ARMA-2000-0231

© All Rights Reserved

1 vues

ARMA-2000-0231

© All Rights Reserved

- heat transfer
- Types of Ro Membrane
- State of Art Drilling Egypt_Pape
- Biology
- Chapter 13 Sg
- tmpC5E0.tmp
- Drill Fluid and Return Permeability Tests of South Texas Wilcox Cores
- 6052434.pdf
- design practical eden swithenbank graded pe
- Invitation Letter PI Fair 2019
- Cell Membrane Transport
- Absorbsi Gas
- A Simple Model for Rice Grains in a Deep-bed Dryer
- Biology
- egg osmosis lab
- Transport Properties of Concrete
- experiment using potatoes to recreate the action of osmosis in cells
- 12 Chemistry Notes Ch02 Solutions
- Assignment of Separation Technology-converted_2.pdf
- ps3.docx

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 8

A.Ghassemi

Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, University ofNorth Dakota, Grand Forks, N.Dak., USA

A.Diek

School of Geology and Geophysics, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla., USA

ABSTRACT: Optimization of drilling fluid parameters such as mud weight, salt concentration, and

temperature is essential to alleviating instability problems when drilling through shale sections, particularly in hot environments. This paper describes the development of a solution for stress and pore

pressure distribution around a borehole when considering significant thermal- and chemo-mechanical

processes involved in shale-drilling fluid interactions. Phenomena related to thermal and ehemieal

osmosis are included within the framework of linear thermoporoela.',ticity. The solution is one of generalized plane strain, therefore, it is suitable for investigating the impact of shale membrane characteristics, mud chemistry, and mud temperature on the stability of inclined well bores in shale. Applicat,iol1

of the solution to a typical field operational situation has demonstrated that thermal osmosis can

significantly impact fluid flux into the formation, thereby reducing stability. Also presented is new

thermoporoelastic formulation for chemically-active rocks. Preliminary analysis suggests that mud

temperature should be optimized in order to maximize the efficacy of chemical osmosis in stabilizing

the borehole.

1 INTRODUCTION

(1941), which includes thermal o':>mosis. Consequently, both thermoporoelastic and tlwrmoosmotic processes are included in the problem formulation and solution. Furthermore, a theoretical formulation has been developed for invc;;tiggt..

ing the combined effects of chemical and thermal

osmosis. Some results are presented and future

improvements are outlined. This work is part.icularly useful in mud design for drilling through

shale sections in high temperature environments.

importance when drilling for petroleum production. Shale deterioration and borehole instability

are significantly influenced by the amount and

distribution of water within the shale. The influx

of mud filtrate into a shale formation increases

water content and pore pressure near the borehole, alters the solid structure, and reduces shale

strength. Prior research has addressed the effects

of fluid transport due to hydraulic pressure gradient and chemical osmosis on shale stability (Mody

and Hale, 1993; Onaisi et al. 1993; Sherwood and

Bailey, 1994; van Oort et al. 1996; Sharma et al.

1998; Ghasserni et al. 1998). This paper considers the effects of the macroscopic process of

osmosis due to a thermal potential. In assessing

the contribution of thermal osmosis to fluid flux

and rock deformation, solutions are developed to

calculate pore pressure and stress distributions

around a wellbore drilled in shale. These solutions are generated by using a generalized plane

strain approach formulated within the framework

of the non-isothermal poroelastic theory of Biot

MACROSCOPIC PROCESSES

When in contact with a drilling fluid, shale absorbs water into its clay matrix between aggregates, particles, and basal planes of crystals. The

sorption of water is accompanied by a change in

the interlayer spacings between clay surfaces that

is manifested as a swelling of the roek. In addition to the chemical composition of the drilling

fluid, shale reactivity is influenced by the chemical composition, amOlmt, and distribution of water within the shale itself (Santos ot al. 1996).

Therefore, the influx of mud filtrate into the for-

231

mation is a major factor contributing to shale de- . of streaming current, diffusion current, ctc.; and

heat flows by conduction, pressure thermal cfterioration and instability. Because shales have a

and Dufour effect,

Groot, 1951;

very low permeability (order of nano-darcy),

draulic transport is not the dominant form of fluid

1969). Thus, fluid motion and hence, solid

movement into the formation. In

deformation depend on the changes in the hyfluid transport is often several times smaller than

draulic pressure, chemical potential, electric pothe contribution of chemical and temperature potential, and temperature. To reflect this, the

tentials. The significance of water flux due to

theory of thermoporoelasticity should be modia chemical potential is well established (Young

fied so that not only hydraulic fluid flow but also

and Low, 1965; Kemper and Rollins, 1966; Olsen,

flow due to chemical osmosis,

and

thermal osmosis are considered.

1969; Fritz, 1986), and its impact on hole stability has been investigated (Chenevert, 1970; Mody

Membranc flow processes can be described by a

and Hale, 1993; Ghassemi et al. 1998). Ion

. of irreversible

transfer and its impact on osmotic flow have also

processes developed by Onsager (1931) and rebeen investigated (Fritz, 1986). Diffusion C:f ions . fined by Casimir (1945); in which the thermodyinto the formation result from shale's imperfecnamic forces, Xk, are related to the fluxes, qi,

tion as an ion exclusion membrane and has been

produce by linear relationships:

chemical osmotic

shown to significantly

n

flow and impact borehole stability' (Hcidug and

.qi

LikX" .. ' (i = 1,2, ... , n)

1996; Ghassemi et aL 1!;l99). There is

evidence that thermal osmosis can play a simThe phenomcnological coefficients

express, for

ilarly significant role in filtration transport and

example,

permeability

coefficient,

ion

diffusion

cohence shale behavior. Significant mass transport

heat conauction, and electric conducti

through clay membranes due to a temperature

The coefficients Lik (i =f k) are connected to

gradient has been observed in laboratory experithc

cross

or interference phenomena (e.g., reflecments (Dirksen, 1969). Based on the pvnpr;TnPn_

tion

thermal osmosis coefficient, and

tal results of Srivastava and Avasthi

thermal

diffusion

coefficient).

been estimated that thermo-osmotic volume flow

the

presence

of

a temperaturc gradient across

In

through kaolinite can be 800 times larger than

the

shale-mud

interface,

thermal osmosis oeems

Darcian flow (Carnahan, 1984). The phenomwhen the mud/shale system exerts a selectivity

enon of thermo-osmosis has long been recognized

with respect to hot (high specific' enthalpy) and

in the soil science community (Gray 1966; Dirkcold

(low specific enthalpy) molecules. The pressen, 1969; Groenevelt and Kay, 1974). It has also

ence of a tcmperature gradient causes prefcrred

received some attention in relation to hydrogetransport of molecules, which increases the heat

ology (Ne~lzil, 1986) and nuclear waste isolation

content of the system at the lower telliperat11fc

(Carnahan, 1984; Basha and Selvadurai, 1998;

side or

the heat content of the higher t~lll

Zhou et al. 1998). However, the role of therperature side. As shown by Groenevelt and Bolt

mal membrane processes in shale instability has

(1969), in the presence of hydraulic and thermal

not been adequately addressed. Ghassemi et al.

potentials, fluid volume flux ean be related t~1

recognized the potential signifidriving forces through experimentally measurable

cance of thermal osmosis, and have called for its

phenomenological coefficients, Li{

inclusion in borehole stability analysis in shale.

_ LVT

VT

T

.

q,

sections are being drilled so that a number of

driving forces contribute to transport of fluid and

other matter flows. In general, fluid flow is acthe flow of

current, and

heat. While diffusion, pressure diffusion, electrc~pIIOr:SlS. and thermal diffusion drive the flow

of ions or solnte; electric current flows in the form

.and thermo-osmotic

processes, respectively. Equation 1 along with the

rate of entropy .production associated with flow,

given by the bi-linear form:

where

I:;J;'Xi

;=1

232

and

(3)

of the rPf'lnr()f'lhr

Lij

Ljj; unless forces

identified

some property more specific than their mere occurrence in

the expression for entropy production (Coleman

and Truesdell, 1960). Furthennore, some experimental results (Cussler, 1992) show violations

of Onsager symmetry, therefore, we assume that

cross coefficients are not equal (Lij f Lji).

The contribution of thermal osmosis to fluid flow

and rock deformation may be considered within

the franlework of a linear non-isothermal poroelastic theory (e.g., McTigue, 1986; Kurashige,

1989). This provides a basis for consideration of

thermo-poroelastic, thermo-osmotic, and chemoosmotic processes, For completeness, a brief de:-rint.ion of thermo-poroelasticity is presented next.

an example of a borehole problem drilled

in shale is considered and solved to illustrate the

infi uence. of thermal osmosis.

where

= kT is the coefficient of them/Hl

conducl,lvlty and LTI/ O. Use of equat.ions 4 in

the eqllili brium equations and utilizing and ex"

pressions for strains given by:

1

_,_

tJ

(4)

2G(1 + v)

3(1 - 2v) O'.mTbij

0'.(1 - 2v)

n/",..

3'

(Ikk

+ ,;;,pl

~ ;o(af

+ 1 _ 2v Uj,ji -

ap,i

2Go:",(1

')f1

+ v)

.... ,,\

T,i

(5)

reference volume; G is the rock's shear moduB is Skempton's pore pressure coefficient;

3(",,-,,)

. B'10 t' S roeffi'

t V'

'" d enot es

a

B(1-2")(11-,,,,)

IS

clen;

porosity; and am, af represent the volumetric

thermal expansion coefficient of the solid matrix

and the pore fluid, respectively.

When considering thermal osmosis, Darcy's law

can be written as:

(C

J)

The other field relations are the fluid and temperature diffusion equations,

(10)

- cf(jj

(vu - v)c f

B(1 + vu )(1 v)

m

- om) -

ffr

used in this study,

(I.'

POij

as well as the strain-displacement relatIOns, produces Navier equations in terms of the displacements:

20:

2Gv

,

--ek;kO'

1 _ 2v

tJ - apbtJ

a Tn

+ 3"TOtJ + (8)

a(l - 2v)

1 + v(lkkOtJ )

eij

(11)

at

where cf and

are the fluid and temperature diffusivity coefficients, respectively. Not.e that ~()n

vective heat transport is neglected in tlm heat

flow equation, This is justified for a low penneability system such as shale.

Attentively, the fluid diffusion eqnation cml be

written in terms of the pore pressllre by

equations 4, 5, and 6 in the fluid continuity equation. This yields:

K,p ,JJ','

OCkk

0:--

at +

[O'.o:m+;o(O:f - am)-

fJT

at

KT

(-LVT IT) is the thermo-osmotic coefficient.

It is assumed that heat flow obeys Fourier's law:

It can be observed that the ternperature equation is not coupled to the pore pressnre diffusion

and Navier 'equations. Furthermore, 'when considan irrcitational displacement field in an infinite mediuIIl, the pore pressure field is also dc>(;olJpled from the deformation field (Det.ournay and

Cheng,

Then, by utilizing t.he expression

for strains, equation 8, the fluid diffll!iion eqllation can be written as:

qJ =

qf

= -K,P ,J,+

1.

(6)

ap

at

LTV?,j

233

cf P,jj

(13)

c'

where e"

I

ef [

=--;;

} "T

3.1 Examples

and:

2a m (vu - v)

B(l+v,,)(l v)+

am)]

(14)

express the diffusion field eQuations in the

drical coordinates system:

f

c

T

~ op] _ op

or2 + r or - at

[fj2P

[02T

or2

aT]

+ :;: or

,/YF

C

at

aT

(16)

7ft

The above field equations along with appropriate boundary conditions can be solved for stress

and pore pressure distributions around a borehole drilled in shale. The boundary conditions

for a borehole problem are as follows:

!::J.(!rr = Pm

!::J.(!rz = -17:;'

!::J.(!r() = -(!::ij

!::J.p =

p.h

!::J.T

Ts h

atr=a:

rm

at

--l>

00 :

a rr

O'~

(ir;;

= a~

(!r()

= 17;0

p=psh

T=Ts h

where crij represent the stresses at infinity in the

plane perpendicular to the wellbore axis. The salution procedure involves superposition of three

loading modes (Carter and Booker, 1982; Detournay and

1988). For each mode, the

solution is obtained using the Laplace transform

(Wang and Papamichos, 1994; Li et al'

1998).

the temperature field is obtained by

solving equation 16. This result is then lL.'led in

equation 15 to find the pore pressure. Integration

of equations 9 will then yield the displacements

and eventually the stresses. The total pore pressure and stresses resulting from the three modes

are subsequently calculated using:

(!z.

(!rr

1700 =

(!z. o + v((!;~2,3

(!So +

+ (!~~

(17)

(!~

234

pore pressure/stress field around a wellbore, COllsider a vertical well drilled in a shale with material properties as well as relevant drilling fluid

properties shown in Table 1. Figllres 1 and 2 illustrate the role of thermal osmosis when drilling

with a mud that is warmer and cooler than the

formation, respectively. It can be observed that

thermo-osmosis significantly modifies the pore pressure field near the wellbore at early times. A

larger temperature difference between the mud

and shale results in a magnification of the thermal

osmotic contribution to pore pressure changes ill

the formation. In general, the extent and natnre

of the pore pressure change depends not ouly on

the magnitude and

of the temperature gradient but also on the magnitude and sign of the

,

,When KT <

0, the osmotic flow direction is from warmer to

cooler, whereas when KT > 0, the flow is from

cooler to warmer. Consider the shale-mud svstem, if KT and 'VT are either both positive' or

both negative, then the direction of the osmotic

fluid flow is into the shale resulting in an increase

of the pore pressure neaT the wellbore; while if

either KT or 'VT is negative, then the fluid flows

out of the shale reducing the pore pressnre. Flow

in both directions has been observed in laboratory tests

compacted clays. Therefore, depending on the nature of fluid and the membrane

properties of the shale, thermal osmosis Gall citlwr

increase flow into shale, whieh reduces effective

stress and shale strength, or it can increase flow

into the wellbore, whidl may cause excessive shale

dehydration. The resulting effective stress distribution corresponding to drilling with a warmer

mud is shown in Figure 3.

The above analysis describes shale deformat.ion

based on a thermoporoela..,ticity theory that does

not consider the difference between the chemical

potential of the shale and the drilling mud. However, a major attribute of poroelastic ~)ffects in

saturated chemically active rocks is that they can

be modified by fluid diffusion caused by a chemical potential gradient (Sherwood, 1993). Therefore, the theory of thennoporoela..,ticity for shales

should include the chemical potential of the system, Obviously this is a complex problem incoupled thermal, poroelastic, and ionic

processes. However, if ion diffusion can be ne(as in a perfect membrane), then the prob-

21

:,,

~'r'"

:,,

\!

-~~\---------r~~:l~:-"Cl---

16

\

\

'\

-~-~~nlo ther'1"l'l(H)smosis

.----. thermCH:lsmosJs"

C#l

----------C1

T =150 C

:.

:l

TI

+!JT

11

'

71--'-----,-

',-~,\-;----------r_m

'~.-~."...

' I.

!:

".

rtR

Figure 1: Effect of thermal osmosis on pore pressure field around the well bore (shale cooler than

B 0).

15..

coupling of various osmotic processf'..s (B=

---r-~--.--:-----

10

e!

~

I!!

it.

of.

Figure 5: Modified pore pressure distribution

near the welJbore as a function of mud temperature and chemistry one hour after drilling (B

r/R

Figure 2: Effect of thermal osmosis on pore pressure field around the wellbore (mild ecoler than

formation, B

Drained Young's modulus, E

2.06 X 104 MPa

Drained Poisson's ratio, II

0.20

Draincd solid coef. of expo, am 18 X io ~rC

2.61 X 10 -Om'2/ s

. Fluid dlffusivity, (/

Fluid thermal coer. of exp.) aJ . 300 X 10-676 0

2.50 X lcP MPa

_F'~uid bulk modulus, K f

3.0 X 10 -4 Pa.s

Fluid viscosity) fL

In-situ stresses (cry, O'h, O'H)

30; 25;34 MPa

7.66 X 10-- 8 darey

Permeability, k .

Skcmpton's coef.) B

0.51

6.0 X 10 -um</soC

Thermo-osmotic coef.) K'l

1.6 X 10 =6 m7js

Thermal dilTusivity, c

Undrained Poisson's ratio, II"

0.31

Shale/mud activity) a:/:/ a::,'

0.90/0.88

25rl----;--~

I:.

'.."

j

'"w

Tl1'Io;::150:C; TIII1=100

"'e

r/R

borehole (mud warmer than formation, B = 0).

lem can be treated by an incremental extension

of the theory presented above. An outline of

next.

235

4 THERMOPOROELASTICITY FOR

CHEMICALLY ACTIVE SHALE

A preliminary assessment of the role of temperature can be made, albeit qualitatively, by considering its effect on ideality of shale as an ionexclusion membrane. Membrane ideality is eharacterized by the reflection coefficient. It scales

down the

osmotic pressure and is of

paramount

when using chemical osmosis to enhance shale stability. It has been shown

that the molal filtration efficiencies of bot.h Na+

and

in

increases with temperature (Haydon and Graf, 1986). Assuming that the reflection coefficient decreases with decreasing temperature, this means t.hat. cooling a mud with a lower

activity than the shale results in: (1) higher values of pore pressure at. t.he borehole wall and

in the formation, as can be observed in Figure

5; and (2) an increase in transfer of ions fTom

t.he drilling mud into the formation. The latter is highly significant given that ion transfer

through shale leads to osmotic pressure dissipation with time and re-establishment of a pore

pressure regime characteristic of hydraulic flow

(Ghassemi et al. 1999). As a result, mud cooling should be optimized in order to maximize the

efficacy of chemical osmosis in borehole stability. Moreover, future theoretical

should consider

thermal and ion transport processes and their interactions with poro..

elaBtic phenomena.

For a non-isothermal system in which any significant change in the chemical potential is solely

due to variations in the pore pressure and water

activity; a new chemical potential can be defined

in which the concentration or activity component

is averaged over the temperature of the system:

pW

p+

+ ILO

where lR is the reflection coefficient, T is the average shale temperature, Vw is the average value

of the molar volume of water, and i2w is the average

of shale; all are defined at an average

state of temperature.

In the above equation,

denotes the reference state chemical potential

per unit volume). Then, assuming

that only one salt is present, the thermoporoelastic couations become:

w

"'P,jj

OCkk

O:m

+ ({3m -

fJI'

at

KT

fJI'

7) at:

(19)

(20)

13m =

[0:0:",

+ (o:[ O:m)4>]

2000). Some results are pre(Ghassemi and

sented here to illustrate the combined effect of

thermal and chemical osmosis on the pore pressure field around a borehole drilled in a chemically active shale.

Figure 4 illustrates the pore pressure profiles after one hour when various processes are included.

Note that thermal osmosis (assumed to occur from

the warm to the cool side) results in a sharp

decline in the pore pressure inside the formation.

The effect of chemical osmosis is calculated based

on the assumption that cooling does not affect

shales' membrane

However, porosity,

permeability,

and ionic diffusion coefficient are temperature dependent. Thus, effect

of temperature on membrane characteristics of

shales is manifold. Although it then becomes necessary to conduct experiments under in-situ condition.'l to provide data for a rigorous and comprehensive arlalysis; at the present time, it is possib~e

to make some specuJations on the role of temperature by resorting to available data related to clays

5 CONCLUSIONS

A t.hermoporoelastic solution for calculating the

prevailing stress and pore pressure distribution

around a borehole drilled in shale has been developed. The solution is based on a coupled theory that considers cert.ain t.hermal processes ill

drilling fluid/shale interactions. It improves previous studies that have neglected the contribution of thermoporoelastic effects and/or thermoosmosis. The nat.ure of the fluid and the membrane propert.ies of shale determine whether thermal osmosis increases or reduces the fluid flow

into shale. The former produces a rednction in effective stress and shale strength, while the latter

may cause excessive shale dehydration and tensile

failure. The solution haB been further extended

to couple chemical and thermal osmosis. Results

suggest that cooling ("ilT > 0) a mud with a lower

activity than the shale does not always guarantee a pore pressure rednction near the wellbore.

For exarriple, if KT is positive and significantly

236

eliminate the effect of chemical osmosis. ,On the

other hand, if KT is negative and large enough,

then thermo-osmosis may intensify, the effect of

chemical osmosis. Prior: studies have shown that

cooling the borehole results in reduced potential

of shear failure but increases, potential of fracturing. However, in optimizing mud cooling, one

should also consider its effects on the reflection

coefficient in reducing and dissipating the chemical osmotic pressure.

To our knowledge this is the first analysis that

takes into account poroelastic, chemical, and thermal aspects of shale-drilling fluid interaction. The

solution presented contributes to the investigation of the effects of drilling fluid parameters suen

as mud weight and temperature on wellbore instability when drilling in high temperature environments.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The financial support of the North Dakota EPSCaR and the Office of Research and Program

Development of the University of North Dakota

is gratefully acknowledged. Also acknowledged is

the support of the Institute for Exploration and

Development Geosciences of the University of Oklahoma.

REFERENCES

Basha, H.A., & Selvadurai, A.P.S. 1998. Heatinduced moisture transport in the vicinity of a

spherical heat source. Int. J. Numer. Anal.

Method. Geomech., 22, 969 - 981.

Biot, M.A. 1941. General theory of three-dimen

sional consolidation. J. Appl. Phys., 12, 155

164.

Carnahan, C.L. 1984. Thermodynamic coupling

of heat and matter flows in near-filed

of nuclear waste repositories. In: G.L., McVay

(ed.) Scientific basis for nuclear waste management. VII, V26, 1023 1030.

Carter, J.P. & Booker, J.R. 1982. Elastic consolidation around a deep circular tunnel. Int. J.

Solids Structures. 18(12), 1059 - 1074.

Casimir, H.B.G. 1945. On Onsager's Principle of

Microscopic Reversibility. Rev. mod. Phys.

17, 343.

Coleman, B.D. & Truesdell, C. 1960. On the Reciprocal Relations of Onsager. J. Chem.

33(11. 28 - 31.

anced-activity ,oil-continuous muds. J. Pet.

Tech., October, 1309 - 1316.

Cussler, E.L. 1992. Diffusion-mass transfer ,in

systems. Cambridge University Press.

De Groot, S.R. 1951. Thermodynamics of irreversible processes. North Holland Publishing

Company, Amsterdam.

Detournay, E. &' Cheng, A.H.-D. 1993. Fundamentals of poroelasticity. In J.A., Hudson (ed)

Comprehensive Rock Engineering:

Practices, and Projects, 2, 113-171, Pergamon

Press.

Detournay, E. & Cheng, A.H-D. 1988. Poroelastic

response of a borehole in a non-hydrostatic stress

field: . Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Geomech.

25, 171 - 182.

Dirksen, D., 1969. Thermo-osmosis through compacted saturated clay membranes. Soil Sci. Soc.

Amer. Proc., 33, No. :6, 821 826.

Fritz, S.J. 1986. Ideality of clay membranes in osmotic: processes: A review, Clay and Clay Min34(2), 214 223.

Ghassemi, A., & Diek, A. 2000. Non-isothermal

poroelasticity for shales (in pl'eparation).

Ghassemi, A., Diek, A., Wolfe, A.C. and Roegiers,

J.-C. 1999. A chemo-mechanical model for borehole stability analyses. Vail Rocks '99, 31th

U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium. 239 2,16.

Ghassemi, A. Diek,

& Roegiers, J.. -C. 1998.

A solution for stress distribution around an Inclined borehole in 'shale. Int. J. Rock Mech. f!j

Mining Sci., 35: 4 - 5, Paper No. 408.

Groenevelt, PH., & Bolt, G.H. 1969. Non- equilibrium thermodynamics of the soil-water system. Journal of Hydrology, 7, 358 388 ..

Groenevelt, PH., & Kay, RD. 1974. On the iriteraction of water and heat transport in frozen

and tmfrozen soils: II. The liquid phase. Soil

Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 38, 400 - 404.

Gray, D.H. 1966. Coupled flow phenomena in

day-water systems. Ph.D. Thesis, University

of California, Berkeley.

Haydon, P.R., &

D.L. 1986. Studies of

smectite membrane behavior:. Temperature de- '

pendence, 20-180 C. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 50, 115 - 121.

Hasse, R. 1969. Thermodynam~cs of irreversible

processes. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company

Inc. England.

Heidug, W.K. & Wong, S-W. 1996. Hydration

swelling of water-absorbing rocks: A constitutive model. Int. .J. Numer. Anal.. Methods

Geomech., 20, 403 - 430.

237

efficiency coefficients across compacted clays.

Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 30, 529 -534.

Kurashige, M. 1989. A thermoelastic theory of

fluid-filled porol\S materials. Int. J. Solids Structures, 25(9), 1039 - 1052.

Li, X., Cui, L., & Roegicrs, J.-C. 1998. Thermoporoclastic modeling of wellbore stability in

non-hydrostatic stress field. Int. J. of Rock

Mech. f1 Min. Sci. 35: 4 - 5.

No. 063.

McTigue, D. 1986. Thermoelastic response of

fluid-saturated porous rock. J. Geophys. Res.,

91(139): 9533 - 9542.

Mody, F.K. & Hale, A.H. 1993. A borehole stability model to couple the mechanical and chemof drilling fluid shale interaction .. SPE paper # 25728.

C.E. 1986. Groundwater flow in low perIIl~a!)ility environments. Water Resources Research. 22, NO.8, 1163 1195.

Olsen, H.W. 1969. Simultaneous fluxes of

and charge in saturated kaolinite. Soil Sci. Soc.

Amer. Proc. 33, 338 - 344.

Onaisi, A., Alldibert, A., Bieber,

L., Denis, J., & Hammond, P.S. 1993. X-ray

tomography visualization and mechanical modeling of swelling shale around the well bore. J.

Pet. Sci. Engng., 9, 313 - 329.

Onsager, L. 1931. Reciprocal Relations in Irreversible Processes I & II. Phys. Rev. 37, 405;

38,2265.

H.R, Diek, A.L., &

J.-C.1996.

Can shale

be (easily) conISRM International Symposium, 99 - 106.

Sharma, M.M., Yu, M. &

M.E. 1!J9S.

The role of osmotic effects in fluid flow

shales. GRI Wellbore stability forum, Honston.

Sherwood, J.D. 1993. Biot poroelasticity of a

chemically active share. Proc. R. Soc. London A, 440, 365 377;

Sherwood, J.D., & Bailey, L. 1994. Swelling of

shale around a cylindrical wellbore, Proc. R.

Soc. London A, 444, 161 184

Srivastava, RC., & AV&'lthi, P.K. 1975. J. Hy24, HI - 120.

F.K., & Sanjit,

ransport in shale and the design of

improved water-based shale drilling fluids. SP E

Drilling f1 Completion,

137 146.

Wang, Y., & Paparnichos, E. 1994. Conductive

heat flow and thermally induced fluid flow around

a well bore in'a poroelastlc medium. Water Resources Research. 30, 12, 3375..!. 3384.

238

Young, A. and

P.F. 1965. Osmosis in

ceous rocks. ,Amer. Assoc. Pet. Geol. Bull.

49, 1004 - 1008.

Zhou, Y., Rajapakse, N.D., & Graham, J. 1998.

A coupled thermoporoelastic model with thermoosmosis and thermal filtration. Int. J. Solids f1

Structures. 35, Nos. 34 45,1659 - 4683.

- heat transferTransféré parShusha Shomali
- Types of Ro MembraneTransféré parDane Tan
- State of Art Drilling Egypt_PapeTransféré parmalliwi88
- BiologyTransféré parAnonymous A8vAWcHB
- Chapter 13 SgTransféré parlthyagu
- tmpC5E0.tmpTransféré parFrontiers
- Drill Fluid and Return Permeability Tests of South Texas Wilcox CoresTransféré parSergio Andrés Rodríguez
- 6052434.pdfTransféré parMuhammad Arsalan Ashraf
- design practical eden swithenbank graded peTransféré parapi-429329398
- Invitation Letter PI Fair 2019Transféré parAditya Bintang Pramadana
- Cell Membrane TransportTransféré parIndra3SHS
- Absorbsi GasTransféré parRahmansyah Gaek
- A Simple Model for Rice Grains in a Deep-bed DryerTransféré parShaswat Prince
- BiologyTransféré parLovy
- egg osmosis labTransféré parapi-391678932
- Transport Properties of ConcreteTransféré parPuneet Kaura
- experiment using potatoes to recreate the action of osmosis in cellsTransféré parapi-328180913
- 12 Chemistry Notes Ch02 SolutionsTransféré parAnkit Rawat
- Assignment of Separation Technology-converted_2.pdfTransféré parAnonymous uYFklaAi
- ps3.docxTransféré parファハルド アンソニー
- Exp - S1A - Solid in Air DiffusionTransféré parAnuj Srivastava
- 2.1 WATER Part 1 of 2-1.pdfTransféré parloserpantz
- Diffusion Osmosis LabTransféré parAnonymous O1l6wBzQ
- pdfs_585_510.pdfTransféré parjMora89
- Water1Transféré parMaavia Zubair
- 5 - Hardening & DiffusionTransféré parShkelzen Shabani
- 3 Chemisty Biochemistry and Cell PhysiologyTransféré parJennie Lao
- spe113496.pdfTransféré parعبدالغفار بيزان
- Membrane Permeability Threshold for Osmotic Power Plant EfficiencyTransféré parHourakhsh Ahmadnia
- Zhang Shyy Sastry Numerical Simulatoin of Intercalation Induced Stress in Li-ion Battery Electrode Particles JES 154 10 A910 A916 2007Transféré parGowtham Rajadurai

- Hydra Jar ProceduresTransféré parice_PL
- Well Head sealing guide.pdfTransféré parQaiser Hafeez
- Attachment F - Spec 16A Summer 2013 Com mtg-comments.pptxTransféré parsaeed65
- پدیده های مخرب در شیرهای کنترل و راه کارهای مقابله با انهاTransféré parsaeed65
- API 6A Gate ValvesTransféré parLee Sweningson
- 4th-120316074120-phpapp02Transféré parAhmed gh
- N021077083Transféré parsaeed65
- Blanking PlugsTransféré paru2006262918
- v7-5006-5010Transféré parsaeed65
- Multivariate Probability DistributionTransféré parrnjan321
- Basic Equation of DrillingTransféré parsaeed65
- article1379511666_Kutasov and Eppelbaum.pdfTransféré parsaeed65
- ARMA-10-407.pdfTransféré parsaeed65
- Difference Between PSL1 and PSL2Transféré parbakagos
- LG Setting CollarTransféré parsaeed65
- SPE-0704-0059-JPTTransféré parsaeed65
- Fann Model 35Transféré parMahardhyka Prakasha
- Manual for ConductingTransféré parsaeed65
- amosa_engTransféré parBahadır Soylu
- Drilling ProblemsTransféré parMEUBRO
- Quantum Shear Type Anchor LatchTransféré parsaeed65
- Visual 000Transféré parsaeed65
- Drilling EquationTransféré parsaeed65
- Positive Displacement Motor (PDM)Transféré parRFV
- tools Diagram run 2.pdfTransféré parsaeed65
- 3.5, 13.3 -G Grade NC38 5-2.438.pdfTransféré parsaeed65
- AADE 22.pdfTransféré parsaeed65
- SPE-5906-MSTransféré parsaeed65
- SPWLA-1961-JTransféré parsaeed65
- SPE-523-GTransféré parsaeed65

- Assessing Rock Mass Permeability Using Discontinuity PropertiesTransféré parjuan david
- Current and future impact of 3D printing on the separation sciencesTransféré parJeanOscorimaCelis
- Journal Biopharmacy Pulmonary DrugsTransféré parSyaiful Rizal II
- Site Ch PolarTransféré parVicko Gestantyo
- Batuan & Properti ReservoirTransféré parFikri Mafazi
- Investigation_of_Geotechnical_Parameters.pdfTransféré parDian Page
- loading reloading.pdfTransféré parSajjad Anwar
- Ppp Prediction Wells FrthgyTransféré parpoetichart
- glossary_of_geotechnic_terms.pdfTransféré paraana_fptm
- seismic petrophysicsTransféré parShahid Rehman
- Neutron porosityTransféré parAnan Baskoro
- ELANPlus_theory.psTransféré parMohamed Abd El-ma'boud
- 1-s2.0-0378517386902498-mainTransféré parGloria Taylor
- Water PapTransféré pargmail
- (Tesis) Thermal and geolelectric Properties of Geomaterials.pdfTransféré parkikimixplus
- 2.3 Saturation Wettability Capillary PressureTransféré parRakeshKumar
- Foam Concrete KoreaTransféré parmabuhamd
- ACI 308R-01 (Guide to Curing Concrete)Transféré parvelmurug_bala
- FiltersTransféré parviksurs
- Consolidation in Unsaturated SoilsTransféré parbigeesmall
- MicromeriticsTransféré paramitmgupta31
- Permeability-porosity Relationships in Rocks Subjected to Various Evolution Processes 2003Transféré parscho13
- 1-SCA200Transféré parHerry Suhartomo
- Wong Et Al-1997-Journal of Geophysical Research%3A Solid Earth %281978-2012%29Transféré parNima Danesh
- Boundary conditions at a naturally permeable wallTransféré parOscar A. Luévano
- 8541959-web of science.pdfTransféré parJoel Oviedo
- Chapter 2 AggregateTransféré parcien-cien
- BS 1377-5(1)_1990.pdfTransféré parMarcielArtur
- Tdt Log InterpretationTransféré parSanjeev Thakur
- C02 ThesisTransféré parEmeka Chinaka