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COMMESSA / Job

N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


MAINTENANCE MANUAL

SPC N.

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CLIENTE / Customer

ORDINE CLIENTE / Purchase order N.

ROCKSON ENGINEERING

LOCALITA / Plant Location

ALAOJI (NIGERIA)

IMPIANTO / Plant

EQUIPAGGIAMENTO / Equipment

ALAOJI POWER PLANT PROJECT

ISOLATED PHASE BUS DUCT (GAS TURBINE)

0
Rev

Emissione / Issue
Descrizione / Description

Rev.

Chiodi

Redaelli

Abbiati

15.10.07

Comp./Prep. d

Ver / Chkd

App. / Apprd

Data / Date

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


MAINTENANCE MANUAL

2975

SPC N.

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INDICE
1.
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS ............................................................................................................. 3
2.
DATA SHEET ........................................................................................................................................... 5
2.1 Main Bus Duct ....................................................................................................................................... 5
2.2 Auxiliary Bus Duct ................................................................................................................................. 6
3.
DOCUMENT LIST..................................................................................................................................... 7
4.
ARRIVAL - CHECKING - OPERATION ................................................................................................... 8
5.
STORAGE............................................................................................................................................... 10
5.1 Arrival material..................................................................................................................................... 10
5.2 Periodically checks .............................................................................................................................. 10
6.
WELDING PROCEDURE ....................................................................................................................... 11
6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................ 11
6.2 Material ................................................................................................................................................ 11
6.3 Welding function .................................................................................................................................. 11
6.4 Welding process .................................................................................................................................. 11
6.5 WPS table concerning welding position .............................................................................................. 12
7.
INSTALLATION...................................................................................................................................... 21
8.
CONTROL FOR STARTING .................................................................................................................. 23
8.1 General and seal check....................................................................................................................... 23
8.2 Insulators check................................................................................................................................... 23
8.3 Earthing check..................................................................................................................................... 23
9.
COMMISSIONING TEST ........................................................................................................................ 24
9.1 Bus duct main data.............................................................................................................................. 24
9.2 Dielectric test ....................................................................................................................................... 24
9.2.1
Insulation Resistance Measurement .............................................................................................................. 24
9.2.2
Power Frequency Dry Test............................................................................................................................ 24
9.3 External inspection .............................................................................................................................. 25
10.
MAINTENANCE ................................................................................................................................. 26
10.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 26
10.2 Cyclic maintenance ............................................................................................................................. 27
11
COMPONENTS .................................................................................................................................. 28
11.1 Insulator ............................................................................................................................................... 28
11.1.1
Assembly ................................................................................................................................................... 29
Dismantle.................................................................................................................................................. 29
11.1.2
11.2 Flexible joint......................................................................................................................................... 30
11.2.1
Assembly ................................................................................................................................................... 31
11.2.2
Dismantle.................................................................................................................................................. 31
11.3 Bushing insulator ................................................................................................................................. 32
11.3.1
Assembly ................................................................................................................................................... 33
11.3.2
Dismantle.................................................................................................................................................. 33
11.4 Condensate discharge ........................................................................................................................ 34
11.5 Instruction for the application of seal on inspection doors and flanges .............................................. 35
12
CONTACTS ........................................................................................................................................ 36
13.
PRESSURIZATION ............................................................................................................................ 37
13.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 37
13.2 Equipment............................................................................................................................................ 37
13.3 Operations ........................................................................................................................................... 39
13.4 Procedure for setting up the pressurization system ............................................................................ 40
13.5 Quick duct pressurization .................................................................................................................... 41
Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

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MAINTENANCE MANUAL

2975

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1.

SPC N.

Rev.

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

The bus duct are Isolated Phases Bus type, this means that each phase conductor is
enclosed in an individual, non magnetic metal housing, separated from the housing of the
adjacent conductor by an air gap. The conductors are cylinders made of pure aluminium and
are supported in a radial way by insulators.
The enclosures are electrically bonded together at the extremities and earthed (normally in
only one point).
This design permits the induced currents to flow in each enclosure with an intensity close to
the one of the phase current of the conductor (90 98%), but in the opposite direction.
This reduces the flux outside the enclosure by about 95% both under normal and fault
conditions and therefore:
-

Eliminates the forces between conductors of adjacent phases and reduces the forces in
bends and other discontinuities.

Cancels the induction effect of the currents i.e. heating and losses in the nearby
components such as steelworks, cables, pipes...
Associated to the fully welded design of enclosure and the conductors, this type of bus duct
also offers other advantages such as:
- Possibility of large unsupported spans due to the high moment of inertia of the cylindrical
shaped, seams welded aluminium enclosure.

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
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INSTALLATION OPERATING &


MAINTENANCE MANUAL

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SPC N.

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- Impossibility that a phase to phase fault occurs.


- Reduction of the risk of a phase earth fault and impossibility of transmit this fault to other
phases.
- The personnel can easily reach the bus bars because all the accessible parts are
grounded and the voltage rise in the enclosure is very little, having a resistive origin only.

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


MAINTENANCE MANUAL

2975

DATA SHEET

2.1

Main Bus Duct

CONDUCTOR / CONDUTTORE:
Material /Materiale
Diameter / Diametro (d)
Thickness/Spessore (S1)
Cross section/Sezione Trasversale

Weight / Peso
Painting / Verniciatura
External / Esterna
ENCLOSURE / INVOLUCRO
Material /Materiale
Diameter / Diametro (D)
Thickness/Spessore (S2)
Cross section/Sezione Trasversale

:
:
:
:
:
:

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ALUMINIUM / ALLUMINIO 99,5%

mm
mm
mm2
Kg/m

300
10
9111
24,60

BLACK DULL / NERO OPACO


:
:
:
:
:

ALUMINIUM / ALLUMINIO 99,5%

mm
mm
mm2
Kg/m

812
4
10254
27,69

Weight / Peso
Painting / Verniciatura
Internal / Interna
: BLACK DULL / NERO OPACO
External / Esterna
: GREY / GRIGIO
INSULATORS / ISOLATORI
Material
: Porcelain brown glazed
Materiale
Porcellana smaltata marrone
INSULATION / ISOLAMENTO
RMS dry test 50 Hz x 1 min
: kV
50
Tens. a freq. Ind. 50Hz x 1 min.
Impulse Voltage Dry (1,2/50 us)
: kV
110
Tens. Di tenuta ad impulso (1,2/50 us)
Clearance min. Phase/Earth
: mm
220
Distanza min. fase/terra (h)
RATING / PRESTAZIONI
Corrente (50 Hz)
8000
: A
Current
Losses one phase conductor Perdite monofase conduttore
: w/m
275
Losses one phase enclosure Perdite monofase involucro
: w/m
200
Capacit
Capacitance
: (pF/m)
55,86
63 (1 sec)
Short circuit capability
Corrente ammissib. di breve durata : kA
107
Short circuit capability (peak) Corrente ammissib. di picco
kA
Protection degree (IEC 529) Grado di protezione (IEC 529)
: IP
65
TEMPERATURES / TEMPERATURE
Ambient / Ambiente
45
: C
Conductor / Conduttore
< 105
: C
Enclosure / Involucro
< 80
: C
STANDARDS / NORME
ANSI C37-23
ISOLATED PHASE BUS SERIES "COAXIAL-MP"
24kV.A.300.10.4
CONDOTTO A FASI ISOLATE "COAXIAL-MP"
24kV.A.300.10.4
The given values of temperatures and losses, are valid with a maximum variation of +/- 5%.
I sopra indicati valori di temperature e perdite sono da intendersi validi con una tolleranza del +/- 5%

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
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2.2

SPC N.

Rev.

Auxiliary Bus Duct

CONDUCTOR / CONDUTTORE :
Material /Materiale
Diameter / Diametro (d)
Thickness/Spessore (S1)
Cross section/Sezione Trasversale

Weight / Peso
Painting / Verniciatura
External / Esterna
ENCLOSURE / INVOLUCRO
Material /Materiale
Diameter / Diametro (D)
Thickness/Spessore (S2)
Cross section/Sezione Trasversale

:
:
:
:
:
:

ALUMINIUM / ALLUMINIO 99,5%

mm
mm
mm2
Kg/m

100
10
2827
7,63

BLACK DULL / NERO OPACO


:
:
:
:
:

ALUMINIUM / ALLUMINIO 99,5%

mm
mm
mm2
Kg/m

594
3
5627
15,19

Weight / Peso
Painting / Verniciatura
Internal / Interna
: BLACK DULL / NERO OPACO
External / Esterna
: GREY / GRIGIO
INSULATORS / ISOLATORI
Material
: Porcelain brown glazed
Materiale
Porcellana smaltata marrone
INSULATION / ISOLAMENTO
RMS dry test 50 Hz x 1 min
: kV
50
Tens. a freq. Ind. 50Hz x 1 min.
Impulse Voltage Dry (1,2/50 us)
: kV
110
Tens. Di tenuta ad impulso (1,2/50 us)
Clearance min. Phase/Earth
: mm
220
Distanza min. fase/terra (h)
RATING / PRESTAZIONI
Corrente (50 Hz)
: A
1200
Current
Losses one phase conductor Perdite monofase conduttore
: w/m
15
7
Losses one phase enclosure Perdite monofase involucro
: w/m
Capacit
Capacitance
: (pF/m)
31,22
Short circuit capability
Corrente ammissib. di breve durata : kA
100 (1 sec)
170
Short circuit capability (peak) Corrente ammissib. di picco
kA
65
Protection degree (IEC 529) Grado di protezione (IEC 529)
: IP
TEMPERATURES / TEMPERATURE
Ambient / Ambiente
45
: C
Conductor / Conduttore
< 55
: C
Enclosure / Involucro
< 48
: C
STANDARDS / NORME
ANSI C37-23
ISOLATED PHASE BUS SERIES "COAXIAL-MP"
24kV.A.100.10.3
CONDOTTO A FASI ISOLATE "COAXIAL-MP"
24kV.A.100.10.3
The given values of temperatures and losses, are valid with a maximum variation of +/- 5%.
I sopra indicati valori di temperature e perdite sono da intendersi validi con una tolleranza del +/- 5%

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


MAINTENANCE MANUAL

2975

POS.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

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DOCUMENT LIST

DESCRIPTION

GENERAL ARRANGEMENT (GAS TURBINE)


ANDAMENTO GENERALE CTG
CIVIL WORK DISPOSITION (GAS TURBINE)
DISPOSIZIONE OPERA CIVILE CTG
CONNECTION TO MAIN TRANSFORMER
COLLEGAMENTO AL TRASF. PRINCIPALE
CONNECTION TO AUX. TRANSFORMER
COLLEGAMENTO AL TRASF. AUSILIARIO
CONNECTION TO CIRCUIT BREAKER
COLLEGAMENTO ALLINTERRUTTORE
PRESSURIZATION SYSTEM
SISTEMA DI PRESSURIZZAZIONE
SUPPORT STEEL WORK TRANSFORMER SIDE
CARPENTERIA ZONA TRASFORMATORE
SUPPORT STEEL WORK CIRCUIT BREAKER SIDE
CARPENTERIA ZONA INTERRUTTORE
TYPICAL DETAILS
DETTAGLI TIPICI
ISOMETRIC GENERAL ARRANGEMENT DRAWING (3D)
ANDAMENTO GENERALE IN 3D
MATERIAL LIST
LISTA MATERIALI
SPARE PARTS
PARTI DI RICAMBIO

A.S. N

2975 MP5
2975 MP6
2975 MP7
2975 MP8
2975 MP9
2975 MP10
2975 MP11
2975 MP12
2975 MP13
2975 MP14
2975 MP15
2975 MP16

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

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4.

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ARRIVAL - CHECKING - OPERATION

All the material regarding the bus bars is held in cases for transport.

The materials have the identification number as shown on the relevant drawings. For each
case there is a relevant packing list that sums up the contained materials.
All the positions referring to every design are compiled in the document named Material
List.
All the cases for transport enclose a Packing List, in witch its referred the contents of the
case.
For the material reception go on with the following points:
- Verify the integrity of the packing and the materials.
- Verify that the Packing List corresponds with the goods inside the cases.
- Verify the disponibility of the technical documents necessary for the work, in the suitable
issue.

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


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SPC N.

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Rev.

For placing:
- Use only suitable hoisting equipment to replace and lift the cases or the material.

- Each case is provided by suitable points of lifting.

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


MAINTENANCE MANUAL

2975

STORAGE

5.1

Arrival material

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The material that can arrive on site will be of the following type:
-

Pieces of bus duct (photo n1).


Cubicles (painted steel) (photo n2)
Accessories: bolts, nut, flexibles, braids, bushing, insulators (photo n3)
Steel work (galvanized).

Foto n1

Foto n2

Foto n3

All the material will arrive into the cases. These cases will be stored indoor or outdoor but
protected against rain.
The cases containing cubicles and / or equipment (i.e., PTs, CTs, etc.) must be stored
indoor.
It is not necessary conditioning air or similar, the material into the cases is protect against
corrosion.
5.2

Periodically checks

If the material must be stored outdoor for a long period, it is recommended to check the
integrity of the cases (every 6 - six - months).
Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


MAINTENANCE MANUAL

2975

WELDING PROCEDURE

6.1

General

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6.

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The scope of this procedure is to assure the constant quality and electric conductivity of
weldings on Aluminium pipes as enclosure and / or conductor of bus duct.

6.2

Material

The material to be welded can be:


- Aluminium 99,5 (UNI 9001 - ISO 1050 / A)
- Copper 99,9 % (UNI 5649) for conductors (if applicable).

6.3

Welding function

The welding function is to assure the electric continuity and the mechanical strength,
however the welding section must be not less than 100% of the conductor/enclosure nominal
square section.
- Ensuring the Quality of welding work, supplier and on site.
Weldig work shall only be carried out by welders qualified in accordance with ASME code
qualification as per section 9, QW-461.
- Checks
Complete welded seams are to be visually checked that they conform to the drawings.
They are also to be checked that they conform to item 6.5 Acceptability criteria of this
specification.

6.4

Welding process

The welding process to be used will be the Metal Inert Gas (MIG) with filler metal wire equal
to the base metal.
Welding machine : DC current reversed polarity
Inert Gas
: Argon

The data for the welding are:


- for conductor : Aluminium WPS Al118/05, Al 119/05, Al 121/05
- for enclosure : Aluminium WPS Al 107/05, Al 110/05, Al 111/05, Al 115/05, Al 123/05

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
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6.5

SPC N.

Rev.

WPS table concerning welding position


1G V

5F V

5F V
5G V

2F V
2G V
5G V
Figura 1
Enclosure:
Front view

4F V

Figura 2
Conductor:
Front view

(WPS)
Welding position

- For
enclosure
(see figure1)

- For
conductor
(see figure2)

5F

Al 123/05

2F

Al 110/05

1G

Al 107/05

4F

Al 111/05

5G

Al 115/05
820

5G
Al 118/05
Al 121/05

2G

Note:

1)

36

Al 119/05

= welding grafic sign.

2) For WPS, see attached on this manual.

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
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MAINTENANCE MANUAL

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SPC N.

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Rev.

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


MAINTENANCE MANUAL

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Rev.

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


MAINTENANCE MANUAL

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SPC N.

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Rev.

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
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SPC N.

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Rev.

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


MAINTENANCE MANUAL

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SPC N.

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Rev.

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


MAINTENANCE MANUAL

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SPC N.

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Rev.

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


MAINTENANCE MANUAL

2975

SPC N.

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Rev.

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


MAINTENANCE MANUAL

2975

SPC N.

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Rev.

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


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7.

SPC N.

Rev.

INSTALLATION

1 - Verify:

the accessibility of the area of installation.

the position and the level of the lay out elements. (machine connections, )

2 - Place the cases for transport near the installation area.


3 - Disassembly the material.
4 - Control the integrity of the components.
5 - Identify the components (type, material, dimensions) as are based on current designs.
6 - Outline as design 2975 MP5, 2975 MP14 the position where will be placed the trunks.
7 - Select the suitable components.
8 - Located the bus duct support steel work as dwg. 2975 MP6
Install the bus duct support steel work as dwg. 2975 MP11, 2975 MP12
9 - Apply over the main generator/transformer flange surface, the seal; see dwg. 2975 MP7,
2975 MP8, 2975 MP9 and the procedure reported in point 11.5 of the current manual.
10- Place the bus duct trunks on the support steel work and the cubicle on the machines
following the next order: T101T130 (GTG1), T201T230 (GTG2), T301T330 (GTG3),
T401T430 (GTG4) Ref. Dwg. 2975 MP5 2975 MP14
11 - Line up the bus duct trunks and fix them as showed in the suitable design 2975 MP5
12- Before assembling two consecutive bus duct trunks, place the joint sleeve on one of them.
13- Protect the insulators when welding is close.
14- Proceed with the assembly of the bus duct trunks, as referred on design 2975 MP13
- Enclosure joints
- Conductor joints
And the welding procedure (point 6 of this manual)
15- Weld the conductors first.
16- If the welding makes drips or balls, remove with a brush, take off the insulators protection
and control that no strange element has gone inside the bus duct.
17- After the conductors welding, slide the joint sleeve over the other enclosure and weld it.
18- Weld the suitable shunt on the following machines (generator, main transformer, auxiliary
transformer).
19- Main connections.
All the connections (main transformer, auxiliary transformer, generator, swicth) are done
following dwg. 2975 MP7, 2975 MP8, 2975 MP9.

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


MAINTENANCE MANUAL

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SPC N.

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20- Auxiliary connections.


The eventual connections relating to the auxiliary elements will be done as procedure
provide on details of the assembly designs.
For example:
-

condensate discharge

other electrical components

Make sure that the auxiliary connections doesnt reduce the insulation distance.
21- Apply electrical jumper when needed.
22 For pressurization system see dwg. 2975 MP10 and chapter 13 of this manual.
22- Continue with the earth connection as dwg. 2975 MP13.
23- Proceed with the final control to start up.
24 The spare parts of bus duct are indicate in the list n 2975 MP16

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


MAINTENANCE MANUAL

2975

2975 MP18

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8.

SPC N.

Rev.

CONTROL FOR STARTING

All the sections of the bus duct have been dielectric tested in factory before
dispatch at power frequency for 1 min.
It is advisable to repeat the above mentioned tests before the connection of
the complete copper plait.
For a correct bus duct installation it is necessary to follow all the operations
indicated on the relevant drawings and the instructions indicated in this manual.

8.1

General and seal check

A visual inspection on all sealings and on tightness of bolts have to be


carried out at the erection completion.

8.2

Insulators check

Care have to be taken handling the insulators.


A porcelain insulator which has received a violent knock or has been
dropped must be rejected even if it doesnt show any defects.

8.3

Earthing check

- Of the sheath at only one point.


- Of all parts of the steel work.
Check that the extremities shunt of enclosure are thoroughly welded along the
entire contact length with the sheath.

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


MAINTENANCE MANUAL

2975

9.1

Rev.

COMMISSIONING TEST
Bus duct main data
- Rated Voltage
- Rated Current
- BIL

9.2
9.2.1

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9.

SPC N.

:
:
:

17,5 kV
8000 A
24 kV/50 kV/110 kV

Dielectric test
Insulation Resistance Measurement
- Equipment type: MEGGER 1 kV

RESISTANCE

PHASE

(Phase/Earth) M-OHM

U
V
W
PHASE

APPLIED VOLTAGE
(Enclosure/Earth) M-OHM

U
V
W
9.2.2

Power Frequency Dry Test


-

Equipment type
Manufacturer
Applied Voltage

:
:
: 0,80 x Vn = 40 KV

Duration: 60 sec.
(between phase and earthed enclosure)

PHASE
(Conductor)

APPLIED VOLTAGE
(KV)

U Grounding earth
V Grounding earth
W - Grounding earth
Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


MAINTENANCE MANUAL

2975

2975 MP18

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25 / 41

9.3

SPC N.

Rev.

External inspection

Supporting structure
-

integrity
galvanizing/painting

anchoring
thermal expansion joints

Bus duct enclosure


-

secured properly
properly isolated
wall plates/installed properly

Grounding
-

assembly/connected to grid (in 1 point)

Cubicles
-

integrity
galvanizing/painting

anchoring
ground connection

Emissione / Issue
Rev

Descrizione / Description

Comp./Prep. d

Ver / Chkd

App. / Apprd

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

DATA

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


MAINTENANCE MANUAL

2975

MAINTENANCE

10.1

Introduction

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10.

SPC N.

Rev.

At factory, before bus duct system packing and shipment, all the bus duct spools are
cleaned inside and plugged at the extremity using a polyethylene sheet clamped on the bus
duct enclosure.
For this type of bus ducts is not required any maintenance, anyway we recommend to avoid
as much as possible to open the inspection hatches (where applicable) and to dismantle the
extremity.
Cares are to be taken when it is recommended to dismantle the followings:
-

Current transformers - for maintenance and/or substitution

Links - for equipment isolation.

The inspection hatches must be closed immediately after the operations in order to avoid
massive dust entrance.
In the event of disassembly and reassemble of any part of the conductor, it is recommended
the use of dynamometric spanner to assure the torque setting on the bolts, as shown in the
attached table.
In the subsequent pages are briefly described the operations to disassemble and
reassemble the major parts of the bus duct such as:

Insulators
Enclosure flexible joint
Extremity bushing
Bolted conductor connections

Before carrying out any operation it is suggested to review the relevant detailed drawings.
If some components have to be substituted, its necessary to request Alfa Standard using the
number position and, if exists, the reference.
Example:
If the insulator box cover has to be substituted, the requisition of spare part will shown the
following:
No. 12 cover item Pos. 4 code MP2.

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


MAINTENANCE MANUAL

2975

SPC N.

2975 MP18

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27 / 41

10.2

Rev.

Cyclic maintenance

For this type of bus ducts is not required any maintenance, anyway we recommend to
proceed, every 2 3 years making the most of the stop of the plant, with the following
procedures:
1-

Control the tighten of the contacts (chapter 12).

2-

Check the status of the bushing insulator and the flexible joints.

3-

Check the efficiency of the earth connections.

4-

Control the treated surfaces (painted, silvery, ecc.)

5-

Control the integrity of the auxiliary elements (if supplied), (heating, condensate
discharge, current transformers, ecc.)

6-

Check the insulation with eventually dielectric tests.

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


MAINTENANCE MANUAL

2975

SPC N.

2975 MP18

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Rev.

28 / 41

11

COMPONENTS

11.1

Insulator

5
6

4
2
3

INSULATOR SUPPORT
(weld to the conductor)

POS.

DESCRIPTION

CODE

MATERIAL

INSULATOR

MP7

PORCELAIN

HEAD SHOCK ABSORBER

MP-19

NEOPRENE

SEAL

MP-34

NEOPRENE

COVER

MP-2

G-Al-Si.9-Mn-Mg

GROWER WASHER

M6

STAINLESS STEEL

BOLT

M6X25

STAINLESS STEEL

NUT

M6

STAINLESS STEEL

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


MAINTENANCE MANUAL

2975

SPC N.

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29 / 41

Rev.

4
3

3
1

11.1.1

Assembly

1-

Assemble the components item 1-2-3

2-

Fit carefully the insulator inside the box

3-

Lean the shock absorber till item 2 and the cover item 4.

4-

Tight the cover with bolts, nuts and washer item 5-6-7

11.1.2

Dismantle

1 - The insulator disassembly will be carried out following backwards the insulator assembly
instructions.

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


MAINTENANCE MANUAL

2975

SPC N.

2975 MP18

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30 / 41

11.2

Rev.

Flexible joint

POS.

DESCRIPTION

CODE/DIMENSION
/

MATERIAL

FLEXIBLE JOINT

BAND IRON + CLIP

19 x 0,76

STAINLESS STEEL

BAND IRON L=100 mm

19 x 0,76

STAINLESS STEEL

PROTECTION

SP. 3 mm

ALUMINIUM

SHORT CIRCUIT SHUNT

SP. 4/8 mm

ALUMINIUM

SEAL

NEOPRENE

SILICONE

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


MAINTENANCE MANUAL

2975

SPC N.

2975 MP18

Fg - Sh./ di-of

31 / 41

Rev.

11.2.1

Assembly

1.

Fit the flexible joint (item 1) inside the enclosure (see the above dotted figure)

2.

Bolt the conductor connections

3.

Connect the flexible joint (item 1) to its final position

4.

Fix the band (item 2) to the outline of the flexible joint and insert the ends into the
clip of the enclosure. Before tightening the band with the relevant tool, the band iron
(item 3 ) should be arranged.

5.

If the bus duct is pressurized arranged outdoor apply a bead of silicone as item 6
othe internal corner if possible or on the internal corner between enclosure and
rubber.

6.

Fit the protective cover (item 4), if applicable, with the proper bolts.

1.
11.2.2

Dismantle

The flexible joint disassembly has to be carried out following the above mentioned
instructions in reverse order.

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


MAINTENANCE MANUAL

2975

SPC N.

2975 MP18

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32 / 41

11.3

Rev.

Bushing insulator

REMOVE AFTER ASSEMBLY

POS.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

DESCRIZIONE
END BUSHING

CODICE
DIMENSIONE
CX 531

MATERIALE
SILICONE

FLANGE

Sp.=5 mm

ALUMINIUM

SHUNT

Sp.= 4/8 mm

ALUMINIUM

BOLT

M8 x 35

STAINLESS STEEL

PLAIN WASHER

M8

STAINLESS STEEL

GROWER WASHER

M8

STAINLESS STEEL

NUT

M8

STAINLESS STEEL

19x0,76

STAINLESS STEEL

BAND IRON + CLIP


SEAL
BAND IRON L=100 mm

/
19 x 0,76

SILICONE
STAINLESS STEEL

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


MAINTENANCE MANUAL

2975

2975 MP18

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33 / 41

11.3.1

SPC N.

Rev.

Assembly

NOTE:
To avoid breakage of end silicone bushing during installation, we recommend to protect the
extremities of conductor plates with aluminium sleeve (A) greasy with Vaseline.
1.

If required, apply the gasket (item 1) on the bus duct shunt (item 3).

2.

Fit the end bushing (item 1) on the conductor, laying the flange on the shunt and check
that the location is in accordance with the relevant drawing.

3.

Place the flange (item 2) holes in correspondence to the shunt holes and after having
temporary clamped the flange, drill the end bushing flange holes.

4.

Bolt with bolts, washers and nuts (item 4, 5, 6 &7).

5.

If necessary, trim the bushings with protrudes from the enclosure flange.

6.

Fix the band iron (item 8) with the clip, before tightening the band with the relevant tool,
the equipotential connection should be arranged (item 10), see detail A-A of
paragraph 9.3.

7.

If the bus duct is pressurized apply a bead of silicone (item 9) along all the perimeter,
of neoprene end bushing.

8.

Bolt the conductor connections.

11.3.2

Dismantle

1. To dismantle the end bushing, follow the above mentioned instructions in reverse order.

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


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2975

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34 / 41

11.4

SPC N.

Rev.

Condensate discharge

The condensate dischargers installed on the bus ducts are of automatic discharge type, so a
cyclic maintenance is not foreseen, also because the liquid formation of the condensate is
not considerable.
Alfa Standard recommends to effect a control verification of the dischargers any on occasion
of the stops programmed for the plant.
Execute the verification in the following way:
- open (screw out in clockwise direction of rotation) the discharge valve 5 blow air for same
minutes.

Pos.

Code
Codice

Description
Descrizione

Installed quantity
Quantit installata

Complete drain casing

324557-BSPT / 324558NPT

Connection nipple (if supplied)

3*

241150

Body gasket

4*

556640

Floa t+ lever

378785 + 241681

Manual discharge manual + O-ring

325662-BSPT/ 325663-NPT External pressure equalizing plug

391614 + 393042

Nuts + bolts M6x35

241680

O-ring OR 108

390265

Screw M5x12

10

556630

Seal

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


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2975

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11.5

SPC N.

Rev.

Instruction for the application of seal on inspection doors and flanges

Bus ducts are supplied without gasket on inspection doors and flanges.
To apply follow the instructions below.

OVERLAP

FIG.1

OVERLAP

2030mm

FIG.2

1)

Apply a final strip of gasket along the edge with an overlap on corner (as in fig. 1) for
inspection doors and rectangular flanges or with a little overlap (as in fig. 2) for circular
flanges.

2)

Drill the seal in correspondence with holes with a punch or graver.

3)

Position and screw the panels.

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


MAINTENANCE MANUAL

2975

SPC N.

2975 MP18

Fg - Sh./ di-of

36 / 41

12

Rev.

CONTACTS
COAXIAL AND STANDARD BUS BAR CONTACT ASSEMBLY WITH NON
MAGNETIC STAINLESS STEEL BOLTS

1.

Clean contact surfaces with a soft non-metallic brush or a cloth soaked in solvent

2.

Spread neutral Vaseline on contact

3.

If surfaces are copper tinned or made of aluminium, clean the contact surfaces with a
soft wire brush and Vaseline to obtain a shiny surface (to remove Al-oxide film), then
protect this with Vaseline.

4.

Assembly bolt, washers and nuts as indicated in the drawing below. Before assembling
it is very important to grease bolts, washers and nuts with Vaseline.

5.

Tighten each bolt with a dynamometric spanner with a driving torque setting of A daN x
m (see table)

6.

Check that this driving torque is suitable for all bolts; then tighten each bolt with a driving
torque setting of B daN x m (see table)

7.

Pal lock nut must be screwed manually until it fits against the nut and then with a
spanner from 1/4 to 1/3 turn.

8.

Remove excess Vaseline with a cloth.

of Bolt mm

10

12

14

16

A driving torque daN.m

3,5

B driving torque daNm

12

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


MAINTENANCE MANUAL

2975

PRESSURIZATION

13.1

Introduction

2975 MP18

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37 / 41

13.

SPC N.

Rev.

Given that:
- the pressurization represents the second level of bus duct inner part protection from the
external ambient and atmosphere;
- the first bus duct protection level is constituted by a series of condensate dischargers
which discharge outside all the condensate that can appear inside the same bus ducts, as
consequence of air entry from outside up to ambient thermal range.
the condensate dischargers are a standard complement of bus ducts and so are always
present, also when the pressurization system is realized;
- the first bus duct protection level grants the full operative efficiency of bus ducts, even if it
is not able to avoid the entry of polluting / corrosive agents in them, or also the entry of
dust eventually present in the atmosphere;
- the pressurization, providing to put inside the bus ducts air previously dehydrated and
keeping it in conditions of a light overpressure, realizes a barrier against the entry of
ambient air, avoiding in this case the inconveniences cause by ambient air.

13.2

Equipment

- A pressurization system is dedicated to every unit of a plant, consisting of 3 single-phase


bus ducts, it is able to supply a minimum of 1.5 times the amount of air needed to restore
theoretical maximum physiological leakage in a unit;
- Every pressurization system consists of a pressurization panel and the relevant material
necessary for realizing bus duct connection.
- The pressurization panel is made up of the following components (see Fig. 1):
1) Pressure switch for high pressure;
2) Pressure switch for low pressure;
3) Relief valve;
4) Manometer air feeding pressure;
5) Automatic condensate discharge;
6) Manometer pressure 1st reduction step;
7) Pressure reducing valve - 1st reduction step;
8) Pressure reducing valve 2nd reduction step;
9) Manometer bus duct pressure;
10) Electric panel for signals interfacing.
PA
electric feeding present
PAH bus duct high pressure alarm light
PAL bus duct low pressure alarm light
Q1
line disconnecting switch
11) Exit for quick IPB pressurization

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


MAINTENANCE MANUAL

2975

SPC N.

2975 MP18

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38 / 41

Rev.

FIGURE 1

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COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


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2975

2975 MP18

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39 / 41

13.3

SPC N.

Rev.

Operations

Each pressurization system acts as follows:


-

the pressurization panel receives the air at a pressure of 4-7 BAR, that is read on the
manometer in position 4. Passing through the filter and the 1st reduction stage it is
cleaned and reduced at 1,7 bar (group in position 7), on the manometer in position 6the
pressure of the air exit after the first reduction step is visible.
- The air will arrive in the second reduction group (position 8). At the exit of the same, the
pressure of the fluid will be reduced to the foreseen value to be put inside the conductors
5mbar.
- The value read on the manometer in position 9 is the pressure obtained directly on the
exit of reducing valve in position 8 and its the same of IPB pressure.
The ensemble of assembled equipments can grant that to the bus ducts doesnt arrive a
pressure superior to the maximum foreseen, even in the event of a simultaneous damage of
the two pressure reducing valves.
-

Once the pressurization system is activated following the procedures listed below, and
reached the balance conditions, three following cases can be supposed:

CASE A:

Pressurization system activated/efficient instruments

The leaks occurred in the bus ducts remain into the foreseen limits, the system is in balance
at a pressurization of 5 mbar and any signalling/safety device is activated.
CASE B:

Pressurization system activated/efficient instruments /bus ducts with seal


anomalies

The leaks occurred in the bus ducts up to anomalies, exceed also the limits of pressurization
panel restoring, the pressure inside bus ducts decreases, and when it reach the value of 2,5
mbar the pressure switch for low pressure starts (pos. 2).
The anomaly is signalled on the pressurization panel by the light PAL and eventually in the
control room so that the operator can take the necessary actions.
CASE C:

Pressurization system activated/instruments with anomalies occurred

Possible causes are:


- Breaking of pressure reducer - 1st reduction step in position 7
The air doesnt pass, the fluid doesnt arrive to the conductors and the pressure switch in
pos. 2 signals low pressure alarm (PAL light on), on manometers in pos. 9 there is no
reading.
- The air passes at the conductors with a pressure superior to 8mbar given by the reducing
valve in pos. 8, the pressure switch in pos. 1 signals high pressure alarm (PAH light on)
and the relief valve (pos. 3) acts discharging the exceeding pressure.
- In the over mentioned case, check the correct adjustment of reducing valve in pos. 8
regulating it again at the work pressure (5mbar)

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


MAINTENANCE MANUAL

2975

2975 MP18

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40 / 41

13.4

SPC N.

Rev.

Procedure for setting up the pressurization system

Starting from the completion of the plant inspection (*), functionally and mechanically, carry
out the following steps:
- Verify that the two interception valves placed under the first reduction stage (pos. 7)are
closed
- Operate the manometer (pos. 4, 9) opening the manual interception valve near to the
same
- Check that no obstacles are present for the use of the relief valve (pos. 3)
- Ask the operator of control room to activate the electric circuits of feed and signalling
relevant to the pressurization panel. As a consequence the low pressure signals (PAL
light) in the bus ducts result activated both on the panel and in the control room.
-

Gradually open the interception manual valve of air feeding of pressurization panel,
keeping closed the air interception manual valve at bus ducts.

Regulate the first reduction stage acting directly on the reducing valve grip in pos. 7 and
take the exit pressure at 1,7 bar read on manometer in pos. 6.

Regulate the second reduction stage acting directly on the reducing valve in pos. 8 and
take the exit pressure at 5mbar read on the manometer in pos. 9

Gradually open the manual valve of bus duct air interception. When the pressure in the bus
ducts reaches 2,5 mbar, the low pressure signalling lamp (PAL) turns off on the panel and in
the control room the anomaly signal is lost. The pressure inside the bus ducts continues
gradually to increase till stabilize at the foreseen value of 5 mbar.
- The procedure of starting/setting is completed.

(*)
The pressurization panel supplied by Alfa Standard will reach the site already
tested/inspected and regulated for the running following the optimal operating pressure (5
mbar)

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.

COMMESSA / Job
N.

INSTALLATION OPERATING &


MAINTENANCE MANUAL

2975

2975 MP18

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41 / 41

13.5

SPC N.

Rev.

Quick duct pressurization

If the Committee intends to carry out a quick bus duct pressurization it is necessary to
predispose the relevant circuit.
1. Correctly carry out the starting procedure
2. Close the manual valve of bus duct air interception
3. Regulate the second reduction stage acting directly on the reducing valve in pos. 8 and
take the exit pressure at a value included between 15 and 20mbar maximum (pressure
read on the manometer in pos. 9)
4. Gradually open the manual valve of bus duct air interception
5. It is obliged for the technical personnel who carry out this operation, to constantly check
the bus duct loading
6. When the technical personnel who carry out this operation verify that the pressure read
on the manometer in pos. 9 is close to the work pressure (5mbar) or exceed it, must
immediately close the manual valve of bus duct air interception
7. Regulate again the second reduction stage acting directly on the reducing valve in pos.
8 and take the exit pressure at 5mbar read on the manometer in pos. 9
8. Gradually open the manual valve of bus duct air interception
9. The procedure of rapid starting/setting is completed.
10. The conductor pressure could be superior to 8mbar, the pressure switch in pos. 1 signs
high pressure alarm (PAH light on) and the relief valve (pos. 3) acts discharging the
excess pressure.

Bus ducts pressure continues gradually to equilibrate till stabilize to the foreseen value of
5mbar.

NOTES
1. in order to check the eventual leaks on the bus duct, it is necessary to use a nebulizer
containing water and soap. If such leaks are discovered, they must be plugged.
2. Never exceed the pressure of 20 mbar otherwise Alfa Standard will not be responsible in
case of manometers, bushing and coupling breaking present on the bus duct, and
interested by air pressure.

Questo documento dovr essere utilizzato solo per gli scopi indicati nel contratto. Alfa Standard tuteler i propri diritti a termine di Legge.
This document shall be utilized for the scope set forth in the contract for which it has been issued. Alfa Standard will safeguard its rights according to the law.