Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 56

# PHYSICS IGCSE

GRAND SUMMARY
Constructed By: Mr. Doni

## The only way to get a good exams

score is studying properly ^_^

## Reference: Duncan & Kennett.2009.

IGCSE Physics (2nd Edition). London:
Hodder Education.

CONTENTS

students.

## Matter & Measurements .................

Forces & Resources ......................
Motion & Energy .........................

## Heat & Energy ...........................

^_^

Electricity ................................
Electromagnetic Effects ................
Electroms & Atoms ......................

## *Types of shadows:umbra and penumbra

*Pinhole camera:

*Law of reflection:

## When the pinhole is bigger, the image will be brighter but

less focus (blurred).
*Speed of light = 3 x 108 m/s.

## 1. Angle of incidence equals angle of reflection (i = r)

2. Incident ray, reflected ray, and the normal all lie in the
same plane.
*one of the reflections appication is periscope.

of the object.

located?

## *minimun height of a mirror so a person can see his entire

body is the half of the persons height.

## *diffuse reflection: When the surface is not smooth, the

reflections seem scattered, but actually the law of reflection
still applies.

## *properties of image in every plane mirror:

Same distance from the mirror as the object.
Same size as the object
Virtual
Upright
Laterally inverted
*position of object and image in a plane mirror:

## *differene between real and virtual rays:

Indicator
Real Ray
Virtual Ray
Is it actual ray?
Yes
No. Its obtained
Can it be captured

Yes

## from extension ray

No

by screen?
In terms of lens,

At the different

## At the same side

air
glas
s

*cause of refraction:
Refraction occurs when light suffers change of speed, which
happens when it enters another medium with different
density.

*rules of refraction:
In less dense medium, the ray is further from normal.
In denser medium, the ray is closer to normal.
Angles of incidence & refraction is measured from the
normal, not from the surface/boundary.

## *real and apparent depth

Refraction causes apparent depth to be shorter than the real
depth in water.

OR

## When the angle of incidence is smaller than critical

angle, some rays are refracted and some rays are
reflected.
When the angle of incidence is bigger than critical
angle, there is no more refraction, only reflection.

## n = refractive index (no unit)

c = speed of light in vacuum or in air
v = speed of light in a medium
i = angle of incidence
r = angle of refraction

## *dispersion is a separation of multichromatic ray into several

monochromatic rays through refraction process. It happens
because different frequency of ray suffers different angle
of refraction. The bigger the frequency, the closer to normal
it is refracted.Monochromatic ray is a ray which has only one
frequency.

## *total internal reflection is a reflection which happens in a

denser medium than outsides medium, and it obeys the law of
angles i=r. It can heppen if the incidence angle is bigger than
critical angle.

## Because of total internal reflection, a

prism can reflect rays, as long as
incidence angle is bigger than critical
angle.
*total internal reflection is the basic of light pipes uses,
such as endoscope and optical fibres.

## *three natures/characteristics of an image:

Is it same size, magnified, or diminished?
Is it upright or upside down?
Is it real or virtual?

*magnifying glass

*types of wave

## Magnifying glass works only when the object is placed

between lens and focal point. The natures of the image are:
magnified, upright, and virtual.

## *nature of image based on objects position from

converging lens
The nature of image
Position of
Virtual or
Upright or
Size
object
Real
Upside-down
Beyond 2F
Smaller
Real
Upside-down
Exactly on 2F
The same
Real
Upside-down
Between 2F
Bigger
Real
Upside-down
and F
Exactly on F
No image is formed
Between F
Bigger
Virtual
Upright
and lens

## Based on the need of medium:

1. Mechanical wave (It needs medium. Ex: sound wave,
water wave)
2. Electromagnetic wave (It does not need medium. Ex:
Based on the directions of wave and vibration:
1. Transverse wave (directions of wave and vibration are
perpendicular one another. Ex: light wave, water wave)
2. Longitudinal wave (directions of wave and vibration are
parallel one another. Ex: sound wave, spring wave)

## *Amplitude & Wavelength

*frequency of wave
frequency =

number of wave
time taken

## Unit of frequency = hertz (Hz)

Unit of time taken = second (s)

In transverse wave:
Wavelength is the length from crest to crest, or from
trough to trough. Wave length is the length of 1 wave.
Amplitude is the length from crest (or trough) to
equilibrium line.

## *implication of amplitude and frequency

For sound waves:
Amplitude is connected to the loudness.
Frequency is connected to the pitch.
For light waves:
Amplitude is connected to the brightness.
Frequency is connected to the colour.

*Wave equation
v = f
v = speed of wave (m/s)
= wavelength (m)
f = frequency (Hz)
In longitudinal wave:
Wavelength is the length from a centre of compression
to the next center of compression.
Amplitude is the density of the compression layers.

## *variations of wave equation:

For water waves, the one that always constant is
thefrequency.
For electromagnetic waves in a medium, the one that
always constant is the speed.

## Refraction is the change of waves direction due to the

change of waves speed. It happens when water waves enter
regions with different depth.
Waters wave
property
Frequency
Speed
Wavelength

## It happens when water waves strike a hard surface. Similar

with reflection of light, it obeys the law of angles i=r.

In deeper region

In shallower

Constant
Faster
Longer

region
Constant
Slower
Shorter

## Refraction only happens when the wave makes an angle to the

boundary. When it is perpendicular, refraction does not
happen (the wave will just go straight).

Visible light
Ultra-violet
X-ray
Gamma ray
They all travel at the speed of light.
*uses of electromagnetic waves spectrums

## *diffraction of water wave

Spectrum
Microwave

Examples of Uses
Transmit signal of radio & TV
Transmit signal of cell phones via satellite

Infra-red

## and for microwave oven

Transmit signal of TV & AC remote control,

Visible light
Ultra-violet
X-ray
Gamma ray

## and also for radar detetion

To see
To sterilizeand make fluorescent paints
To take photograph of bones
To sterilize surgial instrument and killing
cancer cells

## Diffraction is the curving of wavefront when the wave enters

a gap. From the diagram above, notice that the curves are
different between narrow gap and wide gap.Remember, the
wavelength is always constantin diffractions.

## Infra-red is related to heat. Every object that transmit heat

also transmit infra-red.
*visible lights spectrum (mejikuhibiniu or ROYGBIV)

## *electromagnetic waves spectrum

Frequency
increases

Microwave
Infra-red

Frequency
increases
Wavelength
increases

Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Indigo

Wavelength
increases

Violet
*monocromatic light is a light which has only one wavelength
or only one frequency. While the opposite, polichromatic
light, is a light which is a mixture of more than one
wavelngths or more than one frequencies.
*echo of sound is caused by reflection.

## When the medium is hotter, sound is faster.

*limits of audibility
Human can only hear sound with the frequency from 2 Hz to
20,000 Hz.

## MATTER & MEASUREMENTS

*quantity and unit
Quantity is something that can be measured. Ex: voltage,
resistance, mass, force, speed, length, and time.
Every quantity has its own unit.
*some sub-multiplies:
Mikro () = 1/1,000,000
Mili (m) = 1/1,000
Kilo (k) = 1,000
Mega (M) = 1,000,000

v=

2d
t

## v = speed of sound (m/s)

d = distance between sound source and reflection surface (m)
t = time taken (s)
*speed of sound is affected by mediums density and
temperature.
When the medium is denser, sound is faster.

*significant figures
For the result of calculation, Cambridge usually
requires for 3 significant figures.
For angle measurement by protractor, Cambridge
usually requires for 2 significant figures.
*describing measurement
sucs as measurement of pendulums period and paper
thickness, do not forget to always:
State the checking of the zero position of the
measurement tool.
Describe the measurement procedure step by step.

## Describe about the repetition of measurement to get

the average value for better accuracy.

## *vernier calliper & micrometer

See the details n your textbook page 48-49.
*density is a quantity ofmass per volume.
Density is unique for each maerial.
m
=
V
= density (kg/m3 or g/cm3)
m = mass (kg or g)
V = volume (m3 or cm3)
*measuring volume of irregular shape object
That is by using measuring cylinder and water.

## *weight is a kind of force.

w=m g
w = weight (N)
m = mass (kg)
g = gravitational acceleration = 10 m/s2.

## *mass is always constant whatever the condition of the

environment, but weight depends on the gravity. Weight is a
force, but weight is not a force.

*Hookes Law

## When the limit of proportion is exceeded, the extention of

the spring is more then when the limit is not exceeded.
*graph of Hookes Law

## This law states that the extention of a spring is proportional

to the stretching force acting on it. If we double the
stretching force, then the extention will be doubled.
When Hookes Law is applicable, the formula of the spring is:

F = k.x
F = stretching force (N)
x = extention of the spring (m or cm)
k = force constant of the spring (N/m or N/cm)
But when we apply to much streching force, at a certain point
the spring will be broken and will not be proportional anymore
(will not obey Hookes Law). This point is called limit of
proportion (or elastic limit).

## When the graph line is straight (the gradient is constant),

Hookes Law is still obeyed. When the elastic limit is reached,
the graph line start to bend upwards (the gradient is no
longer constant).

## FORCES & RESOURCES

*Moment of forceis a measure of the turning effect of a
force,
The other name for moment of force is torque.
*formula of moment of force:

Moment of force =

Force x

Distance between
the force and the
pivot

## Moment of force has two possibilities of direction: clockwise

and anti-clockwise.
Pivot is also called fulcrum.
*conditions for equilibrium
1. There is no resultant force
2. There is no resultant moment of force
*Levers

## *center of mass of a body is a point where the weight of the

body acts.
Plumb line is used to determine the center of mass of a
regular shapped object.

The center of mass is the point where all the line intersect.

*resultant force
If the forces are parallel each other, the resultant force is
then easily found by adding or substracting.

If the forces are not parallel each other, the resultant force
is found by parallelogram method.

## In parallelogram method, the value of resultant force is

obtained by measuring its length. When the angle between
the two original forces is perpendicular (90o), the value of
the resultant force can be obtained by using phytagoras
formula.
*vectors and scalars
Vector is a quantity which has both size and direction.
Ex: velocity, acceleration, force, and weight.
Scalar is a quantity which has only size. Ex: speed, mass,
length, frequency.
*forms of energy
1. Chemical energy. Ex: energy in food, battery, fuel.
2. Potential energy. This type can be:
Gravitational potential energy (g.p.e.) energy due
to height.
Strain energy (elastic potential energy). Ex: energy
when a spring is pressed, or when a bow is pulled.
3. Kinetic energy due to objects movement.
4. Electrical energy due to electrons movement.
5. Heat energy also called thermal or internal energy.
6. Other forms such as light, sound, nuclear energy.

## *formula of gravitational potential energy (g.p.e)

g.p.e. = m g h
m = mass (kg)
g = gravitational acceleration (m/s2)
h = height (m)
*formula of kinetic energy (k.e.)

## *Energy is conserved, meaning energy cannot be created or

destroyed. Energy can only be changed from a type to
another.

efficiency=

## useful energy transfered

100
totalenergy supplied

k.e. = m v2
m = mass (kg)
v = speed (m/s)

## *non-renewable energy is energy which is once used up, it

cannot be replaced. Ex: fossil fuel, nuclear power.

*formula of work

## *renewable energy is energy which is supplied continously

(cannot be exhausted). Ex: wind, tidal, hydroelectric,
geothermal, solar, biomass.
Do not say that renewable energy is the energy that can be

W = F x d
W = work (J)
F = force (N)
d = distance (m)
*work is equal to energy, because the energy is transfered
to do the work.
*formula of power

P = power (W or J/s)
E = energy (J)
W = work (J)
t = time taken (s)

E W
P= =
t
t

## *some power stations involve boiling water to produce

electricity. Ex: power stations that use fossil fuel,
geothermal, nuclear power.
*some other power stations do notinvolve boiling water to
produce electricity. Ex: power stations that use wind, tidal,
htdroelectric, solar energy.
*formula of pressure

p=

F
A

p = pressure (Pa)
F = force (N)
A = area (m2)
*in liquid, the pressure is not affected by the area (A), so
the formula of pressure becomes:
p= g h
= density of the liquid (kg/m3)
g = gravitational acceleration = 10 m/s2
h = height or depth (m)

*hydraulic machines

## When a liquid is trapped inside a closed container, applied

that the pressure of the liquid is the same at any point.
p1 = p2
F1 = F2
A1
A2
F1 = A1
F2
A2
From the equation above, it is shown that in hydraulic
machines, the ratio offorce is proportional to the ratio of
area. Meaning, if we use bigger area, we will get bigger force
since the pressure is constant.

*U-tube manometer

## The principle of U-tube manometer is:two horizontal

points in the liquid have the same pressure. So:
Pressure in point 3 =
Pressure of gas in bulb =

pressure in point 2
pressure of liquid as high as h +

atmospheric pressure
*mercury barometer

## It is used to measure the atmospheric pressure. Based on the

principle of pressure equality, so the atmospheric pressure
can be expressed as the height of mercury in the tube.

## *speed, velocity, and acceleration formulas

average speed =

velocity=

distance moved
time taken

displacement
time taken

acceleration=

change of velocity
time taken for change

*tickertape timer

## *the area under velocity-time graph represents thedistance

travelled by the moving object.
*the slope or gradient of velocity-time graph represents the
acceleration of the moving body.
*interpreting the ticker tape

*velocity-time graph

## *the slope or gradient of distance-time graph represents

the speed of the moving body.

*distance-time graph

*falling bodies
In vacuum, all objects (whatever the masses are) fall with the
same rate. In air, they do not, because lighter objects suffer
bigger air resistance.
*all bodies falling freely under the force of gravity get a
uniform acceleration which is g = 10 ms2.

*Newtons Laws

## Newton first law: a body always stays at rest, or always

moves at constant velocity, unless an external force makes it
behave differently.
Newton second law: if a body gets external force, it will
have acceleration which satisfies the following equation:

F = m x a
F = resultant (total) force (N)
m = mass of the body (kg)
a = acceleration (m/s2)

## *the direction of the acceleration is always the same with

the direction of the force.
*since acceleration is a vector, so if a body suffers an
acceleration, it could be two possibilities:
1. The speed of the body keeps on changing
2. The speed of the body is constant, but the direction
keeps on changing.
*conservation of energy
When a body in a high position falls, the gravitational
potential energy (g.p.e.)is converted into kinetic energy (k.e.).
But in reality, not all the g.p.e. is converted to k.e. since it
some energies lost as heat and sound due to the air
resistance.

## *driving and car safety

When a car suffers an accident, the air bag gradually absorbs
the kinetic energy of the driver (the time of contact
becomes longer) so he/she will not be injured.
*centripetal force

## Centripetal force is a force needed to make an object move in

a circular path. So, the centripetal force changes the
direction of the objects motion continously.

## When an object falls in air:

1. Its weight force causes it to accelerate, so the speed
increases continously.
2. As its speed increases, air resistance also
increasesin opposite direction of the objects motion.
3. So the resultant (net) force decreases continously
until the air resistance force equals the weight force.
4. When those two forces are already equal, there is no
net force anymore acting on the object.
5. The object then starts to fall in constant
speed (no more accelerated)
6. This final constant speed is called terminal
velocity.

## The direction of centripetal force is always towards the

center of the circular path.
When the centripetal force is suddenly eliminated, the
object starts moving in a straight line.
Source of centripetal force can be many types of force, Ex:
1. In the picture above, the centripetal force comes from
the strain force of the mans arms.
2. When a car moves on a road in a circular path, the
centripetal force comes from the friction force
between the tyres and the road.
3. When a roller coaster is rotating the loop, the
centripetal force comes from the normal force
between the roller coasters wheels and the railway.
4. When a satellite orbits the earth, the centripetal
force comes from the gravitational force.
*air resistance: terminal velocity

## flashback: acceleration only happens if there is net force.

*liquid-in-glass thermometer

## HEAT & ENERGY

*every atom/molecule/particle is in continous
motion/vibration. The speed of this motion/vibration depends
on its temperature.
*Brownian motion
The motion of particle is at random direction. This random
motion is called Brownian motion.
If we observe smoke particles under a microscope, we see
that the bright/dark specs move randomly. It happens due to
the smoke particles are being hit by the fast-moving air
molecules.
The particles of smoke or air are very small so we cannot see
it directly. Their movement is represented by the movement
of dark/bright specs, which due to the microscopeslighting.
*difference among solids, liquids, and gases molecules.
Solids molecules are close together and vibrates about a
fixed position. It is due to big intermolecular force that
holds the molecules together.
Liquids molecules are slightly farther apart than solids
and slipping past each other in all directions. The
intermocular force is then slightly weaker than solids.
Gases molecules are much further apart than solids and
liquids. They move in a very high speed in all space
available.The intermocular force is then almost zero.

## This type of thermometer works based on a principle that the

liquid in the bulb expands up a capillary tube when the bulb is
heated.
*Conditions for liquid-in-glass thermometer:
1. The liquid must be easily seen (not transparent). If the
liquid is naturally transparent, then must be coloured.
2. The liquid must expand (or contract) rapidly and by
large amount over wide range of temperature.
3. The liquid must expand proportionally due to
temperature change.
4. The liquid must not stick to the tube.
*mercury and alcohol
Mercury freezes at -39 oC and boild at 357 oC.
Alcohol freezes at -115 oC and boils at 78 oC.
So mercury is suitable for high temperature reading while
alcohol is suitable for the low one.
*scale of temperature
Celcius scale:
lower fixed point (0 oC) = melting temperature of pure
waters ice
upper fixed point (100 oC) = pure waters steam
temperature above boiling water.

*clinical thermometer
*thermocouple

## 1. The scale is only ranged from about 35 - 42 C.

2. It is very sensitive since it has very narrow caplillary
tube.
3. It has a constriction in its capillary tube to prevent
the liquid directly goes back to bulb, so the doctor
gets enough time to make the reading accurately.
o

## *the meaning of sesitivity

When we say a measurement tool is sensitive, it does not
mean that the tool can react quickly. Sensitive means that a
small change of the measured object causes big change of
the tools reading scale. Ex: the narrower the capillary tube
of a thermomeer, the more sensitive it is.

## The wire must be from different materials.

There must be two junction, i.e. hot and cold (sensing &
reference)
The meter must be mili-ammeter or mili-voltmeter or
digital multimeter, since the reading is very small.

1. Can measure wide range temperature
2. Rapid reaction
3. Can be operated from far place.
*expansion

## Expansion happens due to increase of temperature. When the

temperature increase, the molecules gain more energy so
they vibrate faster and need more space. Notice that the

## one expands is not the molecules, but the object.The

molecules only vibrate faster.
*when you explain about the use of expansion to release an
object that stuck from another object, please always refer
to the expansion of both of them.i.e., the object can be
released because the expansion of the objects happen at
different rate.
*bimetallic strip

## The collision creates force to the wall.

The pressure is the total force divided by walls area.
*When the volume of the container is decreasing (getting
smaller), the pressure increases because the collision
happens more oftenso moreforce is exerted. Please notice
that in this case, the speed of the molecules movementstays
the same. The speed will be incresing only if the temperature
becomes higher.
*absolute zero temperature
Temperature exist because molecules do vibration. The
faster the vibration, the higher the temperature. If the
molecules are not vibrating at all, then the temperature is
the lowest ever.. It happens at -273 oC or 0 K.
So the conversion of the temperatures scale is:

The strip can be bent because the metals have different rate
of expansion.
*linear expansivity
Expansion is affected by 3 factors:
1. Initial length of the object
2. Temperature rise
3. Linear expansivity (depends on the material of the
object)
All of thosethree are directly proportional to the expansion.
*pressure of gas
Gas can cause pressure inside a container because:
Molecules of gas are freely moving (high kinetic energy)
The molecules collide with the containers inner wall.

## *specific heat capacity of a substance is the amount of heat

needed to change 1 oC temperature of 1 kg mass.
*if a substance has a high specific heat capacity, meaning the
substance needs longer time to be hot, but once it gets hot,
it also needs longer time to be cold again.
*the substance which has the highest specific heat capacity
in the universe is WATER.

## *when a substance is experiencing a changing temperature,

the following equation is obeyed:

Q = m c
Q = heat received or given out (J)
m = mass (kg)
c = specific heat capacity (J/(kg oC))
= change of temperature (oC)

## When two substances with different temperature are mixed,

they share heat energy until they reach the same final
temperature. In this case, the heat given by the hotter
substance will be the heat received by the colder substance,
so the equation is:

m1 c1 1 = m2 c2 2

## 1 = code for the hotter substance

2 = code for the colder substance

V
=constant
T
p
=constant
T

p1V1 = p2V2

## *thermal capacityis the amount of heat needed to change 1

o
C temperature of the whole body.
pV
=constant
T

pV =constant

## V = volume (m3 or cm3)

T = temperature (oC)
P = pressure (Pa)
The meaning of constant: the value in a condition always the
same with the other condition. Example, pV = constant, so
value of pV in condition 1 is the same with in condition 2. In
terms of equation we get:

C = m c
C = heat capacity (J/oC)
m = mass (kg)
c = specific heat capacity (J/(kg oC))
Notice that thermal capacity is similar to specific heat
capacity. The only difference is, specific heat capacity
considers the mass, but in thermal capacity, it is about whole
body.
So specific heat capacity deals with substance, while heat
capacity deals with body (object as a whole).

*if a body has a high heat capacity, meaning the body needs
longer time to be hot, but once it gets hot, it also needs
longer time to be cold again.
*specific latent heatis the amount of heat needed to change
the state of 1 kg substance without temperature change.
Since there are two important states changing, i.e. melting
and boiling, so there are 2 types of specific latent heat:
1. specific latent heat of fusion is the amount of heat
needed to change 1 kg solid into liquid without
temperature change.
2. specific latent heat of vaporization is the amount of
heat needed to change 1 kg liquid into gas without
temperature change.
*when a substance is experiencing a state changing without
temperature change, the following formulas are obeyed.

## *the greater the temperature difference, the greater the

rate of heat trasfer.
*boiling is different with evaporation
Category
Where does it

Boiling
In the whole

Evaporation
Only on the surface of

occur?
At what

liquid

the liquid

temperature does

100 oC

Any temperature

it occur?
Is it affected by
surface area?
Is it affected by
wind?

No.
No.

## Yes. The wider the area,

the faster it occurs.
Yes. The harder wind
blows, the faster it
occurs.

Q = m lf
Q = m lv
Q = heat (J)
m = mass (kg)
lf = specific latent heat of fusion (J/kg)
lv =specific latent heat of vaporization (J/kg)
*when a substance experiences a changing state (melting or
boiling), there is no temperature change eventhough heat is
continously supplied to it. This is because the heat energy is
not used to make the molecules vibate faster, but to break
the intermolecular forcethat holds the molecules.

## Every boiling process contains evaporation, but not every

evaporation process contains boiling.

## *when evaporation takes place, the average temperature of

the liquid drops (decreases), because the most energetic
molecules have escaped to the air.
*Heat can be transfered by 3 processes: conduction,
Conduction
The matter as a

Convection
The matter as a

It is a wave

## whole doesnt move

whole moves
Happens in liquid

ofelectromagnetic
Happens in all
matters.

Cannot occur in

and gas
Cannot occur in

vacuum

vacuum

Happens in solid

Occur in vacuum
Heat flowing does

not affected by

## hot to cool place

temperature
difference

1. Conduction occurs because atoms move faster when they
receive energy. they then hit the neighbour atoms.
2. Convection occurs because liquid/gas expand when they
become hotter. Their density than decreases, so they
move up.
3. Radiation is reflected by bright-shiny surface and
absorbed/emitted by black-dull surface.
4. Metals are better conductor of heat than non-metals,
because metals have free electrons which bump the atoms.
5. Because of air convection, wind blows from sea to land at
day and blows from land to sea at night. It happens since

## land has a smaller specific heat capacity than sea water so

land is easy to be hot and easy also to be cool.

ELECTRICITY
*When an atom has more electrons than it should have, the
atom will be negatvely charged.
*When an atom has less electrons than it should have, the
atom will be poisitively charged
*like charges repel, while unlike charge attract.
*force between electric charge decreases as their
separation increases.
*testing a charge can only be done with a repulsion, NOT
attraction.
*electrostatic induction

## Electrostatic induction happens because the charges are

separated, but the object is still neutral as a whole.
Please notice that in electrostatic induction, the one that
actually moves is electron, NOT the charge.
*because of electrostatic induction, a charge object can
attract neutral objects.

## *Electric field is a region where an electric charge

experiences a force.

## *how to draw an electric fields

Electric fields always go out from positive charge and go in
to negative charge.
When it is about charged plates, the field lines are parallel
each other.

## *electric current is a flowing of electrons (or a flowing of

electric charges).
*the direction of current
In an electrical circuit, current flows from positive to
negative poles of the power supply.
In an electrical circuit, electrons flow from negative
to positive poles of the power supply.
*formula of current and charges

## Since current is the flowing of charges within a certain time,

so:

Q = I x t

works in it?
*current will go through a wire which has no resistance if
there is such a wire in a parallel circuit.

Q = charge (C)
I = current (A)
t = time (s)

## *direct current (d.c.) and alternating current (a.c.)

In d.c., current flows in one direction only.
In a.c., current flows to and fro at a certain frequency.

## *series and parallel circuit

Difference
Series circuit
How is current
The current is the

Parallel circuit
The current is

in it?

shared to all

branches. The
branch which has

## *voltage between two points is the energy needed to make1C

chargegoes across those points.
V=

E
Q

smaller resistance
gets bigger
How is voltage

## The voltage from

current.
The voltage across

in it?

## the ends of each

to all components.

## branch is all the

Component with

same.

smaller resistance

## V = voltage or potential difference (V)

E = energy (J)
Q = charge (C)
Dont be confuse: voltage is also called potential difference
(p.d.)
*electromotive force (e.m.f.)of a cellis the energy needed
to make 1 C charge goes around the circuit and come back
again to the cell.

gets smaller
If a component

voltage.
All the other

## All the other

in it brakes,

components will be

components still

what happen to

off.

work (on).

the others?
Can a fuse

Yes.

No.

Like voltage, e.m.f. has a unit of volt (V) as well. Notice that
voltage is similar to e.m.f. The difference is, voltage refers
generally for all points, while e.m.f. only refers to points

## across a cell or battery. So, every e.m.f. is also a voltage,

but not every voltage is an e.m.f.
*why is cells voltage always smaller than its e.m.f.?
Ideally, cells voltage is equal to its e.m.f. but since every cell
has resistance inside it, so the actual voltage is always
smaller than the e.m.f. It is due to the lost of some energies
that are consumed by the cells resistance.

## e.m.f. = lost cells voltage + actual voltage

*ammeter and voltmeter
Current is measured by a device called ammeter, while voltage
is measured by a device called voltmeter.

## If identical cells are all arranged in parallel, the total

voltage is the same as only one cell, but the power lasts
longer.

* Ohms Lawformula

V = I x R
V = voltage (V)
I = current (A)
R = resistance ()
*in fixed resistor (often called resistor only), the resistance
valueis always constant, so the I-V graph will be seen as:

## Ammeter is always set inseries with the resistance whose

the current is going to be measured.
Voltmeter is always set in parallel with the resistance
whose the voltage is going to be measured.

*arrangement of cells
If identical cells are all arranged in series, the total
voltage is the sum of all the cells.

## In non-fixed resistor, like alamps filament, the resistance

increases as the filament gets hotter, so the current
decreases. So the I-V graph will be seen as:

## If the two resistors are identical, so the effective

resistance is the half of a single resistance. Ex: there are
two identical resistors with 5 resistance each. So the
effective resistance is 2.5 .

## Since the gradient is not constant, meaning the resistance is

not constant as well.
*calculating effective (total) resistance in SERIES

R = R1 + R2 + R3 + ...

*resistivity
Resistance of a wire depends on 3 factors, which can be
stated mathematically as:
R=

l
A

## R = effective (total) resistance ()

R1, R2, R3 = individual resistance ()

R = resistance of a wire ()
= resistivity, which depends on the material (m)
l = length of the wire (m)
A = cross sectional area of the wire (m2)

## *calculating effective (total) resistance in PARALLEL

*potential divider

1 1 1 1
= + + +...
R R1 R1 R 3
R = effective (total) resistance ()
R1, R2, R3 = individual resistance ()
If there are only 2 resistors in the parallel cirrcuit, we can
use faster formula to calculate the effective resistance:
R=

R1 R 2
R 1+R 2

## Potential divider is actually an application of voltage concept

in series arrangement. The concept says that in series, the
voltage is shared (the greater the resistanc, the greater the
voltage shared). So, the ratio of resistances is proportional
to the ratio of voltages:

V A RA
=
V B RB

*construction of a capacitor
Capacitance is the
measurement of how
much a capacitor can
store charges. The
capacitance is bigger
when:
>>The plates area is
wider
>>The plates are
closer

## *capacitor stores energy, or

we can also says it stores
charge.
Capacitor is usually used in a
time-delay circuit.

## To charge a capacitor connect it to cell.

To dis-charge a capacitor connect the plates with wire
without any connection to cell.

## *effect of capacitors in d.c. and a.c. circuit

since capacitors plates are separated by dielectric
(insulator), so capacitor blocks d.c.
since the current flows to and fro in a.c., so capacitor
passes a.c.
*power in elecric circuit

P = I V

## P = I2 R use it in terms of energy loss due to heat

P = V2/R use it in terms of voltage drop due to

*relay

energy loss
P = power (W)
I = current (A)
V = voltage (V)
R = Resistance ()
*a.c. cable system
a.c. cable system consist mainly 2 wires, i.e. live wire and
neutral wire. Live wire contains current, while neutral wire is
to connect the live wire back to power plant station.Due to
safety, some cables also contain ground wire to throw leaking
current to the ground.
*electrocution
Electric shock happens when we touch live wire and our body
is connected to earth. The current then flows though our
body to the earth.
*paying for electricity
Our electricity paying is based on the amount of electrical
energy that we consumed. Notice that the energy is
measured in kWh (kilo-watt hour), not in joule.

E = P x t
E = electrical energy we used (kWh)
P = power of the appliances (kW)
t = time of consumption (hour)

## A relay contains electromagnet which generates magnetic

field to pull a switch when the current in it increases. Relay is
useful to let a small current circuit to control another big
current circuit.
*transistor
Transistor works based on principle that the current from
collector (C) can pass to emitter (E) only when there is
current passes from base (B).
The circuit of transistor often contains thermistor and LDR
as the input sensor.
Thermistor changes its resistance due to temperature.
Its resistance increases when temperature decreases

## LDR changes its resistance due to light intensity. Its

resistance increases when light intensity decreases.

## >> when thermistor or LDR are placed below the transistor,

the circuit is to give warning for low temperature or low light
intensity. (just like the diagram above).
>> when thermistor or LDR are placed above the transistor,
the circuit is to give warning for high temperature or high
light intensity.

## *other electrical componentsfunctions

Name
Variabel Resistor

Function
To change resistance or to change

(Rheostat)
Fuse

## current of the circuit.

To break the circuit when the

Diode

## current exceeds the maximum.

To let current flows in one direction

LED (light

## only (converts a.c. to d.c.)

It is a diode but can emit light.

emitting diode)

*difference between analogue and digital electronics
in analogue circuits, voltage or current can have any value
within a certain range, Ex: variable resistor (rheostat.While
in digital circuits, voltage or current have only 2 possible
values, i.e. high/on/1 or low/off/0, Ex: switch.
*logic gate is a digital gate which gives a certain output
(either 1 or 0) based on the inputs.
*truth table is a table of a logic gate which shows all possible
output values based on the input values.
*types of logic gate, its symbol, and its truth table

## *digital system also sometimes use thermistor and LDR as

the sensors. The input value depends on the conditions:
For LDRbright = 1 ; dark = 0.

## For thermistorhot = 1 ; cold = 0.

ELECTROMAGNET EFFECTS
*ferromagnetic materials (magnetic materials) are
thosewhich can be attracted to a magnet. Ex: iron, steel,
nickel, cobalt.

## *Iron is a soft magnetic material, meaning it can be easily

magnetized but also be easily demagnetized. Magnets made
from iron are temporary.
Steel is a hard magnetic material, meaning it can hardly be
magnetized but also hardly be demagnetized. Magnets made
from steel are permanent.
*law of magnetic poles
Like poles repel, while unlike poles attract.
*the only way to test a type of pole is to perform repel force,
since attract force could be two posibilities: its unlike pole or
neutral ferromagnetic.
*two ways to demonstrate magnetic fields pattern:
1. Using compass plotting
2. Using iron fillings

## Magnetic field is an area surrounding a magnet where

it produces magnetic force.
The further from the magnet, the weaker the
magnetic force.
The further from the magnet, the looser the magnetic
field lines.
Magnetic field lines always go out from North pole and
go in to South pole.
Magnets poles are the region where the magnetic
force is the greatest.

## *When a compass is placed around a wire containing current,

the compass needle will rotate. It shows that current
produces magnetic field.

## *to determine the direction of magnetic fields around a

indicates the direction of current, while your four fingers
indicate the direction of magnetic field circle diretion.

## *to determine direction of magnetic fieldsaround a

solenoid, we still use OK right hand rule, but it is reversed.
This time, the four fingers indicates the direction of the
current, while the thumb indicates the direction of the North
pole of the solenoid (since the solenoid behaves like a magnet
when it contains current).

## When a compass is place around that wire, the needle will

just follow the direction of the field lines.
This OK right hand rule also can be used to determine the
direction of magnetic fields around a circular wire.

## *solenoid can be used to magnetize and demagnetize.

To magnetize a ferromagnetic material, place it inside the
solenoid and gradually (slowly) increase the d.c.currect.
To demagnetize a magnet, place it inside the solenoid and
turn on the a.c. current and reduce it gradually.

## When there are

magnetic fields around
a wire containing
current, there will be a
force that push the
wire to a certain
direction.

## *an electromagnet is made of:

1. Soft iron core
2. Coil which winding the iron core
3. Current flows in the coil

## *how to determine directions in electric motor effect?

Use your SLAP right hand as shown in the picture below.

## *an electromagnet has to be quickly magnetized and easily

demagnetized, so iron is used as the core instead of steel
since iron is soft while steel is hard magnetic materials.
*an electromagnet can be stronger if:
1. The current in the coil increases
2. The number of turns on the coil increases
3. The poles of the magnet are closer together (only for
an electromagnet which uses horseshoe magnet).
*electric motor effect

## This SLAP right hand rule sometimes subtituted by

Flemings Left Hand Rule:

## d.c. electric motor also uses SLAP right hand rule to

determine whether the coil moves clockwise or anti-clockwise
to make the d.c. motor rotates faster, we can use stronger
battery (increase the current), use stronger magnet, add
turns to the coil, or put the magnets poles closer together.
*galvanometer
Galvanometer is an electric motor that is used to detects
small currents or small voltages.
These two hand rules are the same. Just memorize the 3
indications in this Flemings Left Hand Rule. But in application,
I recommend to use the SLAP one because it is easier.
*simple d.c. electric motor
d.c. electric motor contains: magnet, coil, brushes (fixed), and
commutator (rotates with coil). The function the commutator
is to reverse the direction of current which flows in the coil.

## *multimeter is a device which is be able to measure voltage,

current, and resistance.

The sensitivity of a
galvanometer is increased by
having:

## More turns on the coil

A stronger magnet
Weaker hair spring
Use beam of light as a
pointer

## *shunts and multiplier

Shunt is a resistor which has a known lowresistance.
Multiplier is a resistor which has a known highresistance.

## A galvanometer can be set as anammeterif it is arranged in

parallel with shunt. If it is arranged in series with
multiplier, it becomes voltmeter.
*electromagnetic induction isthe way to get voltage/current
by making a conductor (wire)cutsmagnetic fields.

## The induced voltage/current can be increased by:

1. Moving the wire/magnetfaster.

## 2. Using stronger magnet.

3. Adding turns on the coil
In summary, we say that:
The size of induced voltage/current is directly
proportional to the rate at which the conductor (wire)
cuts magnetic field linesthis is called Faradays Law.
Notice that the magnetic fields and the wire must cut each
other (be perpendicular) to result an induced
voltage/current. If they are parallel each other, there will be
no induced voltage/current.

## When a magnet and a solenoid are moving relatively each

other, we can determine the pole of the solenoid by using
kudekati Jeni:

## KUtub yang menDEKATI adalah seJENIs,

andthe opposite applies:
Kutub yang menjauhi adalah tak sejenis

## When we already know the poles of the solenoid, we can

also:
1. Draw the magnetic field lines of the soilenoid (go out
from N and go in to S).
2. Determine the direction of the current in the solenoid
(by using OK right hand rule).
*kudekati Jeni

## Electric motor >> converts electricity into movement

Generator>> converts movement into electricity
*work of transformer

## *transformer only works in a.c. because the secondary coil

needs to be cut continously. If using d.c., the cutting process
only happens once (cannot be continously) since d.c. only has
one direction so the magnetic fields has one direction as well.
*primary coil is not always located on the transformers
left side. Primary coil is the coil where input voltage/current
is given.
*transformer equation

process description:
1. There is current in the primary coil.
2. This current generates magnetic fields around the
primary coil.
3. This magnetic fields are trapped inside the iron core
and cut the secondary coil.
4. This cutting process generates current in secondary
coil.
5. Since it is a.c. in theprimary coil , so the direction of
magnetic fields keep on changing, creating continous
a.c. current in the secondary coil.
Note: When there is current, there must be also voltage
which causes the current.

## Ratio of voltage is directly proportional to the ratio of turns:

V p Np
=
V s Ns
Vp = primary voltage (V)
Vs = secondary voltage (V)
Np = number of primary turns
Ns = number secondary turns

## Ratio of current is inversly proportional to the ratio of turns

or to the ratio of voltage:
Ip Vs
=
Is V p
And
Ip Ns
=
Is N p
Ip = primary current (A)
Is = secondary current (A)
*types of transformer
1. Step-up transformer >> to increase voltage (by having
more turns in secondary than in primary).
2. Step-down transformer >> to decrease voltage (by
having less turns in secondary than in primary).
Notice that transformer can only change voltage or current.
It cannot change the power of the input:

## Power in primary coil = Power in secondary coil

Since P = I x V, so when transformer increases the voltage,
its current is decreased. When transformer decreases the
voltage, its current is increased.

## in a long transmission process from power station to

consumers as shown above, when the current is higher, the
transmission wire becomes hotter so lots of energy lost as
heat. To prevent energy loss, we usestep-uptransformer to
increase voltage (so current is decreased) then the wire
becomes quite cool.When it comes to consumer, we use stepdown transformer to decrease the voltage again (so current
is increased again).

ELECTRONS
*thermionic emission

## Thermionic emission is the emission of electrons from a

very hot metal surface. When the metal is not hot enough,
the electrons do not have sufficient energy to escape/jump.
*cathode rays are beams of electrons moving at high speed
in straight lines.
*iffluorescent screen (made of phosphor) is hit by electrons,
the spot that is being hit will emit visible light.
*deflection of electron beam in ELECTRIC field
Since electrons are negatively charged, so they are deflected
towards positive plate in a curve path.
Notice that when the electron is already beyond the plates,
it moves in a straight line again (no more bent)

## *deflection of electron beam in MAGNETIC field

By using SLAP right hand rule, we can determine this kind
of deflection, but the direction of the thumb must be
reversed (since the direction of electrons flow is opposite
from the direction of current).

## CRO components function:

Heater
: to heat the cathode.
Cathode
: to emit electrons (thermionic emission).
Anode
: to accelerate electrons so they can travel in a
straight line towards the screen.
Y-Plates
: to deflect electrons vertically.
Y-Plates
: to deflect electrons horizontally.
Screen
: to emit visible light when electrons hit it.
The grid controls the brightness by controlling the number of
electrons. The more electrons pass, the brighter the
appearance on the screen.
Y-Plates indicate the voltage (amplitude) of the input signal.
X-Plates indicate the time (period) of the input signal.
Y-Plate control is often called Y-amp gain.
X-Plate control is often called time base.

## *Every external input to the CRO must be connected to the

Y-plates (Y-amp gain), not to the X-plates (time base).
*screens appearance based on Y-Plates deflection

## *screens appearance of the figure above (Fig 47.7) when

the time base (X-plates) is on.

## *using CRO to measure voltage and frequency

*What are the types of radiation?
There are 3 main types of radiation that the unstable atom
emits: alpha ray, beta ray, and gamma ray. Each ray has their
own characteristic. Table below shows the comparison among

Difference

## Voltage of the input is indicated by the amplitude of the

screens wave.(Ex: Y-amp gain control is at 2 V/div, so every
vertival box indicates 2 V, and the voltage of the above
diagram is 3 V).
Frequency of the input is indicated by the number of screens
wave per time. (Ex: time base control is at 1 s/div, so every
horizontal box indicates 1 seconds, and the frequency of the
above diagram is 0.2 Hz).

In this universe, there are so many atoms. Some of these
atoms are not stable, meaning they tend to change to another

Alpha ray

Beta ray

Gamma ray

Category
Symbol
What is it

A beam of alpha

A beam of beta

A beam of

actually?

ray actually

ray actually

gamma ray

consists of 2

consists of a

actually is an

protons and 2

single electron.

electromagnetic

Is it a

neutrons.
Yes, because

Yes, because

wave.
No, because

particle?

proton and

electron is a

electromagnetic

neutron are

particle.

wave is not a

What charge it

particles.
++ (double

has?
Ionization

positive)
Very high

Medium

Very low

effect
Penetrating

Very weak

Medium

Very strong

effect
Range in air

Very short,

Medium

Very long ,

(negativ

particle.
Neutral

e)

because it is

because it is

very ionizing

very weak in

What is the
minimum

Sheet of paper

Few milimeter

ionization
Many centimeter

of alumunium

material to
stop it?
Can it be

Yes. By right

Yes. By right

deflected by

magnetic field?

direction of

opposite

thumb is the

direction of

direction of

thumb is the

direction of

it is positively

## alpha ray (since

charged).

it is negatively

Can it be

Yes. It is bent to

charged).
Yes. It is bent

deflected by

negative plate

to positive

electric field?

(since it is

plate (since it

positively

is negatively

charged).

charged).

No.

## *How to detect or measure radiation?

The tool used for detecting radiation is called Geiger-Muller
(GM) tube. The ionizing effect is used to detect radiation.
Here is the work principle of GM tube.
No.

*In a magnetic field, beta ray is bent more than alpha ray,
because beta ray is lighter than alpha ray. But in an electric
field, beta ray is bent less than alpha ray, because beta ray
has less charge than alpha ray.

The radiation contains energy, so it ionizes molecules in which
it passes. When the molecules are ionized by the radiation,
the electron jumps out rom the molecules atom, as shown in
the following diagram.

## When GM tube is placed near a radiation source, the argon

gas is being ionized (the electron jumps out from the argons
atom). this electron then attracted to the anode and flows to
the circuit, so there is current in the circuit. The current
powers the scaler to produce click sound. The more
powerful the radiation source is, the more click sound it

## produces since more electrons jump out. The rate of click

sound is usually called count rate, with the unit of count per
minute. This unit then is used for expressing radiation
strength.
*What is meant by half-life?
Half-life of a radioactive sample is the time taken for the
sample to decay into the half of it. It can be in terms of
composition percentage or count rate. Here is the example of
atom A that decays into atom B:
1. If a sample of 100% atom A needs 5 hours to become
50%, so meaning its half-life is 5 hours.
2. If a sample of atom A initially has an activity of 20
counts/min, and 5 hours later the activity becomes 10
counts/min, so meaning its half-life is 5 hours.
Radioactivity happens randomly in each time. So when we
measure it by GM tube, the rate is not constant, but slightly
different time after time.
Here is the graph of decay process:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

## To measure the thickness of something.

To trace something.
To give radiotherapy (using gamma ray)
To sterilize (using gamma ray)
To estimate the age of archeological object (using
half-life)

## *What is meant by background radiation?

sample. Everytime and everywhere we are exposed to
radiation. It comes naturally from decaying atoms in air, food,
medicine, nuclear reactor, and cosmic rays. Thats why even
when there is no radioactive sample nearby, GM tube still

ATOMIC STRUCTURE
*How is the structure of an atoms nucleus?
To answer this question, Rutherford conducted his famous
experiment in Manchaster University with gold foil and alpha
particle as shown below.

## He shot alpha particles to a very thin gold foil and detected

the deflection of the alpha particles. Here is the result of
the experiment:
Most of the alpha particles were undeflected
Some of the alpha particles were scattered
A few of the alpha particles were reflected back
Based on these observation, in 1911 Rutherford concluded the
structure of the atom as follows:
Most volume of an atom is empty space
All the positive charge of an atom are located in the
nucleus
The size of nucleus is very small compared to the
whole atom

## An atom consists of three particles: proton, neutron, and

electron. Here is their characteristics.
Particle
Proton
Neutron
Electron

Relative mass
1836
1839
1

Charge
Positive (+)
Neutral
Negative (-)

Location
In nucleus
In nucleus
Outside nucleus

Another atom

10
7

## has 7 protons, 7 electrons, and 3

neutrons.
*What is meant by isotopes?
All atoms consist of proton, electron, and neutron. To
distinguish between one atom and another atom, the number
of proton is used. A certain atom has a certain number of

## atoms are then called isotopes.

A
Z

Isotopes are atoms with the same type (has the same proton

## number), but has different neutron number. So, to identify

X = atom
A = number of neutron + proton (mass number)
Z = number of proton (atomic number)

isotopes, see which one has the same proton number but
different nucleon number. For example, from amongst these
atoms,

8
2

A 52B 83C 45 D

## Since in neutral atom the number of electron equals the

number of proton, Z also can be used to know the number of

## A and B are isotopes.

electron.
*Is there any relation between radioactive decay and
Example, if an atom C is expressed as
protons, 60 electrons, and 40 neutrons.

100
60

C , so it has 60

atomic structure?
Yes, there is. When an unstable atom decays, its particles
composition

(proton,

neutron,

&

electron)

change.

So,

4
2

## suffers an alpha decay, it gives out 2 protons and 2

neutrons. As a result, the mass number of the atom is
reduced by 4 and its atomic number is reduced by 2. For
example, radium atoms suffer alpha decay and change into
rodon atoms. Here is the reaction equation.
226
88

Ra

222
86

Rn+ 2

## Remember, since it is an equation, so the total mass

number in the right side must equal to the left one. So
does the atomic number. In your textbook, the is
expressed as He, which is the same meaning since Helium

## becomes 7). It is because in beta decay, a single neutron is

changing into a single proton and a single electron. The
proton stays in the nucleus (thats why the proton number
in the reaction is increased by 1), while the electron
escapes outside the atom.
Actually there are two types of beta ray, one consists
electron as explained above, and the other one consists
positron. Positron is actually identical with electron, but
the charge of positron is positive (+), so the symbol is
0
+1

## neutron and a positron. Here is the example of the

reaction equation.
64
29

0
Cu 64
28 + +1

## has similar composition as alpha ray, except alpha ray has

not electrons.
2. BETA ray is actually an electron. So, when an atom
suffers a beta decay, it gives out 1 electron. For example,
carbon-14 suffer alpha decay and change into nitrogen
atom. Here is the reaction equation.
14
6

C 147 N + 10

## 3. GAMMA ray is not a particle, it is an electromagnetic

wave, so it has no reaction equation like alpha and beta
ray. Gamma ray is a collateral product of alpha or beta
decay. When atoms suffer an alpha or beta decay, they
sometimes release gamma ray.

## *fission and fusion reaction

Fission reaction is a reaction where a heavy atom brakes into
several smaller atoms.

## Fusion reaction is a reaction where several small atoms mix

together and form a heavier atom.