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A) Define the term biotechnology

Biotechnology has been utilized by people for a large number of years in the
creation of lager and wine. In a procedure called aging, microorganisms, for
example, yeasts and microscopic organisms are blended with characteristic
items that the microorganisms use as nourishment. Historically, in farming and
wine making, the desired products have been achieved without any knowledge
of the scientific process. Farmers bred the different species of horse and donkey
to develop mule which have the a combination of characteristics of each animal.
Some examples of how biotechnology has come to aid of human being are as

B) Give three examples of how biotechnology has been used by

humans to their advantage in the past.
B1) Fermentation
B1.1 Introduction
In wine making, yeasts live on the sugars found in grape juice. They process
these sugars and deliver two new items: liquor and carbon dioxide. This
process, called fermentation, is accomplished by use of yeast as catalyst.
C6H12O6 ====> 2(CH3CH2OH)
2(CO2) + Energy (stored in
+ Carbon dioxide gas + Energy
(Ethyl alcohol)
Ref: http://www.yobrew.co.uk/fermentation.php

Historically human use fermentation for make alcohol in 1000 years ago
until Zakariya al-Razi perfected distillation to obtain alcohol.

B1.2 Advantages
Fermentation is not only used for alcohol but also it works applied exploited for
other application Ahead of schedule in the twentieth century, researchers
utilized microorganisms to separate, or deteriorate natural matter in sewage,
giving a way to managing proficiently with these materials in strong waste.

Microorganisms were additionally used to create different substances in the

research centre.

Renewable resources, never runs out

Doesnt release harmful gases into the atmosphere
Little energy needed

B1.3 Usage

Beer and wine are alcoholic drinks that are made by fermentation that
use yeast to convert sugars into ethanol.

Figure 1 Fermentation uses in industry. ref: http://drflam.com/about/research/fermentation/

The process for anaerobic fermentation is below.

Glucose ====> lactic acid
C6H12O6 ====> 2C3H6O3

B2) Selective breeding

B2.1 Introduction
Selective breeding is a process by which two animals or plants are bred
depending on what characteristics are required in the offspring. This is also
called artificial selection, selective breeding has been historically used by
farmers to develop of desired plants and animals. The process is in three steps as
Pick folks that demonstrate these qualities
Select the best posterity from folks to breed the cutting edge Rehash the
procedure ceaselessly



Selective breeding is used to produce fitter and stronger animals, while it also
allows for the creation of high-quality products which can provide a sustainable
food chain. Some other advantages of this are in below:
i.To eliminate diseases.
ii.Not to have any issue of safety.
iii.To create new varieties of good crops.
iv.To allows for higher profit.
Selective breeding also influences the production of food coming from plants in
a positive way.



Farmers have used selective breeding by artificial selection of plants and

animals with good characteristics. For plants, from being hard, full of seeds to
soft sweeter and easy to chew food. Whereas for animals have been using
selective breeding in chickens to produce bigger eggs.

Figure 2 selective breeding of Ref: http://blog.chickenwaterer.com/2012_09_01_archive.html


B3) Vaccine:

Vaccination is using a harmless form of the disease agent, as killed or damaged

bacteria or viruses, to motivate antibody assembly. Any formulation of vaccine
is used as a preventive measure toward immunity against an individual disease.
Frequently although it does not go back long in history, the first time
vaccination was used was by Edward Jenner in 1796.



Immunizations can save your childs life.

Vaccination is very safe and effective.
Immunization protects others you care about.
Immunizations can save your family time and money.
Immunization protects future generations.



We can use a vaccine for pregnant women in the highest priority to protect and
prevent the child from most diseases. For instance
Live virus vaccines, killed (inactivated) vaccines, Toxoid vaccines
Biosynthetic vaccines.
It is also applied for these in no particular order of priority
Children aged 6-59 months
Individuals with specific chronic medical conditions
Health-care workers

C) Describe at least three biotechnology processes that are used at

C1- Genetic engineering
Genetic engineering is the use of genetic knowledge to artificially manipulate
genes. It is one of the fields of biotechnology. The main genetic engineering
techniques used today are: recombinant DNA technology (also called genetic
engineering), in which pieces of genes from an organism are inserted into the
genetic material of another organism to produce recombinant organisms; and
nucleus transplantation technology, popularly known as cloning, in which the
nucleus of a cell is grafted into an enucleated egg cell of the same species to
create a genetic copy of the donor (of the nucleus) individual.

C2- Cloning
In cloning, a nucleus from a cell is extracted, generally from an embryonic cell
and inserted into a reproductive cell (in general an egg cell). Afterwards, the egg
is implanted in the organ. The new organism, upon successful embryonic cell
development, will have an identical genetic content to the parent organism
which was used in transplantation.

C3) Biofuel
Biofuel is the fuel produced from biological processes, Either from living
organisms or from biological waste such as dead leaves, biofuel can be used as
source of energy in industry. Biofuel is a renewable energy source, as opposed
to fossil fuels

Figure 3- Biofuel cycle. Ref: http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/technology/biofuels/

Biodiesel (made from plant oil) and bioethanol (made from fermentation of
sugar cane) are the two common biofuels used today. Another example of
biofuel is the biomass (plant-based substances that are not made for food) that
one of its main applications is combustion in the power stations to generate
electricity (Biomass energy centre, 2015). There is also ongoing research to
produce biofuel butanol1.

Task 2
The organisms whose genome have been laboratory engineered to benefit the
desired biological products are called genetically modified organisms (GMO).
The process, Genetic modification, can be carried out on microorganisms, plants
and animals. To make the crops resistant not only to herbicides (weed killers)
but also to have some resistance to insect pests, we can transfer the new gens to
crop plants and make GM crops.
Although some people find limitless possibilities of genetic modification
exiting, others are concerned about having unethical effect of the GM argue that
it should be banned

GM modification vs traditional breeding

(GM methods permit new characteristics to be presented, each one in turn
without inconveniences from additional qualities and broad cross rearing.
However with conventional reproducing, plants frequently trade substantial,
unregulated lumps of their genomes. This can prompt both valuable and
undesirable attributes in the posterity.)
(In routine domesticated animals creation, crop cultivating, and even pet
reproducing, it has long been the practice to breed select people of an animal
group, keeping in mind the end goal to deliver posterity that have alluring
qualities. In hereditary change, nonetheless, recombinant hereditary innovations
are utilized to create living beings whose genomes have been exactly adjusted at
1 ref: http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/common-algae-biofuel-butanol-


the atomic level, for the most part by the incorporation of qualities from
irrelevant types of creatures that code for attributes that would not be gotten
effectively through ordinary specific breeding. Crops on wild blossoms and
creepy crawlies, and whether eating GM nourishment might hurt human

(Creature biotechnology is the utilization of science and
designing to change living life forms. The objective is to make
items, to enhance creatures and to create microorganisms for
particular agrarian employments.
Cases of creature biotechnology incorporate making transgenic
(creatures with one or more qualities presented by human
mediation), utilizing quality thump out innovation to make
creatures with a particular inactivated quality and delivering
almost indistinguishable creatures by substantial cell atomic
exchange (or cloning). Creature biotechnology being used
today depends on the art of hereditary building. Under the
umbrella of hereditary designing exist different advances, for
example, trans-genetics and cloning that are likewise utilized as
a part of creature biotechnology.)
(Throughout the most recent 30 years, the field of hereditary
designing has grown quickly because of the more prominent
comprehension of deoxyribonucleic corrosive (DNA) as the
substance twofold helix code from which qualities are made.
The term hereditary designing is utilized to depict the
procedure by which the hereditary cosmetics of a living being
can be changed utilizing "recombinant DNA innovation." This
includes the utilization of research center apparatuses to
embed, modify, or cut out bits of DNA that contain one or more
qualities of hobby. Creating plant assortments communicating
great agronomic attributes is a definitive objective of plant
raisers. With customary plant reproducing, on the other hand,
there is next to zero surety of getting a specific quality mix
from the a large number of crosses produced. Undesirable
qualities can be exchanged alongside alluring qualities; or,
while one attractive quality is increased, another is lost on the
grounds that the qualities of both folks are combined and re7

grouped pretty much arbitrarily in the posterity. These issues

restrict the upgrades that plant reproducers can accomplish.
Biotechnology has conveyed humankind to this level of solace
and biotechnology has both gainful and dangerous possibilities
yet without that, we would have a few difficult issues.)