Modulation and Demodulation is observed and

depth of Modulation is calculated

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## 5. PRE-EMPHASIS AND DE-EMPHASIS

AIM: To study the process of Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis, Calculate the gain of preemphasis and de-emphasis and to plot the corresponding frequency response
curves.
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:
1) Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis trainer kit.
2) CRO with probes.
3) Patch cards.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
Pre-emphasis

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EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
a) Pre-emphasis:
1) Construct the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram.
2) Output of the function generator which is a sine wave to the input of the
pre-emphasis circuit TP2.
3) Vary the amplitude knob in the function generator , so that the sine wave is 10V,
Vary the frequency knob in the function generator, so that the frequency of sine
wave is 100Hz.
4) Observe the output on TP3 through the oscilloscope.
5) Now observe the pre-emphasis output at TP3 for different frequencies of sine
wave by varying the frequency knob in the function generator from 100Hz to
1MHz.
6) Switch off the power supply.
b) De-emphasis:
1) Construct the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram.
2) Output of the function generator which is a sinewave from TP3 to the output of
the de-emphasis circuit TP4.
3) Vary the amplitude knob in the function generator , so that the sinewave is 10V,
Vary the frequency knob in the function generator, so that the frequency of
sinewave is 100Hz.
4) Observe the output at TP5 through the oscilloscope.
5) Now observe the de-emphasis output at TP5 for different frequencies of sinewave
by varying the frequency knob in the function generator from 100Hz to 1MHz.
6) ) Switch off the power supply
PRECAUTIONS:
1) Avoid loose connections.
2) Avoid parallax error while taking observations.

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Tabular form:
a) Pre-emphasis
Input frequency (Hz)

Output voltage
(v)

gain

Output voltage
(v)

gain

## Gain in db = (20 log (gain)

b) De-emphasis
Input frequency(Hz)

CALCULATIONS:
F1=

1
2RC

## Where RC is the time constant and is equal to 75 sec

F1=2122 Hz.
Input voltage = 10V
IDEAL GRAPHS:
Pre-emphasis

RESULT:

De-emphasis

## The process of Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis is observed. The gain and

frequency response is calculated.
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6. FREQUENCY SYNTHESIZER
AIM: To study the operation of frequency synthesizer using PLL
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. Frequency Synthesizer trainer kit.
2. CRO dual trace with probes
3. Digital frequency counter or multimeter
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

FREQUENCY SYNTHESIZER
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
1. Switch on the trainer kit and Observe the output of the square wave generator
using oscilloscope and measure the minimum and maximum frequency range.

## amplitude to 4V and frequency to the (Fin) 1KHz

2. Connect the Square wave to input of PLL and short 4 th and 5th of PLL. Adjust the
Output frequency is five times of input frequency by using timing resistor Rt.
Measure the timing resistor Rt value by using Multimeter. Verify the F out by using
below

formula.
Fout = 0.3 / RtCt

## where Rt is the timing resistor and Ct is timing capacitor=0.01f.

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Input frequency

Practical

Theoretical

Fin

Fout

Fout

3. Connect 4th pin of PLL (Fout) to the driver stage and 5 th pin of PLL connected to
11th pin of decade counter 7490. Output can be taken at the 11th pin of the decade
counter

## 5KHz, Decade counter output is 500Hz

4. Output can be taken at the 12 th pin of decade counter 7490. It should be divide by
2 times of the Fout. For Example: Fout = 5KHz, Decade counter output is 2.5KHz
Fout

Divided 10 output

Divided 2 output

## 5. Repeat the same procedure for the Fin = 2KHz.

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Avoid loose connections.
2. Avoid parallax error while taking observations.
RESULT:

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## 7. VERIFICATION OF SAMPLING THEOREM

AIM:
1. To study the sampling principle of a signal and its reconstruction.
2. To study the effect of amplitude and frequency variation of modulating signal on
the output.
3. To study the effect of variation of sampling frequency on the demodulated output.
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:
1. Sampling and Reconstruction trainer kit.
2. Oscilloscope dual channel.
3. Connecting wires.
4. CRO probes.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

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PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in diagram1.
a) Output of modulating signal generator from TP1 to modulating signal
input TP4 in sampling circuit keeping the switch in 1 KHz position, and
amplitude pot to maximum position.
b) Output of pulse generator from TP2 to sampling pulses input in sampling
circuit TP3 keeping the switch in 2 KHz position. (Adjust the duty cycle
pot to mid position i.e., 50%).
2. Switch ON the power supply.
3. Observe the outputs of sampling, sampling and hold, and flat to output at TP7,
TP8 and TP9 respectively. (By varying the amplitude pot).
4. Vary the switch position in the pulse generator circuit to 8 KHz and now observe
the outputs at TP7, TP8 and TP9. (By varying the amplitude pot).
5. Now, vary the switch position in modulating signal generator to 2 KHz and repeat
all the above steps 3 & 4.
6. Switch OFF the power supply.

Reconstruction:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in diagram 2.
a) Output of modulating signal generator from TP1 to modulating signal input TP4
in sampling circuit keeping the switch in 1 KHz position, amplitude pot to max
position.
b) Output of pulse generator circuit from TP2 to sampling pulse input TP3 in the
sampling circuit, keeping the switch in 2 KHz position (Adjust the duty cycle pot
to mid position i.e., 50%).
c) Connect the sample output from TP7 to the input of low pass filter TP10.
d) Outputs of low pass filter from TP11 to input of AC amplifier TP12, keep the
again pot in AC amplifier to max position.
2. Switch ON the power supply.
3. Observe the output of AC amplifier at TP13. The output will be the replica of the
input (By varying the amplitude pot).

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4. Similarly connect the sample and hold output and flat top output to TP10 and
observe the reconstructed the signal.
5. Vary the switch position in the sampling frequency circuit to 8 KHz and now
repeat the steps 3&4.
6. Vary the switch position in the modulating signal generator to 2 KHz and repeat
all the above steps 3 to 5.
7. Switch OFF the power supply.
PRECAUTIONS:
1. Avoid loose connections.
2. Avoid parallax error while taking observations.

RESULT:
From the above observations we conclude that as the sampling frequency is
increased, the reconstructed output is less distorted and almost original signal is
reconstructed. For a sampling frequency of 2KHz, only 2 samples of the 1KHz signal are
taken, whereas that for a sampling frequency of 8KHz, 8 samples of 1KHz signal is taken.
Hence, as the number of samples taken of the signal increases, the distortion of the
reconstructed signal decreases. As per the Nyquist Criterion at least two samples are
required for the reconstruction of the signal. If the Nyquist Criterion is not satisfied, or if
the signal is not band limited, then spectral overlap, called aliasing occurs, causing
higher frequencies to show up at lower frequencies in the recovered message, and
specially in voice transmission intelligibility is seriously degraded Thus, universally for
the voice band (300Hz to 3300Hz), the sampling frequency used is 8KHz, which satisfies
the Nyquist Criterion.

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Expected Waveforms

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Expected Waveforms

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Expected Waveforms

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Expected Waveforms

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Expected Waveforms

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## 8. PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION & DEMODULATION

AIM:
1. To study the process of Pulse Amplitude Modulation and demodulation.
2. To study the effect of amplitude and frequency variations of modulating signal on
its output and observe the Waveforms.
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:
1. Pulse Amplitude Modulation and demodulation trainer kit.
2. Oscilloscope-dual channel.
3. Patch Cards.
4. CRO Probes.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

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PROCEDURE:
Modulation:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in diagram.
a) Output of the sine wave to modulating signal input (TP2) keeping the
switch in 1 KHz position, and amplitude pot to max position.
b) 16 KHz Pulse generator output to pulse input (TP1).
2. Switch ON the power supply.
3. Monitor the Natural sampled output at TP5, Sample & Hold output at TP6 and
Flattop sampled output at TP7. (By varying amplitude pot).
4. Now change the frequency selection switch position in modulating signal block to
2 KHz and amplitude pot to maximum position.
5. Observe the Natural sampled output at TP5, Sample & Hold output at TP6 and
Flattop sampled output at TP7.
6. Repeat all the above steps for the pulse generator frequency 32 KHz (By varying
the frequency pot in the pulse generator block).
7. Switch OFF the power supply.

Demodulation:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram.
a) Output of the sine wave to modulation signal input (TP2) keeping the
switch in 1 KHz position, amplitude pot in maximum position.
b) 16 KHz pulse generator output to pulse input (TP1).
2. Observe the outputs of Low Pass Filter and amplifier at TP10 & TP12
respectively, corresponding to inputs from TP5, TP6 & TP7 one by one. The
outputs will be the replica of the input.
3. Now, adjust the switch position in modulating signal generator to 2 KHz and
observe the outputs at TP10 & TP12 respectively, corresponding to inputs from
TP5, TP6 & TP7.
4. Vary the frequency of the pulse generator to 32 KHz (by varying the frequency pot
in pulse generator block) and repeat the steps 2 & 3.
5. Switch OFF the power supply.

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PRECAUTIONS:
1. Avoid loose connections.
2. Give necessary connections before switch ON.
3. Observe the waveforms carefully.
OBSERVATIONS:
Observe the following waveforms in order for every setting and plot it on the
paper.
i)

ii)

iii)

output.

iv)

output.

v)

## Flat top signal and its corresponding reconstructed output.

RESULT:
1. The Pulse Amplitude Modulated and demodulated wave forms are observed.
2. The concepts about Pulse Amplitude Modulation and demodulation are studied.

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Expected Waveforms

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Expected Waveforms

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## 9. PULSE WIDTH MODULATION AND DEMODULATION

AIM:
1. To study the process of pulse Width Modulation and Demodulation.
2. To study the effect of amplitude and frequency of modulating signal on PWM
output.
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:
1. Pulse Width Modulation and Demodulation Trainer.
2. Oscilloscope-Dual Channel.
3. Patch cards.
4. CRO Probes.
CICRUIT DIAGRAM:

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PROCEDURE:
Modulation:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in diagram.
a) Sine wave output of modulating signal generator to modulating signal
input (TP1), keeping the switch in 1 KHz position and amplitude pot in
maximum position.
b) 16 KHz pulse generator output to pulse input (TP1).
2. Switch ON the power supply.
3. Observe the output of pulse width modulation block at TP3.
4. Observe the change in width of modulated waveform by varying the amplitude pot
in signal generator.
5. Vary the modulating signal generator frequency selector switch to 2 KHz.
6. Now again observe the PWM output at TP3.
7. Repeat the above steps for the pulse generator frequency of 32 KHz.

Demodulation:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram3.
a) Output or the sine wave to modulation signal input (TP2) keeping the
switch in 1 KHz position, amplitude pot in maximum position.
b) 16 KHz pulse output to pulse input (TP1).
2. Connect the PWM output (TP3) to the input of low pass filter and observe the
output. If the signal is not at required amplitude level, connect the LPF output to
amplifier and observe the output.
3. Switch OFF the power supply.

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Avoid loose connections.
2. Give necessary connections before switch ON the power supply.
3. Observe the waveforms carefully.

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OBSERVATIONS:
Observe the following waveforms in order for every setting and plot it on the
paper.
i)

ii)

iii)

## Pulse width modulated signal and its corresponding reconstructed output.

RESULT:
1. The pulse width modulated and demodulated wave forms are observed.
2. The concepts about Pulse Width Modulation and demodulation are studied.

Expected Waveforms:

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## 10. PULSE POSITION MODULATION & DEMODULATION

AIM:
1. To study the concepts of Pulse Position Modulation and its Demodulation.
2. To study the effects of amplitude and frequency of modulating signal on its output
and observe the wave forms.
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:
1. Pulse Position Modulation and Demodulation trainer kit.
2. Oscilloscope-Dual channel.
3. Patch cards.
4. CRO probes.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

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PROCEDURE:
Modulation:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in diagram 1.
a) Output if the sine wave to modulating signal input (TP1) in PPM blocks
keeping the switch in 1 KHz position, and amplitude pot to max position.
2. Switch ON the power supply.
3. Monitor the output at TP3. (By varying amplitude pot).
4. Also observe the PPM and PWM outputs at a time
5. Find that at the trailing edge of the each PWM pulse the leading edge of PPM
pulse starts.
6. By varying the frequency selector switch position to 2 KHz, repeat the above
steps.
7. Switch OFF the power supply.

Demodulation:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in diagram2.
c) Sine wave output of 1 KHz from modulating signal generator to M.S input
TP1 (by varying amplitude pot). ]
2. Switch ON the power supply.
3. Observe the demodulated signal at the output of LPF at TP5.
4. Thus the recovered signal is the replica of the input signal.
5. As the output of LPF has less amplitude. Connect the output of LPF to the input of
an amplifier and now observe the demodulated output on the oscilloscope at TP7.
6. Repeat the steps for the modulating signal with frequency 2 KHz.
7. Switch OFF the power supply.

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Avoid loose connections.
2. Give necessary connections before switch ON the power supply.
3. Observe the waveforms carefully.

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OBSERVATIONS:
Observe the following waveforms in order for every setting and plot it on the
paper.
ii) Sampling frequency waveform (pulse generator signal).
iii) Pulse position modulated signal and its corresponding reconstructed output.

RESULT:
1. The pulse position modulated and demodulated wave forms are observed.
2. The concepts about Pulse position Modulation and demodulation are studied.

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Expected Waveforms

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## 11. TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING & DE-MULTIPLEXING

AIM:
To study Time Division Multiplexing and De multiplexing, using Pulse Amplitude
Modulation and Demodulation and to reconstruct the signals at the Receiver, using
Filters. The Transmitter Clock and the Channel Identification Information is linked
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:
1. Time Division Multiplexing & De-multiplexing trainer.
2. Oscilloscope-Dual channel.
3. Patch cards
4. CRO probes
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

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PROCEDURE:
Multiplexing:
1. Connect the 4 channel inputs 250 Hz, 500 Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz to the input of
transmitter CH0, CH1, CH2 and CH3 respectively.
2. See that all the amplitude pots must be in above middle positions.
3. Observe the Time Division Multiplexed wave form at the output.
4. Observe the four different signals placed in their respective time slots by varying
the respective amplitude pots.
De-multiplexing:
1. Connect the TxD (transmitter data) to RxD (Receiver data)
2. Connect Tx clock to Rx clock.
3. Connect the Tx CH0 to the Rx CH0.
4. Observe the de-multiplexed signals at the receiver across the output of fourth
order LPF at CH0, CH1, CH2 and CH3 respectively.

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Avoid loose connections.
2. Observe the waveforms carefully.
OBSERVATIONS:
Observe the following waveforms on oscilloscope and plot it on the paper.
a. Input Channel CH0, CH1, CH2, CH3.
b. TX CLK and RX CLK.
c. Multiplexer Output TXD.
d. Demultiplexer Input RXD.
e. Demultiplexer output CH0, CH1, CH2, and CH3.
f. Reconstructed signal OUT 0, OUT 1, OUT 2, OUT 3.
RESULT:
1. The Time division multiplexed and de multiplexed wave forms are observed.
2. The concepts about Time division multiplexing are studied.

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Expected Waveforms

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Expected Waveforms

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## 12. AGC CHARACTERISTICS

AIM: To Study the Automatic gain control characteristics by using Amplitude
Modulation Technique.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1) AGC Trainer Kit
2) CRO with probes.
3) Patch cards
4) Connecting wires
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

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EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
1) Connect the trainer to the mains and switch on the power supply.
2) Observe outputs of RF and AF signal generator using CRO, note that RF voltage is
approximately 50mv p-p of 455KHZ frequency and AF voltage is 5v p-p of 1KHZ
frequency.
3) Now vary the amplitude of AF signal and observe the AM wave at output, note the %
of modulation for different values of AF signal.
Modulation index (ma) = (Vmax-Vmin)
(Vmax+Vmin)
4) Now adjust the modulation index to 30 % by varying the amplitudes of RF and AF
signals simultaneously.
5) Connect AM output to the input of AGC and also to the CRO channel-1.
6) Connect AGC link to the feedback network through 0A79 diode
7) Now connect CRO channel-2 at output. The detected audio signal of 1KHz will be
observed.
8) Calculate the voltage gain by measuring the amplitude of output signal (Vo) waveform,
using formula A=Vo/Vi.
9) Now disconnect the AGC link vary detected. The output will be distorted when AGC
link removed i.e there is no AGC action. Calculate Voltage Gain A=Vo/Vi.
10) This explains AGC effect in Radio circuit.

PRECAUTIONS:
1.Avoid loose connections.
2.Avoid parallax error while taking observations.
Observation and Calculations
Modulating Signal Generator:
a) Amplitude =
b) Time Period =
c) Frequency =
Carrier Signal Generator:
d) Amplitude =
e) Time Period =
f) Frequency =

50

Demodulated Output:
d) Amplitude =
e) Time Period =
f) Frequency =

TABULAR FORM:
Modulating
signal
amplitude
(V)

Vmax

Modulation index
ma = (Vmax-Vmin)
(Vmax+Vmin)

Vmin

Graph:

x(t)

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## AMPLITUDE MODULATED WAVE FORM

Demodulated signal

RESULT:

## The process of Automatic gain control characteristics by using Amplitude

modulation technique is studied.

52

## 13.FREQUENCY DIVISON MULTIPLEXING

Objective
To construct the frequency division multiplexing and demultiplexing circuit and to verify its
operation.

Equipment
1. CRO
2. CRO probes
3. Function generator
4. Regulated Power Supply

Theory
When several communications channels are between the two same points
significant economics may be realized by sending all the messages on one transmission
facility a process called multiplexing.
Applications of multiplexing range from the vital, if prosaic, telephone networks
to the glamour of FM stereo and space probe telemetry system. There are two basic
multiplexing techniques
1. Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM)
2. Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)
The principle of the frequency division multiplexing is that several input messages
individually modulate the subcarriers fc1, fc2,etc.after passing through LPFs to limit the
message bandwidth. We show the subcarrier modulation as SSB, and it often is; but any
of the CW modulation techniques could be employed or a Mixture of them. The
modulated signals are then summoned to produce the baseband signal with the
spectrumXb9f), the designation baseband is used here to indicate that the final carrier
modulation has not yet taken place.
The major practical problem of FDM is cross talks, the unwanted coupling of one
message into another. Intelligible cross talk arises primarily because of non linearitys in
the system, which causes message signal to appear as modulation on subcarrier.

53

Consequently, standard practice calls for negative feedback to minimize amplifier non
linearity in FDM systems

Circuit Diagram

Procedure
1. Connections are given as per the Circuit Diagram.
2. The FSK signals are obtained with two different frequency pair with two different FSK
generators.
3. The 2 signals are fed to op-amp which performs adder operation.
4. The filter is designed in such a way that low frequency signal is passed through the HPF.
5. Fixed signal is obtained will be equal to the one signal obtained from FSK modulator.

Observations
Signals

Amplitude (V)

Input 1
Input 2
Modulated Input
Demodulated Output 1
Demodulated Output 2

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Time (ms)

Precautions
1. Avoid loose connections.
2. Avoid parallax error while taking observations.

Result

55

## 14. PHASE LOCKED LOOP

Objective
To observe the characteristics of the phase locked loop using the IC 565 and to obtain the
free running frequency, Lock frequency and capture frequency.

Equipment
1.

2.

## CRO with Probe

3.

Connecting wires

4.

Multimeter

Theory
The phase locked loop detector is another demodulator that employs a phase
comparator circuit. It is a very good demodulator and has an advantage that it is available
as a self-contained integrated circuit, so no setting is required. You just plug it in and it
works. For these reasons, it is often used in commercial broadcast receivers. It has very
low of distortion.
The overall action of the circuit may, at first, seem rather pointless. As we can see
in figure, there is a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). The DC output voltage from the
output of the low pass filter controls the frequency of this oscillator. Now, this DC voltage
keeps the oscillator running at the same frequency as the original input signal but 90 out
of phase. The question often arises why we would want the oscillator to run at the same
frequency and 90 out of phase. And if we did, then why not just add a phase shifting
circuit at the input to give the 90 phase shift? The answer can be got by imagining what
happens when the input frequency changes as it would with an FM signal.
If the input frequency increases and decreases, the VCO frequency is made to
follow it. To do this, the input control voltage must increase and decrease. These changes
in DC voltage level form the demodulated signal. The AM signal then passes through a

56

signal buffer to prevent any loading effect from disturbing the VCO and then through an
audio amplifier if necessary. The Frequency response is highly linear.

Circuit Diagram

Procedure
Free Running Frequency
1. Connect the ckt as shown in diagram.The VCO output TP4 to TP5.
2. Switch on the power supply.
3. Observe the free running frequency at TP4 on the oscilloscope with out given the
input. (Observe the fout for different values of Rt by varying the Pot P1)
4. Switch off the power supply.
5. Calculate the free running frequency fout by using the formulae
Fout = 1.2 / (4RtCt)
Where Rt and Ct are external resistor and capacitor and Rt=R1+P1.
Make sure that the practical and theoretical values are exactly same.
Lock Frequency
1. Connect the ckt as shown in the diagram 2.
2. The Square wave of amplitude 3V from the square wave generator TP1 to TP2.
3. The VCO Output TP4 to TP5.
57

## 4. Switch on the power supply.

5. Observe the output at TP4 by varying the frequency of square wave whose range is
350 hz to 10 Khz. At some frequency of the input, the output frequency of VCO at TP4
is same as the input frequency. Note down the frequency. Let it be f1.
6. Continue varying the input frequency and its some frequency the output frequency
different that of the input frequency. Let that frequency f2, this range of frequency over
which output frequency is equal to the input frequency is the Lock range and is given
as

FL= f2 f1 Hz.

## 7. Switch off the power supply.

8. Now, calculate the fl by using the formulae
i. Fl = (8 fout/v) hz
Capture Frequency
1. Connect the ckt as shown in the diagram 1.
2. The square wave of amplitude 3V from square generator TP1 to TP2.
3. The VCO output TP4 to TP5
4. Switch on the power supply.
5. Observe the output of TP4 by varying the input frequency . At some frequency output
signal will be in the same phase as input signal. Note this frequency as fmin.
6. Continue varying the frequency of the input signal, at some frequency the output
signal phase changes and this frequency be fmax. The ranges of frequencies over
which the PLL acquires Phase Lock is capture frequency and is given fl=fmax fmin.
7. Switch off the power supply.

## Calculations and Observations

Precautions
1. Avoid loose connections.
2. Avoid parallax error while taking observations.

Result

58

## 15. PLL AS FM DEMODULATOR

AIM
To implement PLL as FM Demodulator
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED
Power Supply
Dual-Trace Oscilloscope
Digital Multimeter
Function Generator
Frequency Counter
CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS
FM Modulator:

FM Demodulator:

59

PROCEDURE:
Part A: FM Modulator using PLL

1. Set the function generator to supply a 3VP-P square wave at 3kHz with 7V dc offset.
2. Disable the ac o/p from the function generator to get 7V dc only.
3. Build the FM modulator circuit in the figure, and connect the function generator to pin
5 of the IC.
4. Measure the frequency of the generated carrier o/p at pin 3.
Fcarrier(kHz) =
5. Enable the ac o/p of the function generator.
6. Connect ch1 to the i/p at pin 5 and use it for trigger and record both the i/p and the
modulator o/p.
Note: ch2 may not be stable, try adjusting the hold off control on the oscilloscope for best
display.
7. From the results of experiment 3, calculate the frequency of the o/p for both levels of
the square signal. Note: The o/p is actually an FSK signal.
fLOW (KHz) =

fLOW (KHz) =

8. Switch the function generator to a sine wave; draw a sketch of the modulator o/p.
9. Calculate the modulation index () for this signal using the formula:

f c
fm

10. Assuming the output of the VCO to be sinusoidal (not square), use Carsons rule to
determine the bandwidth of the FM output.
BW 2f c 2 f m 2( 1) f m

## 11. Do not disassemble the circuit.

Part B: FM Demodulator using PLL
1. Build the FM demodulator circuit in figure, on another area of the breadboard.
2. Connect the o/p of the modulator circuit to the i/p of the demodulator circuit.
3. Connect ch1 to the o/p of the demodulator, and ch2 to the modulating signal from the
function generator, and use it as the trigger source.
4. Adjust the 2k pot until the o/p signal best matches the modulating signal. Measure the
voltage at pin 8 of the LM565.
V (volts) =
5. Plot both the original message and demodulated signal.
6. Remove the 1nF capacitor from the circuit; describe what happens to the o/p.
60

8. Change the message signal to a square wave and observe the o/p.
9. Reconnect the 1nF capacitor, what is its effect?
10. What is the purpose of the 1nF capacitor?

OBSERVATIONS:

MODEL WAVEFORMS:

61

RESULT:

62