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CE326

Materials Laboratory

Mechanical Properties of Cement Paste


20132023208

*Summary:
In this experiment, compressive and flexure strength of a mortar sample are to be
tested using the compression machine among some other equipment. We followed the
requirements of the ASTM to test the quality of a cement sample we were given.
The grand average was...... MPa for compressive strength and
strength.

...... MPa for flexure

Mechanical strength is the most important property of the hardened cement.


In this experiment we made tests to measure the strength of hardened cement sand
mortar under compressive and flexural load
At first, the flow table test must performed to achieve the normal consistency, then the
strength tests are performed.
This experiment can help us to determine the quality of cement and whether it is
usable in constructing or not.

*Objectives:
In this experiment we measure the mechanical strength of cement by applying
compressive, tensile and flexural tests on cement sand mortar.
*Test specimen:
2

We use a sample of Portland cement Type 1 that weight is. g and we added it
to.g of water then we added ..g of the sand gradually to the mixture.
Water have 65% of dry cement.

*Apparatus:
Mixer
Balance
Timer

Flow table

Specimen molds

Prisms
3

Flexural Assembly

Compression testing
machine

Tamper

*Procedure for Mixing Mortars:


1) Place all the mixing water in the bowl.
2) Add the cement to the water; then start the mixer and mix at slow speed
(140 5 r/min.) for 30 s.
3) Add sand slowly over a 30 s period, while continued mixing at slow speed.
4) Stop the mixer, change to medium speed (285 10 r/min.), and mix for an
additional 30 s.
5) Stop the mixer and let the mortar stand for 1.5 minutes. During the first 15 s,
quickly scrape down into the batch any mortar that may have collected on the side of
the bowl; then for remainder of the interval, cover with the lid.
6) Finish mixing for 1 minute at medium speed (285 10 r/min.).
*Procedure for Determination of Flow:
Wipe table clean and dry and place flow mold at center (1
Place a layer of mortar about 1 inch thickness in the mold and tamp 20 times, (2
.then fill the mold and tamp this second layer 20 times
4

.Cut mortar flush with top of mold with a trowel, using a sawing motion (3
.Wipe table around mold clean of all mortar and dry; then remove mold (4
.Drop table through inch height 25 times in 15 s (5
Use calipers to measure the diameters along the 4 scribed lines on the table.
.The sum of the four readings is the flow

(6

Following flow test, return all mortar to the mixing bowl. Scrap down the sides and (7
.remix for 15 s at medium speed (285 rpm)

:For Compressive Test*


fill the mold in two layers, compact each layer 16 times -1
Place molded specimens in a moist room for 24 hours. Keep specimens in their molds -2
for this initial curing period. After 24 hours remove specimens from the molds and
.immerse in a saturated lime water curing tank until they tested (7 days)
Apply the load to specimen faces that were in contact with the true plane surfaces of -3
.the mold
Place specimen below the center of the upper bearing block of the testing machine. -4
Test at a loading rate such that the peak load will be reached in a period of 20 s to
. 80 s
:For Flexural Test*
Fill the mold in two layers, compact each layer 12 times -1
5

Place molded specimens in a moist room for 24 hours. Keep specimens in their molds -2
for this initial curing period. After 24 hours remove specimens from the molds and
.immerse in a saturated lime water curing tank until they tested (7 days)
.Place specimen at machine and loaded it at middle of span until failure -3

:Test results*

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Trial
4

sum.

Reading(
cm)
Table (1): Strengths Measurements of Hardened Standard Cement Mortar.
Gro
up

Loa
d
(kN
)

1 57.
89

Compression Test

Compression Test (POP)

(A= 50*50) mm2

(A= 50*40) mm2

CS

AVG

(MP
a)

(MP
a)

(MP
a)

23.1
56

22.9
32

.267

CO
Vi

Loa
d

(%)

(kN
)

1.1
65

41.
48

CS

AVG

(MP
a)

(MP
a)

(MP
a)

Flexure Test
(L=100, C=20, b=40, h=40)
mm

CO
Vi
(%)

Loa
d
(kN
)

FS

AVG

(MP
a)

(MP
a)

(MP
a)

CO
Vi
(%)

2.4
0
6

57.
2
51

23.0
04

41.
84

2.4
4

56.
59

22.6
36

46.
69

2.5
6

57.
02

22.9
2

49.
05

2.3
3

58.
79

23.5
16

41.
70

2.6
6

59.
72

23.8
8

46.
63

2.7
0

59.
29

45.
65

2.3
0

55.
59

40.
88

2.4
8

53.
02

46.
24

2.3
0

23.4
04

.548

2.3
44

CS: Compressive strength; AVG: Average; SD: Standard Deviation; COV: Coefficient of variation;
POP: Part of Prism

( xi x) 2
,
n 1

COVi

i
_

x The average reading of each group

n= Number of Specimens for each group.

Table (2): Statistical Analysis of Strength Measurements-Hardened Cement Mortar


Compressive
Strength

Parameter

Compressive
Strength (POP)

Flexure Strength

Average within
Batches Standard

AVG

Deviation

Average within
batches COV

COV AVG

COVi

Grand Average

xi
X N

Between batches
Standard Deviation

( x i X ) 2

N 1

Between batches

COV

100%

N= Number of Group

:Analysis and Discussion


In this experiment, we use samples of cement-sand mortar, to
measure the compressive and flexural strength.
To do this tests the samples must have the standard normal
consistency, so the flow table test performed.
Our reading for flow table was 107 , the allowable range is (110
5) mm.
The compressive test gave strength=19.248 MPA for cube, and a
strength=19.565MPA for parts of prisms.
The flexure strength test gave strength = ..MPa for which is
about ..% of compressive strength of cubes and about ..%
of compressive strength of parts of prisms.
Usually we don't interest a lot in Tensile and flexural strength
because the mortar and concrete don't used to resist tensile and
flexural force.
There are many factors can effect on this tests (compressive, *
:flexural)
.Temperature and humidity, Amount of Water -1
.The preparation of the samples wasnt good enough -2
Bad conditions of the materials -3
.The sand is not standard -4
.The tamping process (degree of compaction) -5
The errors in mechanical machines -6

*Conclusion:
1. These values for different strength tests don't represent the
values for concrete, because concrete has different structure
from mortar.
2. The compressive strength of the cubes is the biggest and the
flexure strength is the lowest.

3. The strength of mortar depends on many factors like: degree


of compaction, void ratio, temperature, relative humidity, ratio
of ingredient, etc.
4. The average of diameters of flow table was 107 within the
range

*References:
1-Wikipedia (strength tests) 2-Laboratory manual.3- ASTM, C109,
C190, C348.4-Notes.