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I.

Fluency
Example of lesson
LESSON 1: Phrasing

Objectives
Notice and use phrases to read fluent

a. Teach

Prepare visual D-1A to display.

Copy visual D-1B for each student.

Help students understand that sentences are made up of groups of words, and that these groups of
words should be read together.

Display visual D-1A. Read the paragraph to students and discuss it briefly.

Then read it again to model fluent reading.

Ask students to notice places where you took a little breath or pause.

Ask them what might happen if you read too quickly, too slowly, or emphasized one word at a
time. (It would be hard for them to understand the paragraph.)

Explain that when they read, students are reading language, and language is words put together.

Mark the paragraph with slash lines to show how the words in each sentence should be grouped.

Literacy for English Language Learners


Minnesota

Rebeca Arndt Saint

Saint Marys University of

Ask students what they notice about the punctuation. (that you paused at each punctuation mark)

Be sure students notice that punctuation, such as commas and periods, helps you know how to
group words.

Point out that you paused longer for a period than you did for a comma.

Tell students that when they read, they need to group words that belong together, but that there is
more than one way to read something.

Call students, attention to the last sentence in the paragraph. Invite a volunteer to read the
sentence another way.

Example: Soon / their pizza will be / ready to eat.

Ask students if the meaning changed.

Read one sentence of the paragraph at a time. Have students repeat each sentence after you.
Encourage them to try to read each sentence just as you did.

Remind them to group the words as they read.

Explain that if students do not group words that belong together when they read, the sentences
could sound choppy and unnatural.

Illustrate this by reading part of the paragraph with incorrect phrasing, such as the following:
Lance and / Mia like to /eat at Petes / Pizza Parlor. They / order / cheese pizza. They / watch
Pete make / pizza. First he takes a round / ball of dough and / flattens it. Then he / tosses it in /
the air.

Discuss with students why this word grouping sounds unnatural.

Literacy for English Language Learners


Minnesota

Rebeca Arndt Saint

Saint Marys University of

Ask them if reading the words grouped this way makes it hard for them to understand the
sentences.

D1 A

Petes Pizza Parlor

Lance and Mia like to eat at Petes Pizza Parlor. They order cheese pizza. They watch Pete make
pizza. First, he takes a round ball of dough and flattens it. Then, he tosses the dough in the air.
Pete sets the flat dough on the counter. He puts red sauce on the dough. Then he adds the cheese
and spices. After that, he places it in the oven so it can cook. Soon their pizza will be ready to
eat!

Name_________

Date_______________
D1B

Trip to Hawaii My family and I went to Hawaii. This was the first time we had been to the beach.
I loved the hot, white sand. I built a sand castle. I also liked playing in the ocean. I swam with
my dad. Mom enjoyed the warm weather. We cant wait to go back again sometime!

Literacy for English Language Learners


Minnesota

Rebeca Arndt Saint

Saint Marys University of

Name____________Date_______________

b. Practice

Give each student a copy of visual V-1B.

Have students take turns reading the paragraph to a partner.

Tell them to use punctuation marks and to imagine how these sentences would sound if someone
were telling, rather than reading, them.

Remind students to think about how to group the words together to speak in a natural way

c. Quick Assess

As you listen to students read, mark the word groups with slash marks to help you note if they
are putting meaningful groups of words together

Literacy for English Language Learners


Minnesota

Rebeca Arndt Saint

Saint Marys University of

Connect to Reading Have students read Pat Mora, the Storyteller and group words appropriately
as they read.

d. Teachers support

Sight Words

The following phrases or sentences contain some of the basic words that good readers should be
able to instantly recognize.

They are also known as Dolch Words, high-frequency words, or instant words.
by the water
He called me.
What did they say?
This is a good day.
but not me
not now
Then we will go.
an angry cat

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Write your name.


Could you go?
Look for some people.
a long time
one more time
Which way?
from here to there
Did you like it?
each of us
There was an old man.
not for me
What will they do?
the other people
out of the water
She said to go.
a number of people
at your house

More Phrases to Practice

Remind students that the words in phrases are grouped together.


my dad
a big black dog

Saint Marys University of

Literacy for English Language Learners


Minnesota

Rebeca Arndt Saint

Saint Marys University of

two cats
in the desk
over the hill
by the road
for a day
across the lake
after school
under the tree

e. Extra Support

Phrase Practice.

To provide practice with phrasing, write the sentences below on the board or on chart paper.

Do not include the slashes. (The slashes indicate pauses.)


The old man / smiled at me.
We sang / one at a time.
I broke / a carton of eggs / on the floor.
Terry told / an interesting story.
She wanted to bake / a pie, / cupcakes, / and bread.
The following day / it rained.

Literacy for English Language Learners


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Rebeca Arndt Saint

Saint Marys University of

Yes, / this must be it!

Model reading the sentences so that students can hear any difficult words.

Remind them to notice how you are grouping words.

Then have them read the sentences aloud to a partner.

Encourage partners to give feedback, helping the reader understand when to pause for commas

II.

Comprehension
Lesson 1: Make predictions

Prepare visuals E-1A and E-1B to display.

Copy visual E-1B for each student.

If students have difficulty making predictions, help them use clues from the story, together with
what they already know, to tell what they think might happen next.

Display visual E-1A. Reveal only the title and opening paragraph of the story.

Invite a volunteer to read aloud the first paragraph of the story. Discuss with students what is
happening. Ask: What is Ted doing? (filling a tub with soapy water) Who is Sam? (a dog) What
is Sam doing? (hiding under the porch) Why is Sam hiding? (Hes scared.)

Display visual E-1B.

Record what students say about the story in the first column.

Literacy for English Language Learners


Minnesota

Rebeca Arndt Saint

Saint Marys University of

Ask students what they know about pets.

Use questions such as: Do you have a dog? What do you know about taking care of dogs? Have
you ever tried to give one a bath? What happened? Have you ever seen a dog act the way Sam is
acting? Why does he act that way? Record their responses in the second column on the visual.

Challenge students to think about what might happen next in the story and why they expect that
might happen. Ask: What is Ted planning to do? (give his dog a bath) How can you tell? (He
filled a tub with soapy water and called for Sam to come, and thats what you do when you bathe
a dog.)

What do you think will happen next? (Ted will think of a way to get the dog into the tub of
water.) Write their responses in the last column on the visual.

Point out to students that they used both the clues in the story and their prior knowledge to
predict what would happen next.

Ask: What do you think the rest of the story will be about? How do you think it will end? Point
out that story events may not always match readers predictions. Readers often change their
predictions as they read and gather new information.

Have a volunteer read aloud the second paragraph of the story, and discuss with students how it
confirms the predictions they made. Ask what they think might happen next, and write their
predictions on the chart.

2. Practice

Literacy for English Language Learners


Minnesota

Rebeca Arndt Saint

Saint Marys University of

Read another story aloud, stopping periodically to let students make, confirm, and change
predictions.

Suspense filled stories are particularly good for practicing this skill.

Encourage students to offer their predictions by reassuring them that their thinking process is
more important than whether their predictions are correct.

Provide pairs of students with a copy of visual E-1B.

Have partners work together to complete the chart as they record, confirm, and adjust their
predictions about what will happen next in the story.

Quick Assess

As students complete visual C-1B, note their ability to use story clues, combined with their
experience and knowledge, to make predictions about what happens next in the story

Connect to Reading Have students read Iceberg Rescue and make predictions about what will
happen to the ship Veslekari.

Teacher support

Literacy for English Language Learners


Minnesota

Rebeca Arndt Saint

Saint Marys University of

Making Predictions Share Connect to Reading books or other nonfiction books from your
classroom library with the group, and involve students in predicting outcomes and supporting
their reasoning with clues from the text

Extra support

Whats Next?

Remind students that when they read, they can use both the clues in the story and their prior
knowledge to make predictions about what will happen next. Help students practice this skill by
presenting story openings and asking them to predict what they think will happen next. Some
examples are given:
Dark clouds filled the sky, and the rumble of thunder grew louder. We knew we needed to find
shelter soon.
Mom fixes dinner for us every night. I knew something was up when I heard her on the
telephone ordering a large pepperoni pizza.
Every day after lunch, our class has science time. This afternoon, the teacher rolled the
television set to the front of the room and put in a DVD.

After each example, have students predict events and tell how they made these predictions.

Ask students to identify the clues from the story openings and things from their own store of
knowledge and experience that helped them make their predictions.

Literacy for English Language Learners


Minnesota

Rebeca Arndt Saint

Saint Marys University of

Language Support
Picture Clues.

Discuss how illustrations in a book can provide clues to help readers predict story events.

Have students work in pairs to make predictions, using wordless storybooks, or obtain several
copies of the same book so the whole group can work together.

Guide the prediction process, making sure that students articulate clues they see in the pictures,
and use prior knowledge when they make their predictions.

E1A

What Happened to Sam?


When the large, furry dog saw Ted bring the big tub into the yard, the dog quickly ran under
the porch. Ted put some soap in the tub and filled it up with water from the hose. The soap suds
rose high, and the dog crawled farther under the porch. Ted looked around and called, Now
where did you go, Sam? Come out here and lets get started!
Ted dragged Sam from under the porch and lifted him into the tub of soapy suds. He
scrubbed Sams back and neck and started to work on his ears. All of a sudden, the neighbors cat
jumped through the fence and ran past the tub.

Name_________________________________Date____________________________________

E1B

Literacy for English Language Learners


Minnesota

Rebeca Arndt Saint

Saint Marys University of

Make predictions

What does the story tell

What do you know about

you?

it?

What might happen?

Literacy for English Language Learners


Minnesota

Rebeca Arndt Saint

Saint Marys University of

Name______________________________________Date______________________________

Sample lesson for students at Harrison Elementary School (Janesville)

Lesson Plan
Phonics and Word Study
Objective: Students will become familiar with the sound of consonant diagraphs and connect
them with the consonant combinations that spell them.
Pre-lesson: Teacher will initiate a dialogue with the students, including as many words as
possible that contain consonants combination stressing on the specific sound of the consonant
combination.
Example: How was your lunch? Who packet your lunch? Was your father and mother?

Standards:
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.1.3.A
Know the spelling-sound correspondences for common consonant digraphs.
Instruction:
Teacher will:
- write on the board words as "sheep", "shade, "shoe"
-read them aloud
-ask students what they notice (identify that they begging with the same sound)

Literacy for English Language Learners


Minnesota

Rebeca Arndt Saint

Saint Marys University of

-read again the works


-have students repeat letter pair "sh" and underline them
-write other words such as "wish", "wash", "push" and real aloud
ask students what they notice (identify that they have at the end the same sound)
-read again the works
-have students repeat letter pair "sh" and underline them
write other words such as "wished", "washed", "pushed" and real aloud
ask students what they notice (identify that they have in the middle the same sound)
-read again the works
-have students repeat letter pair "sh" and underline them
-offer the students the consonant combination sheet where students can categorize words
according to their beginning, middle or final consonant
Example of consonant combination chart:

-teacher will ask students to write next to the "consonant combination" the letters "sh"
-teacher will then say several words from a selected word list, have student repeat each word,

Literacy for English Language Learners


Minnesota

Rebeca Arndt Saint

Saint Marys University of

listening for "sh" then have them write the words into the correct column of their chart.
Word list for "sh" sound: shade, shame, shape, shave, sheep, ship, cushion, fashion, dashboard,
cash, push, wish.
-teacher will follow the same procedure for "th" sound as well as "ch" and "kn"
- Students will continue the lesson by reading the book: Shopping by Felicia Constantine
-students will use consonant diagraphs to decode words such as "things" and "lunch

Schedule:
Pre-lesson: 5 minutes
Work on each consonant combination: sh, th, ch and kn :5-6 minutes(total 20-24
minutes)
Read the book Shopping:10-15 minutes
Quick assessment: have students identify beginning, middle, or ending diagraphs in the
words that the teacher say aloud (5 minutes)

Speaking / Listening / Reading / Writing:


Listening: to the teachers direction, following the conversation, listening to the sounds that go
along with each consonant combination

Literacy for English Language Learners


Minnesota

Rebeca Arndt Saint

Saint Marys University of

Reading: the book Shopping by Felicia Constantine

Writing: words that contain consonant combinations of the day


Speaking: Pre lesson conversation, Sounding out the consonant, reading aloud the book
Shopping by Felicia Constantine

Assessment:
Quick assessment: have students identify beginning, middle, or ending diagraphs in the words
that the teacher say aloud (5 minutes)

Lesson Plan
Vocabulary
Objectives
Students will:
-identify antonyms(words with opposite meaning)
-discover that antonyms can be clues to understand unfamiliar words
in reading

Pre-lesson:
Teacher will initiate a dialogue with the students, including as many antonyms as possible.
Teacher will use different body motions to exemplify certain adjectives.
Example: I live on a farm house. Where do you live? In the city, in the country side? Once

Literacy for English Language Learners


Minnesota

Rebeca Arndt Saint

Saint Marys University of

the student answers continue asking Is your house big or small?, Is the ceiling high or low?
Is your front door narrow or wide?
Write the antonymic descriptive adjectives in two columns

Standards:
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.K.5.B
Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their
opposites (antonyms).
Instruction:
Teacher will:
- help students understand that some words have opposite meaning. She/he will ask:if a door is
not closed, then what is it? (open) and after the students offer the answer the new words are
added to the columns;
- explain how these words have opposite meaning. These words are called antonyms;
- use the same strategy and produce questions that enclose words such as win and the answer is
lose or day and night etc.
- write on the board words antonymic words in two columns such as:
light

good

hot

wet

dry

never

bad

dark

soft

always

cold

hard

-students will match the words from the right column with their antonyms in the left column;
-teacher will explain how identifying antonyms can help them figure out the meaning of
unfamiliar words in their reading and better understand what they read;
- hand the students the What does it mean? worksheet and after reading the first two sentences
aloud, teacher will explain to the students what challenging and easy mean;

Literacy for English Language Learners


Minnesota

Rebeca Arndt Saint

Saint Marys University of

- inform the students that If they didnt know what the word challenging means, they could
look at the words and sentences around it for clues that would help
them. The speaker is saying that the test was very challenging, and he or she knew it would not be
easy, so the word challenging must mean not easy, or hard;
- ask students to find and underline the antonym for challenging and write in their own words
what challenging mean;
-have students practice what they have learned and begin to identify and underline antonyms for
the other boldfaced words on their worksheet;
-have students use these antonyms to define in their own words what the boldfaced words mean;
-have students share their answers when they finish their work;

The lesson will continue by reading the book Hiawatha, American Leader by Oscar
Desoto where students will identify words with opposite meanings( Ex: different, same
at page 3);

Literacy for English Language Learners


Minnesota

Rebeca Arndt Saint

Saint Marys University of

-lastly as differentiated instruction the teacher will hand student text


Science fair Day
-students will work this time in pairs so the students who still struggle with this concept practice
more this specific skill;
-teacher will again ask the students to identify and underline antonyms for the boldfaced words;
- teacher will ask them to work together to use these antonyms to write definitions in their own
words for the boldfaced words;
-teacher will invite partners to share and discuss their answers with other pairs;
-teacher will have students explained how they could tell which word was the antonym for the
unfamiliar word.

Schedule:

Pre-lesson: 5 minutes
Work on antonyms 10 minutes
What does it mean? worksheet 10 minutes
Read the book Hiawatha, American Leader by Oscar Desoto 15 minutes
Science fair Day worksheet 7 minutes
Quick assessment: have students identify beginning, middle, or ending diagraphs in the
words that the teacher say aloud (3 minutes)

Speaking / Listening / Reading / Writing:

Literacy for English Language Learners


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Rebeca Arndt Saint

Saint Marys University of

Speaking / Listening / Reading / Writing: book Hiawatha, American Leader by


Oscar Desoto
Listening: to the teachers direction, following the conversation, listening to antonyms
Reading: book Hiawatha, American Leader by Oscar Desoto
Writing: the antonymic words of the day, worksheets What does it mean? and Science fair
Day

Speaking: Pre lesson conversation, sounding out the antonyms, reading aloud the book
Hiawatha, American Leader by Oscar Desoto

Assessment: As students complete their worksheet, teacher will note their ability to
correctly identify antonyms and use them to decipher the meanings of unfamiliar words.

Lesson Plan
Fluency

Objective
Students will:
recognize that visualizing can help you better understand a text
recognize and explore language that creates vivid and interesting word
pictures in the readers mind

Pre-lesson:
-Teacher will initiate a dialogue with the students about two sentences you say and ask which one
help make a better picture in their minds:
1. I saw a clown with big feet.
2. I saw a clown with feet like two big, flat pancakes.
-Have students explain why the second sentence helped them create a better picture in their mind.
-Teacher will then explain that readers make pictures in their minds to go along with the words in

Literacy for English Language Learners


Minnesota

Rebeca Arndt Saint

Saint Marys University of

a story.
-Ask students to tell how mind pictures might help them when they read.

Standard:
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.1.4.B
Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive
readings.
Instruction:
Teacher will :

-hand to the students the text Saving a Gloomy Day and ask students to silently
read the passage until they are familiar with it;
- encourage them to decode any words they dont know by using context clues and then asking
about meaning;
- explain that it is easier to read at an appropriate rate if the reader is comfortable with the text
and all of the words that appear in it;
-have students listen to the teacher model reading the passage;
-read at a smooth, steady pace;
-ask how it sounded and what made it sound good;

Literacy for English Language Learners


Minnesota

Rebeca Arndt Saint

Saint Marys University of

-reread the first line of the story and ask students how the punctuation affected your reading;continue reading the first three paragraphs;
-point out that readers pause briefly when they come to a comma;
- end marks are signals that readers should pause a little longer before reading on;
-read the passage again at an appropriate rate as students follow along (remind them that it is
important for readers to keep their eyes on the text as they read so they dont skip words, repeat
words, or lose their place).
-have students work with a partner and take turns reading the passage to each other several times;
-remind them to practice ahead of time to avoid slowing down when they come to unfamiliar
words;
-guide them in finding a steady rate at which they can say all the words clearly without rushing,
yet read quickly enough to convey meaning;

- then give each student the worksheet Whats That Noise? and have students read
the passage silently to become familiar with the text and figure out any unfamiliar words
-have student work with a partner and take turns reading the story several times, using
appropriate rate and expression;
-encourage partners to provide feedback to each other;
-have students read The Life of a Dollar Bill by Chris Anderson, illustrated by

Literacy for English Language Learners


Minnesota

Rebeca Arndt Saint

Saint Marys University of

Alan Flinn and read at a rate appropriate for the narrator of a nonfiction text;
-as language support differentiation to silently to ask students to find and figure out
any unfamiliar words;
- have students read at a steady rate, using punctuation as a guide;
-suggest that students note any difficult words or phrases and look up their meanings before
reading the text aloud as unfamiliar vocabulary or difficult concepts can affect reading rate.
Schedule:

Pre-lesson: 5 minutes
Work on a Saving a Gloomy Day worksheet 10 minutes
Whats That Noise? worksheet 10 minutes
Read the book The Life of a Dollar Bill by Chris Anderson, illustrated by
Alan Flinn 22 minutes
Quick assessment (3 minutes)

Speaking / Listening / Reading / Writing:

Listening: to the teachers direction, following the conversation, listening to other


students reading and talking;

Reading: book The Life of a Dollar Bill by Chris Anderson, illustrated by


Alan Flinn

Writing: Saving a Gloomy Day worksheet andWhats That Noise? worksheet

Speaking: Pre lesson conversation, reading aloud the book The Life of a Dollar Bill

Assessments
Teacher will observe students during the practice activity and check that students are reading at
an appropriate rate with accuracy.

Literacy for English Language Learners


Minnesota

Rebeca Arndt Saint

Saint Marys University of

Lesson Plan

Comprehension

Objective
Students will:
recognize that visualizing can help you better understand a text
recognize and explore language that creates vivid and interesting word
pictures in the readers mind

Pre-lesson:
-Teacher will initiate a dialogue with the students about two sentences you say and ask which one
help make a better picture in their minds:
3. I saw a clown with big feet.
4. I saw a clown with feet like two big, flat pancakes.
-Have students explain why the second sentence helped them create a better picture in their mind.
-Teacher will then explain that readers make pictures in their minds to go along with the words in
a story.
-Ask students to tell how mind pictures might help them when they read.

Standard:
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.1.5

Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions when appropriate to clarify


ideas, thoughts, and feelings.
Instruction:
Teacher will :
-hand to the students the worksheet A Rainy Day Rescue and the See, Hear, Smell, Feel,
Taste chart;

Literacy for English Language Learners


Minnesota

Rebeca Arndt Saint

Saint Marys University of

Literacy for English Language Learners


Minnesota

Rebeca Arndt Saint

Saint Marys University of

-ask students to close their eyes and listen as you read the A Rainy Day Rescue passage aloud;
-tell them to pay attention to the pictures they create in their minds as they listen;
-when the teacher finishes reading ask the students to work on See, Hear, Smell, Feel, Taste
chart identifying and recording details of what they pictured;
- ask them what details they could see, hear, smell, feel, and taste while listening to the story;
-ask them whether the picture in their mind changed constantly, just like a movie in their head;
-ask students to share any details which werent described by the author but were seen in their
minds;
- have students work in groups and distribute among them another copy of the See, Hear, Smell,
Feel, Taste chart;
-have students read the book The Upside-Down Elephant by Yoko Mia Hirano, illustrations
by Jean and Mou-sien Tseng aloud while their partner record each story detail in the box
naming the particular sense that is affected;
-have students switch;
-when students have finished, they should compare and discuss the details they recorded;
-when students are finished with their work, as language support tool, teacher will initiate a
picture game What Is It?;
-one student will choose an object to describe while the rest of the group will draw a picture of
what they think the object looks like as they listen to the description;
-invite students to share their pictures and talk about the similarities and differences in them;
-discuss why some pictures are different then have students use their experience with picturing
the object to work together to write a short description that they think will best help a reader
picture the object.
Schedule:

Pre-lesson: 5 minutes
Work A Rainy Day Rescue and the See, Hear, Smell, Feel, Taste chart 15 minutes
Read the book The Upside-Down Elephant 15 minutes and chart See, Hear, Smell,
Feel, Taste 25 minutes
Picture game: What Is It? 5 minutes

Speaking / Listening / Reading / Writing:

Listening: to the teachers direction, following the conversation, listening to other students
reading and talking;
Reading: book The Upside-Down Elephant by Yoko Mia Hirano, illustrations by Jean and Mousien Tseng
Writing: See, Hear, Smell, Feel, Taste charts;

Literacy for English Language Learners


Minnesota

Rebeca Arndt Saint

Saint Marys University of

Speaking: Pre lesson conversation, reading aloud the book The Upside-Down Elephant,
picture game What Is It.

Assessments
Teacher will note whether the students are recording a variety of sensory details on their charts
while they complete their charts.

References:
Meltzer, J. and H., Edmund T., (2005) "Meeting the Literacy Development Needs of Adolescent
English Language Learners Through Content-Area Learning - PART TWO: Focus on Classroom
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Harklau, L., Losey, K., & Siegal, M., Eds. (1999) Generation 1.5 meets college composition:
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Herr, N. and J. Cunningham (1999) Hands-On Chemistry Activities with Real-Life Applications.
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Reeves.D. B.(2009) Leading Change in Your School: How to Conquer Myths, Build
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Literacy for English Language Learners


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Rebeca Arndt Saint

Saint Marys University of

McConachie, S.,Hall, M. Resniek, L., Raci, A., Bill, V.,Bintz, J.,&Taylor, J.(2006), Task, Text,
Talk: Literacy for all subjects, Educational Leadership, 54(2), 7-15

Hinkel, E. (2006). Current perspectives on teaching the four skills. TESOL Quarterly, 40(1),
109-127.
Nation, I. S. P. (2005). Teaching vocabulary. Asian EFL Journal, 7(3), 47-54.
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Bruce, B. H. and Watkins, R.V. (1995) Language intervention in a preschool classroom:
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